A 24-year-old female presented to the clinic complaining of bizarre patterns and linear streaks of hyperpigmentation on her legs and bizarre alutaceous patches on the neck and upper breast of her son for 7 days. Physical examination showed sharply demarcated hyperpigmented streaks on the extensor aspects of legs and bizarre brown maculae and patches on the right neck and upper chest of her son. Considering the history of Chinese herbal medicine decoction had been splashed onto these sites, phytophotodermatitis was definitely diagnosed. PMID:21772602
Zhang, Ruzhi; Zhu, Wenyuan
Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications.
Caesalpinia sappan extract from a study of screened Chinese herbal medicines was found to be a potent agent for the inactivation of human sperm in vitro. Exposure of sperm from healthy donors to this agent showed remarkably reduced sperm motility. The antimotility effect of Caesalpinia sappan is concentration-dependent and about 2.5 mg/ml is required to reduce motility to 50% the control medium (EC50). This result suggests that this traditional Chinese herbal medicine possesses an antimotility effect on human sperm in vitro and has the potential of becoming in the future a new and acceptable male oral contraceptive. PMID:1977862
Shih, I M; Chiang, H S; Yang, L L; Wang, T L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases. Three Chinese herbal composites [Conth Su (CS), Chi Tong Ning (CTN) and Xi Gua Shuang (XGS)], widely used for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases, and the major components of these composites were tested for their ability to: (1) alleviate disease progression of experimental periodontitis in hamsters, (2) inhibit bacterial growth, and (3) induce mutations. Our results indicate that in treating experimental periodontitis, there were no significant differences between the animal groups with or without the use of Chinese herbal medicines in terms of the degree of inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and rate of repair. However, hamsters treated with CS presented earlier regenerative epithelium. CTN demonstrated superior bacterial inhibition ability among all tested herbs (MIC 0.025 g/ml); CS showed good anti-bacterial abilities at a concentration of 0.05 g/ml. It is interesting to note that while both CS and CTN were capable of inhibiting bacterial growth, none of the individual herb components showed comparable bacterial inhibition abilities. None of the tested herbal composites or their components showed signs of inducing cell mutations using the Ames test. These results indicated that traditional Chinese herbal medicines, which have been used to treat periodontal diseases for hundreds of years by Chinese people, can effectively inhibit bacterial growth without causing cell mutation. Further investigation into their possible clinical applications in periodontal therapy is encouraged. PMID:14696678
Chan, You; Lai, Chern-Hsiung; Yang, Hui-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Yie; Chan, Chi-Ho
Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese\\u000a herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese\\u000a databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either ?2-adrenergic agonists or opioid\\u000a agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each
Ting-ting Liu; Jie Shi; David H. Epstein; Yan-Ping Bao; Lin Lu
An analytical supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique, followed by GC\\/MS, was developed to separate and determine the volatile components in Chinese herbal medicine. Three kinds of herbs, frankincense, myrrh, andEvodia rutaecarpa were extracted and analyzed. The extraction was carried out using supercritical fluid CO2 at 20 MPa and 50°C. The main factors affecting the efficiency and selectivity of the extraction
X. Ma; X. Yu; Z. Zheng; J. Mao
Objectives Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible for our study. Twenty-one of the included reviews had at least one Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner as its co-author. 7 reviews didn't include any primary study, the remaining reviews (n?=?51) included a median of 9 studies and 936 participants. 50% of reviews were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2008. The questions addressed by 39 reviews were broad in scope, in which 9 reviews combined studies with different herbal medicines. For OQAQ, the mean of overall quality score (item 10) was 5.05 (95% CI; 4.58-5.52). All reviews assessed the methodological quality of primary studies, 16% of included primary studies used adequate sequence generation and 7% used adequate allocation concealment. Of the 51 nonempty reviews, 23 reviews were reported as being inconclusive, while 27 concluded that there might be benefit of CHM, which was limited by the poor quality or inadequate quantity of included studies. 58 reviews reported searching a median of seven electronic databases, while 10 reviews did not search any Chinese database. Conclusions Now CDSR has included large numbers of CHM reviews, our study identified some areas which could be improved, such as almost half of included reviews did not have the participation of TCM practitioners and were not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria, some reviews pooled the results of different herbal medicines and ignored the searching of Chinese databases.
Hu, Jing; Zhang, Junhua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yongling; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hongcai
Yunnan Baiyao is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to treat wounds for over 100 years. Here, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine nano-scale structures of the Yunnan Baiyao. AFM images revealed uniform nanofibers present in relatively high abundance in a solution of this medicine. Fibers were typically 25.1 nm in diameter and ranged in length from 86-726 nm due to processing. Due to the unique adhesive and structural properties of nanofibers, we concluded that these fibers may play a role in platelet aggregation, leading to clotting, and the sealing of wounds. PMID:20201420
Lenaghan, Scott C; Xia, Lijin; Zhang, Mingjun
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations.
Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang
Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing.
Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen
The paper explores the materiality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), with particular reference to aromatherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, and chiropractic, as presented in the journals of UK-based practitioner associations. The paper begins by arguing for a poststructuralist approach to materiality. It then considers how certain materials play a signature (or emblematic) role in the definition and practice of various
Marcus A. Doel; Jeremy Segrott
Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area.
Ruan, Wen-jing; Lai, Mao-de; Zhou, Jian-guang
The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether Chinese traditional herbal drugs, Gorei-San (TJ-17) and Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TJ-23), affect airway smooth muscle tone and, if so, to determine what the mechanism of action is. Rabbit tracheal segments were isolated and the contractile responses to electrical field stimulation and acetylcholine were measured before and after the application of TJ-17 or TJ-23 under isometric conditions in vitro. Ouabain-sensitive rubidium-86 (86Rb) uptake by tissues in response to each drug was also measured. Each herbal medicine attenuated the contractile responses to electrical field stimulation and acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner, the maximal inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction being 37.5+/-4.9% for TJ-17 and 42.4+/-5.3% for TJ-23 (p<0.05 for each). These effects were not altered by mechanical removal of the epithelium, indomethacin, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS), the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KT5823, or the calcium (Ca2+)-activated potassium (K+) channel inhibitor charybdotoxin, but were greatly inhibited in the presence of the sodium (Na+)-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitor ouabain. Incubation of tissues with TJ-17 and TJ-23 dose dependently increased ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake. The results of the study suggest that both Gorei-San and Toki-Shakuyaku-San reduce airway smooth muscle tone via a postjunctional mechanism probably through stimulation of the sodium pump and the subsequent hyperpolarization/repolarization of the cell membrane. These effects may contribute to the antiasthmatic properties of these herbal medicines. PMID:11292117
Tagaya, E; Tamaoki, J; Kawatani, K; Taira, M; Nagai, A
AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori.
Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang
Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21248427
Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei
The dominant paradigm of “one gene, one target, one disease” has influenced many aspects of drug discovery strategy. However, in recent years, it has been appreciated that many effective drugs act on multiple targets rather than a single one. As an integrated multidisciplinary concept, network pharmacology, which is based on system biology and polypharmacology, affords a novel network mode of “multiple targets, multiple effects, complex diseases” and replaces the “magic bullets” by “magic shotguns.” Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been recognized as one of the most important strategies in complementary and alternative medicine. Though CHM has been practiced for a very long time, its effectiveness and beneficial contribution to public health has not been fully recognized. Also, the knowledge on the mechanisms of CHM formulas is scarce. In the present review, the concept and significance of network pharmacology is briefly introduced. The application and potential role of network pharmacology in the CHM fields is also discussed, such as data collection, target prediction, network visualization, multicomponent interaction, and network toxicology. Furthermore, the developing tendency of network pharmacology is also summarized, and its role in CHM research is discussed.
Zhang, Gui-biao; Li, Qing-ya; Chen, Qi-long; Su, Shi-bing
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco- epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year
Fang-Pey Chen; Maw-Shiou Jong; Yu-Chun Chen; Yen-Ying Kung; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Fun-Jou Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang
The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treatment of anovulation and infertility in women. Eight (8) databases were extensively retrieved. The Chinese electronic databases included VIP Information, CMCC, and CNKI. The English electronic databases included AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, and MEDLINE(®). Randomized controlled trials using CHM as intervention were included in the study selection. The quality of studies was assessed by the Jadad scale and the criteria referred to Cochrane reviewers' handbook. The efficacy of CHM treatment for infertility with anovulation was evaluated by meta-analysis. There were 692 articles retrieved according to the search strategy, and 1659 participants were involved in the 15 studies that satisfied the selection criteria. All the included trials were done in China. Meta-analysis indicated that CHM significantly increased the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.50-3.88) and reduced the miscarriage rate (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.10-0.41) compared to clomiphene. In addition, CHM also increased the ovulation rate (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06-2.25) and improved the cervical mucus score (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.78-8.21) compared to clomiphene, while there were no significant difference between CHM and clomiphene combined with other medicine. CHM is effective in treating infertility with anovulation. Also, no significant adverse effects were identified for the use of CHM from the studies included in this review. However, owing to the low quality of the studies investigated, more randomized controlled trials are needed before evidence-based recommendation regarding the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the management of infertility with anovulation can be provided. PMID:23198826
Tan, Li; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Xu, Mei; Shi, Yang; Song, Xin-yang; Zhang, Ting-ting
Actinidia chinensis Planch. is a famous Chinese herbal medicine to treat many diseases such as cancers. Triterpenes, polyphenols and anthraquinones are normally considered as the main constituents for its effects. In this study, eleven known triterpenes were isolated from the root of Actinidia chinensis., and were examined for its antiangiogenic activities. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The eleven compounds are following: 2?,3?,19-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2?,3?-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 2?,3?,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (3), asiatic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 2?,3?,19,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2?,3?,19-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 2?,3?,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (8), oleanolic acid (9), 3?-O-acetyloleanolic acid (10), 2?,23-dihydroxylmicromeric acid (11). All these compounds were evaluated with respect to their antiangiogenic activities utilizing the assays of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation and tube formation and Ursolic acid (used as control) and compounds 2, 3, 4, and 8 exhibited significant, dose-dependently, antiangiogenic activity in the tested concentration range. Our findings suggest that antitumor action of Actinidia chinensis Planch. is partly via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis by triterpenes, and compounds 2, 3, 4, and 8 as the novel potential antiangiogenic agents are worthy of further translational research. PMID:22934692
Zhu, Wen-Jun; Yu, De-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Lin, Meng-Gan; Lu, Qin; Wang, Qi-Wei; Guan, Ying-Yun; Li, Gui-Xiu; Luan, Xin; Yang, Yi-Fang; Qin, Xue-Mei; Fang, Chao; Yang, Guo-Hong; Chen, Hong-Zhuan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active partition fractions ranged from 0.25 to 11.0 mg/L. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography. The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin. In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan. PMID:18186590
Liu, Ching-Shen; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a key role leading to the progressive tubulo-interstitial fibrosis (TIF). The tubular EMT is an highly regulated process involving four key steps including: loss of epithelial cell adhesion, de novo smooth muscle actin expression and actin reorganization, disruption of tubular basement membrane,and enhanced cell migration and invasion. These crucial processes are closely connected to the relative actions on many signaling pathways in EMT. Additionally, increasing evidences suggest that some Chinese herbal medicines and their extracts, such as Astragali Radix, Cordyceps, Salvia miltiorrhiza, as well as Chinese. herbal prescriptions including Astragalus Angelica mixture and Supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation decoction, could intervene the related events controlling EMT both in vitro and in vivo. Chinese herbal medicines could ameliorate TIF by intervening the course of EMT. PMID:23724667
Yin, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Wei; Wan, Yi-Gang; Tu, Yue; Liu, Hong; Yu, Bing-Yin
There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory. PMID:18479045
Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua
AIM: To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the prescription consists of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Codonopsitis Pilosulae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Alba and Rhizoma Alismatis, Leonurus Heterophyllus Sweet, etc) on the regulation of the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and the ascites drainage. METHODS: The mouse model of live fibrosis was established with the application of intragastric installations of carbon tetrachloride
Shi-Ping Ding; Ji-Cheng Li; Jian Xu; Lian-Gen Mao
Gan-Cao, or licorice, is a popular Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata. The main bioactive constituents of licorice are triterpene saponins and various types of flavonoids. The contents of these compounds may vary in different licorice batches and thus affect the therapeutic effects. In order to ensure its
Qingying Zhang; Min Ye
Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the trial (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.58). However, all trials had a considerable risk of bias and none of the specific herbal medicines comparison data was available from more than one study. Moreover, results could have been confounded by rates of natural reversion to normal glucose levels. Authors’ conclusions The positive evidence in favour of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of IGT or IFG is constrained by the following factors: lack of trials that tested the same herbal medicine, lack of details on co-interventions, unclear methods of randomisation, poor reporting and other risks of bias.
Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun
Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine.
Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin
AIM: To observe the regulatory effect of Chinese herbal medicine on peritoneal lymphatic stomata and its significance in treating ascites in liver fibrosis model mice. METHODS: Two Chinese herbal composite prescriptions were used separately to treat the carbon tetrachloride-induced mouse model of liver fibrosis. The histo-pathologic changes of the liver sections (HE and VG stainings) were observed. The peritoneal lymphatic
Ji-Cheng Li; Shi-Ping Ding; Jian Xu
OBJECTIVES:Functional constipation (FC) is a common clinical complaint. Despite a lack of consolidated evidence, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has become a popular alternative treatment for this condition. The aim of this study was to assess, with a rigidly designed study, the efficacy and safety of a CHM proprietary medicine, Hemp Seed Pill (HSP), in optimal dosage for treating FC.METHODS:This study
Chung-Wah Cheng; Zhao-Xiang Bian; Li-Xing Zhu; Justin C Y Wu; Joseph J Y Sung
Objectives: The use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is becoming fashionable. The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and related factors of pregnant women using Chinese herbal medicines in Taipei. Methods: During 1985-87, a total of 10,756 pregnant women with 26 or more weeks of gestation who came to the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospi- tal
CHAO-HUA CHUANG; JUNG-NIEN LAI; JUNG-DER WANG; PEI-JEN CHANG; PAU-CHUNG CHEN
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of airways that affects approximately 300 million adults and children worldwide. Most therapy currently uses bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Systemic side effects from chronic use of these drugs are concern. Chinese medicine (CM) has a long history of human use in China and other Asian countries and well received by the patients. But as one component of Western integrative medicine (WIM), it is required that CM use is supported by scientific evidence. On the other hand, there are also suggestions that Western standardized medicine should consider personalized practice. In recent years there have been an increasing studies to narrow the gap between CM, the personalized medicine and Western medicine, evidence based medicine. This communication reviews several CM studies published in the English language in details by reviewing the effects and mechanisms of actions on asthma from clinic and experimental studies.Chinese herbal medicines exhibit broad actions on multiple asthma pathologic mechanisms. These mechanisms may involve antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, inhibiting airway remodeling and normalization of hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal (HPA)-axis disturbances. However, the mechanisms of actions of Chinese herbal medicines for asthma are not fully understood. More controlled clinical studies are warranted and some anti-asthma CM may be proved to be effective when used as monotherapy or complementary asthma therapies. PMID:21725872
Hong, Min-Li; Song, Ying; Li, Xiu-Min
Objectives. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine (either alone or with interferon alfa) in treating chronic hepatitis B. Methods. We searched the TCMLARS, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Collaboration databases and then hand-searched the articles’ bibliographies. Results. Chinese herbal medicine significantly increased seroreversion of HBsAg and was equivalent to interferon alfa in seroreversion of HBeAg and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA; Chinese herbal medicine combined with interferon alfa significantly increased seroreversion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA. The Chinese herbal medicine active component bufotoxin combined with interferon alfa significantly increased HBeAg and HBV DNA seroreversion. The Chinese herbal medicine active component kurorinone was equivalent to interferon alfa in seroreversion of HBeAg and HBV DNA. Conclusions. Although the quality of existing studies was poor, these data suggest that further trials of Chinese Herbal Medicine and interferon in chronic hepatitis B infection are justified.
McCulloch, Michael; Broffman, Michael; Gao, Jin; Colford, John M.
The Hedyotis diffusa Willd herbal compounds (HDWHCs) are commonly used as Chinese medicine to treat cancer patients with established clinical therapeutic\\u000a efficacy in China. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used freeze-dried powder\\u000a of the water extracts of HDWHCs to investigate the potential mechanisms of HDWHCs in cancer treatment. HDWHCs treatment significantly\\u000a inhibited vascular
Min Wang; Zhumei Shi; Dan Liu; Gong-Yu Zhang; Jiahao Sha; Bing-Hua Jiang
This study investigated the feasibility of replacing antibiotic as growth promoter for weaned piglets with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Bazhen. Thirty-six weaned piglets (average initial body weight 8.92±1.18 kg) were used in this study. Pigs were blocked according to weight, sex and litter origin, and then randomly assigned to control (basal diet), antibiotics (100 ppm chlortetracycline and 100 ppm oxytetracycline) and Bazhen
T. F. Lien; Y. M. Horng; C. P. Wu
Complementary remedies represent a potential alternative treatment for chronic diseases, including HIV\\/AIDS cases not meeting criteria for using highly ac- tive antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of CKBM-A01, a Chinese herbal medicine, and patient quality of life (QoL). Asymptom- atic HIV patients with CD4 counts of 250-350 cells\\/?l were recruited into this open- labeled trial.
Wirach Maek-a-nantawat; Benjaluck Phonrat; Jittima Dhitavat; Supa Naksrisook; Rungrapat Muanaum; Vatcharachai Ngamdee; Punnee Pitisuttithum
Objective: To compare the effects of treatment of tubal pregnancy (TP)and its following second pregnancy by intratubal methotrexate\\u000a injection (IMI) alone and combination of IMI with Chinese herbal medicine.Methods: Thirty-five patients suffering from unruptured TP were divided into two groups at random, to the 19 patients in the treated\\u000a group, the treatment of combined IMI with Ectopic Pregnancy decoction No.
Wang Yu-dong; Li Da-Jin; Lian Fang; Zhang Jian-wei
AIM: To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis. METHODS: The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM). Eight databases including MEDLINE, EMbase, Cochrane Central (CCTR), four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals, Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center, were searched. Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected, categorized according to study design, the strength of evidence, the first author’s hospital type, and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies. No article was of level?I?evidence, and 9.26% were of level II evidence. The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%, 0.68% and 7.29%, respectively. Typically, the articles featured in case reports of illness, examined from the perspective of EBM, were weak in both quality and evidence level, which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals, the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China. CONCLUSION: The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence, and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.
Dong, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Guan-Liang; Liu, Xing; Liu, Jia; Zhu, De-Zeng; Ling, Chang-Quan
Calcineurin (CN) is a highly abundant phosphatase in the brain and it is the only Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase. There is considerable evidence to suggest that CN plays an essential role in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. It has been shown recently that inhibitors of CN, such as CsA or FK506, impair memory formation in day-old chicks. In our present study, extract of Fructus cannabis (EFC) with activation of CN, extracted from Chinese traditional medicine, was used to determine the effects on memory and immunity. In the step-down-type passive avoidance test, the plant extract (0.2 g/kg) significantly improved amnesia induced by chemical drugs in mice, and greatly enhanced the ability of cell-mediated type hypersensitivity and nonspecific immune responses in normal mice. The present study provided pharmacological evidence for Chinese herbal medicine screening from molecular model. PMID:12957215
Luo, Jing; Yin, Jiang-Hua; Wei, Qun
Huperzine A, alkaloid from the Chinese herbal medicine Qian Ceng Ta, which is prepared from the moss Huperzia serrata, has been used in China for centuries to treat fever and inflammation. Huperzine A is a strong inhibitor of cholinesterases with high selectivity to acetylcholinesterase and in China is developed as therapeutic against Alzheimer's disease. May be that huperzine A will be better than other centrally active anticholinesterases in treating this neurodegenerative disorder. Huperzine A appears to have additional pharmacological properties that make it an attractive candidate therapy for clinical trials. PMID:9951045
Objective To study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating ascites and to elucidate its mechanism in regulating\\u000a the lymphatic stomata and promoting the absorption of ascites from the peritoneal cavity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Using scanning electron microscope ( SEM), computerized image processing and quantitative analytic assay, the effect of CHM\\u000a extract, consisting of Atractylodes macrocephala, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Codonopsis pilosula, Alismatis
Yu Wu; Ji-cheng Li; Lian-gen Mao; Xiao-qiao Dong
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16?134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29?801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female?:?male = 1.94?:?1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects are susceptible to chemical-induced oxidative haemolysis. Little is known concerning the haemolytic properties of Chinese herbal medicine on G6PD-deficient subjects. Our objective was to investigate the pro-oxidative effect of 18 commonly used Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on human G6PD-deficient red blood cells. G6PD-deficient (n=10) and normal (n=10) whole blood samples were incubated with water extracts of
Chun Hay Ko; Karen Li; Pak Cheung Ng; Kwok Pui Fung; Raymond Pui-On Wong; Kit Man Chui; Goldie Jia-Shi Gu; Edmund Yung; Tai Fai Fok
Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery.
Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming
Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.
Chen, Hsing-Yu; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Chen, Jiun-Liang
The immunomodulatory properties of botanical medicinals are well-documented. In this study, the capacity for the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia Six Formula (R6F), to stimulate anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity following oral administration to mice was examined. A significant rise in serum anti-TT antibody levels were observed in R6F-treated mice immunized with a minimum immunogenic dose of 10 microg TT suggesting an oral adjuvant effect. No such enhancement was found for unimmunized mice treated with R6F. This anti-TT response was preferentially IgG and antigen-specific in relation to antibody reactivity to a panel of unrelated antigens. The R6F used was safe with no adverse effects on mouse weight or survival, providing evidence for the use of R6F as an oral adjuvant. PMID:19781825
Underwood, John R; Chivers, Mark; Dang, Thi Thuong; Licciardi, Paul V
Background: Diarrhea is a frequent problem among persons with advanced HIV disease. In the absence of treatable pathogens, symptomatic relief is all that is available for current therapy. As a result, many patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea have turned to herbal formulas for treatment. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of a Chinese herbal formulation (Source Qi™) in reducing
Misha R Cohen; Thomas F Mitchell; Peter Bacchetti; Carroll Child; Sherrill Crawford; Andrew Gaeddert; Donald I Abrams
BACKGROUND: We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production\\/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. METHODS:
George B Lenon; Charlie CL Xue; David F Story; Frank CK Thien; Sarah McPhee; Chun G Li
The Chinese herbal medicine 'meizitanc', known as 'LiDa Dai Dai Hua Jiao Nang' (Kunming Dali Industry and Trade, Kunming, Yunnan, China) has been used by many women to support weight loss, even though life-threatening side-effects and deaths have been reported. We report the outcomes of three cases of exposure to 'meizitanc' during early pregnancy. In the first case, the pregnancy continued after the patient stopped taking the drug and at 38 weeks of gestation, the patient delivered a healthy infant. However, in the second and third cases fetal cardiac activities were not detected on obstetric follow-up and both pregnancies were terminated due to missed abortion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of exposure to meizitanc during pregnancy. Although herbal medicines are presumed to be safe because of their natural origin, consumption of such products may be dangerous due to the content of undeclared drugs, adulteration with multiple substances and contamination with toxic metals. PMID:19751347
Cayan, Filiz; Dilek, Umut; Akbay, Esen; Gen, Ramazan; Dilek, Saffet
This review presents Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc., a fungus highly valued in China as a tonic food and herbal medicine. The extant records show the continued use of C. sinensis is now centuries old. The major chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies on C. sinensis and the various derived, cultured, fermented mycelial products currently in use are reviewed from the English and Chinese literature. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical blinded or open-label trials in to date over 2000 patients are reviewed. These studies show the main activities of the fungus in oxygen-free radical scavenging, antisenescence, endocrine, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and sexual function-restorative activities. The safety of the fungus, its effects on the nervous system, glucose metabolism, the respiratory, hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune systems, immunologic disease, inflammatory conditions, cancer, and diseases of the kidney will be reviewed in the second part of this article to be published in the winter issue of this journal. PMID:9764768
Zhu, J S; Halpern, G M; Jones, K
MANY ETHICAL CONCERNS REVOLVE AROUND THE FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH: merit and integrity, respect for human beings, weighting of risk-benefit and justice. These principles form the basis for any discussion concerning human research ethics and are applicable to all areas of research including acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. World Health Organisation document, Guidelines for Clinical Research on Acupuncture, states that 'consideration should be given to the different value systems that are involved in human rights such as social, cultural and historical issues' and that 'further studies should be conducted in relation to ethical issues involved in clinical research on acupuncture'. In addition to outlining the four basic principles, this paper will also examine the effect of Asian culture on Western human research ethics and how this may impact upon issues such as informed consent and weighting of risk-benefit. PMID:18955359
Introduction Cancer patients often seek complementary or alternative medicines to supplement or replace treatments prescribed by licensed\\u000a medical practitioners. Traditional Chinese\\/herbal medicine (TCM) is a popular complementary intervention among cancer patients\\u000a of Asian ethnicity, many of whom take it during their conventional treatment. Few of these patients inform their doctors,\\u000a however, creating a risk of unexpected sequelae arising from either pharmacologic
Joanne Chiu; Thomas Yau; Richard J. Epstein
This paper is a systematic review of evidence-based studies of the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of liver cancer. After a detailed analysis of the literature, five animal studies and four human clinical trials met the criteria for inclusion. Analysis revealed that results of the clinical trials, whilst encouraging, need to be interpreted with caution as problems with study designs may lead to apparent benefits being attributable to various forms of bias. However, as each of the CHM agents used in these studies appeared to be potentially beneficial, further well-designed and controlled randomized clinical trials are warranted. The second part of this review focused on the lessons learned from the relationships between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, TCM Syndrome Differentiation, and modern scientific understanding of mechanisms of action of CHM agents. The understanding of TCM Syndrome Differentiation may allow identification of different patterns of disharmony and may provide important guidance to the prescription of CHM. Furthermore, quality control using both biological and chemical fingerprinting of CHM is important to ensure batch-to-batch consistency to deliver sustained therapeutic benefit. Also, careful assessment of herb-drug interactions is paramount for safety and integrative use of western chemotherapeutic and CHM agents.
Zheng, Zhan; Cho, William Chi-Shing; Xu, Ling; Wang, Juyong; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen
Several Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are used in the treatment of insomnia, restlessness, or anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying this effect and scientific proof for their traditional use is scarce. In the present study CHMs were screened for their ability to modulate GABA-induced chloride currents (I(GABA)), and active principles were isolated thus providing scientific evidence for their use as sedative and/or anxiolytic agents in CM. Herbal drugs were extracted successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and further fractionated according to their bioactivity. The obtained extracts, fractions and finally pure compounds were tested for their ability to potentiate I(GABA) using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique on recombinant ?????(2S) GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. From all tested extracts the petroleum ether extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. rhizomes showed the strongest I(GABA) potentiation and was studied in more detail. This led to the isolation of the main components atractylenolide II and III, which seem to be responsible for the observed positive modulation of I(GABA) (166±12%, n=3 and 155±12%, n=3, respectively) in vitro. They were more active than the analogous compound atractylenolide I (96±3%, n=3) which differs in an additional double binding in position 9, 9a. Furthermore it could be shown that this effect is mediated independently of the benzodiazepine (BZ) binding site. In conclusion, A. macrocephala exerts its in vitro activity on recombinant GABA(A) receptors mainly through the two sesquiterpene lactones atractylenolide II and III (Fig. 1). This positive allosteric modulation of I(GABA) may partially be responsible for the traditional ethnopharmacological use of this herbal drug as a sedative. PMID:22118921
Singhuber, Judith; Baburin, Igor; Kählig, Hanspeter; Urban, Ernst; Kopp, Brigitte; Hering, Steffen
Professor MA Rou has been engaged in clinical and basic research of hematology for more than 40 years. He is excel in the treatment of refractory hematological diseases under the guidance of holism and syndrome differentiation in Chinese medicine. Application of arsenic-containing Chinese herbal medicine in treating myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), primary polycythemia vera (CMPD-PV), primary thrombocythemia (CMPD-ET), MDS-U, myeloproliferative disease, acute non lymphocytic leukemia except for promyelocytic leukemia, Prof. MA has made great innovation and exploration. For some diseases, he has obtained much mature experiences. Although some are still in the stage of exploration, ideal clinical effects has been shown primarily. PMID:21910353
Li, Liu; Ma, Rou
A new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in Chinese herbal medicine by microwave digestion and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been developed. The Chinese herbal medicine samples were digested by microwave digestion. Lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel, copper, zinc, and tin ions in the digested samples were pre-column derivatized with tetra-(4-chlorophenyl)-porphyrin (T 4-CPP) to form the
Yaling Yang; Yan Guangyu; Qiang Lin
Liu, W-C., Wang, S-C., Tsai, M-L., Chen, M-C., Wang, Y-C., Hong, J-H., McBride, W. H. and Chiang, C-S. Protec- tion against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine. Radiat. Res. 166, 900-907 (2006). Bone marrow and intestinal damage limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer and can result in death if the whole body
Wei-Chung Liu; Shu-Chi Wang; Min-Lung Tsai; Meng-Chi Chen; Ya-Chen Wang; Ji-Hong Hong; William H. McBride; Chi-Shiun Chiang
The diagnostic method of early tubal pregnancy has been improved progressively in recent years, and more attention is paid\\u000a to conservative therapy of the disease. Combination therapy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for activating blood circulation\\u000a to remove blood stasis and methotrexate (MTX) administration by tubal intubation under uteroscope has been used since 1995\\u000a in treating 12 patients of tubal
Qing Ye; Zhimian Zhang; Yumei Jiang; Bi Luo; Yiwen Li; Hongmei Ju; Yajuan Ge
Background Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is the current HIV/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. This need has further manifested by recent clinical trial failures in anti-HIV-1 vaccines and microbicides. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. Methods Crude and fractionated extracts were prepared from various parts of nine traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants in Hainan Island, China. These extracts were first screened for their anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity in human CD4+ Jurkat cells. Then, a single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc) was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms of these extracts. Results Two extracts, one from Euphorbiaceae, Trigonostema xyphophylloides (TXE) and one from Dipterocarpaceae, Vatica astrotricha (VAD) inhibited HIV-1 replication and syncytia formation in CD4+ Jurkat cells, and had little adverse effects on host cell proliferation and survival. TXE and VAD did not show any direct inhibitory effects on the HIV-1 RT enzymatic activity. Treatment of these two extracts during the infection significantly blocked infection of the reporter virus. However, pre-treatment of the reporter virus with the extracts and treatment of the extracts post-infection had little effects on the infectivity or gene expression of the reporter virus. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TXE and VAD inhibit HIV-1 replication likely by blocking HIV-1 interaction with target cells, i.e., the interaction between gp120 and CD4/CCR5 or gp120 and CD4/CXCR4 and point to the potential of developing these two extracts to be HIV-1 entry inhibitors.
Park, In-Woo; Han, Changri; Song, Xiaoping; Green, Linden A; Wang, Ting; Liu, Ying; Cen, Changchun; Song, Xinming; Yang, Biao; Chen, Guangying; He, Johnny J
The effects of a long-term intranasal administration of each of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, buserelin and nafarelin on uterine leiomyomas after conservative treatment using Chinese herbal medicines, Keishi-bukuryo-gan and Shakuyaku-kanzo-to were investigated in 30 perimenopausal women with leiomyomas. Hypermenorrhea and/or dysmenorrhea as a chief complaint was moderately improved by the treatment using Chinese herbal medicines in more than 60% of the patients with less than fist-sized leiomyomas, but not the over fist-sized. Afterwards, continuous treatment using analogs produced a long-term reduction in leiomyomas (less than 60%) along with decreases in the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and the tumor marker CA-125, and adverse effects including slight boneloss. Long-term treatment using Chinese herbal medicines and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs for the management of uterine leiomyomas could be beneficial for patients a few years before menopause, though possible side effects of this treatment should be monitored. PMID:9706480
Sakamoto, S; Mitamura, T; Iwasawa, M; Kitsunai, H; Shindou, K; Yagishita, Y; Zhou, Y F; Sassa, S
Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.
Dan, Ming-Bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan
In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal\\/patent medicines (CHM\\/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine
Gretchen M. Miller; Richard Stripp
Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey
Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors' conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey
Objective. The aim of this overview was to summarize the outcome measures of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on available systematic reviews (SRs), so as to display the current situation and evaluate the potential benefits and advantages of CHM on CHD. Methods. An extensive search included the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and 4 databases in Chinese. SRs of CHM for CHD were included. Besides evaluating and summarizing the outcome measures, we also estimated the quality of the included reviews by PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. 46 articles were included. 20 kinds of CHM were reviewed. 7 SRs were concerned with myocardial infarction (MI), 38 SRs were related to angina pectoris. 11 SRs had primary endpoints, while others focused on secondary endpoints to evaluate CHM for CHD such as angina pectoris and electrocardiogram (ECG). One SR reported more adverse effects of CHM for CHD and of the SRs analyzed quality of life. Many CHM appeared to have significant effect on improving symptoms, ECG, biomarkers and so on. However, most SRs failed to make a definite conclusion for the effectiveness of CHM in CHD patients due specifically to the poor evidence. And according to PRISMA we found most of the trials in the SRs were of low quality. Conclusion. Primary endpoints were not used widely. The benefits of CHM for CHD need to be confirmed in the future with RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs.
Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM. PMID:23730837
Chen, Y; Zhu, J
Chinese herbal medicines are often applied as an alternative therapy for viral diseases. However, the development of anti-HIV herbal drugs has proceeded slowly, partly because of the lack of a high-throughput system for screening these drugs. The present study evaluated 16 herbal medicines for anti-HIV activities in vitro and in vivo. Herbal medicines were first screened for the ability to regulate C-X-C receptor 4 (CXCR4) and C-C receptor 5 (CCR5) promoter activities. A single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc) was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms. CD4+ T cells from healthy volunteers were examined for changes in CXCR4 and CCR5 levels. HIV-1 replication was evaluated by ELISA. Spica Prunellae and Herba Andrographitis were found to down-regulate the activities of both the CXCR4 and CCR5 promoters. Also, Spica Prunellae and Herba Andrographitis (>1000 ?M) inhibited HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner. CXCR4 and CCR5 levels were reduced in CD4+ T cells from healthy volunteers (p<0.05). Spica Prunellae and Herba Andrographitis (EC??: 3.18 and 5.49 ?g/mL, respectively) could suppress cell fusion and decrease p24 antigen. In conclusion, the data demonstrated that Spica Prunellae and Herba Andrographitis possessed anti-HIV-1 capabilities, perhaps through the inhibition of the CXCR4 and CCR5 promoters and HIV-1 replication. PMID:22852142
Feng, Long; Wang, Li; Ma, Yun-yun; Li, Min; Zhao, Guo-Qiang
Objective: To observe the regulating effect of Chinese herbal medicine on peritoneal lymphatic stomata and its significance in treating\\u000a ascites in liver fibrosis model mice.Methods: Two Chinese herbal compound prescriptions were used separately to treat the carbon tetrachloride induced mouse model of liver\\u000a fibrosis, the histo-pathologic changes in mice were observed by using scanning electron microscope and processed by computer
Ji-cheng LI; Shu-hui Yuan; Jian-pei Zhao; Zhi-liang Lu
We assessed the effects of Chinese herbs on the uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. A total of 56 pre-menopausal women with uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were included. Urine cultures were carried out. All organisms were proved to be fluoroquinolone-resistant at baseline. The patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Chinese herbal concoction eradicated the primary pathogen in 71.4% of the patients at the 1-week follow-up. Among the 20 patients who had bacteriologic failures in the Day 5 of treatment, 2 developed superinfection. Of the failures in the group, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Providencia rettgeri were implicated in 50.0%, 50.0% and 100.0% of the failures, respectively. The clinical outcomes were also good, with cure or improvement for more than 80% of all subjects. About 14% of the study subjects reported at least one potential adverse event. The adverse events most frequently reported were nausea and diarrhea. All patients tolerated the symptoms. The adverse reactions did not prevail after discontinuation of the medication. Chinese herbal therapy may be an acceptable alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant uropathogens. PMID:22754063
Tong, Yanqing; Jing, Yue; Zhao, Dongkai; Zhang, Liping; Zeng, Shiming
Quality standardisation of complementary medicine is fundamental for industry and practice as it strengthens their quality, safety and efficacy. Current herbal standardisations are often based on the quantitative analysis of a single compound, which may not reflect the total characteristic, bioactive and toxic nature of the herbs or products. Therefore, there is a need to establish internationally recognised methodology for
Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski; Benjamin Kimble; Vincent L. Qiao; Lin Beilun; Kong M. Li; Basil Roufogalis; Yang Depo; Yao Meicun; George Q. Li
Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population. Because they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone, serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. In this article, evidence suggesting that some Asian herbal medicines contain toxic heavy metals or undeclared prescription drugs is reviewed. In particular, Indian and Chinese
Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues (especially chlorpyrifos) in raw CHMs are advised. PMID:21824641
Harris, Eric S J; Cao, Shugeng; Littlefield, Bruce A; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Kaptchuk, Ted; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Woolf, Alan D; Eisenberg, David M
Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues (especially chlorpyrifos) in raw CHMs are advised.
HARRIS, Eric S. J.; CAO, Shugeng; LITTLEFIELD, Bruce A.; CRAYCROFT, Jane A.; SCHOLTEN, Robert; KAPTCHUK, Ted; FU, Yanling; WANG, Wenquan; LIU, Yong; CHEN, Hubiao; ZHAO, Zhongzhen; CLARDY, Jon; WOOLF, Alan D.; EISENBERG, David M.
This review assesses the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). Electronic searches of English and Chinese databases and hand searches of Chinese journal holdings were conducted. Randomised controlled trials comparing orally administered CHM with placebo, no intervention or other therapy were considered. Ginkgo biloba was excluded. Ten trials met inclusion criteria. Eight different CHM were investigated. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad scale and five studies scored three or above. Two studies compared CHM with placebo and eight with another intervention. This review found an overall benefit on some outcome measures for the eight CHMs involved in the 10 RCTs but methodological and data reporting issues were evident. Meta-analysis of three studies found the effects of the CHMs were at least equivalent to piracetam on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. No severe adverse events were reported. PMID:18716893
May, Brian H; Yang, Angela W H; Zhang, Anthony L; Owens, Michael D; Bennett, Louise; Head, Richard; Cobiac, Lynne; Li, Chun Guang; Hugel, Helmut; Story, David F; Xue, Charlie C L
As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM. PMID:23829802
Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie
Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan.
Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou
Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis): an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae
This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT
Qiutao Gao; Jun Li; Jerry Ka Hei Cheung; Jinao Duan; Anwei Ding; Anna Wing Han Cheung; Kuijun Zhao; Winnie Zhuoming Li; Tina Tingxia Dong; Karl Wah Keung Tsim
Background The studies on the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating liver fibrosis (LF) were not consistent. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of CHM on treating LF patients. Methods Databases including MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, TCMOnline, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Chinese Medical Current Contents were searched up to March 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving LF patients receiving CHM, Western medicine, combined CHM and Western medicine compared with placebo, Western medicine or no intervention were included. LF markers including serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC-III), type IV collagen (IV-C), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) were measured as primary outcomes. Liver biochemistry, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartarte aminotransferase (AST), and improvement of related clinical symptoms were measured as secondary outcomes. Risk of bias of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, and other biases were assessed. Results Twenty-three RCTs with 2123 participants were analyzed in subgroups of types of comparison and study quality. Fifteen studies were graded as good quality. CHM alone and combined with Western medicine showed significant improvements in HA, LN, PC-III and IV-C compared with Western medicine alone. However, there were no significant differences observed between CHM and placebo treatments. Conclusion The current inconclusive results in determining the effectiveness of CHM treatment on LF, due to the poor methodological quality and high heterogeneity of the studies, suggests that large RCTs using standardized Chinese medicine syndrome diagnosis and CHM formulae with longer follow-up are required for further evaluation.
|An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM preparation in powder…
Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern differentiation, treatment principle, and pattern-based treatment for insomnia has therefore been conducted. A total of 227 studies, 17916 subjects, and 87 TCM patterns were analyzed. There was a limited consistency in pattern-based TCM treatment of insomnia across practitioners. Except for Gui Pi Tang, An Shen Ding Zhi Wan, and Wen Dan Tang which were used more commonly for deficiency of both the heart and spleen, internal disturbance of phlegm-heat, and qi deficiency of the heart and gallbladder, respectively, the selection of herbal formula for other patterns and pattern-based prescription of individual herbs and acupoints were not consistent. Suanzaoren (Semen Z. spinosae), Fuling (Poria), Yejiaoteng (Caulis P. multiflori), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Baishao (Radix P. alba), Shenmen (HT7), Yintang (EX-HN3), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Baihui (GV20), Anmian (EX-HN22), and Sishencong (EX-HN1) were commonly used, but nonspecifically for many patterns. Treatment principles underlying herb and acupoint selection were seldom reported. Although many studies were reviewed, the study quality and diagnostic process were inadequate. More high quality studies are needed to examine the additional benefits of pattern differentiation and pattern-based TCM treatment.
Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Poon, Maggie Man-Ki; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi; Wong Taam, Vivian
Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root?+?Tangshen?+?Indian Bread?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root?+?Chinese Angelica?+?Safflower?+?Red Peony Root?+?Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit?+?Longstamen Onion Bulb?+?Pinellia Tuber?+?Dried Tangerine peel?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome?+?Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.
Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan
Background Chinese herbs are thought to be effective for type A H1N1 influenza. Series of Chinese herbs have been authorized recommended by the Chinese government, and until now a number of clinical trials of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza have been conducted. However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on potential benefits and harms of medicinal herbs for H1N1 influenza to justify their clinical use and their recommendation. Methods and Findings CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza till 31 August, 2011. A total of 26 RCTs were identified and reviewed. Most of the RCTs were of high risk of bias with flawed study design and poor methodological quality. The combination of several Chinese herbal medicines with or without oseltamivir demonstrated positive effect on fever resolution, relief of symptoms, and global effectiveness rate compared to oseltamivir alone. However, only one herbal medicine showed positive effect on viral shedding. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of herbal medicines is still uncertain. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines demonstrated potential positive effect for 2009 type A H1N1 influenza; however, due to the lack of placebo controlled trial and lack of repeated test of the intervention, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on the beneficial effect of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza. More rigorous trials are warranted to support their clinical use.
Chen, Wei; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Kang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jianping
In this review, the researches on Chinese herb components with anti-hepatic fibrosis activity in China in the recent 20 years were generalized. Almost thirty active herb components attracted author's attention, especially, salvianolic acid B and oxymatrine which were investigated comprehensively. Moreover, the author considered that, in view of the complex pathogenesis and the multi-pathway and multi-target superiority of Chinese medicine formula, the effective components formula investigations deserve more attention and probably prompt a potential researching direction. PMID:22438172
We describe a case of nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption appearing on the right thigh of a 31-year-old woman in Japan. The causative drug was determined by closed patch test on postlesional skin as a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang (Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:628-30.)
Kazuhiko Matsumoto; Hajime Mikoshiba; Toshiaki Saida
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of airways that affects approximately 300 million adults and children worldwide.\\u000a Most therapy currently uses bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Systemic side effects from chronic use of these drugs are\\u000a concern. Chinese medicine (CM) has a long history of human use in China and other Asian countries and well received by the\\u000a patients. But as one
Min-li Hong; Ying Song; Xiu-min Li
Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185
Background: Diarrhea is a frequent problem among persons with advanced HIV disease. In the absence of treatable pathogens, symptomatic relief is all that is available for current therapy. As a result, many patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea have turned to herbal formulas for treatment. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of a Chinese herbal formulation (Source Qi) in reducing the number of stools per day related to HIV-associated, pathogen-negative diarrhea. Methods: Sixteen male patients received treatment with Source Qi in an 8-week, open-label study. Patients tested negative for cryptosporidium and other gastrointestinal pathogens, and had chronic diarrhea, defined as having three or more loose stools/day for >/=14 days (and no other treatable causes for diarrhea). Measurements of diarrhea included numbers of bowel movements/day, abnormal bowel movements/day, and liquid bowel movements/day. Subjects completed daily stool diaries an average of 2 weeks before and up to 8 weeks after starting Source Qi. Paired Wilcoxon tests compared the last week before treatment with each week of treatment. Results: There was a reduction in average number of stools/day in each week of treatment (-0.2 to -0.8), except week 1 (+0.1), with improvements in weeks 2-6 approaching or reaching statistical significance. Conclusions: A modest but sustained decrease in average number of stools/day was observed in patients with HIV-associated, pathogen-negative diarrhea. The entry criteria, 2-week run-in period, lack of benefit in week 1, and sustained benefit thereafter all suggest that the improvement was not due to bias. PMID:10882880
Cohen; Mitchell; Bacchetti; Child; Crawford; Gaeddert; Abrams
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects are susceptible to chemical-induced oxidative haemolysis. Little is known concerning the haemolytic properties of Chinese herbal medicine on G6PD-deficient subjects. Our objective was to investigate the pro-oxidative effect of 18 commonly used Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on human G6PD-deficient red blood cells. G6PD-deficient (n=10) and normal (n=10) whole blood samples were incubated with water extracts of CHM. The resulting levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and methaemoglobin (MetHb) were determined by biochemical assays. Rhizoma Coptidis significantly reduced GSH level by 48.9+/-5.4% (at 1 mg/mL) in the G6PD-deficient erythrocytes (P<0.001) compared with the respective control group without challenge. Similar dose-dependent responses were observed at higher concentrations of Cortex Moutan, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Bupleuri, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati and Flos Chimonanthi (P<0.01, 5-10 mg/mL). In addition, the levels of MetHb were elevated significantly when challenged with Rhizoma Coptidis (2.8 fold at 5 mg/mL) and Cortex Moutan (3.4 fold at 10 mg/mL). This is the first report on the pro-oxidative action of CHM on G6PD-deficient blood samples in vitro as demonstrated by the decrease of GSH and increase of MetHb. G6PD-deficient subjects should restrain from excessive consumption of these pro-oxidative herbs. PMID:18515042
Ko, Chun Hay; Li, Karen; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fung, Kwok Pui; Wong, Raymond Pui-On; Chui, Kit Man; Gu, Goldie Jia-Shi; Yung, Edmund; Fok, Tai Fai
Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally fatal disease resulting from early invasion of adjacent structures and metastasis and the lack of an effective treatment modality. Our previous studies have shown that Qingyihuaji Formula (QYHJ), a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, had significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer. Here, we examined the effects of QYHJ on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis and the potential associated mechanism(s). We found that QYHJ inhibited both tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice with human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts. Further study indicated that QYHJ inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized by increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin, N-cadherin and Slug expression. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages, could promote cancer cell EMT and invasion. In contrast, treatment with QYHJ inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumors by decreasing infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and IL-6 production, thus preventing cell invasion and metastasis. These results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine QYHJ could inhibit pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis in part by reversing tumor-supporting inflammation.
Ouyang, Huaqiang; Yin, Jianhua; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Chunzheng; Liu, Luming
The toxicity, antimicrobial and cytokine modulating effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases were evaluated in this study. Using the broth dilution method and disc agar diffusion test, in individual and combined decocted preparations, different concentrations of Ching–Wei–San and its individual herbal components, Coptidis rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix, Rehmanniae radixet rhizom, Moutan radicis cortex, and Cimicifuga foetida, were tested
Shyh-Jye Lin; Chung-Shih Chen; Shih-Shen Lin; Ming-Yung Chou; Hung-Che Shih; I-Pang Lee; Chia-Tze Kao; Chuan-Chen Ho; Fong-Lin Chen; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Kuang-Hui Hsieh; Chi-Ruei Huang; Chi-Chiang Yang
Keishi-bukuryo-gan (TJ-25) is a traditional Chinese herbal remedy containing five components: bark of Cinnamomum cassia, root of Paeonia lactiflora, seed of Prunus persica or P. persiba var. davidiana, carpophores of Poria cocos and root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa. This preparation has been used in the treatment of gynecological disorders such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and infertility. In the present study, the effects of TJ-25 on plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2), and on uterine wet weight and thymidine kinase (TK) activity were documented in immature rats. Long-term daily oral administration of TJ-25 (300 mg/kg) for 14 days decreased plasma levels of LH, FSH and E2 by 94%, 67% and 50%, respectively, compared to controls. Uterine wet weight and TK activity were reduced to 65% and 64% that of controls, respectively. Short-term effects of TJ-25 on E2 were also examined. Thirty hours after administration of E2 (1.0 micrograms/kg) alone, uterine wet weight and TK activity were elevated 2.4- and 21-fold, respectively, over controls. However, simultaneous administration of TJ-25 (three consecutive doses, every 12 h) with E2 reduced E2-induced increases in uterine wet weight and TK activity by 29% and 39%, respectively. Treatment with TJ-25 also enhanced LH-RH-induced increases in plasma LH and FSH levels 1.2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, as compared with controls. The results obtained in the present study indicate that TJ-25 may act as a LH-RH antagonist and/or as a weak anti-estrogen. PMID:3143030
Sakamoto, S; Kudo, H; Kawasaki, T; Kuwa, K; Kasahara, N; Sassa, S; Okamoto, R
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.
A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved. PMID:23427555
Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong
Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. PMID:22459934
Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong
The antiviral effect of Keishi-ni-eppi-ichi-to (TJS-064), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was investigation in mice infected with influenza A2(H2N2) virus. When mice exposed to 5 LD50 dose of the virus were treated orally with a 70 mg\\/kg dose of TJS-064 1 day before and 1 day and 4 days after the infection, 100% survived over a 25-day experimental period. At
M. A. Ball; T. Utsunomiya; K. Ikemoto; M. Kobayashi; R. B. Pollard; F. Suzuki
Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit
Choong Yong Ung; Hu Li; Zhi Wei Cao; Yi Xue Li; Yu Zong Chen
Psoriasis vulgaris is the most common form of psoriasis. Phototherapy has been proven effective for psoriasis, but side effects have become a concern. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) bath combined with phototherapy has been used in clinical settings, but the additional benefit requires evaluation. This review aims to evaluate the additional benefit and safety of adding CHM bath to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and CQVIP were searched from their inceptions to 6 August 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM bath plus phototherapy to phototherapy alone for psoriasis vulgaris were included. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.0. Thirteen RCTs were included in the review, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed higher efficacy of CHM bath plus phototherapy when compared with phototherapy alone in terms of PASI 60 (RR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18–1.32). Mild adverse events were reported in ten studies, but these could be alleviated by reducing UV dosage or applying emollient. In conclusion, CHM bath appears to be a beneficial and safe adjunctive therapy to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low methodological quality of the included studies.
Yu, Jason Jingjie; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement is a standard treatment for coronary artery disease (CAD). In-stent restenosis after PCI remains a challenging clinical problem. In China, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used for preventing restenosis. This paper systematically reviewed the literature on the effectiveness and safety of CHMs in preventing restenosis after PCI in patients with CAD. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared CHMs plus RWM with the same RWM plus placebo in preventing restenosis after PCI. A total of 52 trials (4905 patients) on 34 CHMs met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Ten trials had low risk of bias. Methodological quality of included trials was generally poor. Meta-analysis showed that at the end of at least 3 months' followup, CHMs plus RWM could significantly reduce restenosis rate, cardiac mortality, recurrence rate of angina, acute myocardial infarction, numbers of repeat PCI, and numbers of coronary artery bypass graft. Reported adverse events included gastrointestinal upset, granulocytopenia, and increased alanine transaminase (ALT). CHMs may help prevent restenosis, thus reducing cardiac mortality after PCI. Caution should be exercised in drawing a definitive conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of the trials reviewed.
Zheng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Nissi S.; Chen, Hai-Ying; Chu, Jian-Feng
A simple, specific and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for study of fingerprint chromatograms of extracts from the whole plant of Clematis huchouensis Tamura (CHT) for quality control of a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herb. An Agilent C18 column was used to separate extracts in this protocol and detection was made by ultraviolet absorbance at 340 nm. The column temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. A mobile phase consisting of (a) water (with 30 mM KH2PO4) and (b) CH3CN, (c) CH3OH was found to be suitable for this separation at a flow rate of 0.8 microl min(-1) with gradient elution. Under the described conditions, a fingerprint profile of 8 compounds was collected within 35 min, which made the HPLC method unique and interesting. The fingerprint chromatograms had good stability, precision and reproducibility. Moreover, eco-climatic (habitat) effects were studied by comparison of fingerprint chromatograms obtained from extracts of CHT collected from two habitats, with rutin as a reference marker peak. The protocol developed is quite suitable for differentiation of extracts of CHT and can be used as a quality control method for this herb and a model for other herbal drugs. PMID:17202679
Chaudhary, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Qing, He; Xiao, Pei Gen; Cheng, YiYu
Psoriasis vulgaris is the most common form of psoriasis. Phototherapy has been proven effective for psoriasis, but side effects have become a concern. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) bath combined with phototherapy has been used in clinical settings, but the additional benefit requires evaluation. This review aims to evaluate the additional benefit and safety of adding CHM bath to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and CQVIP were searched from their inceptions to 6 August 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM bath plus phototherapy to phototherapy alone for psoriasis vulgaris were included. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.0. Thirteen RCTs were included in the review, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed higher efficacy of CHM bath plus phototherapy when compared with phototherapy alone in terms of PASI 60 (RR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18-1.32). Mild adverse events were reported in ten studies, but these could be alleviated by reducing UV dosage or applying emollient. In conclusion, CHM bath appears to be a beneficial and safe adjunctive therapy to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low methodological quality of the included studies. PMID:23983796
Yu, Jason Jingjie; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian
Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is very common in people with diabetes. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) therapy has been developed for DPN empirically over the years. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of CHMs for patients suffering from DPN. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of CHM on DPN. Six databases were searched up to November 2012. The primary outcome measures were the absolute values or changing of motor or sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and the secondary outcome measurements were clinical symptoms improvements and adverse events. The methodological quality was assessed by Jadad scale and the twelve criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results One hundred and sixty-three studies claimed RCTs. Ten studies with 653 individuals were further identified based on the Jadad score ?3. These 10 studies were all of high methodological quality with a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed the effects of NCV favoring CHMs when compared with western conventional medicines (WCM) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There is a significant difference in the total efficacy rate between the two groups (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in all of the ten included studies, and well tolerated in all patients with DPN. Conclusion Despite of the apparently positive findings and low risk of bias, it is premature to conclude the efficacy of CHMs for the treatment of DPN because of the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample sizes of the included studies. However, CHM therapy was safe for DPN. Further standardized preparation, large sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required.
Hao, Chi-zi; Wu, Fan; Lu, Lin; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yi; Liu, Ai-ju; Liao, Wei-jing; Zheng, Guo-qing
Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100
Tillotson, Alan Keith
In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149
Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich
While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576
Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M
Age is the leading risk factor for many of the most prevalent and devastating diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. A number of herbal medicines have been used for centuries to ameliorate the deleterious effects of ageing-related diseases and increase longevity. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in normal ageing as well as in neurodegenerative processes. Since many of the constituents of herbal extracts are known antioxidants, it is believed that restoring oxidative balance may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which medicinal herbs can protect against ageing and cognitive decline. Based on the premise that astrocytes are key modulators in the progression of oxidative stress associated neurodegenerative diseases, 13 herbal extracts purported to possess anti-ageing properties were tested for their ability to protect U373 human astrocytes from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. To determine the contribution of antioxidant activity to the cytoprotective ability of extracts, total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were examined. Polygonum multiflorum, amongst others, was identified as possessing potent antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Not surprisingly, total phenol content of extracts was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, when total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were compared to the cytoprotective properties of extracts, only moderately strong correlations were observed. This finding suggests the involvement of multiple protective mechanisms in the beneficial effects of these medicinal herbs. PMID:22982670
Steele, Megan L; Truong, John; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Ooi, Lezanne; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald
In this study, we evaluated the effects of the herb medicine formula Gushukang (GSK) on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in end-of-lay hens. One thousand 55-wk-old ISA caged layers were allotted randomly to 2 groups. The control group was given the basal diet, and the GSK group was given the basal diet supplemented with additional GSK (1 g/kg) for 10 wk. Egg production, shell quality, bone radiographic density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were determined. The results showed that GSK significantly increased the egg laying rate and decreased the percentage of cracked eggs (P < 0.05).The serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the GSK-treated group compared with the control group, whereas bone characteristics were significantly improved (P < 0.05). The results suggested that GSK can improve egg production and prevent bone loss by inhibiting bone turnover. PMID:19834084
Zhou, Z-L; Deng, Y-F; Tao, Q-S; Hu, Y-F; Hou, J-F
Huperzine A (HupA), a novel alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent, highly specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase(AChE). Compared with tacrine, donepezil, and rivastigmine, HupA has better penetration through the blood-brain barrier, higher oral bioavailability, and longer duration of AChE inhibitory action. HupA has been found to improve cognitive deficits in a broad range of animal models. HupA possesses the ability to protect cells against hydrogen peroxide, beta-amyloid protein (or peptide), glutamate, ischemia and staurosporine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. These protective effects are related to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress, regulate the expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bax, P53, and caspase-3, protect mitochondria, upregulate nerve growth factor and its receptors, and interfere with amyloid precursor protein metabolism. Antagonizing effects of HupA on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and potassium currents may also contribute to its neuroprotection as well. Pharmacokinetic studies in rodents, canines, and healthy human volunteers indicated that HupA was absorbed rapidly, distributed widely in the body, and eliminated at a moderate rate with the property of slow and prolonged release after oral administration. Animal and clinical safety tests showed that HupA had no unexpected toxicity, particularly the dose-limiting hepatotoxicity induced by tacrine. The phase IV clinical trials in China have demonstrated that HupA significantly improved memory deficits in elderly people with benign senescent forgetfulness, and patients with Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, with minimal peripheral cholinergic side effects and no unexpected toxicity. HupA can also be used as a protective agent against organophosphate intoxication. PMID:16364207
Wang, Rui; Yan, Han; Tang, Xi-can
The toxicity, antimicrobial and cytokine modulating effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases were evaluated in this study. Using the broth dilution method and disc agar diffusion test, in individual and combined decocted preparations, different concentrations of Ching-Wei-San and its individual herbal components, Coptidis rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix, Rehmanniae radixet rhizom, Moutan radicis cortex, and Cimicifuga foetida, were tested for in vitro inhibitory effects on three well-known plaque-causing bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivialis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus mutans, and two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cytokine modulating effects were evaluated in Balb/c mice. The results suggested that one milliliter Ching-Wei-San at the 25,000 mg/mL concentration daily for the mice had significantly high levels in the liver function indexes in the 3-day acute toxicity test and in both the liver and kidney function indexes in the 28-day subacute toxicity test (P<0.01). The 250 mg/mL Ching-Wei-San is comparable to 250 mg/mL of tetracycline, and had similar inhibitory effects on the tested bacteria. Coptidis rhizoma (62.5 mg/mL) was the only individual herbal component to show 100% inhibitory effects. The mean cytokine ratios of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha in Balb/c mice treated with individual herbal components were shown to be different from each other. Ching-Wei-San modulated the immunity of mice, up-regulated IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-alpha, but down-regulated IFN-gamma. The effects of none of the individual herbal components alone can substitute for the cumulative effect of Ching-Wei-San. PMID:16962225
Lin, Shyh-Jye; Chen, Chung-Shih; Lin, Shih-Shen; Chou, Ming-Yung; Shih, Hung-Che; Lee, I-Pang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Chen, Fong-Lin; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Hsieh, Kuang-Hui; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Yang, Chi-Chiang
To accelerate the healing of bone defects or for healing to take place, it is often necessary to fill them with suitable substance. Various artificial materials defects have been developed. Among these, calcium phosphates and bioactive glass have been proven to be biocompatibile and bioactive materials that can chemically bond with bone, and have been successfully used clinically for repair of bone defects and augmentation of osseous tissue. However, those bioceramics have only the property of osteoconduction without any osteoinduction. Many ligands have been physicochemically absorbed onto substrates to enhance cell-substrate interactions. Although widely developed, they are still limited to use in long-term implantation because of their half-life period. Thus, some interfacial modification will be required for enhancing the efficacy of the delivery system. These models involve the immobilization of biologically active ligands of natural and synthetic origin onto various substrates to produce an interface with stronger chemical bond between ligand and substrate. The advantage of covalently immobilizing a ligand is that a chemical bond is present to prevent ligand or medicine from desorption. In our study, a two-step chemical immobilization was performed to surface-modified calcium hydrogenphosphate powders. The first was to modify the surface of calcium hydrogen-phosphate (CHP) with a coupling agent of hexanmethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). CHP surface modified by HMDI is abbreviated as MCHP. The linkage between CHP and HMDI will be characterized by FTIR. The second step was to immobilize chemically Gusuibu onto MCHP. Moreover, the sorption and desorption of Gusuibu was evaluated and quantitatively analyzed by spectrophotometer and HPLC. Bioceramic CHP was surface-modified by a two-step chemical immobilization. First, the surface of calcium hydrogen-phosphate (CHP) was successfully modified with coupling agent of hexanmethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). The first step was also activated the surface of CHP to induce primary amine terminator. The reaction of this functional group with Gusuibu was the second step. We confirmed simultaneously that Gusuibu could be immobilized chemically onto the surface of MCHP. Although some immobilized Gusuibu was also released rapidly at the first 12h, the degree of the released Gusuibu was lower than both by Gusuibu-adsorbing MCHP and Gusuibu-adsorbing CHP. PMID:12699679
Lin, Feng-Huei; Dong, Guo-Chung; Chen, Ko-Shao; Jiang, George J; Huang, Chin-Wang; Sun, Jui-Sheng
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology. PMID:23754610
Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A
Abstract Context: In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. Objective: The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Materials and methods: Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. Results: In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusions: Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use. PMID:23746335
Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman
A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.
Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah
A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%-98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017
Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah
Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.
Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming
Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a Chinese herbal formula Zi Shen Qing (ZSQ) in the treatment of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Chinese patients. Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted over 12 weeks in 84 Chinese patients who reported total scores of SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2000) was from 5 to 14. The primary outcome was the changes of the SLEDAI-2000. The secondary outcomes included score changes of Chinese Medicine Syndromes (CMS), the changes of steroid dosage, the incidence of disease flare-up and biologic markers. Results. ZSQ significantly reduced SLEDAI-2000, the total scores of CMS in the treatment group compared with the controlled group (P < 0.05). Superiority of ZSQ over controlled group was also observed with greater improvement in the withdrawal dosage of corticosteroids and the incidence of disease flare-up (P < 0.05). There were no serious adverse events, and safety indices of whole blood counts, renal and liver functions were normal, both before and after the treatment. Conclusion. ZSQ is safe and effective for decreasing SLE disease activity and withdrawal dosage of corticosteroids in the mild to moderate SLE patients with “Deficiency of Qi and Yin” Pattern.
Zhong, Linda L. D.; Bian, Zhao Xiang; Gu, Jun Hua; Zhou, Xin; Tian, Yu; Mao, Jian Chun; Chen, Xiang Jun
Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT. PMID:23158937
Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing
This paper studied the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in different habitats of six Chinese herbal medicines, including Pyrola decorata, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Polygonatum odoratum, Potentilla glabra, Polygonum viviparum, and Potentilla fruticosa, on the Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains. In the rhizosphere soils of the herbs, the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus and the soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) were higher, presenting an obvious rhizosphere aggregation, and the soil enzyme activities also showed an overall stronger characteristics, compared with those in non-rhizosphere soils. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the rhizosphere soils had significant positive correlations with soil neutral phosphatase activity, and the soil CEC had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. In the non-rhizosphere soils, the soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil urease, catalase and neutral phosphatase, and the soil CEC showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of soil urease, catalase, neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The comprehensive fertility level of the rhizosphere soils was higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils, and the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of P. fruticosa, P. viviparum, and P. glabra had higher comprehensive fertility level than those of P. decorata, P. odoratum and C. fortunei. In the evaluation of the fertility levels of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under the six Chinese herbal medicines, soil organic matter content and CEC played important roles, and soil neutral phosphatase could be the preferred soil enzyme indicator. PMID:23359927
Meng, Ling-Jun; Geng, Zeng-Chao; Yin, Jin-Yan; Wang, Hai-Tao; Ji, Peng-Fei
Traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy is the contact theory of traditional Chinese medicine and herbal application on the bridge, this paper systematically reviews the clinical pharmacy of traditional Chinese medicine the history, current situation of clinical pharmacy to conduct a comprehensive review, put forward the development of Chinese clinical pharmacy path, in order to strengthen the traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy discipline construction and research. PMID:23668029
Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan
Use of herbal medicine is popular among cancer patients. This study aimed to explore the coprescription of CHM and WM among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. This cross-sectional retrospective study used a population-based database containing one million beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Claims and prescriptions were analyzed. In 2007, 218 (22.4%) prostate cancer patients were CHM users. Among CHM users, 200 (91.7%) patients with 5618 (79.5%) CHM prescriptions were on coprescription of CHM and WM. A total of 484 types of CHM and 930 types of WM were used. The most commonly used CHMs on coprescription were Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang, Ma Zi Ren Wan, and Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang. The most commonly used WMs on coprescription were magnesium oxide, amlodipine, and aspirin. The average number of prescriptions per user per year was 261.2 versus 151.7 in all (P < 0.001), 123.6 versus 76.9 in WM (P = 0.033), and 34.8 versus 5.1 in CHM (P < 0.001) for patients with and without coprescription, respectively. In conclusion, use of CHM among prostate cancer patients was popular in Taiwan. Most CHMs were used with WM concurrently. The potential drug-herb interactions should be investigated, especially for patients with more prescriptions.
Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Chiu, Jen-Hwey
Erythema ab igne (EAI) is a reticulated, telangiectatic, and hyperpigmented skin eruption resulting from chronic exposure to long-term moderate heat. The incidence has decreased substantially today because of the advent of modern central heating systems. Recently, we encountered a patient who developed EAI after 2 weeks of footbaths with Chinese herbal remedies, which she used to treat her acute ankle sprain. Alternative Chinese medicine, such as herbal footbath, is a prevalent medical practice to treat acute pains as well as many chronic musculoskeletal ailments among Chinese and Asian populations. It has also become increasingly popular in Western countries in the past decade. Herein, we would like to report an uncommon case of iatrogenic EAI caused by footbath and raise the attention of clinicians to such rare, potentially malignant-transforming, dermatosis. PMID:21292205
Chen, Jeng-Feng; Liu, Ying-Chun; Chen, Yu-Fei; Chiang, Chien-Ping; Wang, Wei-Ming
A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082
Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong
In this work, a rapid and simple method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Guge Fengtong preparation (GGFT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was investigated for validation, and eight major constituents were determined including four saponins (protodioscin, protogracillin, pseudoprotodioscin and dioscin) and four gingerols (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol). Response surface methodology and desirability function were employed to optimize the extraction conditions, such as dispersant, dispersant/sample ratio, solvent concentration, and elution volume, of MSPD. Results showed that MSPD using C18 (1.75 g) as the dispersant material and methanol (89%, v/v) as the eluting solvent (12.00 mL) resulted in a high extraction efficiency. MSPD extraction had the advantages of combining extraction and clean-up in a single step, was less time consuming and required lower solvent volumes compared with conventional methods. Quantification of chemical compounds from GGFT preparations were performed using UPLC-MS/MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The proposed method afforded a low limit of detection ranging from 0.02 to 0.40 ng for saponins and gingerols. For all the analytes, recoveries ranged from 80.9% to 103% and repeatabilities were acceptable with relative standard deviations of less than 6.81%. The proposed MSPD-UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully utilized to analyze five batches of GGFTs, and the results demonstrated that this method is simple, efficient and has potential to be applied for the quality control of herbal preparations. PMID:23443607
Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Qi; Liu, Xin-Guang; Boubertakh, Besma; Wan, Jin-Yi; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping
Purpose/Objectives Abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is limited by the radiosensitivity of the small and large intestine. PHY906, a state-of-the-art adaptation of a traditional Chinese medicine, decreased intestinal injury from chemotherapy in preclinical studies and is in clinical trials with chemotherapy. This project assessed whether PHY906 would also reduce intestinal injury from whole-abdomen irradiation in mice. Materials/Methods BALB/c mice received whole-abdomen irradiation (2 Gy/day) ± PHY906 by oral gavage twice daily for 4 days. Intestinal injury was assayed by physiological observations and histological studies. Effects of PHY906 on tumor radiation response were assayed in tumor growth studies. Results PHY906 decreased the toxicity of fractionated abdominal irradiation. Radiation alone produced marked blunting and loss of villi, crypt loss, crypt hyperplasia and irregular crypt morphology, which were reduced by PHY906. The radiation-induced reduction in viable crypt counts was also mitigated by PHY906. PHY906 did not alter radiation-induced weight loss, but resulted in more rapid recovery. PHY906 did not alter growth, local invasion or metastatic spread of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors or protect tumors from growth delays produced by single-dose and fractionated irradiation. Conclusion In this mouse model system, PHY906 decreased the toxicity of abdominal irradiation, without protecting tumors, thereby increasing the therapeutic ratio.
Rockwell, Sara; Grove, Tina A.; Liu, Yanfeng; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Higgins, Susan A; Booth, Carmen J
Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this study, we used a three-herb, berberine-containing TCM to treat male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TCM showed sustained glucose-lowering effects for 1 week after a single-dose treatment. Two-week treatment attenuated insulin resistance and fatty degeneration, with hepatocyte regeneration lasting for 1 month posttreatment. These beneficial effects persisted for 1 year after 1-month treatment. Two-week treatment with TCM was associated with activation of AMPK, Akt, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)1 pathways, with downregulation of miR29-b and expression of a gene network implicated in cell cycle, intermediary, and NADPH metabolism with normalization of CYP7a1 and IGFBP1 expression. These concerted changes in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins may explain the sustained effects of TCM in favor of cell survival, increased glucose uptake, and lipid oxidation/catabolism with improved insulin sensitivity and liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that multicomponent TCM may be a useful tool to unravel genome regulation and expression in complex diseases.
Zhao, Hai-Lu; Sui, Yi; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yip, Kevin Y.; Leung, Ross K.K.; Tsui, Stephen K.W.; Lee, Heung-Man; Wong, Harriet K.T.; Zhu, Xun; Siu, Jennifer J.; He, Lan; Guan, Jing; Liu, Li-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Peter C.Y.; Chan, Juliana C.N.
An overview on safety issues of interactions between traditional herbal medicines and pharmaceutical medicines (Una apreciación global sobre la seguridad de las interacciones entre las medicinas herbarias tradicionales y los fármacos)
The increasing popularity world-wide of using herbal medicinal materials (HMM) from ethnic traditional medicine such as the widely used Chinese materia medica (CMM) or other ethnic herbal medicines and related proprietary health products (PHP), functional food and prescription herbal medicines has raised concerns over their concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines (PHARMED) and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the
Objective. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (RCM-104) for the management of simple obesity. Method. Obese subjects aged between 18 and 60 years were selected for 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to take 4 capsules of either the RCM-104 formula (n = 59) or placebo (n = 58), 3 times daily for 12 weeks. Measures of BW, BMI and WC, HC, WHR and BF composition were assessed at baseline and once every four weeks during the 12 week treatment period. Results. Of the 117 subjects randomised, 92 were included in the ITT analysis. The weight, BMI and BF in RCM-104 group were reduced by 1.5?kg, 0.6?kg/m2 and 0.9% and those in the placebo group were increased by 0.5?kg, 0.2?kg/m2 and 0.1% respectively. There were significant differences in BW and BMI (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Eleven items of the WLQOQ were significantly improved in the RCM-104 group while only 2 items were significantly improved in the placebo group. Adverse events were minor in both groups. Conclusion. RCM-104 treatment appears to be well tolerated and beneficial in reducing BW and BMI in obese subjects.
Lenon, George Binh; Li, Kang Xiao; Chang, Yung-Hsien; Yang, Angela Weihong; Da Costa, Clifford; Li, Chun Guang; Cohen, Marc; Mann, Neil; Xue, Charlie C. L.
The Chinese herbal medicine, Goshajinki-gan (GJ) (Niu-Che-Sen-Qi-Wan), has been widely used for treating patients with melalgia, lower back pain, numbness, and diabetic neuropathy. We investigated the effects of GJ on the regulation of serum insulin and triglyceride levels in obese Zucker fatty rats (fa/fa; ZFR). We administrated GJ to 6-week-old ZFR and non-obese lean rats (LR) for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased at 18 weeks in ZFR as compared to the LR. GJ treatment in ZFR significantly suppressed elevation in serum glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels, but no significant differences were observed in body weight and serum cholesterol levels in the ZFR group with GJ treatment compared to the ZFR group without GJ treatment. These results suggest that GJ may improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia in ZFR and that GJ may be useful for preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes mellitus in a pre-diabetic state. PMID:23917858
Hirotani, Y; Okumura, K; Yoko, U; Myotoku, M
Berberine is an alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizome. Among the individual herbal components of a Chinese herb medicine, Ching-Wei-San, Coptidis Rhizoma has the most potent antimicrobial activity. By high-pressure liquid chromatography, the quantitative analysis of berberine from 6.25-mg/mL (w/v) Coptidis rhizome extract or 50.00-mg/mL (w/v) Ching-Wei-San was determined to be 0.26 mg/mL. To explore the potential use of Ching-Wei-San against herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, the cytotoxicity, anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity in Vero cells were assayed. The selectivity index of berberine was about 1.2-1.5 times higher than that of Coptidis rhizome extract and Ching-Wei-San. Moreover, the antiviral activities correspond to the content of berberine in the aqueous solution. Berberine may interfere with the viral replication cycle after virus penetration and no later than the viral DNA synthesis step, and its activities were not affected by the preparation processes. Berberine, the natural plants that contain this component, including Coptidis rhizome, and Ching-Wei-San have all shown anti-HSV effects. PMID:20686799
Chin, Lengsu William; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Lin, Shih-Shen; Lai, Ya-Yun; Lin, Long-Yau; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Chi-Chiang
In China, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is widely used as an adjunct to biomedicine (BM) in treating myocardial infarction (MI). This meta-analysis of RCTs evaluated the efficacy of combined CHM-BM in the treatment of MI, compared to BM alone. Sixty-five RCTs (12,022 patients) of moderate quality were identified. 6,036 patients were given CHM plus BM, and 5,986 patients used BM only. Combined results showed clear additional effect of CHM-BM treatment in reducing all-cause mortality (relative risk reduction (RRR) = 37%, 95% CI = 28%–45%, I2 = 0.0%) and mortality of cardiac origin (RRR = 39%, 95% CI = 22%–52%, I2 = 22.8). Benefits remained after random-effect trim and fill adjustment for publication bias (adjusted RRR for all-cause mortality = 29%, 95% CI = 16%–40%; adjusted RRR for cardiac death = 32%, 95% CI = 15%–46%). CHM is also found to be efficacious in lowering the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial reinfarction, heart failure, angina, and occurrence of total heart events. In conclusion, addition of CHM is very likely to be able to improve survival of MI patients who are already receiving BM. Further confirmatory evaluation via large blinded randomized trials is warranted.
Chung, Vincent C. H.; Chen, Mao; Ying, Qin; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Wu, Xin Yin; Ma, Polly H. X.; Ziea, Eric T. C.; Wong, Vivian C. W.; Tang, Jin Ling
Western-trained researchers and clinicians can better understand herbal medicine if they master at least a basic set of essential concepts used by herbal practitioners to describe how herbs work. Constituents, such as carotenoids and flavonoids, can all be used to develop a basis for imputed herb actions. Tissue affinity is also an important concept shared by all herb traditions, which can enhance clinical results and illuminate traditional herbal use. PMID:22432461
Many published studies reflect the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) use in combination with conventional cancer therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with conventional chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Publications in 11 electronic databases were extensively searched, and 24 trials were included for analysis. A sum of 2,109 patients was enrolled in these studies, at which 1,064 patients participated in CT combined CHM and 1,039 in CT (six patients dropped out and were not reported the group enrolled). Compared to using CT alone, CHM combined with CT significantly increase one-year survival rate (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.15–1.60, p?=?0.0003). Besides, the combined therapy significantly increased immediate tumor response (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.19–1.56, p<1.0E?5) and improved Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (RR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.62–5.18, p?=?0.0003). Combined therapy remarkably reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.12–0.50, p?=?0.0001) and prevented the decline of hemoglobin and platelet in patients under CT at toxicity grade of I–IV (RR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.51–0.80, p<0.0001). Moreover, the herbs that are frequently used in NSCLC patients were identified. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjuvant therapy can reduce CT toxicity, prolong survival rate, enhance immediate tumor response, and improve KPS in advanced NSCLC patients. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials in the included studies, further larger scale trials are needed.
Ou-Yang, Chen Sheng; Wang, Xi-Xin; Yang, Zhen-Jiang; Tong, Yao; Cho, William C.S.
This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.
Kim Sooi, Law
Background Rigorous scientific and well-designed clinical trials to evaluate the effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is lacking. We, therefore, designed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of a commonly used TCM preparation in treating acute cough of uncomplicated URTI in adults and to search for a safe, effective and affordable alternative treatment for this common condition. Methods A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-control study comparing this TCM preparation with a placebo was conducted in 82 patients who attended the Family Medicine Training Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong between November and December, 2003. The TCM herbal preparation includes nine commonly used TCM herbs for cough such as chuanbei, fangfeng, jiegeng, gancao and baibu (see Table 1) The treatment lasted for 5 days and patients were followed-up for another 6 days. Patients were asked to fill in a cough score and validated Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ). Table 1 The components of TCM formulary in treating acute cough of uncomplicated URTIs Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae 27.3% Herba Schizonepetae 10.5% Radix Ledebouriellar 10.5% Radix Platycodi 10.5% Radix Glycyrrhizae 4.4% Radix Asteris 10.5% Radix Stemonae 10.5% Rhizoma Cynanchi Stannotonii 10.5% Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae 5.3% Results 62 patients (75.6%) had completed the trial and no adverse effects were reported. Both intervened and control groups had improved in cough score and LCQ in the follow-up period, despite no overall statistical significance was observed in the differences of scores between the two groups. Women taking TCM had significantly fewer problems with sputum production (p = 0.03) and older subjects (>35 years of age) reported a significant improvement in hoarseness (p = 0.05) when compared to those using placebo. Conclusion TCM was well-tolerated and received among the Hong Kong Chinese population. This TCM preparation appeared to have some benefits in the treatment of cough. Future research on TCM should concentrate more on commonly encountered conditions such as UTRI and cough. Our experience on the sensitivity of assessment tools used in detecting subtle differences in an otherwise self-limiting illness and clinical trial methodology when applying the underlying theory of how TCM works in disease management was invaluable.
WCW, Wong; A, Lee; AT, Lam; KT, Li; CYM, Leung; PC, Leung; ELY, Wong; JL, Tang
In this paper, the authors make an analysis of the historical literature during the Red Army period of the agrarian revolution war, dealing with the situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the Red Army. During that time the Red Army had created revolutionary medical hospitals, gathering herbal medicine, growing herbal plants and producing Chinese medicines. At the same time the Red Army paid great attention to enriching Chinese medicine, cultivating practitioners and treating and preventing diseases using traditional Chinese medicine. During the Red Army period there was an extreme lack of medical facilities; traditional Chinese medicine played an important role in ensuring the fighting capabilities of the Red Army units. Looking back at the Red Army period, the development of our tradition can be seen, which enables future development of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as integrated medicine. PMID:22015198
Wang, Fa-wei; Chen, Li-ping; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Gang
It has been shown that ?-amyloid (A?) induced hyperphosphorylation of tau is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s\\u000a disease (AD), and deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) activity is involved in the abnormal tau phosphorylation.\\u000a The cleavage of neuron-specific Cdk5 activator, p35, to p25, mediated by calpain and calcium, deregulates Cdk5 activity and\\u000a promotes neurodegeneration. Fuzhisan (FZS), a Chinese herbal
Zhaoxu ZhangRuiping; Ruiping Zhao; Ying Tang; Shirong Wen; Desheng Wang; Jiping Qi
An increasing number of studies have evaluated the role of herbal supplements in pediatric disorders, but they have numerous limitations. This review provides an overview of herbal components, regulation of supplements, and importance of product quality assurance. Use of herbal supplements is discussed with reference to factors that influence use in the pediatric population. The remainder of the article discusses the use of St John's wort, melatonin, kava, valerian, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, focusing on indications, adverse effects, and drug interactions, and providing a limited efficacy review. Herbal supplements used for weight loss are also briefly discussed. PMID:21281847
Feucht, Cynthia; Patel, Dilip R
To evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on albuminuria levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), we performed comprehensive searches on Medline database, Cochrane Library, CNKI database, CBM database, Wanfang database, and VIP database up to December 2012. A total of 29 trials including 2440 participants with DN met the selection criteria. CHM was tested to be more effective in reducing urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) (MD ?82.95??g/min, [?138.64, ?27.26]) and proteinuria (MD ?565.99?mg/24?h, [?892.41, ?239.57]) compared with placebo. CHM had a greater beneficial effect on reduction of UAER (MD ?13.41??g/min, [?20.63, ?6.19]) and proteinuria (MD ?87.48?mg/24?h, [?142.90, ?32.06]) compared with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Combination therapy with CHM and ACEI/ARB showed significant improvement in UAER (MD ?28.18??g/min, [?44.4, ?11.97]), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (MD ?347.00, [?410.61, ?283.39]), protein-creatinine ratio (MD ?2.49, [?4.02, ?0.96]), and proteinuria (MD ?26.60?mg/24?h, [?26.73, ?26.47]) compared with ACEI/ARB alone. No serious adverse events were reported. CHM seems to be an effective and safe therapy option to treat proteinuric patients with DN, suggesting that further study of CHM in the treatment of DN is warranted in rigorously designed, multicentre, large-scale trials with higher quality worldwide.
Xiao, Ya; Liu, Yanyan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhou, Lin; Bi, Jianlu; Cheng, Jingru; Li, Fei; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan
The Chinese herbal formula consisting of Astragalus membranaceus, Epimedium brevicornum, Paeoniae Alba Radix and Radix Ophiopogonis in proper proportions were adopted in order to investigate the immunoenhancing properties of the herbal formula. Fifty ICR mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (NS- NS+Hy-L+Hy-M+Hy-H+Hy ). The mice in hydrocortisone (Hy) groups were injected with hydrocortisone i.p. to induce the immunosuppressive condition. The mice in group NS were administered with normal saline as controls. The mice in groups NS+Hy-L+Hy-M+Hy-H+Hy were administered with normal saline, low, moderate and high dose of the herbal prescription respectively by gavage for 6 days. The level of serum hemolysin, the function of antibody function cell-AFC-and CD4?/CD8? T cell ratio were measured at the end of experiments. The results showed that the level of serum hemolysin, the function of AFC and CD4?/CD8? T cell ratio in L+Hy-M+Hy-H+Hy groups increased significantly compared with those in NS or NS+Hy groups. These results indicate that Chinese herbal medicine prescription can enhance humoral immunity and cellular immune function of the immunosuppressive mouse. PMID:23983391
Bao, Yongzhan; Jing, Cui; Shi, Wanyu
A World Health Organisation survey indicated that about 70-80% of the world populations rely on non-conventional medicine mainly of herbal sources in their primary healthcare. In recent years, we have witnessed the increasing growth in popularity of over-the-counter (OTC) health foods, nutraceuticals, and medicinal products from plants or other natural sources in developed countries. This indirectly indicates that the public is not satisfied with their orthodox medical (OM) treatment. Such increase in popularity has also brought concerns and fears over the professionalism of practitioners, and quality, efficacy and safety of their treatment methods and products from herbal and natural sources available in the market. Over the past decade several news-catching episodes in developed communities indicated adverse effects, sometimes life threatening, allegedly arisen consequential to taking of OTC herbal products or traditional medicines from various ethnic groups. These OTC products may be contaminated with excessive or banned pesticides, microbial contaminants, heavy metals, chemical toxins, and for adulterated with orthodox drugs. Excessive or banned pesticides, heavy metals and microbial contaminants may be related to the source of these herbal materials, if they are grown under contaminated environment or during collection of these plant materials. Chemical toxins may come from unfavourable or wrong storage conditions or chemical treatment due to storage. The presence of orthodox drugs can be related to unprofessional practice of manufacturers. Some of these environment related factors can be controlled by implementing standard operating procedures (SOP) leading to Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), Good Supply Practice (GSP) and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for producing these medicinal products from herbal or natural sources. The public's belief that herbal and natural products are safer than synthetic medicines can only be ascertained by imposing regulatory standards on these products that should be manufactured using these Good Practices. Using Chinese medicines, as examples, this paper illustrate how advances in chemical and biomedical analysis would help to detect intentional and unintentional toxic contaminants in herbal substances. The paper also summarises how modernization and progress are being carried out to get the best out of Chinese medicines for public healthcare. PMID:12867165
Homeopathy is frequently confused with holistic medicine and with herbal products. The latter is particularly problematic when homeopathic medicines are made from herbs with which they share the same nomenclature. However, homeopathy differs in both toxicity and therapeutic paradigm with important implications for use and future research. The article illustrates this with cases and a review of the history of
Joyce C Frye
More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary\\/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary\\/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador)
Michael Smith; Heather S. Boon
Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients.
Aeginetia indica Linn. (Guan-Jen-Huang, GJH), a traditional Chinese herb, has the potential to be an immunomodulatory agent. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of GJH in the treatment of renal cancer. Concentration-effect curves for the influence of GJH on cellular proliferation showed a biphasic shape. Besides, GJH had a synergistic effect on cytotoxicity when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)which may be due to the alternation of the chemotherapeutic agent resistance-related genes and due to the synergistic effects on apoptosis. In addition, treatment with GJH extract markedly reduced 786-O cell adherence to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and decreased 786-O cell migration and invasion. In a xenograft animal model, GJH extract had an inhibitory effect on tumor cell-induced metastasis. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in 786-O cells was significantly decreased by treatment with GJH extract through inactivation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). These results suggest that GJH extract has a synergistic effect on apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents and an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, providing evidence for the use of water-based extracts of GJH as novel alternative therapeutic agents in the treatment of human renal cancer. PMID:22028734
Liu, Yu-Huei; Li, Meng-Luen; Hsu, Meng-Yu; Pang, Ya-Yueh; Chen, I-Ling; Chen, Ching-Kuei; Tang, Sai-Wen; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lin, Jung-Yaw
Recent advances in neuroscience have revealed a greater, in-depth understanding of the complexities associated with memory. Contemporary theories hold that an integral relationship between memory formation, stabilization and consolidation revolve around plasticity of neuronal networks. The associated requisite receptors ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and cellular mechanisms surrounding plasticity (posed to incite molecular functionality), also display strong correlations in the pathogenesis of dementias. When the brain is in a diseased state as a result of malignant neurotransmission (i.e. in Alzheimer's disease; AD), the homeostatic balance required for normal neuronal processes is disrupted, which leads to degeneration of neural circuitry. Present efforts to find new treatments aimed at reversing or halting neurodegeneration are immense, with increasing attention being placed on investigating various herbal medicines. A wide variety of herbal plants (i.e. Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia, Acorus gramineus and Huperzia serrata, examined here within), extracts and compounds have, to date, already presented advantageous results when tested against known pathogenic markers related to AD-associated dementia. The efficaciousness of herbal medicines appears to be a modulatory effect on neurotrophins, kinases and their substrates that, in turn, initiate or take part in intracellular cascades related to memory processes. PMID:21305632
Jesky, Robert; Hailong, Chen
Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a major threat to public health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. extracts on cell?mediated immunity in a rat model of tuberculosis (TB) induced by multiple drug-resistant bacilli. The bacterium was isolated from patients infected with pulmonary tuberculosis. The immunological response in humans following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis involves a number of cytokines, including IFN-? and IFN-?, which are important for killing intracellular micro-organisms. T helper type 2 (Th2) cells express numerous cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, which mainly participate in humoral immunity and induce the phagocytosis of extracellular bacteria and parasites. In the present study, rats were infected with multiple drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in order to establish an MDR-TB model. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultivated, and the serum levels of IFN-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 were examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression levels of certain cytokines in PBMCs were additionally detected using RT-PCR. The serum levels of IFN-? in the Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. groups were 2.01±0.73, 1.92±0.56, 1.98±0.67 and 1.94±0.59 pg/ml; IL-4 levels were 6.01±1.46, 6.12±1.35, 6.47±1.46 and 6.15±1.44 pg/ml; IL-10 levels were 12.09±3.07, 12.45±4.01, 12.13±3.43 and 12.54±3.78 pg/ml; and IL-12 levels were 2.99±0.89, 2.75±0.84, 3.02±0.86 and 2.89±0.75 pg/ml, respectively. These differences were significant compared with the model group (P<0.05). RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and a significant decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.05). These results indicated that the extracts of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. are capable of enhancing cell?mediated immunity in rats by upregulating the levels of genetic transcription. This may explain the observed therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:23716296
Lu, Jun; Ye, Song; Qin, Rui; Deng, Yun; Li, Chao-Pin
In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention.
Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su
Background Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its “natural” approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Aim To summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. Results JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while Dai-Kenchu-to improves symptoms of post-operative ileus and constipation in children. Conclusions This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional disorders.
Suzuki, Hidekazu; Inadomi, John M.; Hibi, Toshifumi
Aim of the studySinomenine, an alkaloid isolated from the root of Sinomenium acutum, has been used to alleviate the symptoms of rheumatic diseases. Liang Miao San (LMS), composed of the herbs Rhizoma Atractylodis (Cangzhu) and Cotex Phellodendri (Huangbai), is another traditional Chinese medicine formula for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the potential anti-inflammatory activities of sinomenine
Da-Peng Chen; Chun-Kwok Wong; Ping-Chung Leung; Kwok-Pui Fung; Clara Bik-San Lau; Ching-Po Lau; Edmund Kwok-Ming Li; Lai-Shan Tam; Christopher Wai-Kei Lam
A novel ionic liquid-based pressurized liquid extraction (IL-PLE) procedure coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem chemiluminescence (CL) detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of rutin and quercetin in four Chinese medicine plants including Flos sophorae Immaturus, Crateagus pinnatifida Bunge, Hypericum japonicum Thunb and Folium Mori was described in this paper. To avoid environmental pollution and toxicity to the
Hongwei Wu; Meilan Chen; Yunchang Fan; Fawzi Elsebaei; Yan Zhu
Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects.
Background The use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia is very common and many patients consume herbal preparations with conventional drug therapy. Objective The aim of this survey was to evaluate the consumers' awareness of herbal remedies and the safety of herbal dietary supplements, their attitude towards combining herbals and drugs, and the source of recommendations for their use. Setting The study included all consumers who bought herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements in 15 pharmacies on the territory of Novi Sad during 2011 and who accepted to be interviewed. Methods Structured interviews using questionnaire, conducted by pharmacists. The questionnaire included 4 parts: socio-demographic characteristics of consumers, source of recommendations for the use of herbal products, attitude towards safety of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements use and their combination with regular drugs, as well as the question of purchased herbal products. Main outcome measure Consumers' attitude towards the safety and use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements measured by 9 items. Results The majority of interviewed participants were highly educated, aged 41-60 and they consumed herbal remedies on their own initiative or on recommendation of nonmedically educated person, without previous consultation with medical doctor or pharmacist. Out of all participants: 88.9 % did not consider it important to inform their physician or pharmacist about use of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements; 73.3 % found the use of herbal remedies harmless (where 9.4 % did not have any attitude towards that issue), while 40.3 % of participants regarded the combining of herbal and regular drugs unsafe. Conclusion There is a need for consumers' education on reliable use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements, in order to improve their awareness of the limits of herbal remedies safety and potential risks of their combination with drugs. PMID:23820895
Samojlik, Isidora; Mijatovi?, Vesna; Gavari?, Neda; Krstin, Sonja; Božin, Biljana
In this article, the therapeutic uses of five Chinese medicines that contain orchids are discussed, together with a brief report of some of the animal experimentation undertaken. The impression that these preparations have no therapeutic use may be incorrect. However, herbal preparations have not usually been subject to the rigorous characterization and standardization necessary for clinical study, and persuading practitioners that substances in use for many centuries still need to be tested in randomized controlled clinical trials is proving a significant challenge.
Bulpitt, Christopher J; Li, Yan; Bulpitt, Pauline F; Wang, Jiguang
Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing\\u000a diseases, promoting people’s health and corporeity, and enriching people’s restorative culture. In the course of development\\u000a of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different\\u000a historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in
By using data mining techniques, we are• Searching active ingredients (herbs or chemical compounds) in the effective prescriptions of Chinese medicine for specific diseases;• Identifying Chinese medicine material by their \\
Josef Siu-wai Leung
The surgeon aims at a direct, complete removal of the pathology. In spite of the modern advancements of imaging facilities and precision instrumentations, unsatisfactory results and recurrences are not uncommon. This paper provides a general review of the four specific areas in surgery that would benefit from Chinese medicine. Extensive searches were made on four surgical areas based on available English language journals, viz. low-back pain, chronic ulcers, renal calculus, and enuresis in children, in the past 10 years. The quoted communications are mainly related to clinical evidences, while a smaller number of crucial laboratory reports are also included. Low-back pain, a most frequent orthopaedic problem, would benefit from acupuncture treatment. Chronic leg ulcers could achieve better results of healing using herbal supplements. Problems of renal stones, besides the conventional methods of removal, could be further supplemented with herbal drinks that aim at prevention of recurrences. Enuresis in children, an untreatable common condition, may respond well to acupuncture. Surgeons should keep an open mind. In case of difficulties, they could seriously consider options of traditional treatment. PMID:21725883
Leung, Ping-Chung; Biji, Sreedhar; Yeung, Chung-Kwong
The aim of the current study was to systematically assess the effectiveness of herbal medicines in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) testing herbal medicines against any type of control intervention in patients with COPD and assessing clinically relevant outcomes were included. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by at least two reviewers. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Jadad score. Effect sizes and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Fourteen eligible RCTs, testing 14 different herbal medicines, were located. Herbal medicines were compared against placebo or no treatment in six trials. Significant intergroup differences for one or more outcome were reported for several herbal medicines including Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza. In seven RCTs, which compared herbal medicines with other herbal medicines, the results were mixed. A single trial compared a herbal medicine (Hedera helix leaf extract) with a conventional treatment (ambroxol tablet) and reported no significant difference between groups. Due to the heterogeneity of the data, statistical pooling was not performed. The median methodological quality score was 2 out of a possible maximum 5. The effectiveness of herbal medicines for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not established beyond reasonable doubt. Currently, the evidence from randomised clinical trials is scarce and often methodologically weak. Considering the popularity of herbal medicine among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, rigorously designed studies seem warranted. PMID:16880367
Guo, R; Pittler, M H; Ernst, E
China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future.
Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.
We encountered a 66-year-old Chinese man presented with hypokalemic paralysis, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after administration of mixed Chinese herbs. Proximal renal tubular acidosis and selective glucosuria were the main tubular dysfunctions. The renal failure recovered smoothly and rapidly after resuscitation and the tubular function abnormalities regained spontaneously after medicine withdrawal. It should be recognized that renal tubular acidosis with hypokalemic paralysis, rhabdomyolysis and subsequent acute renal failure may develop after taking Chinese mixed herbal medicine. PMID:10088184
Lee, C T; Wu, M S; Lu, K; Hsu, K T
Guizhi-Fuling-Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ameliorates Memory Deficits and Neuronal Apoptosis in the Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemic Rodents via the Decrease of Bax/Bcl2 Ratio and Caspase-3 Expression
Brain neuronal apoptosis and cognitive impairment are associated with hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. The present study determined if the Chinese herbal medicine Guizhi-Fuling-Wan (GFW) would reduce memory loss and neuronal apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced hyperglycemic rodents. Two weeks after STZ induction, GFW was orally administered once daily for 7 days. GFW significantly improved spatial memory deficits in STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice. GFW decreased TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 positive cells in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats. It also was found that GFW treatment reduced caspase-3 protein levels and increased levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 that were indicative of neuroprotection. The protective therapeutic effects of GFW on neuronal apoptosis and cognition deficits caused by STZ-induced hyperglycemia may be due in part to inhibition of the cellular apoptosis pathway. GFW may have therapeutic effects in patients with diabetes-mellitus-induced neuropathology.
Wu, Kuo-Jen; Chen, Yuh-Fung; Tsai, Huei-Yann; Wu, Chi-Rei; Wood, W. Gibson
Objective To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. Design 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Setting Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. Main outcome measure Presence of steroid. Results Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a
F M Keane; S E Munn; N F Taylor; E M Higgins
Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinal plants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined
Pavel Drašar; Jitka Moravcova
Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy.
Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun
Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768
Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun
More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador) commonly used by cancer patients are reviewed here and a list of recommended reference texts is provided. In addition, health care providers are encouraged to initiate discussions about complementary/alternative products and therapies with their patients so that they may help them make safe and informed decisions about these products. Not knowing what patients are taking is definitely a less desirable option. PMID:14528703
Smith, M; Boon, H S
Sulfite was detected in 7 varieties of Oriental herbal medicines (Pueraria radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Platycodon radix, Adenophora radix, Pinellia tuber, Astragalus radix, and Paeonia radix) on the Korean market. Sulfiting of commercial Oriental herbal medicines by fumigation with burning bituminous coal was simulated, and the accumulation of sulfite was investigated by using fresh Platycodon radix roots obtained from a growing field. The sulfite level reached a plateau in 9 h, and the maximum sulfite level found by the Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC 990.28) was 1020 ppm. The sulfite content in the simulated Platycodon radix sample determined by alkali extraction followed by ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection (AOAC 990.31) was approximately 17% lower on average than the MW results. Free-sulfite levels determined by acid extraction and ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection were between 19 and 49% of the MW results. The advantages of different methods for sulfite determination and the significance of the results are discussed. PMID:11048856
Kim, Y K; Koh, E; Park, S Y; Chang, S Y; Park, S J; Na, W I; Kim, H J
Chinese herbal medicines possess the therapeutic potential for mood disorders. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of the herbal medicine called Free and Easy Wanderer Plus (FEWP) as an adjunct to carbamazepine (CBZ) in patients with bipolar disorders. One hundred and twenty-four bipolar depressed and 111 manic patients were randomized to treatment
Zhang-Jin Zhang; Wan-Hu Kang; Qing-Rong Tan; Qiang Li; Cheng-Ge Gao; Feng-Gang Zhang; Huai-Hai Wang; Xian-Cang Ma; Ce Chen; Wei Wang; Li Guo; Ya-Hong Zhang; Xiao-Bo Yang; Guang-De Yang
The study was designed to evaluate the effects of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-zong-yi-qi-tang), which was composed of 10 herbal medicines and had been used for the treatment of oligospermia and as a postoperative medication in Japan, on bone loss in rats treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Female rats at 40 weeks of age were divided
Shinobu Sakamoto; Shuji Sassa; Hideki Kudo; Satoe Suzuki; Tadasu Mitamura; Hisashi Shinoda
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and is mainly characterized by the progressive erosion of cartilage leading to chronic polyarthritis and joint distortion. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease has yet not been elucidated, however, studies suggest that cellular proliferation of synoviocytes result in pannus formation which damages the cartilage and bone. Recent reports also support the role of free radicals in its pathogenesis. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Alternative medicine provides another approach for treatment of RA and currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a novel drug. There is a dire need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential and adverse effects, if any, of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. In this review we have tried to explore various Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi, as also some Chinese and Korean, herbals for their potential to treat RA.
Rathore, Brijesh; Ali Mahdi, Abbas; Nath Paul, Bhola; Narayan Saxena, Prabhu; Kumar Das, Siddharth
Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang (SFYCT), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of 13 medicinal plants, has been used in the treatment of asthma. This study demonstrated the immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT on chronic allergic asthma using the Dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus- (Der p-) challenged chronic asthmatic murine model. SFYCT decreased the airway hyperresponseness (AHR), pulmonary inflammatory cell infiltration, and airway remodeling in Der p mice. SFYCT treatment decreased Der p-induced total IgE and Der-p-specific IgG1 but not IgG2a/2b Ab titer in serum of Der p mice. SFYCT also decreased Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but increased IFN-? and IL-12 in the BALF of Der p mice. TGF-?1 and collagen production in the lung of mice were decreased by SFYCT. The mRNA expression of chemokine including Eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-1 in the lung of Der p mice was decreased by SFYCT. In conclusion, the suppressed Der-p-induced airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperresponseness in chronic asthma murine model are related to SFYCT inhibits Th2 responses, decreases chemokine expression and promotes IFN-? and IL-12 production. SFYCT could show Der-p-induced Th2 responses to Th1 responses by increasing IFN-? which is merit for clinical application on asthma patients.
Lin, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Lin, Li-Jen; Wang, Jen-Shu; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Kao, Shung-Te
The Chinese medicinal herbs Radix Isatidis and Viola yedoensis Makino have been suggested to possess antiviral activity. This study tests whether these and other Chinese and Western herbal medicinal formulas can modulate the immune functions involving virus-suppression in BALB/c mouse. We first confirmed the extract from Viola yedoensis Makino, but not from Radix Isatidis, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Chui-Uren-Chien (CUC), or a Western homeopathic medicinal drink Método Canova, could inhibit the replications of herpes simplex virus-1 and enterovirus 71 in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line. Subsequently, the same herbal extracts and drink underwent toxicity and immunomodulatory tests on mice of 5-7 weeks old. After 8 weeks of feeding different herbal medicinal formulas, no hepatic or renal toxicity was noted in any tested animal; whereas among the immune function evaluations, only the mice treated with CUC extract were found to be associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in both the level of plasma IgG and the percentage of monocyte in blood mononuclear cells as well as the activation of macrophage Raw264.7 cells for nitric oxide production, suggesting its role in modulating the non-specific immune response. Analyses using protein arrays showed CUC was the most potent herbal medicinal formula eliciting fluctuations in plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Taking all experimental data together, we conclude Chui-Uren-Chien possesses immunomodulatory capability in mouse, but none of the herbal medicinal formulas tested here are involved in strengthening antiviral immunity. PMID:20128053
Liao, Hui-Fen; Lu, Min-Chi; Chang, Hon-Chou; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Kao, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Zong-Huei; Huang, Chin-Chin; Li, Ching
Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single compounds with composite formulae or conventional medicines. Action mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis Chinese medicines, clinical application, herbal adverse events and quality control are also reviewed. Evidence indicates that some Chinese medicines are clinically effective on liver fibrosis. Strict quality control such as research to identify and monitor the manufacturing of Chinese medicines enables reliable pharmacological, clinical and in-depth mechanism studies. Further experiments and clinical trials should be carried out on the platforms that conform to international standards.
We examined the action of Shinpi-To (Formula divinita; TJ-85), a granular extract of seven Chinese medicinal herbs that is used in treating childhood asthma, on the leukotriene synthesis in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells (RBL-2H3 cells). IgE-loaded cells were stimulated with anti-IgE serum in the presence or absence of Shinpi-To. Released LTC4 and LTB4 were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Shinpi-To significantly inhibited IgE-mediated synthesis of leukotriene (LT)C4 and LTB4. To identify the inhibitory sites, we investigated the action of this extract on four synthetic enzymes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). LTC4 synthase, and LTA4 hydrolase. Shinpi-To inhibited the A23187-stimulated release of [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) from the cell membrane, reflecting an effect on PLA2 activity. It also suppressed production of LTC4 and LTB4 when cell lysates were incubated with AA as substrate. It did not inhibit the production of LTC4 and LTB4 when LTA4-free acid was used as the substrate. Shinpi-To did not inhibit the IgE-mediated increase of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) concentration. Results indicate that Shinpi-To inhibits LT synthesis by inhibiting PLA2 and 5-LO activities without affecting the mobilization of [Ca2+]i. PMID:9174973
Hamasaki, Y; Kobayashi, I; Hayasaki, R; Zaitu, M; Muro, E; Yamamoto, S; Ichimaru, T; Miyazaki, S
Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (TJ-12) is a traditional Chinese-Japanese medicinal mixture clinically used for the treatment of hypertension and/or atherosclerosis concurrent with neurotic disorders. Study on the effect of TJ-12 on the vasoconstriction of cutaneous arterioles induced by nor-adrenaline (NA) was carried out using a rabbit ear chamber (REC) under conscious conditions. Before and after oral administration of TJ-12 everyday for 2 weeks, the same position of an arteriole within a REC was analyzed using an image shearing monitor every minute up to 15 min after varying doses (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0 micrograms/kg i.v.) of NA. The changes of mean arteriolar diameter and vasomotion amplitude, before and after feeding of TJ-12 (1% w/w) supplemented diet were compared in the same position. Consequently, the pretreatment with TJ-12 significantly attenuated the changes of mean diameter of NA-induced vasoconstriction and also shortened its duration. In addition, concurrent with its cutaneous microcirculatory response, the pretreatment with TJ-12 systemically suppressed the increase of blood pressure under NA-induced vasoconstriction. These results suggest that the anti-pressor effect of TJ-12 might be apparently attributable to the inhibition of NA-induced vasoconstriction. PMID:10586374
Okano, H; Ohkubo, C
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in ‘modern’ CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region.
Objective: Over the last 50 years, there has been a surge of interest by both the public and medical practitioners in therapies and disciplines that are not considered part of mainstream medical care. The title given to these is complementary and alternative medicine. Of all these branches, our interest is the increasing use of herbal medicines, traditional medicines (such as Chinese or Indian), homeopathy and “dietary supplements,” and the influence they may have on our practice. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and reasons for use of complementary and alternative medicines, the current regulations, and proposed policy changes affecting the licensing of these products. In addition, we highlight some of the problems that have been experienced with herbal and traditional medicines. Methods: A prospective analysis of herbal and over the counter medicines used by elective plastic surgery patients. Results: Of 100 elective plastic surgery patients undergoing procedures at St Andrew's Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, 44% of patients were taking a dietary supplement, herbal, or homeopathic remedy. In none of the patients was this documented in the notes by either the surgeon or anesthetist. Conclusions: We recommend that clear documentation of the use of nonprescribed medicines becomes part of standard practice and, furthermore, that patients stop all such medications 2 weeks prior to surgery until the efficacy, interactions, and safety profiles are clearly established.
Collins, Declan; Oakey, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Venkat
Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.
Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance. PMID:24170633
Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue
|Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…
|In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed…
Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita
Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Treatment versus Conventional Treatment Alone in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (5C Trial): An Open-Label Randomized Controlled, Multicenter Study
Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) plus conventional treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results. Participants (n = 808) with ACS who underwent PCI from thirteen hospitals of mainland China were randomized into two groups: CHMs plus conventional treatment group (treatment group) or conventional treatment alone group (control group). All participants received conventional treatment, and participants in treatment group additionally received CHMs for six months. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent MI, and ischemia-driven revascularization. Secondary endpoint was the composite of readmission for ACS, stroke, or congestive heart failure. The safety endpoint involved occurrence of major bleeding events. The incidence of primary endpoint was 2.7% in treatment group versus 6.2% in control group (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.87; P = 0.015). The incidence of secondary endpoint was 3.5% in treatment group versus 8.7% in control group (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.72; P = 0.002). No major bleeding events were observed in any participant. Conclusion. Treatment with CHMs plus conventional treatment further reduced the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with ACS after PCI without increasing risk of major bleeding.
Wang, Shao-Li; Wang, Cheng-Long; Wang, Pei-Li; Xu, Hao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Du, Jian-Peng; Zhang, Da-Wu; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Chang-Geng; Lu, Shu-Zheng; You, Shi-Jie; Ge, Jun-Bo; Li, Tian-Chang; Wang, Xian; Yang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Hong-Xu; Mao, Jing-Yuan; Li, Rui-Jie; Chen, Li-Dian; Lu, Shu; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Chen, Ke-Ji
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.
Herbal medicines are used in health care around the world and may increase in importance. There is much uncertainty, however, with regard to their composition, efficacy and safety. There is substantial evidence that herbal medicines can cause serious adverse reactions, but more data are needed as regard their nature, frequency and preventability. In this respect the Uppsala Monitoring Centre of the World Health Organization can play a crucial role. Better reporting of adverse reactions to herbal medicines is needed, in particular with regard to the precise identity and composition of these products. A consistent use by producers, regulators and reporters of the international Latin binomial nomenclature and the use of the new Herbal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification are recommended. Copyright (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19025809
Farah, M H; Edwards, R; Lindquist, M; Leon, C; Shaw, D
The authors report rhabdomyolysis following the ingestion of weight-loss herbal medicine in an otherwise healthy 54-year-old woman. Three hours after ingestion of the herbal medicine, the patient suffered chest pain that continued for 2 hours and resolved gradually. Laboratory investigation showed the presence of rhabdomyolysis with peak serum creatine kinase (CK) of 1028 IU/L, which gradually decreased and normalized after the herbal medicine was discontinued. The pharmacological effects of the active ingredients of the herbal medicine, ma huang (ephedrine), guarana (active alkaloid caffeine), chitosan, Gymnena sylvestre, Garcinia cambogia (50% hydroxycitric acid), and chromium, are discussed, and similar case reports are reviewed. The elevation of CK in this case is of concern, as it may denote that muscle breakdown may be one of the mechanisms of weight loss in these herbal remedies. Further studies are needed to investigate their effects on muscle bulk or CK. Physicians should be aware of the potential side effects of many herbal medicines. It may be advisable to measure serum CK enzyme for patients who admit using weight-loss herbs. PMID:15201651
Mansi, Ishak A; Huang, Jian
Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide production and iNOS protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat aorta and Raw 264.7 macrophages by ethanol extract of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (RCM101) for allergic rhinitis
Aim of the studyA Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101) has shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the actions and synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). l-Arginine-induced endothelium-independent relaxations were studied in rat isolated aorta which was pre-treated
George Binh Lenon; Chung Guang Li; Charlie Changli Xue; Francis Chung Kong Thien; David Frederick Story
Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed. PMID:20939821
He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F
AIM: To explore the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines (HM) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A computer-based as well as manual literature search was performed. We reviewed randomized controlled trials on the treatment of IBS with and without HM. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies with 25 HMs met the inclusion criteria. Four of these studies were of good quality, while the remaining 18 studies involving 17 Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas were of poor quality. Eight of these reports using 9 HMs showed global improvement of IBS symptoms, 4 studies with 3 HMs were efficacious in diarrhea-predominant IBS, and 2 studies with 2 HMs showed improvement in constipation-predominant IBS. Out of a total of 1279 patients, 15 adverse events in 47 subjects were reported with HM. No serious adverse events or abnormal laboratory tests were observed. The incidence of the adverse events was low (2.97%; 95% CI: 2.04%-3.90%). CONCLUSION: Herbal medicines have therapeutic benefit in IBS, and adverse events are seldom reported in literature. Nevertheless, herbal medicines should be used with caution. It is necessary to conduct rigorous, well-designed clinical trials to evaluate their effectiveness and safety in the treatment of IBS.
Shi, Jun; Tong, Yao; Shen, Jian-Gang; Li, Hai-Xia
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we
Lourdes Rodriguez-Fragoso; Jorge Reyes-Esparza; Scott W. Burchiel; Dea Herrera-Ruiz; Eliseo Torres
The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphisms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community. PMID:22460443
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis is a potentially lethal condition for which there is no proven effective therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hepatic stimulator substance, traditional Chinese herbal medicine, selenium plus vitamin E, and ciprofloxacin treatment on biochemical and histological features of fibrosis in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)\\/ethanol-induced cirrhosis. METHODS: One hundred twenty
M Zhang; G Song; GY Minuk
BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. METHODS: Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies
Titilayo O Fakeye; Rasaq Adisa; Ismail E Musa
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of viewing an individual or patient as a system with different statuses, and has accumulated numerous herbal formulae. The holistic philosophy of TCM shares much with the key ideas of emerging network pharmacology and network biology, and meets the requirements of overcoming complex diseases, such as cancer, in a systematic manner. To discover TCM from a systems perspective and at the molecular level, a novel TCM network pharmacology approach was established by updating the research paradigm from the current "one target, one drug" mode to a new "network target, multi-components" mode. Subsequently, a set of TCM network pharmacology methods were created to prioritize disease-associated genes, to predict the target profiles and pharmacological actions of herbal compounds, to reveal drug-gene-disease co-module associations, to screen synergistic multi-compounds from herbal formulae in a high-throughput manner, and to interpret the combinatorial rules and network regulation effects of herbal formulae. The effectiveness of the network-based methods was demonstrated for the discovery of bioactive compounds and for the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of herbal formulae, such as Qing-Luo-Yin and the Liu-Wei-Di-Huang pill. The studies suggest that the TCM network pharmacology approach provides a new research paradigm for translating TCM from an experience-based medicine to an evidence-based medicine system, which will accelerate TCM drug discovery, and also improve current drug discovery strategies. PMID:23787177
Li, Shao; Zhang, Bo
Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC.
Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang
Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease.
Chinese medicine has been used to treat a variety of cancer-related conditions. This study aims to examine the prevalence and patterns of Chinese medicine usage by cancer patients. We reviewed articles written in English and found only the Chinese medicine usage from the studies on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Seventy four (74) out of 81 articles reported rates of CAM usage ranging from 2.6 to 100%. Acupuncture was reported in 71 out of 81 studies. Other less commonly reported modalities included Qigong (n = 17), Chinese herbal medicine (n = 11), Taichi (n = 10), acupressure (n = 6), moxibustion (n = 2), Chinese dietary therapy (n = 1), Chinese massage (n = 1), cupping (n = 1) and other Chinese medicine modalities (n = 19). This review also found important limitations of the English language articles on CAM usage in cancer patients. Our results show that Chinese medicine, in particular Chinese herbal medicine, is commonly used by cancer patients. Further research is warranted to include studies not written in English.
We examined the effects of two African herbal medicines recommended for HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral metabolism. Extracts from Hypoxis and Sutherlandia showed significant effects on cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism and activated the pregnane X receptor approximately twofold. P-glycoprotein expression was inhibited, with Hypoxis showing 42-51% and Sutherlandia showing 19-31% of activity compared with verapamil. Initiating policies to provide herbal medicines with antiretroviral agents may put patients at risk of treatment failure, viral resistance or drug toxicity. PMID:15627040
Mills, Edward; Foster, Brian C; van Heeswijk, Rolf; Phillips, Elizabeth; Wilson, Kumanan; Leonard, Blair; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Kanfer, Isadore
Herbal medicinal products can cause toxic hepatitis. This case report presents a patient who developed severe toxic hepatitis with beginning liver failure following four weeks of consumption of the herbal medicinal product Cascara Sagrada. A similar case was reported from the United States. Cascara Sagrada is found in 30-40 herbal medicinal products in Denmark. We recommend that herbal medicinal products containing Cascara Sagrada be withdrawn from the market. PMID:19925744
Jacobsen, Claire; Semb, Synne; Kromann-Andersen, Hans
SummaryWhile on student elective from the Dental School of Bristol University, the authors had the chance to study the basic principles of traditional Chinese medicine and to observe the treatment of orofacial disease in a modern general hospital in Shanghai and in a specialist stomatological hospital at Beijing Medical University. The background to traditional herbal medicine and various forms of
F Au; J Cresswell
As a therapeutic class, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a high propensity to interact and many interactions with concomitant medications have been described. Increasingly, herbal medicines are often used by patients with epilepsy and the risk that these may interact with their AED medication is now being realised. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interactions that have been
Cecilie JOHANNESSEN LANDMARK; Philip N. PATSALOS
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese herbal products (CHPs), acupuncture, and traumatology manipulative therapies. TCM physicians often prescribe CHP to treat patients with osteoporosis; however, the drugs used and their patterns of prescriptions have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the CHP used for the treatment of osteoporosis in Taiwan and their prescription patterns. Methods. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was analyzed to evaluate the frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for osteoporosis. Association rules were then applied to evaluate the CHP coprescription patterns and the prevalence of osteoporosis. Results. The osteoporosis cohort included 16?544 patients, of whom more than 70% had used TCM on one or more occasion. Of these patients, 4?292 (25.9%) had been hospitalized at least once because of fracture. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion. This study identified patterns of CHP use for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, further research is required to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of these CHP.
Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung
Abstract English: Over the last few decades, people have increasingly used herbal medicine as an alternative or adjunct to modern drugs. Few of the herbs available to the public have undergone testing for safety, efficacy, or potential interaction with other drugs taken for an ailment. Alt hough herbs are generally safe when used properly, they can be harmful and even
Behjat A. Sharif
Background. Traditional Chinese postpartum care is believed to help in the recovery of women after delivery. Objective. This study investigated the association of elements in dietary and herbal therapy with uterine involution. Methods. Indices of uterine involution were measured ultrasonographically in 127 postpartum women between 4-6 weeks after delivery. A self-reported retrospective questionnaire was used to query women about their frequencies of taking herbal medicines and consuming special diets during the first month after delivery. Correlation coefficients were calculated to identify the associations, then the regression models were used to identify the predictors. Result. Among the herbal medicines and diet, consumption of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) negatively correlated with the AP diameter of the uterus and the cavity. E. ulmoides was also the only predictor of maximum AP diameter of the uterus, AP diameter of the uterus 5 cm from the fundus, and the maximum AP diameter of the cavity. Moreover, consumption of Sheng-hau-tang was significantly correlated with anteverted uterus and was a predictor of anteverted uterus. Conclusion. E. ulmoides and Sheng-hau-tang positively correlated with the degree of uterine involution after delivery, implying that both therapies might possess the pharmacological efficacy of uterine contraction in postpartum women.
Ho, Ming; Li, Tsai-Chung; Su, Shan-Yu
Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195
Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele
Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies. PMID:17111709
Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon
The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.
The use of herbal medicines in the developed world is widespread, and increasing. Herbal medicines, which include a wide spectrum of substances ranging from home-made teas to the national regulatory bodies-approved medicinal substances, are defined as plant-derived products that are used for medicinal and\\/or nutritional purposes. The use of herbal self-therapy is common in pregnancy, with many parturients consuming more
Krzysztof M. Kuczkowski
Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results More than two-third of respondents [67.5%] had used herbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [p < 0.05)] while only geopolitical zones and educational qualifications seemed to have influence on respondents' opinion on the harmful effects of herbal medicines to the fetus [p < 0.05]. Conclusion The study emphasized the wide spread use of herbal medicines by pregnant women in Nigeria highlighting an urgent need for health care practitioners and other health care givers to be aware of this practice and make efforts in obtaining information about herb use during ante-natal care. This will help forestall possible interaction between herbal and conventional medicines.
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed\\/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. METHODS: Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which
Kathryn A Vickers; Kate B Jolly; Sheila M Greenfield
Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task.
Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun
Background The common randomized controlled trial design has distinct limitations when applied to Chinese medicine, because Chinese medicine identifies and treats 'Chinese medicine patterns' rather than diagnosed diseases. Chinese medicine patterns are a group of associated symptoms, tongue appearances and pulse characteristics. These limitations could be overcome by developing new strategies to evaluate the effect of Chinese medicine. The idea behind pattern-based efficacy evaluations may optimize clinical trial design by identifying the responsiveness-related Chinese medicine patterns. Methods/Design This is a two-stage multi-center trial of Chinese herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. The stage one trial is an open-label trial and aims to explore what groups of Chinese medicine information (such as symptoms) correlates with better efficacy, and the stage two trial is a randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial that incorporates the efficacy-related information identified in the stage-one trial into the inclusion criteria. Discussion The indication of a Chinese herbal formula is a specific Chinese medicine pattern and not a single disease and stratifying a disease into several patterns with a group of symptoms is a feasible procedure in clinical trials. This study is the first to investigate whether this approach in the design of Chinese herbal medicine trials can improve responses. Trial registration ChiCTR-TRC-10000989
Twenty-eight herbal medicinal products from Thailand were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing a specific HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 80% (v\\/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with iodine
Wongwiwat Tassaneeyakul; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Supatra Porasuphatana; Josef Bohm
Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities.
Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): Lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development
Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural\\/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from
K. M. Wu; J. G. Farrelly; R. Upton; J. Chen
MEDICINAL herbs are moving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of pe ople seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by sy nthetic chemicals. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to utilize eco-friendly and biofriendly plant-based products for the prevention and cure of different human diseases. Considering the adverse effects of sy nthetic drugs
N. K. Dubey; Rajesh Kumar; Pramila Tr
Objective To investigate the safety of oral administration of Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods The toxicological information of HLXLD and its individual constituent herbs was searched in cintcm or TCMlars (www.cintcm.com), PubMed (MEDLINE), Chinese Herbal Medicine (1999) and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Vol. I—III). Single-dose acute toxicity was assessed by using the highest possible dosage. Motor function test was used to determine whether the herbal formula might cause motor impairment. Nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects, and 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects in rats were also assessed. Results The literature searches showed that HLXLD and its eleven ingredient herbs had no side/adverse effects listed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature. Under the dosages proposed in the formula, the HLXLD formula had no side/adverse effects according to MEDLINE, Chinese Herbal Medicine and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. The studies in rats showed: (1) in single-dose acute toxicity assessment, the maximal feasible single oral dose, 9.20 g/kg HLXLD, showed no significant effect on clinical signs, or body weight and mortality over a 14-day period in rats; (2) during motor function test, nine-day repeat-dose of daily HLXLD treatment at 4.60 g/kg did not cause motor impairment; (3) in nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessment, there were no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes or obvious adverse reactions and signs in complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats (highest observed dosage: 4.60 g/kg), and no noticeable adverse effects were observed during, or 14 days after nine-day treatment at 4.60 g/kg in non-inflamed rats; (4) during 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessments, no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes, no obvious adverse reactions and signs were observed in normal rats administered with HLXLD at a dose of 2.30 g/kg and the values of serum biochemistry and histopathology were in normal range. Conclusion Both existing information and animal data support that Modified HLXLD is a safe herbal product for clinical application.
FAN, Arthur Yin; LAO, Lixing; ZHANG, Rui-xin; ZHOU, An-nan; BERMAN, Brian M.
In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential. PMID:17486320
Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M
Background There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. Methods Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which took place in Cheshire, UK. Eighteen in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with female herbal medicine users aged 18 years and above. Results The large majority did not inform their GPs of their use of herbal medicines. This was due to lack of physician enquiry, perception of importance and fear of a negative response. Several women were not aware that herbal remedies could interact with prescribed or over the counter medicines. Of the women who had experienced adverse effects none had reported them, believing them of low importance. Conclusion The women had little knowledge about herb-drug interactions and rarely disclosed use of herbal medicines to their doctor. Doctors' communication and openness regarding herbal medicines needs to improve and there should be increased access to accurate information on herbal medicines in the public and health care domain.
Vickers, Kathryn A; Jolly, Kate B; Greenfield, Sheila M
Many Chinese herbs and herbal mixtures are fed to domestic animals for their reputed medicinal properties. These herbs could contribute to the intake of essential nutrients and toxic metals, but their composition is mostly unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure major nutrient (crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, fibre) and mineral (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, S, Al, Cd, Ni, Pb) concentrations in samples of fourteen combination formulas labelled for veterinary use and commonly administered to horses and dogs. Three single herbs, Bupleurum chinense, Curcuma zedoaria and Astragalus membranaceus, each obtained from several sources, and Yunnan Baiyao, a proprietary hemostatic mixture, were also analysed. Proximate analyses and some mineral concentrations differed (p?0.05) among single herbs, and high concentrations of several minerals were detected in some herbal combinations. Those containing the highest concentrations [g/kg dry matter (DM)] of calcium (92.4), iron (2.6) and manganese (0.28) could provide >38%, 142% and 96%, respectively, of recommended allowances in adult dogs, and >13%, 122% and 2%, respectively, of maintenance requirements in horses, at the maximum labelled dose assuming complete availability. Concentrations of cadmium, nickel and lead were below published oral tolerance levels. Aluminium concentrations (median 380, maximum 920?mg/kg DM) were higher than has been previously reported in Chinese herbs. These nutrient analyses suggest that herbal combinations marketed to veterinarians, when fed at the maximal labelled dose, are unlikely to produce clinically relevant changes in the dietary intake of essential nutrients. However, small amounts of non-essential contaminant minerals are present in some formulas, and further research is necessary to understand the significance of this finding. PMID:22289051
Shmalberg, J; Hill, R C; Scott, K C
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative\\/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have
Jean-San Chia; Jia-Ling Du; Wei-Bin Hsu; Andy Sun; Chun-Pin Chiang; Won-Bo Wang
Background: The use of herbal and alternative medical therapies has been increasing rapidly across the United States over the past 10 years. Women of reproductive age often are users of herbs. The use of herbal and alternative medical therapies among pregnant women is important but poorly studied to date.Objective: To determine the frequency of use of herbal and alternative medicine
Paul S. Gibson; Raymond Powrie; Jami Star
The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374
Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna
Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is a time-honored tonic food and herbal medicine in China, where recent research has shown that many of its traditional uses may be viewed from the basis of pharmacological activities. The ongoing exploration of C. sinensis in its wild form and cultured, fermented mycelial products derived from it, are reviewed from English and Chinese literature. Part II concludes the series with a review of C. sinensis in preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, and open-label and double-blinded clinical trials on the respiratory, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, immunologic, and nervous systems, and its effects on cancer, glucose metabolism, inflammatory conditions, and toxicological studies. In Part I, which appeared in the Fall 1998 issue of this journal (4(3):289-303), we discussed the effects of C. sinensis on antisenescence, endocrine and sexual functions, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and free radicals. PMID:9884180
Zhu, J S; Halpern, G M; Jones, K
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119
Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay
About half of all cancer patients show a syndrome of cachexia, characterized by anorexia and loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Numerous cytokines have been postulated to play a role in the etiology of cancer cachexia. Cytokines can elicit effects that mimic leptin signaling and suppress orexigenic ghrelin and neuropeptide Y signaling, inducing sustained anorexia and cachexia not accompanied by the usual compensatory response. Furthermore, cytokines have been implicated in the induction of cancer-related muscle wasting. In particular, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma have been implicated in the induction of cancer-related muscle wasting. Cytokine-induced skeletal muscle wasting is probably a multifactorial process, which involves a depression in protein synthesis, an increase in protein degradation or a combination of both. Cancer patients suffer from the reduction in physical function, tolerance to anti-cancer therapy and survival, while many effective chemotherapeutic agents for cancer are burdened by toxicities that can reduce patient's quality of life or hinder their effective use. Herbal medicines have been widely used to help improve such conditions. Recent studies have shown that herbal medicines such as rikkunshito enhance ghrelin signaling and consequently improve nausea, appetite loss and cachexia associated with cancer or cancer chemotherapy, which worsens the quality of life and life expectancy of the patients. The multicomponent herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple sites could be useful for future drug discovery. Mechanistic studies and identification of active compounds could lead to new discoveries in biological and biomedical sciences. PMID:23737606
Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Nakamura, Norifumi; Inui, Akio
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a
Della A Forster; Angela Denning; Gemma Wills; Melissa Bolger; Elizabeth McCarthy
Herbal medicine is widely applied for clinical use in East Asia and other countries. However, unclear correlation between its complex chemical composition and bioactivity prevents its application in the West. In the present study, a stepwise causal adjacent relationship discovery algorithm has been developed to study correlation between composition and bioactivity of herbal medicine and identify active components from the
Yiyu Cheng; Yi Wang; Xuewei Wang
Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care.
Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.
Scientific studies to investigate Chinese medicine with Western medicine have been generating a large amount of data to be shared preferably under a global data standard. This article provides an overview of Semantic Web and identifies some representative Semantic Web applications in Chinese medicine. Semantic Web is proposed as a standard for representing Chinese medicine data and facilitating their integration with Western medicine data.
The deep indexed China Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Patent Database was established by the State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) of PR China. The purpose of creating this database was mainly to meet the need of patent examination. The database has already been put to use in the patent examination department in SIPO since April 2002.The Chinese version of the database
Yanhuai Liu; Yanling Sun
\\u000a For millennia, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners have treated cancer with Chinese medicinal herbs (CMHs), which\\u000a continue to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy in contemporary oncologic care in Asia.\\u000a Recent advances in biochemistry and immunology have allowed discovery of the biologically active components of CMH and the\\u000a mechanisms of their anti-cancer activities. This chapter provides an
Peter Dorsher; Zengfu Peng
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the world s oldest medical systems, having a history of several thousands of years. It is a system of healing based upon the Chinese philosophy of the correspondence between nature and human beings. Its theories refer to yin and yang, the Five Elements, zang-fu, channels-collaterals, qi, blood, body fluid, methods of diagnosis, the
CHEN KEJI; XU HAO
The holistic system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is reflected by the integrity of the ingredients contained in herbal medicines, which creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards for raw materials and the standardization of finished herbal drugs because no single component contributes to the total efficacy. Thus, the chromatographic fingerprinting technique of TCM has proved to be a comprehensive strategy for assessing the intact quality of herbal medicine, since the origin of the herbal medicines could be identified and classified based on so-called phytoequivalence. On the other hand, chromatographic fingerprinting is essentially a high-throughput technique and an integral tool to explore the complexity of herbal medicines. In order to further control the comprehensive quality of TCMs, some strategies are proposed to trace the chemical changes of chromatographic fingerprints both in product processing and/or after their administration by modern chromatographic techniques and chemometrics. Combined with the techniques developed in systems biology, it seems also possible to reveal the working mechanism of TCMs and to further control their intrinsic quality. PMID:22273377
Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Wei-Ping
The present study estimated in vitro antioxidant activities of 68 common Chinese herbals both for medical and food uses, using Folin–Ciocalteu, ferric-reducing\\/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assays. The results showed different extraction had various antioxidant properties. Six plant materials including Chinese White Olive, Clove, Pricklyash Peel, Villous Amomum Fruit, Chinese Star Anise and Pagodatree Flower appeared highest total
Haiying Liu; Nongxue Qiu; Huihuang Ding; Ruiqi Yao
An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157
Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R
Herbal medicines are used widely in the United States, and according to a recent survey, the majority of people who use herbal medicines do not inform their physicians about their use. Herbal medicines can cause abnormal test results and confusion in proper diagnosis. Herbal medicines can alter test results by direct interference with certain immunoassays. Drugherb interactions can result in unexpected concentrations of therapeutic drugs. For example, low concentrations of several drugs (e.g., cyclosporine, theophylline, digoxin) can be observed in patients who initiated self-medication with St John's wort. Herbal medicines can alter physiology, and these changes can be reflected in abnormal test results. For example, kavakava can cause drug-induced hepatitis, leading to unexpected high concentrations of liver enzymes. Use of toxic herbal products such as ma huang (an ephedra-containing herbal product), Chan Su, and comfrey may cause death. Other toxic effects of herbal medicines include cardiovascular toxic effects, hematologic toxic effects, neurotoxic effects, nephrotoxic effects, carcinogenic effects, and allergic reactions. PMID:12866383
Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488
Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der
Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers.
Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der
Chinese medicine is among other traditional medical systems practiced either as a coadjutant intervention to Greek medicine or as the unique therapeutic intervention for illness prevention, treatment or rehabilitation. The complete spectrum from that traditional system includes acupuncture and moxibustion, herbal and food therapy, massage therapy (tuina), physical exercises (taijiquan), and breathing exercises (qigong). In this article, it is presented several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews on the application of all therapeutic modalities from Chinese medicine in the physical rehabilitation scenario. The discussed studies encompasses both "positive" and "negative" results of Chinese medicine intervention for disabilities due to illnesses of the nervous, musculoskeletal or cardiovascular systems. Additionally, the importance of the personalized approach for Chinese medicine and rehabilitation is emphasized together with the need for reproducible methods for pattern differentiation and intervention selection. Chinese medicine resources are recognized as promising methods for therapeutic rehabilitation and can be incorporated into the rehabilitation science. The wide variety of therapeutic resources explains why Chinese medicine is currently a multidisciplinary practice for health protection and promotion, early diagnosis and treatment as well as rehabilitation with roles in the public health care system. PMID:23504579
de Sá Ferreira, Arthur
Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property.
Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property. PMID:21854570
Wang, Xinsheng; Tian, Jiaher; Chan, Albert Wai-Kit
Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of combined acupuncture and herbal medicine based on Prof. QIN Liang-fu's experience\\u000a in treating chronic gastritis.Methods: Ninety chronic gastritis patients were randomly divided into acupuncture, herbal medicine and acupuncture plus herbal medicine\\u000a groups. The clinical effects were evaluated after 6 months.Results: After 6 months, the clinical effect was better in the acupuncture plus herbal
Hong Yu-fang; Li Hong-hong; Qin Liang-fu
Methylephedrine is generally harmless and is contained in many cough and cold preparations. Likewise, Chinese herbal drugs are considered to be effective and to have few side effects. A 32-year-old woman experienced ischemic stroke attributed to concomitant administration of a cough and cold preparation containing methylephedrine and a supplement containing Chinese herbal drugs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute infarctions bilaterally in the cerebellum. Conventional angiography and magnetic resonance angiography showed transient stenosis of the left vertebral artery. These findings suggested vasospasm or dissection, presumably related to hypertension and/or angiitis or vasoconstriction of large cerebral arteries leading to local thrombosis as a result of stasis and sympathomimetic-induced platelet activation. Combining methylephedrine and Chinese herbal drugs might carry a risk of stroke. PMID:20154441
Imai, Noboru; Yagi, Nobuyasu; Konishi, Takashi; Serizawa, Masahiro; Kobari, Masahiro
Background: A large proportion of cancer patients are estimated to use herbal medicines, but data to substantiate this are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of herbal medicine use among cancer patients in the West Midlands, and determine the characteristics predicting herbal medicine use. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of oncology patients (n=1498) being followed up at a hospital in Coventry was undertaken. Recipients were asked about herbal medicine use since their cancer diagnosis, and the association between sociodemographic and cancer-related characteristics and herbal medicine use was evaluated. Results: A total of 1134 responses were received (75.7%). The prevalence of herbal medicine use was 19.7% (95% CI: 17.4–22.1; n=223). Users were more likely to be affluent, female, and aged under 50 years. Usage increased with time since cancer diagnosis (X2 for trend=4.63; P=0.031). A validation data set, derived from a survey of oncology patients in Birmingham (n=541) with differing socioeconomic characteristics showed no significant difference in estimated prevalence (16.6% 95% CI: 11.9–22.2). Conclusion: A substantial number of people with cancer are likely to be taking herbal medicines. Understanding the self-medication behaviours of these individuals is essential if health-care professionals are to support treatment adherence and avoid unwanted pharmacological interactions.
Damery, S; Gratus, C; Grieve, R; Warmington, S; Jones, J; Routledge, P; Greenfield, S; Dowswell, G; Sherriff, J; Wilson, S
Herbal medicines play an important role in modern human life and have significant effects on treating diseases; however, the quality and safety of these herbal products has now become a serious issue due to increasing pollution in air, water, soil, etc. The present study proposes Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) along with the statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) to identify and discriminate herbal medicines for quality control. Herbal plants have been characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. Characteristic peaks (strong and weak) have been marked for each herbal sample in the fingerprint region (400-2000 cm(-1)). The ratio of the areas of any two marked characteristic peaks was found to be nearly consistent for the same plant from different regions, and thus the present idea suggests an additional discrimination method for herbal medicines. PCA clusters herbal medicines into different groups, clearly showing that this method can adequately discriminate different herbal medicines using FTIR data. Toxic metal contents (Cd, Pb, Cr, and As) have been determined and the results compared with the higher permissible daily intake limit of heavy metals proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:20645829
Singh, Sunil Kumar; Jha, Sunil Kumar; Chaudhary, Anand; Yadava, R D S; Rai, S B
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
Fuscoporia obliqua is a kind of mushroom growing on silver birch. In northern terrains of Asia, Fuscoporia has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for a long period. However, its therapeutic actions were little studied until recently. Scientific research has now begun on the biological function and mechanism of action of Fuscoporia extracts. This study reveals Fuscoporia active compounds,
Tomiyasu Koyama; Yeunhwa Gu; Akira Taka
All branches of mature practical technologies of both Eastern and Western ancient cultures, such as astronomy, geography, calendar, agriculture, architectonics, medicine, and so on, possess their own scientific connotation, which were derived from gradual accumulation and repeated validation of practical experiences. The ancient Greek medicine has the advantage of easily receiving scientific 'baptism' (reformation). The ontology and logics in ancient Greek philosophy, served as the epistemological and methodological bases, could effectively promote the development of science. Therefore, following the rapid progress of natural sciences since the Renaissance of the West world, the ancient Greek medicine rationally received the scientific "baptism" and gradually transformed into "modern medicine". In recent years, an upsurge to study and reappraise the works of Galen, an outstanding doctor and philosopher of Roman Empire, was evoked to discover and illuminate the practical and historical values of ancient Greek medicine. In ancient times, the medical theories and clinical practice of both Greek medicine and Chinese medicine were quite similar to each other, and they separately produced particular merits of themselves. However, owe to lack in the support of natural philosophy in ancient China, the progress of Chinese medicine, with its original native qualities for thousands of years only showed increase of clinical experiences, rather than scientific reformation of its essences. Therefore, Chinese medicine should also receive scientific "baptism" as Greek medicine. Ebb tide and see the real gold. The valuable medical experiences of Chinese medicine can be picked up for wide application, and its great historical achievements can be revealed for later pondering. PMID:23173244
This paper reports a critical review of 27 herbal medicines and formulas in treating a broad range of psychiatric disorders (in addition to anxiety and depression), including obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar depressive, psychotic, phobic and somatoform disorders. Ovid Medline, Pubmed and the Cochrane Library were searched for pharmacological and clinical evidence of herbal medicines with psychotropic activity. A forward search of later citations was also conducted. Whilst substantial high-quality evidence exists for the use of kava and St John's wort in the treatment of anxiety and depression respectively, currently there is insufficient robust clinical evidence for the use of many other herbal medicines in psychiatric disorders. Phytotherapies which potentially have significant use in psychiatry, and urgently require more research are Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for depression; Passiflora incarnata (passionflower), Scutellaria lateriflora (scullcap) and Zizyphus jujuba (sour date) for anxiety disorders; and Piper methysticum (kava) for phobic, panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders. While depression and anxiety are commonly researched, the efficacy of herbal medicines in other mental disorders requires attention. The review addresses current issues in herbal psychotherapy: herbal safety, future areas of application, the relationship of herbal medicine with pharmaceuticals and the potential prescriptive integration of phytomedicines with synthetic psychotropic medicines. Particular attention is given to clinical and safety issues with St John's wort and kava. PMID:17562566
Dendritic cells (DCs) have a major role in regulating immune responses, including tumor immunity and peripheral tolerance. In the present study, we identified novel functions of herbal medicines in DCs by screening 99 herbal medicines, most of which are among the 210 Chinese medicines approved by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Japan. Ethanol extracts were prepared, and a murine epidermal-derived Langerhans cell line, XS106, was used to screen the 99 extracts by analyzing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression. Amomi Semen (amomum seed), Polyporus (polyporus sclerotium), and Plantaginis Semen (plantago seed) potently activated XS106 and were selected for further analysis. The effects of these extracts on bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) generated in vitro were then analyzed using surface phenotype (MHC class II, CD80, and CD86) and interleukin (IL)-12p70 production as indicators. BM-DCs treated with Amomi Semen extract exhibited activated phenotypes and secreted IL-12p70. The activation level was similar to that induced by lipopolysaccharides. Finally, an E.G7-OVA tumor model (E.L4-OVA transfectant) was used to examine the anti-tumor effects of Amomi Semen extract. Vaccination of mice with a subcutaneous injection of BM-DCs treated with Amomi Semen extract and OVA peptide significantly inhibited the growth of tumor cells and prolonged survival time compared to controls. Furthermore, therapeutic effects were observed on established tumors. The inhibition rates for both the prophylactic and therapeutic protocols were comparable to those of lipopolysaccharides. These results indicate that Amomi Semen extract potently activate DCs and is potentially useful for DC vaccination. PMID:18037790
Fukui, Hajime; Mitsui, Seika; Harima, Nobue; Nose, Mitsuhiko; Tsujimura, Kunio; Mizukami, Hajime; Morita, Akimichi
A number of herbal medicines are increasingly used by cancer patients worldwide, despite the fact that the clinical evidence that supports their use to fight cancer is weak or lacking. Pharmacokinetic studies have been integrated into modern drug development, but they are generally not needed for herbal remedies. To update our knowledge in this field, this paper highlights the pharmacokinetic properties of anticancer herbal medicines and the clinical relevance. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase ((all from inception to May 2011). An extensive literature search indicatesthat there are limited data on the pharmacokinetic properties of anticancer herbal medicines in humans. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of anticancer herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal medicines including curcumin, ginseng, ginkgo, ginger and milk thistle. For an anticancer herbal medicine, the pharmacological activity is gained when the active agents or the active metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and pharmacokinetic processes of active herbal components in the body determine their target-site concentrations and thus the anticancer effect. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of anticancer herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of anticancer herbal remedies, further studies to explore their pharmacokinetic properties and the relevance to pharmacodynamics and toxicity in humans are certainly warranted. PMID:21671861
Chen, X-W; Sneed, K B; Zhou, S-F
The widespread availability and use of herbal medicines raise the potential for adverse effects in the epilepsy population. Herbal sedatives (kava, valerian, chamomile, passionflower) may potentiate the effects of antiepileptic medications, increasing their sedative and cognitive effects. Despite some antiseizure effects in animal models, they should not be used in place of standard seizure medications because efficacy has not been
Issues concerning the past and future development of medicinal herbs from Chinese medicine (CM) are addressed in this paper. In the Western world, medicinal herbs are becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. In contrast to their regulated status in China and other countries, herbal medicines are regarded as dietary supplements in the US. Accordingly, research must continue worldwide to identify and improve the efficacy of the active principals of herbs both singly and in combination -- from active ingredients, active fractions, and active herbal formulations. While Western medicine currently employs pure, single compounds, either natural or synthetic, CM has long used multiple combinations of compounds in the form of processed natural products, primarily medicinal herbs, to treat and relieve the symptoms of many different human diseases. CM may have fewer and less severe side effects than single pure drugs, making CM especially attractive to the consumer. In effect, CM's focus on combination therapy does serve both ancient and modern theories. However, research using modern analytical and chemical techniques is needed to ensure efficacy and safety, to provide qualitative and quantitative analyses for dietary supplements, and to develop new, effective and safe world-class drugs. Drug design is an iterative process. Bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation identify active natural compounds from single herbs or formulations. These lead structures can be chemically modified and improved through knowledge of structure--activity relationship, mechanism of action, drug metabolism, molecular modelling and combinatorial chemistry studies. Finally, efficacy and toxicity determination as well as clinical trials can contribute to the generation of new drugs from CM. To continue the legacy of CM, as well as the worldwide uses of other medicinal herbs, continued investigation of active formulations, bioactive fractions, and isolated compounds is critical to drug development in the 21st century. PMID:11276300
Lee, K H
Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are used in a variety of oral and topical forms for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to update a previous systematic review published in 2000. We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CISCOM, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane registers) to June 2007, unrestricted by date or language, and included randomized controlled trials that compared HMPs with inert (placebo) or active controls in patients with osteoarthritis. Five reviewers contributed to data extraction. Disagreements were discussed and resolved by consensus with reference to Cochrane guidelines and advice from the Cochrane Collaboration.Thirty-five studies (30 studies identified for this review update, and 5 studies included in the original review) evaluating the effectiveness of 22 HMPs were included. However, due to differing HMPs, interventions, comparators, and outcome measures, meta-analysis was restricted to data from studies of three HMPs: topical capsaicin, avocado-soybean unsaponifiables, and the Chinese herbal mixture SKI306X showed benefit in the alleviation of osteoarthritic pain.Several studies investigating products from devil's claw, and a powder from rose hip and seed, reported favorable effects on osteoarthritic pain, whereas two studies of a willow bark extract returned disparate results. Three studies of Phytodolor N(R) were of limited use because doses and measures were inconsistent among trials. The remaining single studies for each HMP provided moderate evidence of effectiveness. No serious side effects were reported with any herbal intervention.Despite some evidence, the effectiveness of none of the HMPs is proven beyond doubt. The obvious potential benefits of HMPs in the treatment of osteoarthritis are reduced reliance on synthetic medications with the associated risks of harmful adverse events, but further clinical trials are necessary before HMPs can be adopted in osteoarthritis treatment guidelines. PMID:19856319
Cameron, Melainie; Gagnier, Joel J; Little, Christine V; Parsons, Tessa J; Blümle, Anette; Chrubasik, Sigrun
Analysis of the residues of 20 organochlorine pesticides in Herba epimedii, a Chinese herbal medicine, by solid-phase extraction with gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.
A multiresidue analytical method has been developed to simultaneously determine the residues of 20 organochlorine pesticides in Herba epimedii, a traditional Chinese medicine. The 20 pesticides are included in the list of regulated substances by the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department in Hong Kong. The method consists of solid-phase extraction for cleanup of samples and GC coupled on-line with negative chemical ion-MS to analyze the target pesticides. The chromatographic separation of the compounds was carried out on a DB-1701 column by using an optimal temperature program, and the quantitative analysis was conducted by selected ion monitoring. The LOD and LOQ values fell in the range of 0.0555-5.8821 and 0.1241-17.9333 ng/g, respectively. The average recoveries were between 75.4 and 90.7% (n=5) for the 20 organochlorine pesticides. The developed method proved to be reliable and accurate, and permits rapid determination of the 20 organochlorine pesticides in one run. PMID:20334191
Guo, Qing; Deng, Ming; Yu, Boyang; Tan, Li
... Medicine . 1998;4(1):17–27. Eisenberg DM, Cohen MH, Hrbek A, et al. Credentialing complementary and alternative medical providers . Annals of Internal Medicine . 2002;137(12):965–973. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Acupuncture: An Introduction . ...
1. A total of 720 female broiler chicks was used to test the effects of 4 dietary concentrations of a Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulation (0·25, 0·5, 1 and 2?g\\/kg), as an alternative for virginiamycin (VRG), on growth performance in broilers.2. A total of 72 birds from non-supplemented, VRG and 0·5?g\\/kg CHM groups was selected and killed and the relative
F. C. Guo; R. P. Kwakkel; J. Soede; B. A. Williams; M. W. A. Verstegen
Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM.
The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among women with endometriosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM among women with endometriosis in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of service, and the Chinese herbal products prescribed for endometriosis, among endometriosis patients, were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 90.8% (N = 12, 788) of reproductive age women with endometriosis utilized TCM and 25.2% of them sought TCM with the intention of treating their endometriosis-related symptoms. Apart from the usage of either analgesics or more than one type of medical treatment, the odds of using TCM and Western medicine were similar in all types of conventional endometriosis treatment. However, endometriosis patients suffering from symptoms associated with endometriosis were more likely to seek TCM treatment than those with no symptoms. There were 21,056 TCM visits due to endometriosis and its related symptoms, of which more than 98% were treated with Chinese herbal products (CHPs). Conclusion. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) containing sedative and anti-inflammatory agents is the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula mainly for the treatment of endometriosis-related symptomatic discomfort and the effects of these TCMs should be taken into account by healthcare providers.
Fang, Ruei-Chi; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Yeh, Chia-Hao; Wu, Chien-Tung
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among women with endometriosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM among women with endometriosis in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of service, and the Chinese herbal products prescribed for endometriosis, among endometriosis patients, were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 90.8% (N = 12, 788) of reproductive age women with endometriosis utilized TCM and 25.2% of them sought TCM with the intention of treating their endometriosis-related symptoms. Apart from the usage of either analgesics or more than one type of medical treatment, the odds of using TCM and Western medicine were similar in all types of conventional endometriosis treatment. However, endometriosis patients suffering from symptoms associated with endometriosis were more likely to seek TCM treatment than those with no symptoms. There were 21,056 TCM visits due to endometriosis and its related symptoms, of which more than 98% were treated with Chinese herbal products (CHPs). Conclusion. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) containing sedative and anti-inflammatory agents is the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula mainly for the treatment of endometriosis-related symptomatic discomfort and the effects of these TCMs should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:23056141
Fang, Ruei-Chi; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Yeh, Chia-Hao; Wu, Chien-Tung
Liver fibrosis is a common cause of chronic failure of liver function, which is characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation and disruption of normal tissue architecture. Liver fibrosis-dependent mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis have drawn much attention. Herbal medicines are one of the strategies against liver fibrosis and a way to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Herbal medicines are usually used as official drugs in China, Japan and other parts of Asia. In this review, we retrieved and summarized current progress of anti-liver fibrosis candidates in USA, European and worldwide patents of herbal medicines in recent ten years. The pure compounds, fractions in single herbs and composite formulae were analyzed and discussed. The results indicated that herbal medicinal products can have potential on antiliver fibrosis. Further studies should focus on the structure modification of natural compound by computer-assisted drug design, quality control by acceptable worldwide guidelines, and mechanisms of action, drug metabolism and translational research. PMID:22594662
Wang, Xuan-bin; Feng, Yibin; Wang, Ning; Cheung, Fan; Wong, Chi-woon
Ulcerative colitis (UC) has been treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for literally thousands of years. This paper gives an overview of TCM in the management of UC, provides an account of the state of the evidence, identifies gaps in the research base, and makes recommendations for future research. TCM is based on patterns and this influences the selection of the type of herbal medication or manipulation technique used for treatment. The majority of clinical studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture in the treatment of UC have methodological shortcomings. The extent of heterogeneity in many of these clinical trials, poor design quality of past studies prevent meaningful systematic reviews (SRs) or meta-analysis, although there are positive signs that TCM may be useful in relieving abdominal pain and reducing inflammation. Many unknowns still exist, including the active ingredients within Chinese herbal medicine and the potential for interaction with other drugs or western medications. While there may be a potential role for utilizing TCM in the treatment of UC patients relying on both traditional concepts and modern developments, it should be recognized that there are no studies that irrefutably support the use of TCM in the treatment of UC. Further basic or translational research must be done to elucidate mechanisms of action of these agents, and well-designed and well-conducted clinical studies must also be done to determine efficacy and safety of these agents. PMID:22669756
Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping
Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research. PMID:24063783
Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Xue, Chun-Miao; Zhang, Bing
Selecting the right tool to answer herbal product questions is essential for medical and information professionals. This study's objective was to compare and evaluate the four most-used alternative medicine databases in terms of adverse reactions, therapeutic use, interactions, and dosage of specific herbal products. MICROMEDEX (AltMedDex and POISINDEX), The Review of Natural Products (eFacts), Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural
Mariana Lapidus; Irena Bond
Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databases from their inception to November 2011. We bibliometrically analyzed the included studies and assessed the reporting quality. Results A total of 2964 reports (involving 253,434 cancer patients) including 2385 randomized controlled trials and 579 non-randomized controlled studies were included. The top seven cancer types treated were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer by both study numbers and case numbers. The majority of studies (72%) applied TCM therapy combined with conventional treatment, whilst fewer (28%) applied only TCM therapy in the experimental groups. Herbal medicine was the most frequently applied TCM therapy (2677 studies, 90.32%). The most frequently reported outcome was clinical symptom improvement (1667 studies, 56.24%) followed by biomarker indices (1270 studies, 42.85%), quality of life (1129 studies, 38.09%), chemo/radiotherapy induced side effects (1094 studies, 36.91%), tumor size (869 studies, 29.32%) and safety (547 studies, 18.45%). Completeness and adequacy of reporting appeared to improve with time. Conclusions Data from controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies in cancer treatment is substantial, and different therapies are applied either as monotherapy or in combination with conventional medicine. Reporting of controlled clinical studies should be improved based on the CONSORT and TREND Statements in future. Further studies should address the most frequently used TCM therapy for common cancers and outcome measures should address survival, relapse/metastasis and quality of life.
Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan
To assess the effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) [Chinese herbal medicine ointment (CHMO), acupuncture and moxibustion] on pressure ulcer. In this study, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTER, CBM, CNKI, WAN FANG and VIP for articles published from database inception up to 4 April 2011. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the effects of TCM with other interventions. We assessed the methodological quality of these trials using Cochrane risk of bias criteria. Ten of 565 potentially relevant trails that enrolled a total of 893 patients met our inclusion criteria. All the included RCTs only used CHMO intervention, because acupuncture and moxibustion trials failed to meet the inclusive criteria. A meta-analysis showed beneficial effects of CHMO for pressure ulcer compared with other treatments on the total effective rate [risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·20-1·36; P = 0·53; I(2) = 0%), curative ratio (RR: 2·02; 95% CI: 1·73-2·35; P = 0·11; I(2) = 37%) and inefficiency rate (RR: 0·16; 95% CI: 0·02-0·80; P = 0·84; I(2) = 0%). However, the funnel plot indicated that there was publication bias in this study. The evidence that CHMO is effective for pressure ulcer is encouraging, but due to several caveats, not conclusive. Therefore, more rigorous studies seem warranted. PMID:22512889
Zhang, Qin-Hong; Sun, Zhong-Ren; Yue, Jin-Huan; Ren, Xue; Qiu, Li-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Lin; Du, Wei
The experimental knowledge on efficacy, possible modes of action and aspects of application of Chinese herbs as feed additives for animal production are reviewed in this article. Chinese herbs commonly contain protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, and mineral which are necessary nutrients to the growth of animal. Polysaccharide, organic acid, alkaloids, and essential oils involved in Chinese herbs can improve the
Hua-wei LIU; Jian-ming TONG; Dao-wei ZHOU
In order to study the effect of Unkeito (Chinese name, Wen-Jan-Tang), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its components on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) and LH release, the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) alone or the pituitary alone or the pituitary in sequence with the MBH from normal female rats in diestrus was perifused in a sequential double-chamber perifusion system. LH-RH release from MBH increased significantly (p less than 0.05) by 50-100% of the basal level 30-90 min after the beginning of Unkeito administration. Unkeito at 5 micrograms/ml induced significant LH release (60-95% increase) from the pituitary in series with the MBH, but had no effect on LH release from the pituitary perifused alone. One of Unkeito's components Botanpi induced significant LH release, although other five components had no effect on LH release. These data suggest that Unkeito induces LH release from the pituitary through hypothalamic LH-RH, and can be used for the treatment of patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea. PMID:3910742
Tasaka, K; Miyake, A; Ohtsuka, S; Yoshimoto, Y; Aono, T; Tanizawa, O
Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.
Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc; Koh, Byung Hee
Abstract Background: Thrombocytopenia is a well recognized adverse effect of many drugs. However the association of thrombocytopenia with complementary/alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods and beverages has been rarely described, except for reports of thrombocytopenia caused by quinine-containing beverages. Objectives: To systematically identify all published reports of thrombocytopenia associated with these substances and to assess the evidence supporting their causal association with thrombocytopenia. Methods: Eleven databases were searched to identify relevant published reports. A priori criteria were defined for article selection and assessment. Each selected article was independently assessed by the three authors to document the presence of the criteria and determine the level of evidence for a causal association of the reported substance with thrombocytopenia. Results: Twenty-seven articles were identified that reported the occurrence of thrombocytopenia with 25 substances (other than quinine). However only six articles describing five substances (cow's milk, cranberry juice, Jui [Chinese herbal tea], Lupinus termis bean, and tahini [pulped sesame seeds]) reported clinical data supporting definite evidence of a causal association with thrombocytopenia. Four articles provided probable evidence for four additional substances and five articles provided possible evidence for five additional substances. In the remaining articles the association with thrombocytopenia was unlikely or the articles were excluded from review. Conclusions: Reports of thrombocytopenia describing definite or probable evidence for an association of a complementary/alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods and beverages are rare. Whether the occurrence of thrombocytopenia with these substances is uncommon or unrecognized is unknown. PMID:20059530
Royer, Derek J; George, James N; Terrell, Deirdra R
The effects of six kinds of aqueous extracts of Chinese herbal medicine (Astragalus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Panax genseng and Ophiopogon japonicus, P. genseng and Aconitum carmichaeli, Salviae miltiorrhiae, Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide) on sperm motility characteristics of 30 infertile male volunteers were studied in vitro with a computer-assisted sperm analysis at 15, 60 and 180 min after incubated with the drugs. The results showed that per cent viability, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement were significantly enhanced by A. membranaceus (P < 0.05 or < 0.01), per cent viability, average path velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement were significantly enhanced by A. senticosi (P < 0.05), but all the above were not affected by P. genseng and O. japonicus, P. genseng and A. carmichaeli, S. miltiorrhiae and P. umbellatus polysaccharide. It is suggested that A. membranaceus and A. senticosi can enhance the motility of human spermatozoa in vitro. PMID:15084153
Liu, J; Liang, P; Yin, C; Wang, T; Li, H; Li, Y; Ye, Z
Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been used in cancer therapy. The JIN formula is an ancient herbal formula recorded in the classic TCM book Jin Kui Yao Lue (Golden Chamber). The JIN formula significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous human H460 xenografted tumors in vivo compared with the growth of mock controls. Gene array analysis of signal transduction in cancer showed that the JIN formula acted on multiple targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways. The coformula treatment of JIN and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) affected the stress/heat shock pathway. Proteomic analysis showed 36 and 84 differentially expressed proteins between the mock and DDP groups and between the mock and JIN groups, respectively. GoMiner analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins between the JIN and mock groups were enriched during cellular metabolic processes, and so forth. The ones between the DDP and mock groups were enriched during protein-DNA complex assembly, and so forth. Most downregulated proteins in the JIN group were heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP90AA1 and HSPA1B, which could be used as markers to monitor responses to the JIN formula therapy. The mechanism of action of the JIN formula on HSP proteins warrants further investigation.
Zheng, Luyu; Zhang, Weiyi; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Huarong; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Yang; Chen, Meijuan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Mingyan; Cheng, Ge; Duan, Jinao; Yu, Wei; Lin, Biaoyang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu
Objective: To investigate the immunomodulating mechanisms of a Chinese herbal medicine Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) in treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) were measured by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Expression of TNF-? mRNA and IL-1? mRNA in synovial cells was measured with the semi-quantitative technique of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while caspase-3 was examined by western blot analysis. Results: The administration of YJB significantly decreased the production of serum TNF-? and IL-1?. It also decreased significantly the TNF-? mRNA, IL-1? mRNA, and caspase-3 expression in synoviocytes. Conclusions: YJB produces the immunomodulatory effects by downregulating the over-activated cytokines, while it activates caspase-3, which is the key executioner of apoptosis in the immune system. This may be the one of the underlying mechanisms that explains how YJB treats the rheumatoid arthritis.
Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman; Peng, Cheng; Fang, Weirong; Han, Caifeng
Herbal medicine is widely applied for clinical use in East Asia and other countries. However, unclear correlation between its complex chemical composition and bioactivity prevents its application in the West. In the present study, a stepwise causal adjacent relationship discovery algorithm has been developed to study correlation between composition and bioactivity of herbal medicine and identify active components from the complex mixture. This approach was successfully applied in discovering active constituents from mixed extracts of Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Cortex Moutan. Moreover, advantage of the present approach compared with bioassay-guided isolation was demonstrated by its application on a typical herbal drug. The current work offers a new way to virtually screen active components of herbal medicine, and it might be helpful to accelerate the process of new drug discovery from natural products. PMID:16542877
Cheng, Yiyu; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xuewei
Using whole chromatographic profiles and measurements of total bioactivity as input, a quantitative pattern-activity relationship (QPAR) approach is proposed as a general method for providing two pieces of crucial information about complex bioactive mixtures available: (i) a model for predicting total bioactivity from the chromatographic fingerprint and (ii) the features in the chromatographic profile responsible for the bioactivity. While the first piece of information is already available through existing approaches, the second one results from our ability to remove dominant features in the chromatographic fingerprints which mask the components specifically related to pharmacological activity. Our targeted approach makes information about bioactivity available at the molecular level and provides possibilities for assessment of herbal medicine (HM) possible beyond just authentication and total bioactivity. As an example, the antioxidant property of the HM Radix Puerariae lobatae is measured through its reducing power toward a ferric ion complex. A partial least-squares (PLS) model is created to predict the antioxidant activity from the chromatographic fingerprint. Using the antioxidant activity as a target, the most discriminatory projection in the multivariate space spanned by the chromatographic profiles is revealed. From this target-projected component, the chromatographic regions most strongly connected to antioxidant activity are identified using the so-called selectivity ratio (SR) plot. The results are validated by prediction of samples not included in the modeling step. PMID:19634860
Chau, Foo-Tim; Chan, Hoi-Yan; Cheung, Chui-Yee; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Liang, Yizeng; Kvalheim, Olav M
The use of alternative medicines is increasing world-wide and in Israel. These drugs, considered by the Ministry of Health as food supplements, are to be obtained at pharmacies and health stores and are being sold freely, without any professional advice. Many of the herbs are used by patients to treat psychiatric disorders. These herbs have a pharmacological activity, adverse effects and interactions with conventional drugs, which can produce changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. We present the most commonly used herbal drugs, and discuss their safety and efficacy in psychiatric practice. Hypericum--used as an antidepressant and as an antiviral medicine, was reported in 23 randomized clinical trials reviewed from the MEDLINE. It was found to be significantly more effective than placebo and had a similar level of effectiveness as standard antidepressants. Recent studies almost clearly prove that this herb, like most of the conventional antidepressants, can induce mania. Valerian--is used as an anti-anxiety drug, and reported to have sedative as well as antidepressant properties. In contrast to the significant improvement in sleep that was found with the use of valerian, compared to placebo, there are several reports on the valerian root toxicity. This includes nephrotoxicity, headaches, chest tightness, mydriasis, abdominal pain, and tremor of the hands and feet. Ginseng--another plant that is widely used as an aphrodisiac and a stimulant. It has been associated with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding, mastalgia, mental status changes and Stevens-Johnson syndrome after it's chronic administration. It has interactions with digoxin, phenelzine and warfarin. Ginkgo--in clinical trials the ginkgo extract has shown a significant improvement in symptoms such as memory loss, difficulties in concentration, fatigue, anxiety, and depressed mood. Long-term use has been associated with increased bleeding time and spontaneous hemorrhage. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in patients receiving aspirin, NSAIDs, anticoagulants or other platelet inhibitors. Health care professionals can no longer ignore the widespread use of alternative medicines and cannot continue with the "don't ask, don't tell" policy. Clinicians should ask the patients about their use of herbs in a non-judgmental way, and should document the patient's use of these drugs. Finally, we must be more aware of the side effects and the potential drug interactions of these herbs, and advise our patients to avoid long term use of these drugs due to lack of information regarding the safety of these medicines. PMID:11547487
Boniel, T; Dannon, P
SummaryBased on a conclusive theoretical background, both Western and Chinese Medicine have developed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures which lead to reproducible treatment results. Whilst Western Medicine focuses on a most precise diagnosis of tumor histology and the extend of dissemination, Chinese Medicine has developed tools for a functional diagnoses of disturbed body functions. And as Western Medicine aims at producing
Hans Lampe; Bettina Halle; Mathias Freund
Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.
Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo
Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720
Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara
Several Chinese herbal medicines have been used to treat patients with idiopathic male infertility and have been reported to improve semen quality. The clinical efficacy of these medicines was reviewed. The therapeutic effect of Hochu-ekki-to based on the pretreatment traditional diagnosis (Sho) was examined. Three months after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, the semen count and motility significantly increased in comparison with pretreatment values. When the patients were classified into 3 categories based on "Sho", Hochu-ekki-to was effective in semen motility in patients with vacuity pattern (Kyo-Sho). Seminal plasma soluble Fas (sFas) levels before and three months after the administration of drug were analyzed. Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to. After the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, seminal plasma sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. To make the best use of traditional medicine, it is important to give medication according to the traditional diagnosis (Sho). PMID:15471074
Furuya, Yuzo; Akashi, Takuya; Fuse, Hideki
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in cancer in China. Case series report a series of cases exposed to a certain intervention. To understand the current situation of case series of TCM for cancer, we performed this review. We included case series of cancer patients treated with TCM therapy. Electronic searches were conducted in four main Chinese databases until February 2011. A total of 1,217 reports of case series (92,945 patients) were included. The top five types of cancer were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, leukemia, and esophageal cancer. Leukopenia and hiccup treated by TCM were the most common adverse reactions after surgery or induced by chemo/radiotherapy. More than half of the patients were treated with TCM therapies alone. The application of herbal medicines especially formula based on syndrome differentiation was highly prevalent, and the typical administration route was oral usage. 1,182 reports were published in a structured format. The quantity of TCM case series for cancer treatment is substantial. Further studies should focus on the most common types of cancer and the most frequently applied TCM therapies. We presented a recommendation from the methodological point of view for the format of reporting.
Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xun; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia; Song, Xue; Chen, Jizhong; Guo, Yu; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Shana; Zhang, Zhiqi; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Liu, Jianping
Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid has been identified as Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHNP). From 1995 to 1998, we observed 12 Chinese people from different areas of Taiwan who underwent renal biopsy for unexplained renal failure. Medical history gave no clue to the causes of impaired renal function except for the ingestion of traditional
Chwei-Shiun Yang; Ching-Hao Lin; Shu-Horng Chang
Studies have suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use may be high on college campuses. This study investigated the relationship between CAM and herbal supplement utilization and coping, self-regulatory, cognitive styles, and healthcare satisfaction among college students (n = 370). Indeed, overall CAM and herbal supplement use during the past year appeared high; however, users of these practices
Rick A. LaCaille; Nicholas J. Kuvaas
It is often suggested that, in the past 50 years, Vietnam has experienced a traditional medicine 'revival' that can be traced back to late President Ho Chi Minh's 1955 appeal 'to study means of uniting the effects of oriental remedies with those of Europe'. In this article, I demonstrate how traditional herbal medicine came to be recruited as an important component of national efforts to promote the public health of urban and rural populations in Vietnam. Importantly, this has entailed a rejection of a colonial biopolitics that sought to marginalize 'quackery' in favour of a postcolonial bio-politics that aims to promote the 'appropriate' use of traditional herbal medicines. While the Vietnamese case bears many parallels to other countries in this respect, notably China, Vietnam's ancient history of medicine, postcolonial isolation and extensive health delivery network have resulted in a unique strategy that encourages rural populations to become self-sufficient in the herbal treatment of their most common illnesses. PMID:16513657
Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims. PMID:22955367
Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc
In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect ? cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines.
Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping
In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 25 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect beta cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696
Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping
BACKGROUND: Use of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important category of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has increased substantially in Western countries during the past decade. Use of TCM is also widespread in the Chinese population. However, few informative data have been obtained to date by large-scale investigations of TCM use in the Chinese population. This study was aimed at
Fang-Pey Chen; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Yen-Ying Kung; Yu-Chun Chen; Li-Fang Chou; Fan-Jou Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang
Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety. PMID:18422382
Routledge, Philip A
Striking increases in the abuse of opioids have expanded the need for pharmacotherapeutic interventions. The obstacles that confront effective treatment of opioid addiction - shortage of treatment professionals, stigma associated with treatment and the ability to maintain abstinence - have led to increased interest in alternative treatment strategies among both treatment providers and patients alike. Herbal products for opioid addiction and withdrawal, such as kratom and specific Chinese herbal medications such as WeiniCom, can complement existing treatments. Unfortunately, herbal treatments, while offering some advantages over existing evidence-based pharmacotherapies, have poorly described pharmacokinetics, a lack of supportive data derived from well controlled clinical trials, and severe toxicity, the cause for which remains poorly defined. Herbal products, therefore, require greater additional testing in rigorous clinical trials before they can expect widespread acceptance in the management of opioid addiction. PMID:22133323
Ward, Jeanine; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Hernon, Christina; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W
Herbal medicine has long been used to treat neural symptoms. Although the precise mechanisms of action of herbal drugs have yet to be determined, some of them have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and\\/or anti-oxidant effects in a variety of peripheral systems. Now, as increasing evidence indicates that neuroglia-derived chronic inflammatory responses play a pathological role in the central nervous
... affect warfarin: Danshen Dong quai Evening primrose oil Garlic Ginkgo Ginseng St. John's wort That's why it's ... supplements you take. Herbal supplement Medication Potential effect Garlic Aspirin Clopidogrel (Plavix) Warfarin (Coumadin) Increases risk of ...
Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are two major diseases associated with dementia, which is common among the elderly. While the etiology of dementia is multi-factorial and complex, neurodegeneration may be the major cause of these two diseases. Effective drugs for treating dementia are still to be discovered. Current western pharmacological approaches against neurodegeneration in dementia develop symptom-relieving and disease-modifying drugs. Current integrative and holistic approaches of Chinese medicine to discovering drugs for neurodegeneration in dementia include (1) single molecules from the herbs, (2) standardized extracts from a single herb, and (3) herbal formula with definite composition. This article not only reviews the concept of dementia in western medicine and Chinese medicine but also evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches.
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed.
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828
Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jeffrey; Chan, Patrick
Cancer-related cachexia, a condition in which the body is consumed by deranged carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism that is induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cachexia is associated with poor treatment outcome, fatigue and poor quality of life. Pharmacological intervention in the treatment and/or prevention of cachexia has been mainly aimed at the use of appetite enhancers to increase oral nutritional intake so far. Herbal remedies are part of traditional and folk healing methods with long histories of use. In this report, we have assessed which herbal approaches have had associated cancer cachexia case reports. Commonly used herbal medicines in western countries include essiac, iscador, pau d'arco tea, cannabinoids and so on. Some Kampo herbs and formulations are commonly used by cancer patients reduce the side effects and complications during the antitumor therapy. The relevant herbal medicines include ginseng, C. rhizome and radix astragali, and the related herbal remedies, such as TJ-48, TJ-41, PHY906 and Rikkunshito. However, there still have some adverse effects caused or amplified by herb and drug interactions that are difficult to separate. However, randomized effectiveness of herbal medicines shall be further identified in controlled clinical trials involving cancer patients with cachexia. PMID:22632862
Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Juei-Tang
Great progress has been made in the basic researches on erectile dysfunction (ED) ever since the recognition of the close association of micromolecular nitric oxide (NO) with penile smooth muscle relaxation in 1990. NO-cGMP-PDE5 signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating the relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, and its relevant studies have contributed greatly to the clinical treatment of ED. Chinese herbal drugs have long been used in the treatment of ED, and the action mechanisms of some of them clarified through the NO-cGMP-PDE5 signaling pathway. This article presents an overview on the recent advances in the studies of ED treatment with Chinese herbal drugs. PMID:22474995
Liao, Hui; Jacob, Rajfer
China is a country rich in medicinal plants because of its wide territory and variety of geography. Plentiful experience has been accumulated and recorded in the long history of traditional Chinese medicine, but the mechanisms of many Chinese medicines remain unclear. This fascinating research field has been attracting tremendous research efforts of scientists in chemistry, biology and medical sciences. Some
The concept of “network target” has ushered in a new era in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As a new research approach, network pharmacology is based on the analysis of network models and systems biology. Taking advantage of advancements in systems biology, a high degree of integration data analysis strategy and interpretable visualization provides deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms of TCM theories, including the principles of herb combination, biological foundations of herb or herbal formulae action, and molecular basis of TCM syndromes. In this study, we review several recent developments in TCM network pharmacology research and discuss their potential for bridging the gap between traditional and modern medicine. We briefly summarize the two main functional applications of TCM network models: understanding/uncovering and predicting/discovering. In particular, we focus on how TCM network pharmacology research is conducted and highlight different computational tools, such as network-based and machine learning algorithms, and sources that have been proposed and applied to the different steps involved in the research process. To make network pharmacology research commonplace, some basic network definitions and analysis methods are presented.
Chen, Jia-Lei; Xu, Li-Wen
Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm.
Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth
Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug.
Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Niu, Xuyan; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lin, Na; Lu, Aiping
Background Chromatin, residing in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, comprises DNA and histones to make up chromosomes. Chromatin condenses to compact the chromosomes and loosens to facilitate gene transcription and DNA replication/repair. Chemical modifications to the histones mediate changes in chromatin structure. Histone-modifying enzymes are potential drug targets. How herbs affect phenotypes through histone modifications is interesting. Methods Two public traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) databases were accessed to retrieve the chemical constituents and TCM natures of 3,294 TCM medicinals. NCBI taxonomy database was accessed to build the phylogenetic tree of the TCM medicinals. Statistical test was used to test if TCM natures of the medicinals cluster in the phylogenetic tree. A public chemical-protein interaction database was accessed to identify TCM medicinals whose constituent chemicals interact with human histone-modifying enzymes. For each histone modification, a correlation coefficient was calculated between the medicinals’ TCM natures and modification modulabilities. Information of the ingredient medicinals of 200 classical TCM formulas was accessed from a public database. Results It was found that 1,170 or 36% of the 3,294 TCM medicinals interact with human histone-modifying enzymes. Among the histone-modifying medicinals, 56% of them promote chromatin condensation. The cold-hot natures of TCM medicinals were found to be phylogenetically correlated. Furthermore, cold (hot) TCM medicinals were found to be associated with heterochromatinization (euchromatinization) through mainly H3K9 methylation and H3K4 demethylation. The associations were weak yet statistically significant. On the other hand, analysis of TCM formulas, the major form of TCM prescriptions in clinical practice, found that 99% of 200 government approved TCM formulas are histone-modifying. Furthermore, in formula formation, heterochromatic medicinals were found to team up with other heterochromatic medicinals to enhance the heterochromatinization of the formula. The synergy was mainly through concurrent DNMT and HDAC inhibition, co-inhibition of histone acetylation and H3S10 phosphorylation, or co-inhibition of H3K4 demethylation and H3K36 demethylation. Conclusions TCM prescriptions’ modulation of the human epigenome helps elucidation of phyto-pharmacology and discovery of epigenetic drugs. Furthermore, as TCM medicinals’ properties are closely tied to patient TCM syndromes, results of this materia-medica-wide, bioinformatic analysis of TCM medicinals may have implications for molecular differentiation of TCM syndromes.
The use of herbal medicines has become a very common practice. While many are safe enough to be available over-the-counter, they may pose risks due to interactions with pharmaceutical medications and effects in specific clinical populations. The case of a female patient with a history of mild traumatic brain injury and resulting depression is presented. She experienced hypomania after adding St John's wort and Ginkgo biloba to her regimen of fluoxetine and buspirone, which remitted after discontinuation of the herbal medicines. Implications for interactions between various psychopharmacologic agents, including herbal medicines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as well as the need for appropriate patient and health care provider education are discussed. PMID:11953006
Spinella, Marcello; Eaton, Lisa A
Randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been recognized as the gold standard for interventional clinical trials. In many clinical trials of herbal medicine, it is very difficult to create a quality placebo. To achieve the purpose of blinding, the characteristics of the real drug and placebo should be identical in color, appearance, smell and taste. The quality placebo should be identical to the real drug in physical form, sensory perception, packaging, and labeling, and it should have no pharmaceutical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate a placebo capsule and its matching herbal medicine D&G capsule in physical form, chemical nature, appearance, packaging and labeling. The assessment results suggested that the placebo was satisfactory in these aspects. The results demonstrated that a placebo could be created for a RCT involving herbal medicine. This report also discusses the means to acquire patent. PMID:21457134
Fai, Cheng K; Qi, Guan De; Wei, Ding A; Chung, Leung P
Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of herbal medicines; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pre-tested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 79 potentially relevant reviews pre-selected in the screening process 58 met the inclusion criteria. Thirty of the reports reviewed ginkgo (for dementia, intermittent claudication, tinnitus, and macular degeneration), hypericum (for depression) or garlic preparations (for cardiovascular risk factors and lower limb atherosclerosis). The quality of primary studies was criticized in the majority of the reviews. Most reviews judged the available evidence as promising but definitive conclusions were rarely possible. Conclusions Systematic reviews are available on a broad range of herbal preparations prescribed for defined conditions. There is very little evidence on the effectiveness of herbalism as practised by specialist herbalists who combine herbs and use unconventional diagnosis.
Linde, Klaus; ter Riet, Gerben; Hondras, Maria; Vickers, Andrew; Saller, Reinhard; Melchart, Dieter
Abstract Aim We aim to determine the safety and effectiveness of a standard therapeutic package of Korean medicine for the treatment of unexplained infertility in a cross-section of women who sought treatment at an integrative hospital in Seoul, Korea. Background Infertility affects more than 1.2 million women in the United States alone. Treatment options for infertility vary, yet the barriers of invasiveness, cost, and access inhibit treatment use for many women. Alternative medical approaches exist for this indication, and sustain certain popularity. Therefore, we systematically studied a standard therapeutic package of Korean medicine to treat unexplained infertility in women. Methods Female participants included in this observational study met inclusion criteria before receiving a set of treatments including herbal medicine, acupuncture, and moxibustion. A study physician screened each patient in accordance with inclusion criteria, provided study information, and after the patients consented, performed the baseline assessment. Assessments included age, the history of assisted reproductive technology, and duration of infertility. The key outcome measure included the number who achieved pregnancy and any neo-natal morbidity and mortality at follow-up stage for those who got pregnant. Any other adverse events including aggravation of existing symptoms, and the number of dropouts, were recorded. Treatments were supposed to be completed after 6 menstrual cycles between February 2005 and April 2006. Results One hundred and four (104) women with unexplained infertility were included in this observational study. Participant mean age was 32 years (SD: 2.7), with a range between 26 and 41 years. The median duration of infertility after diagnosis was 33.5 weeks (interquartile range: 20.8–50.3). In total, 41 participants (39.4%) had undergone a mean number of 1.4 (SD: 2.2) assisted reproductive technology treatments prior to joining the study. The number of patients remaining in or achieving pregnancy throughout the 6-month study period was 23 (14 pregnancies), 22.1%. Six (6) participants (4.8%) reported minor adverse events including rash in the face (n?=?1), diarrhea (n?=?2), dizziness (n?=?1), and heartburn (n?=?2). Of the 14 pregnancies, there were 10 normal births, and 4 miscarriages; otherwise, no neonatal morbidity/mortality occurred. According to per protocol analysis, 14 pregnancies out of 23 total were achieved by those who remained for the entire six menstruation cycle treatments, yielding a pregnancy rate of 60.9%. Conclusions The standard therapeutic package for unexplained infertility in women studied here is safe for infants and the treated women, when administered by licensed professionals. While it remains challenging to have the target population complete a 6-month treatment course, during which most patients have to pay out of pocket, the extent of successfully achieved pregnancy in those who received full treatment provides meaningful outcomes, warranting further attention. A future study that includes subsidized treatment costs, encouraging the appropriate compliance rate, is warranted.
Kang, Myungja; Shin, Sangseop; Choi, Eunmi; Kwon, Sukyung; Wee, Hyosun; Nam, Bonghyun; Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Although herbal medicine (HM) behaves as a complex system having high-potential for treating chronic/life-threatening diseases, compatible characterization metrics with hierarchical approaches to integrate molecular-level information into the whole system are lacking. Herein, we report a high-throughput methodology (holographic infrared (IR) spectroscopy) harmonizing with the character of HM, providing hierarchical infrared fingerprints (entirety, parts and single ingredients), and working as a "GPS" to navigate a comprehensive chemical characterization of HM circularly from system to molecular level by step-by-step HM analysis-through-separation of IR spectra indicative and vice versa by reconstitution-through-combination of adducting spectrum without a complete understanding of the chemical constituents, and demonstrate holographic chemical charaterization of a Chinese herb Danshen. Global chemical fingerprints of species at each hierarchical level and ingredient profile variations among multilevel species of Danshen are integratively interpreted with fast estimation of their relative contents of active compounds. Finally, integral dynamic information of Danshen separation process is disclosed straightforward by spectral retrieving technique. PMID:23245264
Xu, Changhua; Wang, Yang; Chen, Jianbo; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yan; Sun, Suqin
Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.
The risks of using herbal remedies, considered 'natural', should not be disregarded, as some have serious side effects and some interact with and influence conventional medical therapeutics. The effect may be pharmacokinetic by altering absorption or metabolism, and may be pharmacodynamic, by changing the final effect of the drug. St. John's wort, for example, an antidepressant herbal remedy, may pharmacodynamically interact with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), causing a serotonin syndrome. St. Johns wort also causes serious pharmacokinetic interactions by activating the cytochrome CYP3A4, dangerously decreasing blood levels of cyclosporin, warfarin, and theophylline, and reducing the efficacy of contraceptive pills and AIDS therapy. The article presents a review of a number of herbal remedies, commonly used in Israel, that have documented drug interactions, providing details of common indications, adverse reactions and drug interactions of each herbal remedy. Physicians should recognize the fact that patients use herbal remedies, purchased directly at pharmacies or health stores, and be aware of the potential interactions of these remedies with conventional drugs. PMID:17078430
Goldstein, L H; Elias, M; Berkovitch, M; Golik, A
In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV\\/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for
Edward Mills; Curtis Cooper; Dugald Seely; Izzy Kanfer
Background Between 7% and 48% of cancer patients report taking herbal medicines after diagnosis. Because of the possibility of unwanted side effects or interactions with conventional treatments, people with cancer are generally advised to tell the professionals treating them if they are taking any form of medication, including herbal medicines and supplements. Studies suggest that only about half do so and that the professionals themselves have at best very limited knowledge and feel unable to give informed advice. This study is intended to inform the future development of information resources for cancer patients, survivors and healthcare professionals including tools for use before or during consultation to make it easier for patients to mention, and for healthcare professionals to ask about, use of herbal medications. Methods/design This is a three-phase study. In phase 1, a systematic review of the literature on self-medication with herbal medicines among UK populations living with cancer will establish the current evidence base on use of herbal medicine, sources of information, characteristics and motivations. This will allow us to better understand what aspects need further investigation and inform the topic guide for a qualitative study (phase 2). Six focus groups of six to eight cancer patients who have used at least one herbal preparation since diagnosis will explore behaviour, beliefs, knowledge, information sources and needs in an informal conversational setting. Informed by the findings of the systematic review and qualitative study, in phase 3 we will construct and pilot a questionnaire for a future large-scale survey to quantify and prioritise people's beliefs, needs and information preferences. Discussion Despite known interactions with conventional cancer treatments and contraindications for some herbal remedies with specific cancers, reliable information resources for patients are very limited. Identifying cancer patients' information needs and preferences is the first step in creating a suitable resource for both the public and the professionals advising them.
Gratus, Christine; Wilson, Sue; Greenfield, Sheila M; Damery, Sarah L; Warmington, Sally A; Grieve, Robert; Steven, Neil M; Routledge, Philip
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are transcription factors that control the expression of a broad array of genes involved not only in transcellular transport and biotransformation of many drugs, other xenochemicals, and endogenous substances, such as bile acid, bilirubin, and certain vitamins, but also in various physiological/pathophysiological processes such as lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. Ligands of PXR and CAR are chemicals of diverse structures, including naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines. The overall aim of this article is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the role of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR.
Many institutionalized patients and their healthcare providers are dissatisfied with current laxative therapy. This study compared therapeutic efficacy, safety, and laxative cost of an herbal formula (CCH1) and lactulose for long stay patients with constipation. In this double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 93 residents with chronic constipation from two long-term care facilities in Taiwan to receive either CCH1 with lactulose placebo or CCH1 placebo with lactulose for 8 weeks, then followed up for 4 weeks without study medication. Both treatments were effective and well tolerated for patients, but CCH1 produced more spontaneous bowel movements, less rectal treatments, less amount of rescue laxative, and lower laxative cost than lactulose during treatment. No significant differences were found in stool consistency, stool amount, global assessment, and safety concerns. In conclusion, our results suggest that CCH1 may have better efficacy and could be used as an alternative option to lactulose in the treatment of constipation in long-term care.
Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lin, Jui-Shan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lee, Shih-Chang; Wang, Hsiu Po; Lue, Hung-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang
Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027
Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B
Medicinal plants are an essential part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), an ancient complex therapy considered today as one of the most complete complementary medicine system. Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) listings included in Chinese Materia Medica cover more than 1500 plants and a great number of composite preparations. Recently, several TCM herbs have been included into European Pharmacopoeia and many more are on the waiting list. The efficiency of TCM is based on the reinforcing of an organism's natural healing power and the ability to restore the energy homoeostasis. A likely mechanism of at least some of the activities is interacting with redox balance and prevention of oxidative stress. During the past two decades, hundreds of crude herbs, extracts, and isolated compounds have been screened for their antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, some of traditional Chinese herbs can be regarded as source of very efficient antioxidant compounds, and this activity could explain some of their therapeutic and preventive usefulness. In this review, we outline the recent achievements in the worldwide quest for more efficient antioxidants, with Chinese medicinal and food plants in the central point. Various classes of antioxidant compounds will be mentioned, such as polyphenols or terpenoids that can act either as direct reactive oxygen species scavengers, transition metal reducers and chelators, or as chain breaking antioxidants. Some methodological considerations will be also discussed, with emphasis on the potential importance of the results obtained with antioxidant assays for human health and disease prevention. In this context, several examples of selected, most promising Chinese medicinal plants will be also presented in more detail. PMID:23210784
Matkowski, A; Jamio?kowska-Kozlowska, W; Nawrot, I
The study was designed to evaluate the effects of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-zong-yi-qi-tang), which was composed of 10 herbal medicines and had been used for the treatment of oligospermia and as a postoperative medication in Japan, on bone loss in rats treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Female rats at 40 weeks of age were divided into 4 groups of 8 rats each. In the three experimental groups, each animal received subcutaneous injections of the long-acting GnRH agonist, buserelin acetate, once every four weeks throughout the experiment. Beginning at 48 weeks of age, the experimental groups were given diets containing conjugated estrogens or Hochu-ekki-to for 8 weeks. The administration of the GnRH agonist reduced the bone mineral density in the whole femur to 91.0% of that in the control group. However, administration of conjugated estrogens and Hochu-ekki-to increased the serum concentrations of estradiol 16.8- and 5.3-fold respectively compared with concentrations in the GnRH agonist-treated group, resulting in the augmentation of the bone mineral density to 110.3% and 106.2% respectively. These findings indicate that Hochu-ekki-to enhances the reduced bone mineral density and causes a slight elevation of the serum estradiol levels in the chemically castrated rats. PMID:10870043
Sakamoto, S; Sassa, S; Kudo, H; Suzuki, S; Mitamura, T; Shinoda, H
Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.
Tremendous achievements have been made in Western medicine in the past that provide fast relief of symptoms at the disease\\u000a sites, particularly under critical conditions. However, some are either ineffective or produce undesirable adverse effects,\\u000a or are too costly in some complex diseases, especially chronic diseases. On the other hand, traditional medicines strive to\\u000a focus on the balance of the
Wei Jia; Lixin Zhang
Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction used commonly for treating women's ailments, contains Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS). According to Chinese medicinal theory, this decoction is to nourish the blood function; this, however, has not been demonstrated on the molecular level. In order to reveal the hematopoietic effect of this decoction, DBT was applied to cultured Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The treatment of DBT induced mRNA expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in a dose-dependent manner and peaked at approximately 2.5-fold induction. The secreted EPO in cultured Hep3B cells was quantified by ELISA: the treatment of DBT potentiated the effect of hypoxia-induced EPO expression in the cultured cells. In addition, the DBT-induced EPO expression could be abolished by pre-treatment with U0126, a mitogen-activated kinase inhibitor. The current results verified the hematopoietic function of this ancient herbal decoction. PMID:18484529
Gao, Qiu T; Cheung, Jerry K; Choi, Roy C; Cheung, Anna W; Li, Jun; Jiang, Zhi Y; Duan, Ran; Zhao, Kui J; Ding, An W; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W
The power of chemical profiling in characterizing the samples' chemical pools has greatly raised the interests of phytomedicine researchers. Unfortunately, the semi-quantitative nature of chemical profiling retards its exploration into the dissolution test of herbal medicines, which is a crucial quantitative measure to evaluate and control the in vitro releasing properties as the prerequisite for biomembrane permeation of herbal constituents. Here, a method integrating chemical profiling approach and self-reference strategy is developed for the purpose of dissolution test of herbal medicines. The chromatographic fingerprints of the self-reference samples are translated by principal component analysis (PCA) into chemical profiles that highly correlate to their nominal gross concentrations in spite of the poor quantitative performances of some individual peaks. Pareto scaling previous to PCA selectively highlights the relative loadings of peaks with good quantitative performances. An example of ginkgo biloba tablets shows that this method is efficient to judge whether the detected constituents are simultaneously released or not, determine both the gross release and the respective dissolution rates of them, and rapidly screen the slowly released ones that may have potential clinical implications. This method has potentials to enable deep insight into the molecular diffusion and dissolution of complex herbal formulations, and open a new window to comprehensively consider the bioavailable properties of herbal medicines. PMID:22748665
Wang, Anqi; Wang, Zhanguo; Yu, Wenjun; Zhong, Ting; Dai, Weiyang; Xu, Liang; Gong, Tao; Lan, Ke
The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex whose activity is required for the growth of normal or tumor cells. It has been shown that human cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition than normal cells, indicating that the proteasome could be a target of chemotherapy. Studies suggest that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an effective approach for cancer treatment. Here we reviewed several TCMs for their potential in treatment of cancer. This short review focuses mainly on the TCMs that potentially target the tumor cellular proteasome and NF-?B pathway whose activation is dependent on the proteasome activity.
Yang, Huanjie; Liu, Jinbao; Dou, Q. Ping
The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries (including China), and therefore, more generally accepted. How to do that? We should start from the present clinical practice, refer to the tradition, face the future, and work hard. Borrowing WM disease names is of great significance. It will help to bring the theory of Zang-Fu organs back to its origin, clinically help to deepen the combination of disease and syndrome, disease and formula, promote the objectification and micronization of syndrome differentiation in CM, and possibly bring about new theories of CM which will in return promote clinical development. CM will be able to occupy an important position in the field of world medicine and make its own contributions to the health of the global population. PMID:23980347
A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;
Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca
Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used for HIV/ AIDS and other health conditions in Uganda and sub-Saharan Africa, often in parallel with programs that provide antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the 1990's an estimated 80% of Ugandans living in rura...
B. J. Auerbach C. Kukunda-Byobona C. Merry M. Lamorde S. J. Reynolds
Developing a simple and fast method to analyze possibly adulterated synthetic drugs in suspected herbal medicines (HM) is both methodologically and commercially significant. This paper constructs a new approach named local straight-line screening (LSLS), to the solution of the problem, after carefully observing the characteristics of the spectral line shapes. LSLS can be applied to both the qualitative and quantitative
Feng Lu; Shu Li; Jian Le; Guiliang Chen; Yan Cao; Yunpeng Qi; Yifeng Chai; Yutian Wu
The effect of the political transition from a British Colony to a Special Administration Region of China in 1997 on the tradition of Chinese medicine is examined using historical reviews as well as interviews with various sectors of the population in Hong Kong. Results show that the political change has stimulated the formation of a location-specific Hong Kong Chinese medicine strongly characterized by both scientific and commercial elements developed from the culture of Chinese medicine. PMID:16265981
Wong, Jenny; Woo, Jean
Objective: To explore the possibility of reverting HBV-related hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Methods: A herbal recipe (861), comprising of 10 herbs includingSalvia miltiorrhiza, Astragalus membranaceus andSpatholobus saberectus were used as the antifibrotic agents. Three controlled clinical trials of treating HBV-related fibrosis and early cirrhosis\\u000a were carried out. A total of 107 patients were assessed clinically and
Wang Baoen; Wang Tailing; Jia Jidong; Ma Hong; Duan Zhongping; Li Xinmin; Li Jia; Wang Aimin; Qian Linxue
Clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are diversified, and based on the manifestations, the patients with RA\\u000a could be classified into different patterns under traditional Chinese medicine. These patterns decide the selection of herbal\\u000a prescription, and thus they can help find a subset of rheumatoid arthritis patients for a type of therapy. In the present\\u000a study, we combine genome-wide expression
Miao Jiang; Cheng Xiao; Gao Chen; Cheng Lu; Qinglin Zha; Xiaoping Yan; Weiping Kong; Shijie Xu; Dahong Ju; Pu Xu; Youwen Zou; Aiping Lu
In Singapore, there has been a growing public interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which plays an important role in the healthcare system. With effect from 1 September 1999, the control on Chinese Proprietary Medicines (CPM) was implemented in three phases over a span of 3 years. Under the CPM regulatory framework, CPM importers, wholesalers, manufacturers and re-packers must be
Shen-Kuan Yee; Swee-Seng Chu; Yi-Min Xu; Peck-Lin Choo
This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Included were 84 controlled clinical studies of type-2 diabetes treated with Chinese medicine for at least 1 month. Reported outcomes were: symptom relief; improvement in glycemia, insulin resistance and secondary failure, and adverse events. Symptom relief was achieved in most (>80%) of the
H. L. Zhao; P. Tong; J. Chan
The concentration of certain toxic and essential elements in various raw materials of Chinese herbs and scientific Chinese medicine were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Correlation of these elements as they exist in the raw materials and in the prescription of medicine were investigated and the approximate intake of elements by patients were
Chu-Fang Wang; Ming-Jenq Duo; E. E. Chang; Jenq Yann Yang
Background: Drug interactions between traditional Chinese herbal medicines and the anticoagulant warfarin may cause patient harm and are, therefore, important in clinical practice. Our experience in daily practice suggests that prothrombin time (PT) is prolonged when warfarin is used in combination with the Chinese herbal formula Shu-Jing-Hwo-Shiee-Tang (SJHST) commonly used by patients with osteoarthritis. Objective: We conducted animal experiments to confirm the effect of SJHST and warfarin on anticoagulant activity. Methods: Forty-eight male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into eight groups of six rabbits. Group A (Control group) was administered normal saline. Group B (Western Medicine group) was administered warfarin 1.5 mg/kg/day. Groups C, D, and E [Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) groups] were administered different doses of SJHST (0.5 mg/kg/day, 1 mg/kg/day, and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively). Groups F, G, and H (Combination Therapy groups) were administered warfarin 1.5 mg/kg/day and different doses of SJHST (0.5 mg/kg/day, 1 mg/kg/day, and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively). The total duration of treatment was 14 days. Blood samples were obtained prior to beginning the experiments (day 0) and on day 7, day 14, and day 17 (3 days after discontinuation of the medications). The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), PT, and thrombin time (TT) were calculated and compared among the different groups. Results: No significant changes were noted in APTT, PT or TT between the control and SJHST-only groups. Significant prolongations of APTT and PTT, but not TT, were observed in the combination groups compared to the warfarin-only group. The enhanced anticoagulant effects returned to normal three days after discontinuation of SJHST treatment. Conclusions: We confirmed that the Chinese herb SJHST enhances the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Although the exact mechanisms of the interaction are unknown, physicians should be aware of the possibility of drug interactions between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines owing to the increased risk of bleeding. PMID:24071980
Yang, Sien-Hung; Yu, Chia-Li; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan
Medicinal nature theory of Chinese medicine is the difficult and hot issue in the basic research of Chinese medicine (CM), but has not yet obtained some important breakthrough until now. The cold and heat syndromes is considered as the capital differentiation of CM in clinic; cold and hot is the primary medicinal nature of CM. Treating the cold with heat, the heat with cold is the main therapeutic principle of CM. But, whether the cold and hot of medicinal nature objectively exists? Whether/how to establish a set of objectives and feasible appraisal methodologies? How to apply the theoratical and research findings of medicinal nature in clinical practice? In recent years, a new road for ourselves to carry out a series of explorations and researches on the cold and hot nature of CM from the thermodynamic view has been opened, and the doctrine of "Thermodynamic outlook of Chinese medicinal nature" has been proposed firstly by our research group. Consequently, we have established the research model, "coming from clinic, verifying in experiment and returning to the clinic", on the medicinal nature of CM, and developed a set of appraisal methodologies of the cold and hot nature of Chinese medicine based on biothermokinetics, such as the cold/hot plate differentiating system, microcalorimetry, evidence-based medical analysis for medicinal nature of CM. Based on these methods, a systematical investigation has been done focusing the energy transfer and thermal change in the metabolism progress of organism and the intervention effects of different Chinese medicines on this progress from the experiment to the clinic, in vitro and in vivo. Our studies have essentially elucidated the objectivity of the differences between the cold and hot nature of Chinese medicine as well as the scientific connotation of "treating the cold with heat, the heat with cold", provided a novel and perspective approach for investigating the medicinal nature theory of Chinese medicine, further supplied some new technological supports for the modernization of CM. PMID:21046763
Xiao, Xiaohe; Wang, Jiabo; Zhao, Yanling; Wang, Yongyan; Xiao, Peigen
Many schools of academic doctrines have emerged throughout the development history of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) due to geographic, time, Shicheng (mentor-apprentice system) and academic diversities. Classic TCM School, Classic Formula School and Febrile Disorder School, though all lacking a clearly demonstrable or continuous Shicheng relationship, are nevertheless so classified because of their consistency in reference to the classic TCM works. Each of the Four Famous Masters of Jin and Yuan Dynasties had its distinctively different academic doctrine, resulting in the establishment of individually integrated academic schools. The emergence of the Warming and Tonifying School in late Yuan and early Ming Dynasties was realized as a means to rectify the ill effects of the cool and cold medications prevalent at the time. On the other hand, the advent of the Warm Disease School and the rise of the Confluence School embodied the close relationship carried by TCM academic schools to contemporary historical background. Looking at this development history, it is evident that the development of TCM academic schools could flourish only if it allows dissenting, yet mutually tolerant, opinions. In present medical environment where TCM and Western medicine are of equal importance, Classic TCM Schools, TCM Modernization Schools and Integrative Medicine Schools should all receive emphasis to foster development. PMID:22772917
Chen, Ke-Ji; Xie, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Yue
The herbal system of medicine, popularly known as Phytotherapy, is rapidly developing as an independent subject. Specialties subjects like Medicinal botany or Pharmaceutical botany, Medicinal Phytochemistry, Ethno pharmacology and Phytopharmacotherapy are emerging. Several studies have reported growing popularity of herbal medicine. There is increased awareness about herbal medicine among masses. Authorities including Central Council of Indian Medicine (C.C.I.M.) and department
Although many agents for acute ischemic stroke treatment have been developed from extensive preclinical studies, most have failed in clinical trials. As a result, researchers are seeking other methods or agents based on previous studies. Among the various prospective approaches, vascular protection might be the key for development of therapeutic agents for stroke and for improvements in the efficacy and safety of conventional therapies. Traditional medicines in Asian countries are based on clinical experiences and literature accumulated over thousands of years. To date, many studies have used traditional herbal medicines to prove or develop new agents based on stroke treatments mentioned in traditional medicinal theory or other clinical data. In the current review, we describe the vascular factors related to ischemic brain damage and the herbal medicines that impact these factors, including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, Notoginseng Radix, and Curcumae Rhizoma, based on scientific reports and traditional medical theory. Further, we point out the problems associated with herbal medicines in stroke research and propose better methodologies to address these problems. PMID:24170629
Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Kyungjin; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan
Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of patients had used TCM. Use was greatest for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM; 55.8%). Only 1.3% of patients used acupuncture and 6.8% Qi Gong or Tai Qi. Sixty-three percent of patients notified their oncologist about TCM use. The most common reason for use was to improve immune function. CHM was often used with a goal of treating cancer (66.4%), a use that 57% of physicians agreed with. Physicians were most concerned with interference with treatment, lack of evidence, and safety. Ninety percent of physicians have prescribed herbs and 87.5% have used TCM themselves. Conclusion. The use of TCM by Chinese cancer patients is exceptionally high, and physicians are generally well informed and supportive of patients' use. Botanical agents are much more commonly used than acupuncture or movement-based therapies.
McQuade, Jennifer L.; Meng, ZhiQiang; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Bei, WenYing; Palmer, J. Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo
The traditional Chinese medicine property theory refers to a concept for medicines and their effects under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theories. The traditional Chinese medicine property theory studies the formation mechanism and the application regularity of traditional Chinese medicine properties, including four Qi, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (upward, downward, outward and inward) and toxicity. Embryologically, the traditional Chinese medicine property theory is closely related to medicines and their effects and heavily influenced by philosophical thoughts such as yin-yang and five elements and comparative state, thereby showing complex characteristics. This mainly reflects in that: first, medical properties are formed from multiple sources, with non-unique determination approach in early stage and non-unique corresponding effects and actions; second, medical properties are expressed in multiple characteristics, with diverse representation indicators and factors influencing actual expressions. The modern studies on the traditional Chinese medicine property theory shall focus on these complex characteristics, give attention to the dialectical unity of medical properties and effects and look for individuality as well as generality. PMID:23397741
Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing
Summary The possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions between Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to extract powder (TJ-12), a widely used traditional\\u000a Chinese herbal (Kampo) medicine, and carbamazepine (CBZ), an important anti-epileptic drug, was examined in rats. There were\\u000a no significant differences in the serum protein binding of CBZ and carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide (CBZ-E), its active metabolite,\\u000a at two concentrations (1 and 10 Bg\\/ml) between two groups pretreated orally
Noriaki Ohnishi; Shiniji Nakasako; Kazuya Okada; Sachiko Umehara; Koji Takara; Kazuki Nagasawa; Mutsunobu Yoshioka; Kazuo Kuroda; Teruyoshi Yokoyama
Traditional Chinese medicines have been widely investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because none of the current therapies-either the cholinesterase inhibitors or antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors-has profound effects on halting the progression of AD. In recent years, scientists have isolated many active compounds from herbs, which can alleviate dementia and neurodegenerative syndrome with fewer side effects than conventional drugs and, thus, are regarded as promising drug candidates for AD therapy. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on six herbs for AD therapy-Huperzia serrata, Amaryllidaceae family, Ginkgo biloba, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Polygala tenuifolia, and Salvia officinalis-and focus on the analysis of their active components and possible mechanisms of pharmacological actions on AD. PMID:21791295
Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chip-Ping; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong
Herbal medicine is a prominent complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality in Israel based on the country's natural diversity and impressive cultural mosaic. In this study, we compared cross-cultural perspectives of patients attending primary care clinics in northern Israel on herbal medicine specifically and CAM generally, and the possibility of integrating them within primary care. Research assistants administered a questionnaire to consecutive patients attending seven primary care clinics. About 2184 of 3713 respondents (59%) defined themselves as Muslims, Christians or Druze (henceforth Arabs) and 1529 (41%) as Jews. Arab respondents reported more use of herbs during the previous year (35 versus 27.8% P = .004) and of more consultations with herbal practitioners (P < .0001). Druze reported the highest rate of herbal consultations (67.9%) and Ashkenazi Jews the lowest rate (45.2%). About 27.5% of respondents supported adding a herbal practitioner to their clinic's medical team if CAM were to be integrated within primary care. Both Arabs and Jews report considerable usage of herbal medicine, with Arabs using it significantly more. Cross-cultural perspectives are warranted in the study of herbal medicine use in the Arab and Jewish societies.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Lev, Efraim; Keshet, Yael; Schiff, Elad
Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products.
Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.
More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design.
Chen, Rui; Moriya, Junji; Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Takashi
The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452
Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H
Amnesia is characterized by the inability to form memories or total or partial loss of memory secondary to cerebral malfunction following degenerative diseases, cerebral infections, traumatic injuries and emotional events which could be differentiated from dementia. However, no effective treatment for amnesia is currently available. Much research effort has been focused on developing new drugs from herbal medicines which have multifunctional properties. Novel plant extracts and their major or bioactive components including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and saponins with promising antioxidant effects, various effects on cholinergic, GABAergic, glutaminergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and histaminergic systems, enhancement of cerebral blood flow and elevation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) as well as protein levels have been studied. In this review, we discuss the research findings on novel plant extracts and their bioactives with anti-amnesic effects on different neurotransmitter systems. Developing new drugs from herbal medicines for the treatment of amnesia is a hopeful attempt to meet the unmet medical needs. PMID:20033863
Hsieh, Ming Tsuen; Peng, Wen Huang; Wu, Chi Rei; Ng, Kit Ying; Cheng, Chuen Lung; Xu, Hong Xi
Herbal products have gained increasing popularity in the last decades, and are now broadly used to treat illness and improve health. Notwithstanding the public opinion, both, safety and efficacy, are major sources of dispute among the scientific community, mainly due to lack of (or scarcity or scattered) conclusive data linking a herbal constituent to pharmacological action in vivo, in a way that benefit overrides risk. This paper presents a methodological framework for addressing natural medicine in a systematic and holistic way with a view to providing medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients.
Siontorou, Christina G.
ObjectivesPaclitaxel is widely used in cancer chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors such as breast, ovarian and lung cancer. However, it sometimes induces moderate to severe muscle pain, and impairs the patients’ quality of life. An appropriate method for relieving this pain is not well established. Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, a herbal medicine, is known to relieve menstrual pain, muscle spasm, and
Takao Hidaka; Tomoko Shima; Kiyofumi Nagira; Masahiro Ieki; Takafumi Nakamura; Yukiko Aono; Yasushi Kuraishi; Takashi Arai; Shigeru Saito
Quality control of herbal medicines (HMs) is a big big headache because of the high complexity and unknown mechanism on disease treatment. In this work, mass spectral profiling, a new tool for data processing is proposed to help a lot in solving this problem as gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) is used to detect both the active and non-active ingredients buried
Zhong-Da Zeng; Yi-Zeng Liang; Foo-Tim Chau; Shuo Chen; Mok Kam-Wah Daniel; Chi-On Chan
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used in the European Union (EU) and attracts intense research interests from European scientists. As an emerging area in Europe, TCM research requires collaboration and coordination of actions. Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era, also known as GP-TCM, is the first ever EU-funded 7th Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action, aiming to inform the best practice and harmonise research on the safety and efficacy of TCM through interdisciplinary exchange of experience and expertise among clinicians and scientists. With its increasingly large pool of expertise across 19 countries including 13 EU member states, Australia, Canada, China, Norway, Thailand and the USA, the consortium provides forums and collaboration platforms on quality control, extraction technology, component analysis, toxicology, pharmacology and regulatory issues of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as well as on acupuncture studies, with a particular emphasis on the application of a functional genomics approach. The project officially started in May 2009 and by the time of its conclusion in April 2012 a Europe-based academic society dedicated to TCM research will be founded to carry on the mission of GP-TCM.
Picroside II, separated from Chinese herbal medicine, is an active compound with neroprotective activity. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have high affinity toward template molecules synthesized by molecularly imprinted technology for its specific combined sites, which can overcome the shortcomings of traditional separation methods, such as complex operation and low efficiency. In this paper, MIPs were prepared by precipitation polymerization with picroside II as the template molecule, 1-vinylimidazole (1-Vinyl) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker. The morphology of MIPs was characterized by scanning electronmicroscope (SEM) and its static adsorption capacity was measured by the scatchard equation. The results showed that picroside II MIPs have spherical shape, and most of them are uniform in size. Furthermore, the maximum binding capacity (Q(max)) of MIPs is 3.02 mg x g(-1), higher than that of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). This result indicated that picroside II MIPs with good morphology and high targeted affinity toward the template molecules can be prepared by precipitation polymerization, which can be used to separate picroside II and its analogies from extract of Chinese herbal medicine. In addition, this method has the advantages of good environment and simple operation, which might offer a novel method for the efficient separation of picroside II in the traditional herbal medicines. PMID:24079241
Yi, Li-Na; Li, Ke-Qin; Wang, Qiu-Juan; Liu, Qing-Shan; Guo, Qing-Long
Herbal treatment of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) has been practiced in China for a long time. Even to-date, a variety of herbal items, including “Yin-chin” (Artemisia), “Huang-qin” (Scutellaria), “Da-huang” (Rheum officinale), “Gan-cao” (Glycyrrhiza), and “Huang-lin” (Coptis chinesis), are still being prescribed to jaundiced infants, often in combination with modern treatment such as phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Their efficacy has, however, not
Tai Fai Fok
The therapeutic effects of certain Japanese herbal medicines on menopausal symptoms induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy were examined in Japanese women with endometriosis, adenomyosis, or leiomyoma. Menopausal symptoms occurred in 17 of the 22 patients. Toki-shakuyaku-san, Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, Keishi-bukuryo-gan, Kami-shoyo-san, Tokaku-joki-to, or Keishi-to was administered to 13 of the 17 patients with menopausal symptoms, and efficacy was observed in all 13. Eleven patients with hot flashes were treated with Toki-shakuyaku-san, and all II patients experienced some relief; four experienced total relief. Three patients complaining of severe shoulder stiffness were treated with Shakuyaku-kanzo-to and were completely relieved of symptoms. There was no significant change in serum estradiol levels after treatment with the Japanese herbal medicines. Our results indicate that Japanese herbal medicines can be recommended for menopausal symptoms induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists without a negative effect on serum estradiol levels. PMID:11332582
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The inorganic anions nitrate and nitrite are important intermediates in the nitrogen cycle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The nitrate–nitrite–nitric oxide pathway has been shown to exist in many alternative herbal medicines or dietary supplements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Many herbal medicines contain high levels of nitrate and to a less extent nitrite.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There is an effective system in certain herbal medicines for reducing nitrite
The chemical composition of herbal medicines is very complex, and their therapeutic effects are determined by multi-components with sophisticated synergistic and/or suppressive actions. Therefore, quality control of herbal medicines has been a formidable challenge. In this work, we describe a fast analytical method that can be used for quality assessment of herbal medicines. The method is based on ligand fishing using human-serum-albumin-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (HSA-MNPs) and mass spectrometry. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, eight samples of Dioscorea panthaica were analyzed. The sampled plants were of both wild and cultivated origins. They grew at different geographical locations and were harvested at different times. The ligands bound to HSA-MNPs were isolated from the plant extracts and detected by using direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DI–ESI–MS). Chemical identity has been confirmed for five of the ligands isolated. From more than 15 peaks in the ESI–MS spectrum, 11 common peaks were selected for calculating the correlation coefficient and cosine ratio. The values of correlation coefficient and cosine ratio were >0.9824 and >0.9988, respectively, for all the samples tested. The results indicated a high level of similarity among the eight D. panthaica samples. Compared with chromatographic fingerprint analysis, the proposed HSA-MNP-based DI–ESI–MS/MS approach was not only fast and easy to carry out but also biological-activity-oriented, promising a more effective data interpretation and thus reliable assessment conclusions.
Qing, Lin-Sen; Xue, Ying; Deng, Wen-Long; Xu, Xue-Min; Li, Bo-Gang
Summary CAM researchers commonly treat traditional medicines as unchanging systems. This article questions the validity of this approach by examining the treatment of menopausal syndrome by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Such treatment strategies were invented in 1964 and betray a strong influence of biomedical thinking. While they determine TCM treatment of menopausal syndrome in the West, physicians in China and Japan use many other treatment strategies from within the wider Chinese medical tradition in clinical practice. Cultural variability in the manifestation of menopausal syndrome furthermore questions the usefulness of simply importing treatment strategies from China to the West. This leads me to conclude that Chinese medicine as such can never be evaluated by means of clinical research. What we can do is use Chinese medicine as a resource for thinking about illness, and for formulating clinical interventions that may then be assessed using methods of evidence based research.
To administer Chinese medicines against forest encephalitis, preliminary tests of the study showed that 0.1% and 0.5% Rotenone, Veratri nigri Rhizoma, Strychnos, capsicum plus Nicotiana tabacum L., and Artemisiae vulgaris Folia worked satisfactorily. The ...
T. M. Chen
We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM), as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM), mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD). We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese). were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made.
Man, Sui Cheung; Chan, Kam Wa; Lu, Jia-Hong; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Liu, Liang-Feng; Li, Min
Based on the pathophysiology of the brain, advance in angiogenesis induced by stroke, and evidences of Chinese-medicine-mediated angiogenesis, the possibility to study the stroke-treating mechanism of Chinese medicine in angiogenesis was discussed. And regarding our previous work on angiogenesis modulated by qi-tonifying and stasis-eliminating therapy following intracerebral hemorrhage, we proposed some questions, which should be taken into account in the further work. PMID:24170630
Yang, A-Li; Liang, Qing-Hua; Cui, Han-Jin; Zhou, Hua-Jun; Luo, Jie-Kun; Tang, Tao
Substances of natural origin are the subject of growing interest on the part of both researchers and doctors. One of the well known herbal medicines extensively examined in terms of clinical and pharmacological is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), which was used in European medicine from the 18th century. His multidirectional treatment is a documented fact and it is associated with treatment of dyspepsia, influence of active substances contained in artichoke on plasma lipid levels and with a strong antioxidant effect of the artichoke extract--due to this properties, artichoke compounds have a protective effect on liver cells. PMID:23421107
Horoszkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Kulza, Maksymilian; Malinowska, Katarzyna; Wo?niak, Anna; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Wachowiak, Anna; Florek, Ewa
A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136
Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J
Extracts of Chinese herbal medicines from plants representing 13 families were tested for their ability to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Effective concentration (EC?? and EC??) levels for 18 of the extracts were determined in laboratory assays with Meloidogyne javanica juveniles and all stages of Pratylenchus vulnus. Efficacy of 17 extracts was tested against M. javanica in soil. Generally, EC?? and EC?? values determined in the laboratory were useful indicators for application rates in the soil. Extracts tested from plants in the Liliaceae reduced galling of tomato by M. javanica and were not phytotoxic. Similarly, isothiocyanate-yielding plants in the Brassicaceae suppressed root galling without phytotoxicity. Other plant extracts, including those from Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, and Hedera helix, suppressed root galling but were phytotoxic at the higher concentrations tested. Many of these plant sources have been tested elsewhere. Inconsistency in results across studies points to the need for identification of active components and for determination of concentration levels of these components when plant residues or extracts are applied to soil. PMID:19265919
Zasada, I A; Ferris, H; Zheng, L
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) contains a large number of herbal medicine and Chinese patent medicine, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. The homonym and synonym are very popular in TCM for its source complex. How to identify species and control the quality of TCM has become urgent, and fingerprint techniques have now been widely used in TCM for these purposes. In the present paper, four popular fingerprinting techniques (CE, HPLC, GC, and XRD) and their current applications in TCM are reviewed. All these techniques are proved to be an advanced and effective way to get an accurate and integral fingerprint, and each is discussed in detail with examples. CE, HPLC and GC are widely considered as the ideal methods to work out fingerprint analysis. GC is outstanding in analyzing the volatile components and HPLC has advantages in the analysis of the majority of chemical components of TCM. However, because of the complexity of chemical components in TCM, it is very hard for single CE, HPLC or GC to characterize all these components. Hyphenated techniques are strongly recommended for the purpose of quality control of TCM. It is concluded that more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCM is essential and the fingerprint techniques might be a powerful tool for quality control of TCM in the near future for their unique advantages. PMID:19689283
Zhong, Xian-Ke; Li, Di-Cai; Jiang, Jian-Guo
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-A? activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom. PMID:21808655
Lin, Zhihong; Gu, Jie; Xiu, Jin; Mi, Tingyan; Dong, Jie; Tiwari, Jyoti Kumar
1. To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admitted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied. 2. There were 54 women and 17 men with their age ranging from 15 to 86 years. Twenty-three subjects (32%) also took alcohol, chemicals or drugs. Of the 51 subjects (72%) who had taken topical medicaments, 22 had no symptoms while 28 had minor features of gastrointestinal irritation (n = 26), mild (n = 2) or severe (n = 1) salicylate poisoning. Of the 17 subjects (24%) who had taken CPM tablets/capsules, nine had mild symptoms including nausea/vomiting and drowsiness. The three remaining patients (4%) who had ingested liquid CPM preparations were asymptomatic. Elevated plasma salicylate or paracetamol concentrations (> 0.1 mmol l-1) were found in some patients who had taken topical medicaments and CPM tablets/capsules, respectively. All the 71 patients completely recovered. 3. Most of the CPM used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong were of low to moderate toxicity except for those containing wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate). PMID:7612306
Chan, T Y; Lee, K K; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A
Evidence based medicine demands the highest form of scientific evidence to demonstrate the efficacy and clinical effectiveness for any therapeutic intervention in order to provide best care. It is however accepted that in the absence of scientific evidence, personal experience and expert opinion together with professional judgement are critical. Obtaining evidence for drug safety, postmarketing surveillance (PMS) has focussed on follow up of observational cohorts exposed to a particular drug in order to estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Evidence on PMS of Chinese herbal products is still limited, in particular for herbal injections. The aim of this article is to suggest a new model of ascertaining the safety of Chinese medicine using a more comprehensive approach for collecting data. To collect safety data on the Chinese herbal injection, Kudiezi, a mixed methods approach is proposed using 18 hospital information systems to detect ADRs in order to prospectively observe 30,000 patients over 3 years. Evidence will also be collected using a questionnaire survey and through a sample of semi structured interviews. This information based on the expert opinion and the experience of clinicians will produce additional data on the frequency and types of side effects in clinical practice. Furthermore semi structured interviews with a random sample of patients receiving the injection will be carried out to ascertain any potential side effects missed. It is hoped that this comprehensive approach to data collection will accumulate wider evidence based on individual traditional Chinese medicine care and treatment and provide important feedback to the national data collection system to ensure completeness of ADR data recording, monitoring and any potential wider effects through developing improved ADR guidelines. PMID:23818200
Liao, Xing; Robinson, Nicola
A 70-year-old man was admitted with a chief complaint of dyspnea. Chest X-ray images showed diffuse infiltrative shadows in both lungs. A chest CT scan showed diffuse non-segmental consolidation with an air bronchogram, ground-glass opacity, and possible traction bronchiectasis. The number of lymphocytes was abnormally high in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed Masson's body and bronchiolitis. Microorganisms were not present in the BALF. Drug-induced pneumonitis, caused by the Chinese herbal drug saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to or valsartan or both, which he had been taking for about 3 months, was diagnosed. The patient's symptoms and the pulmonary infiltrates seen on chest radiograph diminished after these drugs were discontinued and oral prednisolone was administered. PMID:16050466
Herbal medicines nowadays tend to gain more and more popularity among health care providers and drugstore customers, as well. Current study has been an effort to explore the attitudes and customer behavior of drug consumers in Yerevan, Armenia. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study in nature an has no hypothesis set and does not claim to have produced statistically significant generalizable results. However, it is a valuable start point for further investigations with presumably quantitative statistical analysis methods. Some four districts of Yerevan out of twelve were randomly selected with subsequent random selection of proportionately adequate number of drugstores, where the interviewers approached every 4th customer with the request to answer the questionnaire that they had previously developed and tested in three randomly chosen non-target drugstores from one randomly chosen non-target district. Data were collected by filling paper forms followed by entry and processing using SPSS 11.0 for Windows. The results of the study demonstrate that some link exist between customers' appreciation of herbal drugs as safe and effective and their level of education. Another dimension discovered, was that university students appeared to be the most satisfied with the affordability of herbal medicines. PMID:22466544
Beglaryan, M; Amirjanyan, A
Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif.
Summers, W. C.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been actively researched through various approaches, including computational techniques. A review on basic elements of TCM is provided to illuminate various challenges and progresses in its study using computational methods. Information on various TCM formulations, in particular resources on databases of TCM formulations and their integration to Western medicine, are analyzed in several facets, such
Suryani Lukman; Yulan He; Siu-Cheung Hui
Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could supplement total antioxidants intake. Amongst the tested herbal extracts, extracts of Canarium album Raeusch., Flos caryophylli and Fructus amomi were found to have the highest antioxidative activities in both DPPH and FRAP assays. Their antioxidative activities were comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Thus, these herbs are safe and inexpensive sources of natural antioxidants. A significant relationship between the antioxidative effects and total phenolic contents were found, indicating phenolic compounds are the major contributor of antioxidative capacities of these herbs. In addition, a strong correlation between DPPH assay and FRAP assay implied that antioxidants in these herbs were capable of scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidants. PMID:18815744
Guo, D-J; Cheng, H-L; Chan, S-W; Yu, P H-F
Wilson's disease (WD), or hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive inheritance disorder of copper metabolism caused by ATP7B gene mutation. As WD is an inherited disease of the nervous system that is not curable; early diagnosis with early and life-long treatment leads to better prognoses. Currently, the recommended treatment for WD is integrated Chinese and Western medicine. A number of studies indicate that treatment of integrative medicine can not only enforce the de-copper effect but also improve liver function, intelligence, and other factors. This article reviewed in detail the advantages of WD treated with Chinese and Western medicine together. PMID:22610954
Li, Wen-Jie; Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ping
Eleven species of Huilliche medicinal plants used traditionally against infections and for wound healing were tested for their cholinesterase inhibition activity. Two different teas (a 5-7 min infusion and a 1 h decoction, both in water) were tested for their toxicity against Artemia salina. The results from the present study clearly show that teas boiled for 1 h is much more toxic than teas infused for 5-7 min. These results support the different traditional use of the two teas, where the 1h tea is for external use only. Additionally, significant inhibition of cholinesterase has been observed for MeOH extracts of Acaena argentea, Amomyrtas meli and Pseudopanax laetevirens, with that of A. argentea being the most potent. All findings call for further investigations. PMID:23652640
Adsersen, Anne; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft
We situate elderly Chinese immigrants’ utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in social contexts (e.g., family and social networks), exploring how TCM is used as a tool, a resource, and a product of meaning-construction in their everyday life. We conducted in in-depth interviews with 20 elderly Chinese immigrants in the United State, exploring the complexity of their understanding and practice
Haiying Kong; Elaine Hsieh
Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain mechanisms of action of these botanicals, in addition to a systematic review of controlled clinical trials for treatment of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, which are common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Specific emphasis was given to emerging phytomedicines. Analysis of evidence levels was conducted, as were effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available. Results provided evidence of a range of neurochemical, endocrinological, and epigenetic effects for 21 individual phytomedicines, which are detailed in this paper. Sixty six controlled studies were located involving eleven phytomedicines. Several of these provide a high level of evidence, such as Hypericum perforatum for major depression, and Piper methysticum for anxiety disorders. Several human clinical trials provide preliminary positive evidence of antidepressant effects (Echium amoenum, Crocus sativus, and Rhodiola rosea) and anxiolytic activity (Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Passiflora incanata, E. amoenum, and Scutellaria lateriflora). Caution should however be taken when interpreting the results as many studies have not been replicated. Several herbal medicines with in vitro and in vivo evidence are currently unexplored in human studies, and along with use of emerging genetic technologies "herbomics", are areas of potential future research. PMID:21601431
Sarris, Jerome; Panossian, Alexander; Schweitzer, Isaac; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew
Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating
Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said
Medicinal plants used to treat diabetic conditions are of considerable interest and a number of plants have shown varying degrees of hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activity. An ethno-medico-botanical survey was carried out among the Kani and Paliyar tribals in southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu for the exploration of antidiabetic herbal medicines. They frequently use ten species of plants for the
M. Ayyanar; K. Sankarasivaraman; S. Ignacimuthu
Non-specific low back pain (NLBP) is an increasing health problem for athletes. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for NLBP. 110 athletes with NLBP were randomly assigned to experimental group with Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment or control group with simple massage therapy. The primary outcome was pain by Chinese Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (C-SFMPQ). The secondary outcome was local muscle stiffness by Myotonometer. After 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced significant improvements in C-SFMPQ and in local muscle stiffness compared with control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, -1.24 points, P = 0.005 in sensory scores; -3.14 points, P < 0.001 in affective scores; -4.39 points, P < 0.001 in total scores; -0.64 points, P = 0.002 in VAS; -1.04 points, P = 0.005 in local muscle stiffness during relaxation state). The difference remained at one month followup, but it was only significant in affective scores (-2.83 points, P < 0.001) at three months followup. No adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for athletes with NLBP. PMID:23258996
Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Tao, Ji Ming; Qi, Gao Wei; Cheng, Ying Wu
Non-specific low back pain (NLBP) is an increasing health problem for athletes. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for NLBP. 110 athletes with NLBP were randomly assigned to experimental group with Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment or control group with simple massage therapy. The primary outcome was pain by Chinese Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (C-SFMPQ). The secondary outcome was local muscle stiffness by Myotonometer. After 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced significant improvements in C-SFMPQ and in local muscle stiffness compared with control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, ?1.24 points, P = 0.005 in sensory scores; ?3.14 points, P < 0.001 in affective scores; ?4.39 points, P < 0.001 in total scores; ?0.64 points, P = 0.002 in VAS; ?1.04 points, P = 0.005 in local muscle stiffness during relaxation state). The difference remained at one month followup, but it was only significant in affective scores (?2.83 points, P < 0.001) at three months followup. No adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for athletes with NLBP.
Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Tao, Ji Ming; Qi, Gao Wei; Cheng, Ying Wu
Twenty herbal medicines or dietary supplements marketed as natural slimming products were analysed by diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and DOSY-COSY H-NMR. The method allows analysis of the whole sample with the detection of both active and inactive ingredients in these complex matrices. Among the 20 formulations analysed, two were strictly herbal and four had a composition
J. Vaysse; S. Balayssac; V. Gilard; D. Desoubdzanne; M. Malet-Martino; R. Martino
Excessive alcohol consumption is dangerous and causes serious damage to health. The main organ capable of alcohol oxidizing is liver which is also the main organ synthesizing taurine, a sulfur-containing ?-amino acid, which is the major free intracellular amino acid presenting in many tissues of human and animals and exerting many physiologic and pharmacologic functions. To investigate the effect of taurine and Chinese traditional medicine on alcohol metabolism after acute alcoholic intake, male Kunming mice were administered with 60% alcohol (0.4 ml) intragastrically. Water, taurine, or taurine coadministration with Chinese traditional medicine was intragastrically administered to mice 30 min before or after alcohol intake. The disappearance of body-righting reflex was used to determine the intoxication of mice. Durations between alcohol intake and intoxication (tolerance time), intoxication and recovery (maintenance time) were recorded. The concentration of blood alcohol, levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were detected at 20, 50, 90, 120, and 150 min after alcohol intake. The results showed that taurine administered alone or together with Chinese traditional medicine could both significantly reduce the number of intoxicated mice, postpone the tolerance time, shorten the maintenance time, and could obvisouly decrease blood level of alcohol, increase hepatic levels of ADH and ALDH. The results indicated that taurine administered alone or together with traditional Chinese medicine could significantly accelerate the metabolism of alcohol, reduce the toxicity of alcohol, and coadministration of taurine and traditional Chinese medicine had better effects. PMID:23392867
Wu, Gaofeng; Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Yang, Qunhui; Lv, Qiufeng; Hu, Jianmin
Background Dietary supplements and herbal medicines are gaining popularity in many developed countries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims Although most can be used without any problem, serious toxicities do occur.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Problems can be anticipated when they are used for non-traditional indications, at excessive dose, for prolonged duration,\\u000a or by patients who are also on multiple modern pharmaceuticals. Problems should also be anticipated when these products claim
D. H. Phua; A. Zosel; K. Heard
Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease.
S. P. Li; F. Q. Yang; Karl W. K. Tsim
Atractyloside (ATR) is found in many Asteraceae plants that are commonly used as medicinal herbs in China and other eastern Asian countries. ATR binds specifically to the adenine nucleotide translocator in the inner mitochondrial membrane and competitively inhibits ADP and ATP transport. The toxicity of ATR in medical herbs can be reduced by hydrothermal processing, but the mechanisms of ATR degradation are not well understood. In this study, GC-MS coupled with SPE and TMS derivatisation was used to detect ATR levels in traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Our results suggest that ATR molecules were disrupted by decomposition, hydrolysis and saponification after heating with water (decoction) for a long period of time. Hydrothermal processing could decompose the endogenous toxic compounds and also facilitate the detoxification of raw materials used in the Chinese medicine industry. PMID:23385339
Chen, Liang-Yu; Hu, Anren; Chang, Chih-Jui
Mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) is presumed to be regulated primarily by type 2 T helper cell immune responses and mucosal mast cells in the colon are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the mucosal inflammation. Saireito, a Japanese herbal medicine of standardized quality, originating from traditional Chinese medicine (Kampo medicine), is composed of two different Kampo medicines (shosaikoto and goreisan) and is often used for UC in Japan. In this study, we examined the direct effects of these Kampo medicines and their constituents on the antigen-induced degranulation of mucosal-type mast cells. Mucosal-type murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs) were pretreated by these drugs for 24 h, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-triggered degranulation of mBMMCs was assessed by beta-hexosaminidase release. Goreisan showed inhibitory effects on degranulation of mBMMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Among the five constituent medicinal herbs of goreisan, Poria and Polyporus had the inhibitory effects on mBMMCs. Ergosterol, a principal and common component of Poria and Polyporus, also suppressed the degranulation of mBMMCs. Our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of saireito on UC. PMID:20045953
Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kadowaki, Makoto
Abstract Cognitive repair by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) through activation of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is well established, but not used for clinical therapy due to its link to cancer. We hypothesize that IGF-IR activation rather than IGF-I per se may be essential for cognitive repair and attempted to identify ligands from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with drug-like potential towards IGF-IR. TCM ligands, 3-(2-carboxyphenyl)-4(3H)-quinazolinone from Isatisin digotica, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine from Lindera aggregate, and (+)-1(R)-Coclaurine from Nelumbonucifera Gaertn, exhibited high binding affinities and good blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration crucial for accessing IGF-IR. Stable complex formation of the candidates was observed during molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Interactions with Leu975 and Gly1055 or Asp1056 were important for ligand binding. Amino acid distance analysis revealed residues 974/975, 984-986, 996-1006, 1040-1056, and 1122-1135 as "hotspots" for ligand binding in IGF-IR. Versatile entry pathways for the TCM candidates suggest high accessibility to the binding site. Blockage of the binding site opening by the TCM candidates limits binding site access by other compounds. Multiple linear regression (R(2)?=?0.9715), support vector machine (R(2)?=?0.9084), Bayesian network (R(2)?=?0.8233) comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA, R(2)?=?0.9941), and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA, R(2)?=?0.9877) models consistently suggest that the TCM candidates might exert bioactivity on IGF-IR. Contour of representative MD conformations to CoMFA and CoMSIA maps exhibits similar results. Properties including BBB passage, evidence of ability to form stable complexes with IGF-IR by MD simulation, and predicted bioactivity suggest that the TCM candidates have drug-like properties and might have potential as cognitive-enhancing drugs. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:38. PMID:23249175
Hung, I-Chi; Chang, Su-Sen; Chang, Pei-Chun; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian
This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations\\u000a and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire\\u000a piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or\\u000a 2 g\\/kg of the powder,
X. F. Kong; Y. L. Yin; Q. H. He; F. G. Yin; H. J. Liu; T. J. Li; R. L. Huang; M. M. Geng; Z. Ruan; Z. Y. Deng; M. Y. Xie; G. Wu
A rapid method, using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of Chinese herbal prescription. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLC BEH C18 column using gradient elution system. A hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer was used for the determination of accurate mass of the protonated or deprotonated molecule and fragment ion. The constituents
Xintian Zheng; Peiying Shi; Yiyu Cheng; Haibin Qu
A type of polycystic ovary resembling some aspects of human polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) can be induced in the rat with a single injection of long-acting estradiol valerate. Among several theories behind the development of polycystic ovaries (PCO), the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system draws much attention, and herbal medicine is known to relieve the abnormal symptoms of PCO. Two