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1

Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine. PMID:21892916

Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd

2011-12-01

2

Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

2011-01-01

3

[Biorefinery engineering for Chinese herbal medicines: a review].  

PubMed

The resource limitation, ineffective utilization and severe waste generated during processing restrict the sustainable development of the Chinese herbal medicine industry. The main reasons lie in insufficient utilization of medicinal components as well as few and outdated technologies. Integration and optimization of serial technologies including pretreatment, extraction, conversion and waste treatment are the keys to solve these issues. In this article, the updated research progress and technology development of biorefinery engineering for herbal medicines are reviewed. Guided by multi-products oriental fractionation refining, Chinese herbal medicine refinery technical system is constructed relied on advanced refinery technology platforms. PMID:25211999

Chen, Hongzhang; Sui, Wenjie

2014-06-01

4

Chinese herbal medicines revisited: a Hong Kong perspective.  

PubMed

Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) and Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) are widely used by people of Chinese origin throughout the world. Although the use of these medicinal materials rarely causes significant toxic effects, cases of severe and even fatal poisoning have occurred after medication with herbs containing aconitine, podophyllin, and anticholinergic substances. Furthermore, CHM and CPM are often adulterated with substituted herbs, heavy metals, and western medicines; such contamination can have important clinical consequences. In Hong Kong, surveillance and legislation are required to control the use of some of these herbal preparations. In other countries, medical practitioners should also be aware of the possibility that these herbal-medicine-related remedies may cause significant clinical problems in their Chinese patients. PMID:7902907

Chan, T Y; Chan, J C; Tomlinson, B; Critchley, J A

5

Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

6

[Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].  

PubMed

In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction. PMID:21657088

Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

2011-03-01

7

Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

Cheng, Richard

1984-01-01

8

[Identification of Chinese herbal medicines based on terahertz spectroscopy analysis].  

PubMed

In order to study the feasibility of the identification of Chinese herbal medicines based on terahertz spectroscopy, the optical characteristic of astragalus, angelica, eucommia and three kinds of astragalus samples with different impurities in the frequency range 0.2-2.2 THz were researched by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), and their time-domain spectra, the frequency spectra and the absorption spectra were obtained at room temperature. The results indicated that the time-domain spectra, frequency-domain spectra and absorption spectra of astragalus, angelica, and eucommia have large differences in such a frequency range, the frequency-domain spectra and absorption spectra of three kinds of astragalus samples with different impurities are similar but there exists distinct difference. These researches proved that it is feasible to use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to identify Chinese herbal medicine and provided a new method for Chinese herbal medicine quality control. PMID:25269292

Zhou, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jin-Song; Wang, Ke-Jia; Yang, Zhen-Gang; Zhang, Hui

2014-07-01

9

[Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].  

PubMed

Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

2014-07-01

10

Anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, science or myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the\\u000a past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific\\u000a validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results,\\u000a from a western perspective, in the

Wen-jing Ruan; Mao-de Lai; Jian-guang Zhou

2006-01-01

11

Analytical supercritical fluid extraction of Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique, followed by GC\\/MS, was developed to separate and determine the volatile components in Chinese herbal medicine. Three kinds of herbs, frankincense, myrrh, andEvodia rutaecarpa were extracted and analyzed. The extraction was carried out using supercritical fluid CO2 at 20 MPa and 50°C. The main factors affecting the efficiency and selectivity of the extraction

X. Ma; X. Yu; Z. Zheng; J. Mao

1991-01-01

12

Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological saline in the control, were respectively injected to the rabbits vaccinated with inactivated rabbit hemorrhagic disease vaccine. On Days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of serum antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In chicken immune trial, all of cCIs and cCMs were mixed respectively with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine virus to vaccinate chickens, taking oil-adjuvant and non-adjuvant vaccine as controls. On Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers were tested respectively by MTT method and HI test method. The results showed that both cCIs could significantly raise antibody titer in rabbits, which the effect of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 1 (cCIs 1) was better than that of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 2 (cCIs 2). All of cCIs and cCMs could markedly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance antibody titer in chickens, which was similar to oil adjuvant, the immunologic enhancement of cCIs were slightly superior to that of the cCMs. PMID:16378665

Sun, Jun-Ling; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Wang, De-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Kang; Liu, Jia-Guo

2006-03-20

13

Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation.  

PubMed

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations. PMID:19842218

Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

2009-10-21

14

[Status and thinking of supervision and management of Chinese herbal medicine].  

PubMed

The article briefly introduces the status of the supervision and administration of Chinese herbal medicine, and summarizes the problems existing in the process of supervision and management. Meanwhile provides the countermeasures and suggestions of strengthening the supervision and administration of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24010306

Xie, Xiao-Yu

2013-06-01

15

Chinese Herbal Medicine and Depression: The Research Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing. PMID:23476701

Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

2013-01-01

16

[Discussion on implications and research ideas of toxic theory in natural characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine].  

PubMed

The meaning of "poisonous" in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is different from that of modern medicine. Narrow meaning of "poisonous" in TCM refers to harmful reaction to human body. Otherwise, generalized meaning of "poisonous" has two main implications: general title of drug and eccentric nature for drug. To fully reveal the scientific content of Chinese herbal toxic theory, we should carry out our research on the relationship between Chinese herbal toxicity and body state under the guidance of TCM theory. Moreover, comprehensive study on toxic information is also necessary for clarifying the natural characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:19459317

Wu, Jiarui; Zhang, Bing; Chang, Zhangfu

2009-02-01

17

Anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, science or myth?*  

PubMed Central

Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area. PMID:17111471

Ruan, Wen-jing; Lai, Mao-de; Zhou, Jian-guang

2006-01-01

18

Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

2013-01-01

19

The development of Chinese herbal medicine and the Pen-ts'ao.  

PubMed

Chinese medicine employs complex mixtures of remedies and does not appreciate the advantage or effectiveness of a single drug entity. Chinese herbal remedies are derived from animal, mineral, as well as arboreous and herbaceous sources. At least 1,500 different herbal drugs have been tested, analysed, and used in Chinese medicine; this is well documented in more than 50 different or revised editions of Pen-ts'ao. Both Sheng-nung Pen-ts'ao Ching, the earliest Chinese materia medica book, and the latest Pen-ts'ao Kang-mu are well-known and valuable compendia of herbal drugs. PMID:343983

Hou, J P

1977-01-01

20

Identification of Chinese herbal medicines by fluorescence microscopy: fluorescent characteristics of medicinal bark.  

PubMed

Medicinal bark refers to structures outside the vascular cambium of stems, branches and roots of gymnospermous and dicotyledonous plants that are used as medicinal materials; bark is an important type of Chinese herbal medicine. However, identification of the species from which the bark comes can be very difficult, especially when the bark is dried and sliced. In our previous studies, we have found that fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for the identification of easily confused Chinese herbal medicines, powdered Chinese herbal medicines and decoction dregs. To establish the fluorescent characteristics by which medicinal barks can be identified, for ensuring their safe and effective use, a systematic microscopic investigation by normal light and fluorescence microscope was carried out on transverse section samples of 11 medicinal barks commonly used in China. Specifically, the fluorescent characteristics of mechanical tissues, including stone cells and fibres as well as secretory tissues, have been observed. The microscopic features of medicinal bark are here systematically and comparatively described and illustrated. Under the fluorescence microscope, various tissues emitted fluorescence of different colours, and we found that both the colours and the intensity can be used to distinguish and identify these barks. PMID:25088607

Huang, X; Liang, Z; Chen, H; Zhao, Z; Li, P

2014-10-01

21

Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

2010-01-01

22

Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21248427

Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

2010-12-01

23

Chinese herbal medicine for infertility with anovulation: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treatment of anovulation and infertility in women. Eight (8) databases were extensively retrieved. The Chinese electronic databases included VIP Information, CMCC, and CNKI. The English electronic databases included AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, and MEDLINE(®). Randomized controlled trials using CHM as intervention were included in the study selection. The quality of studies was assessed by the Jadad scale and the criteria referred to Cochrane reviewers' handbook. The efficacy of CHM treatment for infertility with anovulation was evaluated by meta-analysis. There were 692 articles retrieved according to the search strategy, and 1659 participants were involved in the 15 studies that satisfied the selection criteria. All the included trials were done in China. Meta-analysis indicated that CHM significantly increased the pregnancy rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.50-3.88) and reduced the miscarriage rate (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.10-0.41) compared to clomiphene. In addition, CHM also increased the ovulation rate (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.06-2.25) and improved the cervical mucus score (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.78-8.21) compared to clomiphene, while there were no significant difference between CHM and clomiphene combined with other medicine. CHM is effective in treating infertility with anovulation. Also, no significant adverse effects were identified for the use of CHM from the studies included in this review. However, owing to the low quality of the studies investigated, more randomized controlled trials are needed before evidence-based recommendation regarding the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the management of infertility with anovulation can be provided. PMID:23198826

Tan, Li; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Xu, Mei; Shi, Yang; Song, Xin-yang; Zhang, Ting-ting

2012-12-01

24

Protein Molecular Markers for Herbal Natures of Six Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new method of using molecular markers to study the material base of the herbal nature of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs. The feasibility of using the all-electric ion chromatography to select the appropriate protein molecular markers for studying the herbal nature of TCM herbs is also discussed. In the study, the chromatographic peaks of the total

Wang Hou-wei; Dou Yan-ling; Tian Jing-zhen; Wang Zhen-guo

2008-01-01

25

Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

2013-01-01

26

Anti-hepatitis activities in the broth of Ganoderma lucidum supplemented with a Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

The anti-hepatitis B virus activity and hepatoprotective activity of a liquid fermentation broth of Ganoderma lucidum were investigated. The cultured broth was supplemented with aqueous extract of Radix Sophorae flavescentis, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine. Our results indicated that the cultured broth had effects of anti-hepatitis B virus activity in vitro and protected mice from liver damage in vivo. Our results also indicated that the co-fermentation broth of Ganoderma lucidum in the presence of aqueous extract of Radix Sophorae flavescentis has better medicinal effects than simply mixing these two ingredients together, suggesting a potential novel way to prepare Chinese herbal mixtures. PMID:16552843

Li, Yanqun; Yang, Yailong; Fang, Lu; Zhang, Zhibin; Jin, Jian; Zhang, Kechang

2006-01-01

27

Chemical analysis of the Chinese herbal medicine Gan-Cao (licorice)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gan-Cao, or licorice, is a popular Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata. The main bioactive constituents of licorice are triterpene saponins and various types of flavonoids. The contents of these compounds may vary in different licorice batches and thus affect the therapeutic effects. In order to ensure its

Qingying Zhang; Min Ye

2009-01-01

28

Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose  

PubMed Central

Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the trial (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.58). However, all trials had a considerable risk of bias and none of the specific herbal medicines comparison data was available from more than one study. Moreover, results could have been confounded by rates of natural reversion to normal glucose levels. Authors’ conclusions The positive evidence in favour of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of IGT or IFG is constrained by the following factors: lack of trials that tested the same herbal medicine, lack of details on co-interventions, unclear methods of randomisation, poor reporting and other risks of bias. PMID:19821382

Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

2011-01-01

29

Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2013-01-01

30

Insights into the monomers and single drugs of Chinese herbal medicine on myocardial preservation.  

PubMed

Chinese herbal drugs have been proved to be effective agents in myocardial protection by preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanisms as to how these agents work were however poorly elucidated. Studies on the monomers or on the single drugs have highlighted the possible rationales, leading to a better understanding of the pharmaceutical effects of the active parts of the herbs. These agents have been found to be structure-sensitive while they play the role of a protective ingredient. Polysaccharides of Chinese herbal medicine have pharmaceutical effects in immune modulation, anti-inflammation, anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-aging mechanisms, with an anti-oxidative effect being a commonly recognized mechanism. Saponins are prone to alleviate calcium overload. As bioflavonoids commonly contain active phenolic hydroxy group, they have good anti-oxidant property. Those containing effective lignanoids and essential oils can result in a reduced nitric oxide secretion of the endothelial cells and an increased intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Alkaloids may resist free radical injuries. Most importantly, modern in-depth research revealed that myocardial infarction is typically associated with apoptosis, and herbal medicine containing carbohydrates and glycosides showed cardioprotective effects by way of inhibiting apoptosis of myocytes. As a supplement to cardioplegia, some Chinese herbal drugs have become especially valuable in myocardial protection in open heart surgery by preserving metabolic energy. In conclusion, the classification of Chinese herbal medicine made according to their main active ingredients has facilitated the expression of their functioning mechanisms. Chinese herbal drugs play an important role in cardioprotection via many different mechanisms, the most recent and important finding being the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:22238491

Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

2011-01-01

31

Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Chinese herbal medicine has developed new therapies for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on its unique theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this review, 21 traditional Chinese herbs were introduced for their potential benefit in the treatment of NAFLD. Majority of them are evaluated by experimental studies and few by multicenter clinical trials. Herbal monomers as berberine and resveratrol, extracts from Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi, and Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb., and formulae including Yinchenhao Decoction (, YCHD), Qushi Huayu Decoction (, QSHYD), and Danning Tablet () were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Most of these herbal medicines were proved to improve biochemical and histological changes of NAFLD both in vitro and in vivo. Also, their therapeutic activities were associated with inhibiting lipid accumulation through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation or upregulating low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression, alleviating lipid peroxidation, and reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Although the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines needed to be evaluated in multicenter large-scale clinical trials, Chinese medicine is promising and effective for preventing and treating NAFLD disease. PMID:22311412

Dong, Hui; Lu, Fu-Er; Zhao, Li

2012-02-01

32

Efficacy of a Chinese Herbal Proprietary Medicine (Hemp Seed Pill) for Functional Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Functional constipation (FC) is a common clinical complaint. Despite a lack of consolidated evidence, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has become a popular alternative treatment for this condition. The aim of this study was to assess, with a rigidly designed study, the efficacy and safety of a CHM proprietary medicine, Hemp Seed Pill (HSP), in optimal dosage for treating FC.METHODS:This study

Chung-Wah Cheng; Zhao-Xiang Bian; Li-Xing Zhu; Justin C Y Wu; Joseph J Y Sung

2011-01-01

33

A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schroder, Sven

2013-01-01

34

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Postinfectious Cough: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine has been commonly used in the treatment of postinfectious cough. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for postinfectious cough. An extensive search for RCTs was performed using multiple electronic databases, supplemented with a manual search. All studies included were confirmed with specific inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of each study was examined according to the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Quality of evidence was evaluated using rating approach developed by GRADE working group. The literature search yielded 352 results, of which 12 RCTs satisfied the inclusion criteria, offering moderate-to-high levels of evidence. Methodological quality was considered high in three trials, while in the other nine studies the unclear risk of bias was in the majority. Findings suggested that, compared with western conventional medicine or placebo, Chinese herbal medicine could effectively improve core symptoms of postinfectious cough, act better and have earlier antitussive effect, and enhance patients' quality of life. No serious adverse event was reported. PMID:24348727

Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hong-Li; Mao, Bing

2013-01-01

35

Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage in China and other Asian countries for long time. We conducted this review to systematically summarize the evidences of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the prevention and treatment of recurrent miscarriage in randomized trials, and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM compared with placebo or conventional medicine. Methods We searched studies in PubMed, ClinicalTrials, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed and VIP databases until December, 2012. Randomized trials on CHM alone or in combination with conventional medicine for recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo or conventional medicine were included. We evaluated the methodological quality of each included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results A total of 41 RCTs (3660 participants) were included. The majority of trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. CHM used alone or plus progesterone-based treatment showed superior effect over progesterone-based treatment in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state (measured by B ultrasound). However, there is substantial heterogeneity within each subgroup analysis (I2 ranging from 35% to 71%). CHM plus progesterone and hCG-based treatment was superior to progesterone and hCG-based treatment in improving the embryonic developmental state, but not live birth rate. No severe adverse events were reported in relation to CHM. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines or in combination with progesterone-based treatment demonstrated potentially beneficial effect in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state for women with recurrent miscarriage. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity among the herbal interventions and limitations of methodological quality of the included trials, it is not possible to recommend any specific CHMs for recurrent miscarriage. Further rigorous clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM. PMID:24245671

2013-01-01

36

Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern  

PubMed Central

Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

2014-01-01

37

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

medicinal plants and their products. 2. Learn the methods of Chinese herbal classification;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D

38

Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16?134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29?801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female?:?male = 1.94?:?1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

2011-01-01

39

Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treating Primary Sj?gren's Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials  

PubMed Central

Background. There is no curative treatment for primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is widely used in the treatment of PSS in China. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM for PSS. Methods. PubMed, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Wanfang Data, and the Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM or CHM plus conventional medicine for PSS compared with placebo or conventional medicine. RevMan 5.0.17 was employed to conduct data analyses and assess homogeneity. Statistical models were chosen according to heterogeneity. Results. A total of 52 RCTs were included. The overall methodological quality of included trials was low. 49 trials reported response rates, of which 32 found significant improvements favoring CHM treatment against controls; 20 trials reported lacrimal function by Schirmer test scores, of which 16 trials reported a significant difference favoring CHM treatment. 21 trials reported salivary function by salivary flow rate, of which 10 reported significant favorable effects of CHM treatment. Other trials found no difference. The reported adverse effects of CHM included nausea, diarrhea, and other minor digestive symptoms, but more frequent adverse effects occurred in conventional medicine groups. Conclusions. Preliminary evidence from RCTs suggests the effect of CHM is promising for relieving symptoms, improving lacrimal and salivary function in PSS. However, the poor methodological quality of the included trials means that further well-designed, multicentered, larger trials are needed. PMID:22969828

Luo, Hui; Li, Xinxue; Liu, Jianping; Andrew, Flower; George, Lewith

2012-01-01

40

Pro-oxidative effects of Chinese herbal medicine on G6PD-deficient erythrocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects are susceptible to chemical-induced oxidative haemolysis. Little is known concerning the haemolytic properties of Chinese herbal medicine on G6PD-deficient subjects. Our objective was to investigate the pro-oxidative effect of 18 commonly used Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on human G6PD-deficient red blood cells. G6PD-deficient (n=10) and normal (n=10) whole blood samples were incubated with water extracts of

Chun Hay Ko; Karen Li; Pak Cheung Ng; Kwok Pui Fung; Raymond Pui-On Wong; Kit Man Chui; Goldie Jia-Shi Gu; Edmund Yung; Tai Fai Fok

2008-01-01

41

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

42

The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

2012-03-01

43

The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

2011-11-01

44

New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development  

PubMed Central

Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

2011-01-01

45

Identifying Core Herbal Treatments for Children with Asthma: Implication from a Chinese Herbal Medicine Database in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study. PMID:24066007

Chen, Hsing-Yu; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Chen, Jiun-Liang

2013-01-01

46

Arsenic speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines and human health implication for inorganic arsenic.  

PubMed

Rice and drinking water are recognized as the dominant sources of arsenic (As) for human intake, while little is known about As accumulation and speciation in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), which have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both eastern and western cultures. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in all of CHMs samples. The levels of inorganic arsenic in CHMs from fields and markets or pharmacies ranged from 63 to 550 ng/g with a mean of 208 ng/g and 94 to 8683 ng/g with a mean of 1092 ng/g, respectively. The highest concentration was found in the Chrysanthemum from pharmacies. It indicates that the risk of inorganic As in CHMs to human health is higher in medicines from markets or pharmacies than that collected directly from fields. Some CHMs may make a considerable contribution to the human intake of inorganic arsenic. PMID:23063615

Liu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Quan-Li; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul; Lu, Xiu-Jun; Cai, Jing-Zhu; Liu, Wen-Ju

2013-01-01

47

Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.  

PubMed

Abstract The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant potential in the clinic. PMID:24831605

Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

2014-10-01

48

Use of Chinese herbal medicine 'meizitanc' in pregnancy: report of three cases.  

PubMed

The Chinese herbal medicine 'meizitanc', known as 'LiDa Dai Dai Hua Jiao Nang' (Kunming Dali Industry and Trade, Kunming, Yunnan, China) has been used by many women to support weight loss, even though life-threatening side-effects and deaths have been reported. We report the outcomes of three cases of exposure to 'meizitanc' during early pregnancy. In the first case, the pregnancy continued after the patient stopped taking the drug and at 38 weeks of gestation, the patient delivered a healthy infant. However, in the second and third cases fetal cardiac activities were not detected on obstetric follow-up and both pregnancies were terminated due to missed abortion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of exposure to meizitanc during pregnancy. Although herbal medicines are presumed to be safe because of their natural origin, consumption of such products may be dangerous due to the content of undeclared drugs, adulteration with multiple substances and contamination with toxic metals. PMID:19751347

Cayan, Filiz; Dilek, Umut; Akbay, Esen; Gen, Ramazan; Dilek, Saffet

2009-08-01

49

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine as a source of molecules with antiviral activity.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) is widely used in the prevention and treatment of viral infectious diseases. However, the operative mechanisms of TCHM remain largely obscure, mainly because of its complicated nature and the fragmented nature of research. In recent years, systematic methodologies have been developed to discover the active compounds in TCHM and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. In this review, we summarize recent progress in TCHM-based antiviral research in China and other Asian countries. In particular, this review focuses on progress in targeting key steps in the viral replication cycle and key cellular components of the host defense system. Recent developments in centralized and standardized TCHM screening and databases are also summarized. PMID:23153834

Li, Ting; Peng, Tao

2013-01-01

50

The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis: part I.  

PubMed

This review presents Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc., a fungus highly valued in China as a tonic food and herbal medicine. The extant records show the continued use of C. sinensis is now centuries old. The major chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies on C. sinensis and the various derived, cultured, fermented mycelial products currently in use are reviewed from the English and Chinese literature. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical blinded or open-label trials in to date over 2000 patients are reviewed. These studies show the main activities of the fungus in oxygen-free radical scavenging, antisenescence, endocrine, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and sexual function-restorative activities. The safety of the fungus, its effects on the nervous system, glucose metabolism, the respiratory, hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune systems, immunologic disease, inflammatory conditions, cancer, and diseases of the kidney will be reviewed in the second part of this article to be published in the winter issue of this journal. PMID:9764768

Zhu, J S; Halpern, G M; Jones, K

1998-01-01

51

Chinese Herbal Medicine Suppresses Invasion-Promoting Capacity of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, due to aggressive growth, high metastatic rates during the early stage and the lack of an effective therapeutic approach. We previously showed that Qingyihuaji (QYHJ), a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, exhibited significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer, associated with modifications in the tumor microenvironment, particularly the inhibition of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) activation. In the present study, we generated CAF and paired normal fibroblast (NF) cultures from resected human pancreatic cancer tissues. We observed that CAFs exhibited an enhanced capacity for inducing pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion compared with NFs, while QYHJ-treated CAFs exhibited decreased migration and invasion-promoting capacities in vitro. The results of further analyses indicated that compared with NFs, CAFs exhibit increased CXCL1, 2 and 8 expression, contributing to the enhanced invasion-promoting capacities of these cells, while QYHJ treatment significantly suppressed CAF proliferation activities and the production of CAF-derived CXCL1, 2 and 8. These in vitro observations were confirmed in mice models of human pancreatic cancer. Taken together, these results suggested that suppressing the tumor-promoting capacity of CAFs through Chinese herbal medicine attenuates pancreatic cancer cell invasion. PMID:24781445

Chen, Hao; Xu, Litao; Qi, Qi; Luo, Jianmin; Wang, Kun; Meng, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Liu, Luming

2014-01-01

52

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Aspirin Resistance: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Aspirin resistance (AR) is a prevalent phenomenon and leads to significant clinical consequences, but the current evidence for effective interventional strategy is insufficient. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for AR. A systematical literature search was conducted in 6 databases until December 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for AR. As a result, sixteen RCTs with a total of 1011 subjects were identified, suggesting that the interests of the medical profession and the public in the use of CHM for AR have grown considerably in the recent years. Tongxinluo capsule and Danshen-based prescriptions were the most frequently used herbal prescriptions, while danshen root, milkvetch root, Leech, and Rosewood were the most frequently used single herbs. Despite the apparent reported positive findings, it is premature to determine the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of AR due to poor methodological quality and insufficient safety data. However, CHMs appeared to be well tolerated in all included studies. Thus, CHM as a promising candidate is worthy of improvement and development for further clinical AR trials. Large sample-size and well-designed rigorous RCTs are needed. PMID:24701247

Liu, Ai-ju; Li, Hui-qin; Li, Ji-huang; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Yan

2014-01-01

53

Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for psoriasis vulgaris: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Clinically, oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is widely used in the treatment of psoriasis. This review evaluates the effects of oral CHM in combination with pharmacotherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CNKI, and CQVIP were searched from their inceptions to November 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating CHM plus pharmacotherapy compared to pharmacotherapy were included. Data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.0. Seventeen RCTs were included, conducted in China, and employed a diversity of both herbal medicines and pharmacotherapies. When the meta-analyses were restricted to studies that used a well-known pharmacotherapy as the comparator with 60% or greater clinical improvement in psoriasis as the outcome, five studies used oral acitretin, one used topical calcipotriol, and one used topical clobetasol propionate as control interventions. At the end of treatment, there was a benefit for the pooled result of the five studies that compared CHM plus acitretin with acitretin alone and no serious adverse events were reported. However, none of these studies was blind, so there is considerable risk of bias in this result. In addition, there was inadequate reporting of longer-term results, so it remains unclear whether the reported effect could be maintained or whether the prolonged use of the CHM in conjunction with acitretin would be safe. The main plants used in these studies, Rehmannia glutinosa root, Salvia miltiorrhiza root, and Lithospermum erythrorhizon root, have shown anti-inflammatory and/or antiproliferative effects in experimental studies. These actions may at least partially explain the observed results. PMID:25208594

Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yu, Jason Jingjie; Parker, Shefton; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

2014-11-01

54

Protection against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liu, W-C., Wang, S-C., Tsai, M-L., Chen, M-C., Wang, Y-C., Hong, J-H., McBride, W. H. and Chiang, C-S. Protec- tion against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine. Radiat. Res. 166, 900-907 (2006). Bone marrow and intestinal damage limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer and can result in death if the whole body

Wei-Chung Liu; Shu-Chi Wang; Min-Lung Tsai; Meng-Chi Chen; Ya-Chen Wang; Ji-Hong Hong; William H. McBride; Chi-Shiun Chiang

2006-01-01

55

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Sh?n N?ng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

56

Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan

1993-03-01

57

Chemical analysis of the Chinese herbal medicine Gan-Cao (licorice).  

PubMed

Gan-Cao, or licorice, is a popular Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata. The main bioactive constituents of licorice are triterpene saponins and various types of flavonoids. The contents of these compounds may vary in different licorice batches and thus affect the therapeutic effects. In order to ensure its efficacy and safety, sensitive and accurate methods for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of saponins and flavonoids are of significance for the comprehensive quality control of licorice. This review describes the progress in chemical analysis of licorice and its preparations since 2000. Newly established methods are summarized, including spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), capillary electrophoresis, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), electrochemistry, and immunoassay. The sensitivity, selectivity and powerful separation capability of HPLC and CE allows the simultaneous detection of multiple compounds in licorice. LC/MS provides characteristic fragmentations for the rapid structural identification of licorice saponins and flavonoids. The combination of HPLC and LC/MS is currently the most powerful technique for the quality control of licorice. PMID:18703197

Zhang, Qingying; Ye, Min

2009-03-13

58

The Ethics of Traditional Chinese and Western Herbal Medicine Research: Views of Researchers and Human Ethics Committees in Australia  

PubMed Central

Despite the growth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western herbal medicine (WHM) research in Australia, little is known about how ethics committees (HRECs) assess the ethics of TCM or WHM research. The objectives of this study were to examine the experiences of TCM and WHM researchers and HRECs with the evaluation of ethics applications. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of HRECs and TCM and WHM researchers in Australia. Anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to 224 HRECs and 117 researchers. A response confirming involvement in TCM or WHM research applications was received from 20 HRECs and 42 researchers. The most frequent ethical issues identified by HRECs related to herbal products including information gaps relating to mode of action of herbal medicines and safety when combining herbal ingredients. Researchers concurred that they were frequently requested to provide additional information on multiple aspects including safety relating to the side effects of herbs and herb-drug interactions. Overall adherence with the principles of ethical conduct was high among TCM and WHM researchers although our study did identify the need for additional information regarding assessment of risk and risk management. PMID:21197081

Smith, Caroline A.; Priest, Ros; Carmady, Bridget; Bourchier, Suzannah; Bensoussan, Alan

2011-01-01

59

Separation and determination of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicines by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with organic modifier.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the separation and determination of four toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline) in two traditional Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). Separation was performed in the running buffer consisting of 20 mM borate, 30 mM SDS, and 20% methanol at pH 9.1. With the optimized separation conditions, four PAs were separated in 17 min by a single run. The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation efficiencies (R(2)) between 0.9940 and 0.9988. RSDs in migration time and peak area were 0.31, 0.40, 0.39, 0.48% and 3.28, 3.48, 4.16, 3.42% for senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline, respectively. Limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 1.19 to 2.70 microg/mL. The proposed method was applied to determine the PAs extracted from Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). PA of senkirkine in Kuan donghua was detected and the amount was found to be 79.1 microg/g. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MEKC method could potentially become an effective alternative tool for qualification control and quantitative analysis of herbal medicines in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:16080213

Yu, Lijun; Xu, Yan; Feng, Huatao; Li, Sam Fong Yau

2005-09-01

60

Chinese herbal medicine for impaired glucose tolerance: a randomized placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes remains a major health problem worldwide. Low-risk low-cost alternatives to pharmaceutical interventions are needed where lifestyle modifications have failed. We conducted a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of a Chinese herbal formula, Jiangtang Xiaozhi, in treating impaired glucose control and insulin resistance in persons with prediabetes and controlled diabetes. Methods Seventy-one patients with prediabetes or ‘controlled’ diabetes were randomised to receive 3 capsules of Jiangtang Xiaozhi (n = 39) or placebo (n = 32) three times daily for 16 weeks with a follow up eight weeks later (week 24). The primary outcome was change in glycaemic control as evidenced by fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Other measures included change in fasting insulin, insulin resistance and sensitivity, lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), body mass index (BMI), waist girth, blood pressure (BP), health related quality of life (HRQoL) and safety. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to model outcomes at 16 weeks, by treatment group corrected for baseline level of the outcome variable. Results In patients receiving Jiangtang Xiaozhi, FBG was not significantly different (p = 0.73) compared to placebo after 16 weeks of treatment (6.3?±?1.1 mmol/L vs 6.7?±?1.3 mmol/L). There was a significant difference (p = 0.04) in the mean levels of fasting insulin between the treatment group (11.6?±?5.5 mmol/L) and the placebo group (22.1?±?25.9 mmol/L). Insulin resistance slightly decreased in the treatment group (1.58?±?0.74) compared to that of the placebo group (2.43?±?1.59) but this change did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). Patients taking Jiangtang Xiaozhi had a significant improvement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level compared to the placebo group at week 16 (p = 0.03). Mean levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, BMI, waist-girth, HRQoL, BP, CRP and insulin sensitivity were not significantly different between the two groups. The herbal medicine was well tolerated. Conclusions In the current study, the 16 week Jiangtang Xiaozhi treatment did not lower fasting blood glucose, but it improved serum insulin and HDL cholesterol in a Western population with prediabetes or controlled diabetes. Our trial may have been underpowered. Dosage needs to be considered before commencing a longer adequately powered trial. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000128897; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=362005 PMID:23672597

2013-01-01

61

Heavy Metal and Pesticide Content in Commonly Prescribed Individual Raw Chinese Herbal Medicines  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues (especially chlorpyrifos) in raw CHMs are advised. PMID:21824641

HARRIS, Eric S. J.; CAO, Shugeng; LITTLEFIELD, Bruce A.; CRAYCROFT, Jane A.; SCHOLTEN, Robert; KAPTCHUK, Ted; FU, Yanling; WANG, Wenquan; LIU, Yong; CHEN, Hubiao; ZHAO, Zhongzhen; CLARDY, Jon; WOOLF, Alan D.; EISENBERG, David M.

2011-01-01

62

Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Although over-the-counter traditional Chinese herbal medicine (COTC) is commonly used to treat everyday illness in many parts of the world, no population-based study has been done to examine the prevalence and factors associated with COTC-related adverse events. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese adults in 2011 (n?=?1100) with informed verbal consent. Stepwise logistic regression of demographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables was used to determine factors associated with past-year adverse events. Results Of study respondents, 71.7% (789/1100) reported past-year COTC use and 2.3% (25/1100) reported at least one COTC-related adverse event in the past year. Of the 27 adverse events cases reported among COTC users, the most common were allergic reactions (n?=?11) dizziness (n?=?5), and gastro-intestinal problems (n?=?4). Pills/capsules were the dosage form that caused the highest proportion of adverse events (n?=?10), followed by plasters (n?=?7), creams/ointments (n?=?5), and ingestible powders (n?=?2). Although COTC users reporting adverse events were more likely to report greater practices to avoid adverse events (OR?=?6.47; 95% CI: 1.38-30.3); they were also more likely to possess lower education levels (OR?=?9.64, 95% CI: 2.20-42.3) and to have received COTC information from non-reliable, mass-media information sources such as magazines (OR?=?3.32; 95% CI: 1.01-8.50) or television (OR?=?2.93; 95% CI: 1.03-10.7). Package labels were also felt to be unclear by 42.9% of COTC users. A large proportion of COTC users demonstrated low levels of COTC-related knowledge, while the main impediment to greater information-seeking was the belief that reliable COTC information is not obtainable from Western health professionals. Conclusions Despite global movements toward more stringent complementary medicine regulation, the limited accessibility of reliable information and widespread misperceptions among consumers present major challenges for the safe use of complementary medicine. PMID:24279604

2013-01-01

63

Establishing the pharmaceutical quality of Chinese herbal medicine: a provisional BCS classification.  

PubMed

The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), which is a scientific approach to categorize active drug ingredient based on its solubility and intestinal permeability into one of the four classes, has been used to set the pharmaceutical quality standards for drug products in western society. However, it has received little attention in the area of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). This is likely, in part, due to the presence of multiple active components as well as lack of standardization of CHM. In this report, we apply BCS classification to CHMs provisionally as a basis for establishing improved in vitro quality standards. Based on a top-200 drugs selling list in China, a total of 31 CHM products comprising 50 official active marker compounds (AMCs) were provisionally classified according to BCS. Information on AMC content and doses of these CHM products were retrieved from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. BCS parameters including solubility and permeability of the AMCs were predicted in silico (ACD/Laboratories). A BCS classification of CHMs according to biopharmaceutical properties of their AMCs is demonstrated to be feasible in the current study and can be used to provide a minimum set of quality standards. Our provisional results showed that 44% of the included AMCs were classified as Class III (high solubility, low permeability), followed by Class II (26%), Class I (18%), and Class IV (12%). A similar trend was observed when CHMs were classified in accordance with the BCS class of AMCs. Most (45%) of the included CHMs were classified as Class III, followed by Class II (16%), Class I (10%), and Class IV (6%); whereas 23% of the CHMs were of mixed class due to the presence of multiple individual AMCs with different BCS classifications. Moreover, about 60% of the AMCs were classified as high-solubility compounds (Class I and Class III), suggesting an important role for an in vitro dissolution test in setting quality control standards ensuring consistent biopharmaceutical quality for the commercially available CHM products. That is, provisionally, more than half of the AMCs of the top-selling CHMs included in this study would be candidates for a bioequivalence (BE) biowaiver, based on WHO recommendations and EMEA guidelines. Thus a dissolution requirement on these AMCs would represent a significant advance in the pharmaceutical quality of CHM today. PMID:23473440

Fong, Sophia Y K; Liu, Mary; Wei, Hai; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore; Lee, Vincent H L; Amidon, Gordon L; Zuo, Zhong

2013-05-01

64

Chinese herbal medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) for functional constipation: study protocol for a prospective, double-blinded, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Functional constipation is a common clinical complaint. Although the effectiveness of Ma Zi Ren Wan for alleviating functional constipation symptoms has been proven in a previous randomized placebo-controlled study, further evidence is needed to make clinical recommendations about Chinese herbal medicine. In particular, a comparison with conventional western medicine for functional constipation patients is needed. Methods/Design This is a prospective, double-blinded, double dummy, randomized, controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, eligible patients (Rome III) with excessive traditional Chinese medicine syndrome will randomly be assigned to the Chinese medicine arm (Ma Zi Ren Wan and western medicine placebo), western medicine arm (senna and Chinese medicine placebo) or placebo arm (Chinese medicine placebo and western medicine placebo). Patients will undergo an 8-week treatment and an 8-week follow-up. The primary outcome is the responder rate for complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) during treatment. Patients with a mean increase of CSBM ?1/week in comparison with their baselines are defined as responders. The secondary outcomes include responder rate during follow-up, changes of colonic transit as measured with radio-opaque markers, individual and global symptom assessments, and reported adverse effects. Discussion This study is the first study to compare a Chinese Herbal Medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) with a laxative that is commonly used in the clinical practice of western medicine, and with a placebo. This study will complete the investigation of Ma Zi Ren Wan for functional constipation, and should, therefore, suggest recommendations for clinical practice. Furthermore, the process of first conducting a systematic review, then implementing a dose determination study followed by a placebo-control trial, and finally, comparing traditional Chinese medicine with an active conventional medicine in a controlled trial can be a reference to other researches on Chinese medicine interventions in the future. Trial registration NCT01695850 PMID:24180235

2013-01-01

65

Nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption caused by a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang ( Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a case of nonpigmenting solitary fixed drug eruption appearing on the right thigh of a 31-year-old woman in Japan. The causative drug was determined by closed patch test on postlesional skin as a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, ma huang (Ephedra Hebra), mainly containing pseudoephedrine and ephedrine. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:628-30.)

Kazuhiko Matsumoto; Hajime Mikoshiba; Toshiaki Saida

2003-01-01

66

Herbal medicines for immunosuppression.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185

Amirghofran, Zahra

2012-06-01

67

Pro-oxidative effects of Chinese herbal medicine on G6PD-deficient erythrocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects are susceptible to chemical-induced oxidative haemolysis. Little is known concerning the haemolytic properties of Chinese herbal medicine on G6PD-deficient subjects. Our objective was to investigate the pro-oxidative effect of 18 commonly used Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on human G6PD-deficient red blood cells. G6PD-deficient (n=10) and normal (n=10) whole blood samples were incubated with water extracts of CHM. The resulting levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and methaemoglobin (MetHb) were determined by biochemical assays. Rhizoma Coptidis significantly reduced GSH level by 48.9+/-5.4% (at 1 mg/mL) in the G6PD-deficient erythrocytes (P<0.001) compared with the respective control group without challenge. Similar dose-dependent responses were observed at higher concentrations of Cortex Moutan, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Bupleuri, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati and Flos Chimonanthi (P<0.01, 5-10 mg/mL). In addition, the levels of MetHb were elevated significantly when challenged with Rhizoma Coptidis (2.8 fold at 5 mg/mL) and Cortex Moutan (3.4 fold at 10 mg/mL). This is the first report on the pro-oxidative action of CHM on G6PD-deficient blood samples in vitro as demonstrated by the decrease of GSH and increase of MetHb. G6PD-deficient subjects should restrain from excessive consumption of these pro-oxidative herbs. PMID:18515042

Ko, Chun Hay; Li, Karen; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fung, Kwok Pui; Wong, Raymond Pui-On; Chui, Kit Man; Gu, Goldie Jia-Shi; Yung, Edmund; Fok, Tai Fai

2008-08-01

68

Chinese Proprietary Herbal Medicine Listed in 'China National Essential Drug List' for Common Cold: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Chinese proprietary herbal medicines (CPHMs) have long history in China for the treatment of common cold, and lots of them have been listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ by the Chinese Ministry of Health. The aim of this review is to provide a well-round clinical evidence assessment on the potential benefits and harms of CPHMs for common cold based on a systematic literature search to justify their clinical use and recommendation. Methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites from their inception to 31 March 2013 for clinical studies of CPHMs listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ for common cold. There was no restriction on study design. Results A total of 33 CPHMs were listed in ‘China national essential drug list 2012’ for the treatment of common cold but only 7 had supportive clinical evidences. A total of 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series (CSs) were included; no other study design was identified. All studies were conducted in China and published in Chinese between 1995 and 2012. All included studies had poor study design and methodological quality, and were graded as very low quality. Conclusions The use of CPHMs for common cold is not supported by robust evidence. Further rigorous well designed placebo-controlled, randomized trials are needed to substantiate the clinical claims made for CPHMs. PMID:25329481

Chen, Wei; Lewith, George; Wang, Li-qiong; Ren, Jun; Xiong, Wen-jing; Lu, Fang; Liu, Jian-ping

2014-01-01

69

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

70

In vitro anti-microbial and in vivo cytokine modulating effects of different prepared Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity, antimicrobial and cytokine modulating effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases were evaluated in this study. Using the broth dilution method and disc agar diffusion test, in individual and combined decocted preparations, different concentrations of Ching–Wei–San and its individual herbal components, Coptidis rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix, Rehmanniae radixet rhizom, Moutan radicis cortex, and Cimicifuga foetida, were tested

Shyh-Jye Lin; Chung-Shih Chen; Shih-Shen Lin; Ming-Yung Chou; Hung-Che Shih; I-Pang Lee; Chia-Tze Kao; Chuan-Chen Ho; Fong-Lin Chen; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Kuang-Hui Hsieh; Chi-Ruei Huang; Chi-Chiang Yang

2006-01-01

71

The effects of two Chinese herbal medicinal formulae vs. placebo controls for treatment of allergic rhinitis: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when compared to a placebo control group. Methods A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with repeated-measures, three-parallel-groups design was conducted in a random sample of 249 participants recruited from one university in Hong Kong. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to CS, YS, or placebo groups (n?=?83 per group). The main outcomes, including symptom severity, quality of life, and body constitution, were measured with self-administered questionnaires at baseline and immediately, 1 and 3 months after the 4-week interventions. Results 240 participants completed the trial, with 9 (3.6%) drop-outs. The results of Generalised Estimating Equations test followed by pairwise contrasts tests indicated that the participants who received CS showed significantly greater reduction of symptoms (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?26.13–34.55, P <0.0005) and improvements in quality of life (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?12.81–16.76, P <0.001), and body constitution in ‘Qi-deficiency’, ‘Yang-deficiency’, and ‘Inherited Special’ (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?7.05–8.12, 7.56–8.92, and 4.48–8.10, P?=?0.01–?herbal formula CS was found effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in young adults (nursing students) with allergic rhinitis in ‘Yang- and/or Qi-deficiency’ body constitution. Further controlled trials of its effects in Chinese and/or Asians with allergic rhinitis in terms of socio-demographic, ethnic and illness characteristics and a longer-term follow-up are recommended. Trial registration The trial has registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with an ID: NCT02027194 (3 January 2014). PMID:24986270

2014-01-01

72

Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents. PMID:20653978

2010-01-01

73

Herbal Medicine Use in Parturients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative medicine use has increased dramatically over the last decade. Recently a 22% incidence of herbal medicine use in presurgical patients was reported. Of concern is the potential for these medications to cause adverse drug-herb interactions or other effects such as bleeding complications. We sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of use of herbal remedies in par- turients. A

David L. Hepner; Miriam Harnett; Scott Segal; William Camann; Angela M. Bader; Lawrence C. Tsen

2002-01-01

74

Add-On Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Bath to Phototherapy for Psoriasis Vulgaris: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis vulgaris is the most common form of psoriasis. Phototherapy has been proven effective for psoriasis, but side effects have become a concern. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) bath combined with phototherapy has been used in clinical settings, but the additional benefit requires evaluation. This review aims to evaluate the additional benefit and safety of adding CHM bath to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and CQVIP were searched from their inceptions to 6 August 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM bath plus phototherapy to phototherapy alone for psoriasis vulgaris were included. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.0. Thirteen RCTs were included in the review, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed higher efficacy of CHM bath plus phototherapy when compared with phototherapy alone in terms of PASI 60 (RR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18–1.32). Mild adverse events were reported in ten studies, but these could be alleviated by reducing UV dosage or applying emollient. In conclusion, CHM bath appears to be a beneficial and safe adjunctive therapy to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low methodological quality of the included studies. PMID:23983796

Yu, Jason Jingjie; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian

2013-01-01

75

A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine.  

PubMed

Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was shown to display anticancer activity. In this study, we attempted to provide a global view of the molecular pathways associated with its anticancer effect through a gene expression-based chemical approach. BBR-induced differentially expressed genes obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were analyzed using the Connectivity Map (CMAP) database to compare similarities of gene expression profiles between BBR and CMAP compounds. Candidate compounds were further analyzed using the Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH) database to explore chemical-protein interactions. Results showed that BBR may inhibit protein synthesis, histone deacetylase (HDAC), or AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Further analyses demonstrated that BBR inhibited global protein synthesis and basal AKT activity, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy, which was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, BBR did not alter mTOR or HDAC activities. Interestingly, BBR induced the acetylation of ?-tubulin, a substrate of HDAC6. In addition, the combination of BBR and SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of BBR in cancer therapy. PMID:25227736

Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lo, Hsiang-Ling; Tang, Wan-Chun; Hsiao, Heidi Hao-yun; Yang, Pei-Ming

2014-01-01

76

A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Prevents Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24995353

Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chang, Jung-Chen; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien

2014-01-01

77

Systematic Review of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Preventing in-Stent Coronary Restenosis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement is a standard treatment for coronary artery disease (CAD). In-stent restenosis after PCI remains a challenging clinical problem. In China, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are widely used for preventing restenosis. This paper systematically reviewed the literature on the effectiveness and safety of CHMs in preventing restenosis after PCI in patients with CAD. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared CHMs plus RWM with the same RWM plus placebo in preventing restenosis after PCI. A total of 52 trials (4905 patients) on 34 CHMs met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Ten trials had low risk of bias. Methodological quality of included trials was generally poor. Meta-analysis showed that at the end of at least 3 months' followup, CHMs plus RWM could significantly reduce restenosis rate, cardiac mortality, recurrence rate of angina, acute myocardial infarction, numbers of repeat PCI, and numbers of coronary artery bypass graft. Reported adverse events included gastrointestinal upset, granulocytopenia, and increased alanine transaminase (ALT). CHMs may help prevent restenosis, thus reducing cardiac mortality after PCI. Caution should be exercised in drawing a definitive conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of the trials reviewed. PMID:22454659

Zheng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Nissi S.; Chen, Hai-Ying; Chu, Jian-Feng

2012-01-01

78

A Chinese herbal medicine, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, prevents dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24995353

Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Chang, Jung-Chen; Wu, Ya-Chieh; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien

2014-01-01

79

Effect of combining therapy with traditional chinese medicine-based psychotherapy and herbal medicines in women with menopausal syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

2012-01-01

80

Effect of Combining Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Psychotherapy and Herbal Medicines in Women with Menopausal Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

2012-01-01

81

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 10 High-Quality Randomized Controlled Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is very common in people with diabetes. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) therapy has been developed for DPN empirically over the years. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of CHMs for patients suffering from DPN. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of CHM on DPN. Six databases were searched up to November 2012. The primary outcome measures were the absolute values or changing of motor or sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and the secondary outcome measurements were clinical symptoms improvements and adverse events. The methodological quality was assessed by Jadad scale and the twelve criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results One hundred and sixty-three studies claimed RCTs. Ten studies with 653 individuals were further identified based on the Jadad score ?3. These 10 studies were all of high methodological quality with a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed the effects of NCV favoring CHMs when compared with western conventional medicines (WCM) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There is a significant difference in the total efficacy rate between the two groups (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in all of the ten included studies, and well tolerated in all patients with DPN. Conclusion Despite of the apparently positive findings and low risk of bias, it is premature to conclude the efficacy of CHMs for the treatment of DPN because of the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample sizes of the included studies. However, CHM therapy was safe for DPN. Further standardized preparation, large sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required. PMID:24146822

Hao, Chi-zi; Wu, Fan; Lu, Lin; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yi; Liu, Ai-ju; Liao, Wei-jing; Zheng, Guo-qing

2013-01-01

82

Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

Tillotson, Alan Keith

2008-01-01

83

Dynamic pH junction-sweeping capillary electrophoresis for online preconcentration of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

There is a need to develop simple yet effective preconcentration methods to enhance concentration sensitivity for CE analysis of trace level analytes in real samples, particularly when commonly available but less sensitive detection methods, e.g., UV detection, are used. In this report, a hyphenated online preconcentration strategy combining dynamic pH junction with sweeping (i.e., dynamic pH junction-sweeping) was employed for the analysis of four toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) of senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline in Chinese herbal medicine (Kuan donghua). Direct electrokinetically focusing of a large sample volume injection (up to 20% of capillary length) on the capillary was performed using the dynamic pH junction-sweeping method. A sample matrix consisting of 10 mM phosphate with 20% methanol at pH 4.0 and a BGE containing 20 mM borate, 30 mM SDS, and 20% methanol at pH 9.1 were utilized to realize dynamic pH junction-sweeping for PAs. This online preconcentration strategy resulted in sensitivity enhancement factors ranging from 23.8- to 90.0-fold for the four toxic PAs, giving an LOD as low as 30 ppb for the PAs. Critical factors such as sample matrix type, pH, and salt concentration were also examined to achieve higher sensitivity enhancement, shorter analysis time, and better resolution. The results indicate that the proposed dynamic pH junction-sweeping technique is a powerful alternative approach for identification and determination of trace levels of these toxic PAs and other hydrophobic, protonatable compounds in real samples. PMID:16240296

Yu, Lijun; Li, Sam Fong Yau

2005-11-01

84

Drug interactions with herbal medicines.  

PubMed

In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

2012-02-01

85

Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104

Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

2014-01-01

86

Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104

Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

2014-01-01

87

Anti-herpes simplex virus effects of berberine from Coptidis rhizoma , a major component of a Chinese herbal medicine, Ching-Wei-San  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine is an alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizome. Among the individual herbal components of a Chinese herb medicine, Ching-Wei-San, Coptidis Rhizoma has the most potent antimicrobial activity. By high-pressure liquid chromatography, the quantitative analysis of berberine\\u000a from 6.25-mg\\/mL (w\\/v) Coptidis rhizome extract or 50.00-mg\\/mL (w\\/v) Ching-Wei-San was determined to be 0.26 mg\\/mL. To explore the potential use of Ching-Wei-San\\u000a against herpes

Lengsu William Chin; Yu-Wen Cheng; Shih-Shen Lin; Ya-Yun Lai; Long-Yau Lin; Ming-Yung Chou; Ming-Chih Chou; Chi-Chiang Yang

2010-01-01

88

Frequency and pattern of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009: analysis of the national health insurance database  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale pharmaco-epidemiological studies of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treatment of urticaria are few, even though clinical trials showed some CHM are effective. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions for urticaria by analysing the population-based CHM database in Taiwan. Methods This study was linked to and processed through the complete traditional CHM database of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2009. We calculated the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions used for treatment of urticaria, of which the diagnosis was defined as the single ICD-9 Code of 708. Frequent itemset mining, as applied to data mining, was used to analyse co-prescription of CHM for patients with urticaria. Results There were 37,386 subjects who visited traditional Chinese Medicine clinics for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009 and received a total of 95,765 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 18 and 35 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (32.76%). In addition, women used CHM for urticaria more frequently than men (female:male?=?1.94:1). There was an average of 5.54 items prescribed in the form of either individual Chinese herbs or a formula in a single CHM prescription for urticaria. Bai-Xian-Pi (Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb while Xiao-Feng San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. The most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Xiao-Feng San plus Bai-Xian-Pi while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Xiao-Feng San, Bai-Xian-Pi, and Di-Fu Zi (Kochia scoparia). Conclusions In view of the popularity of CHM such as Xiao-Feng San prescribed for the wind-heat pattern of urticaria in this study, a large-scale, randomized clinical trial is warranted to research their efficacy and safety. PMID:23947955

2013-01-01

89

In vitro anti-microbial and in vivo cytokine modulating effects of different prepared Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

The toxicity, antimicrobial and cytokine modulating effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases were evaluated in this study. Using the broth dilution method and disc agar diffusion test, in individual and combined decocted preparations, different concentrations of Ching-Wei-San and its individual herbal components, Coptidis rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix, Rehmanniae radixet rhizom, Moutan radicis cortex, and Cimicifuga foetida, were tested for in vitro inhibitory effects on three well-known plaque-causing bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivialis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus mutans, and two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cytokine modulating effects were evaluated in Balb/c mice. The results suggested that one milliliter Ching-Wei-San at the 25,000 mg/mL concentration daily for the mice had significantly high levels in the liver function indexes in the 3-day acute toxicity test and in both the liver and kidney function indexes in the 28-day subacute toxicity test (P<0.01). The 250 mg/mL Ching-Wei-San is comparable to 250 mg/mL of tetracycline, and had similar inhibitory effects on the tested bacteria. Coptidis rhizoma (62.5 mg/mL) was the only individual herbal component to show 100% inhibitory effects. The mean cytokine ratios of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha in Balb/c mice treated with individual herbal components were shown to be different from each other. Ching-Wei-San modulated the immunity of mice, up-regulated IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-alpha, but down-regulated IFN-gamma. The effects of none of the individual herbal components alone can substitute for the cumulative effect of Ching-Wei-San. PMID:16962225

Lin, Shyh-Jye; Chen, Chung-Shih; Lin, Shih-Shen; Chou, Ming-Yung; Shih, Hung-Che; Lee, I-Pang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Chen, Fong-Lin; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Hsieh, Kuang-Hui; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Yang, Chi-Chiang

2006-12-01

90

Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

2012-01-01

91

[Traditional Chinese medicine in urology].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology. PMID:23754610

Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

2014-11-01

92

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

2013-09-01

93

Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.  

PubMed

Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:24716104

Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

2011-10-01

94

Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

2014-02-01

95

Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study.  

PubMed

Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47-0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers. PMID:24204397

Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

2013-01-01

96

Concurrent Use of Hypnotic Drugs and Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Taiwanese Adults with Insomnia Symptoms: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. The purpose of our study is to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among Taiwanese insomnia patients taking hypnotic drugs. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed among 53,949 insomnia sufferers were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and a hypnotic drug. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of hip fracture between the two groups. Results. More than 1 of every 3 hypnotic users also used a CHP concurrently. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Augmented Rambling Powder) and Suan-Zao-Ren-Tang (Zizyphus Combination) were the 2 most commonly used CHPs that were coadministered with hypnotic drugs. The HR of hip fracture for hypnotic-drug users who used a CHP concurrently was 0.57-fold (95% CI = 0.47–0.69) that of hypnotic-drug users who did not use a CHP. Conclusion. Exploring potential CHP-drug interactions and integrating both healthcare approaches might be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of insomnia sufferers. PMID:24204397

Lee, Kuei-Hua; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Lin, Shun-Ku

2013-01-01

97

A Study of the Effect of Shiunko, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Fibroblasts and Its Implication on Wound Healing Processes  

PubMed Central

Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future. PMID:24688831

Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu

2013-01-01

98

Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction) Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15) studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1), arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2), clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-? and IL-8) when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled), and mucolytics. PMID:25165477

Yu, Xuhua; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli

2014-01-01

99

Global herbal medicine: a critique.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry. PMID:12804085

Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

2003-04-01

100

[Development and expectation of modernization of herbal medicines].  

PubMed

Natural herbs are useful by-products found by ancients when they searched and tasted natural vegetative foods. In the first century, herbal medicines had been much developed and independent academic systems had been established, as summarized separately in Chinese Shennong's Classics of Herbs and On Materia Medica written by Dioscorides of the Roman Empire. However, following rapid progress of modern science and technologies since Renaissance, clinical application of herbs was almost replaced by more effective artificial medicines in the West world, so the scientific research of herbs was almost abandoned. But in China, herbs are still constantly used by TCM physicians in their clinical practice and scientific studies for modernization of Chinese herbs have been carried out vigorously with attractive achievements since recent half of the last century. Therefore, the gap of herbal investigation and development in Western medicine will be successfully filled in by Chinese medical field. PMID:24325047

Wang, Tai

2013-08-01

101

Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

2014-01-01

102

Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomi?, Sinisa

2009-12-01

103

Effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicines on the pharmacokinetics of western drugs in Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (II): Aminophylline-huan shao tan and aminophylline-pu chung yi chi tang.  

PubMed

The effect of Chinese herbal medicines (Huan Shao Tan and Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang) and western drugs (sodium phenobarbital and cimetidine) on the serum concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline and cytochrome P-450 of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of three different ages were examined. The older rats without pretreatment with Chinese herbal medicines and western drugs exhibited higher serum theophylline concentration and lower pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline than middle-aged and younger rats (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in cytochrome P-450 activity among the three different ages of rats. All rats when pretreated with sodium phenobarbital showed lower serum theophylline concentration and higher pharmacokinetics parameters of theophylline. Also, the activity of cytochrome P-450 was higher (P < 0.05). When cimetidine was pre-administered in SD rats of three age groups, all rats exhibited lower serum theophylline concentration and higher pharmacokinetics parameters (P < 0.05), but the activity of cytochrome P-450 remained unchanged (P > 0.05). The results were opposite to other studies, probably because the dose and dosing intervals were different. No single effect occurred on the younger and middle-aged rats after pretreatment with Huan Shao Tan and Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang: their serum theophylline concentration, pharmacokinetics parameters and cytochrome P-450 activity were the same as the control group. However, the older rats after pretreatment with Huan Shao Tan or Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang showed lower serum theophylline concentration and higher pharmacokinetics parameters than the younger and middle-aged rats pretreated with similar Chinese herbal medicines. This indicates that Huan Shao Tan and Pu Chung Yi Chi Tang may perhaps improve the elimination of theophylline in older rats. This might be attributed to the increase in hepatic blood flow or in liver volume, since the activity of cytochrome P-450 was not affected by the administration of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:1340518

Lin, S Y; Hou, S J; Perng, R I; Chen, S M; Young, T K

1992-01-01

104

Chinese Herbal Medicine Bushen Qinggan Formula for Blood Pressure Variability and Endothelial Injury in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Blood pressure variability (BPV) independent of average blood pressure is related to cardiovascular damage. Meanwhile, BPV is also associated with measures of endothelial injury. Decoction, a traditional used form of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is inconvenient to prepare, carry, and store. Dispensing granules is now developing as an alternative to decoction, but the evidence supporting its clinical efficacy the same as decoction remains unclear. Objective. To examine the therapeutic effects on mean blood pressure (MBP), blood pressure variability, and endothelial function by giving Bushen Qinggan Formula, a compound Chinese Herbal Medicine and also to evaluate the difference in efficacy between decoction and granule. Methods. A total of 150 patients with hypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive the placebo, Bushen Qinggan decoction, or Bushen Qinggan granule in addition to the standard medications (amlodipine-5?mg/d) for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). The outcome was the reduction in the MBP and BPV and also included changes in the endothelial markers including endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) after 8 weeks of treatment. Results. Compared with the control group, the Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule groups had significant improvement (P < 0.01) in BPV and endothelial founction. The level of BPV and endothelial function between decoction and granule group had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based on the standard treatment, Bushen Qinggan Formula further improved BPV and endothelial function. The efficacy of Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule is similar in improving BPV and endothelial function. However, no significant antihypertensive effects could be demonstrated. PMID:25028590

Wu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jingchun; Zhao, Yingke; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yue

2014-01-01

105

Chinese herbal medicine Guizhi Fuling Formula for treatment of uterine fibroids: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Guizhi Fuling Formula is widely applied for uterine fibroids in China. Many clinical trials are reported. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of Guizhi Fuling Formula for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, and four Chinese databases were searched through May 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that tested Guizhi Fuling Formula for uterine fibroids, compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmaceutical medication, or other Chinese patent medicines approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Authors extracted data and assessed the quality independently. We applied RevMan 5.2.0 software to analyse data of included randomised trials. Results A total of 38 RCTs involving 3816 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that Guizhi Fuling Formula plus mifepristone were more effective than mifepristone alone in reducing the volume of fibroids (in total volume of multiple fibroids, MD ?19.41 cm3, 95% CI ?28.68 to ?10.14; in average volume of multiple fibroids, MD ?1.00 cm3, 95% CI ?1.23 to ?0.76; in average volume of maximum fibroids, MD ?3.35 cm3, 95% CI ?4.84 to ?1.87, I2?=?93%, random effects model). Guizhi Fuling Formula significantly improved symptoms of dysmenorrhea either when it was used alone (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.97) or in combination with mifepristone (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.82). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Guizhi Fuling Formula appears to have additional benefit based on mifepristone treatment in reducing volume of fibroids. However, due to high risk of bias of the trials, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on its benefit. Future clinical trials should be well-designed and avoid the issues that are identified in this study. PMID:24383676

2014-01-01

106

CE-electrochemiluminescence with ionic liquid for the facile separation and determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082

Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

2011-06-01

107

Sustained Antidiabetic Effects of a Berberine-Containing Chinese Herbal Medicine Through Regulation of Hepatic Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this study, we used a three-herb, berberine-containing TCM to treat male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TCM showed sustained glucose-lowering effects for 1 week after a single-dose treatment. Two-week treatment attenuated insulin resistance and fatty degeneration, with hepatocyte regeneration lasting for 1 month posttreatment. These beneficial effects persisted for 1 year after 1-month treatment. Two-week treatment with TCM was associated with activation of AMPK, Akt, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)1 pathways, with downregulation of miR29-b and expression of a gene network implicated in cell cycle, intermediary, and NADPH metabolism with normalization of CYP7a1 and IGFBP1 expression. These concerted changes in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins may explain the sustained effects of TCM in favor of cell survival, increased glucose uptake, and lipid oxidation/catabolism with improved insulin sensitivity and liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that multicomponent TCM may be a useful tool to unravel genome regulation and expression in complex diseases. PMID:22396199

Zhao, Hai-Lu; Sui, Yi; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yip, Kevin Y.; Leung, Ross K.K.; Tsui, Stephen K.W.; Lee, Heung-Man; Wong, Harriet K.T.; Zhu, Xun; Siu, Jennifer J.; He, Lan; Guan, Jing; Liu, Li-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Peter C.Y.; Chan, Juliana C.N.

2012-01-01

108

Sustained antidiabetic effects of a berberine-containing Chinese herbal medicine through regulation of hepatic gene expression.  

PubMed

Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this study, we used a three-herb, berberine-containing TCM to treat male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TCM showed sustained glucose-lowering effects for 1 week after a single-dose treatment. Two-week treatment attenuated insulin resistance and fatty degeneration, with hepatocyte regeneration lasting for 1 month posttreatment. These beneficial effects persisted for 1 year after 1-month treatment. Two-week treatment with TCM was associated with activation of AMPK, Akt, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)1 pathways, with downregulation of miR29-b and expression of a gene network implicated in cell cycle, intermediary, and NADPH metabolism with normalization of CYP7a1 and IGFBP1 expression. These concerted changes in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins may explain the sustained effects of TCM in favor of cell survival, increased glucose uptake, and lipid oxidation/catabolism with improved insulin sensitivity and liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that multicomponent TCM may be a useful tool to unravel genome regulation and expression in complex diseases. PMID:22396199

Zhao, Hai-Lu; Sui, Yi; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yip, Kevin Y; Leung, Ross K K; Tsui, Stephen K W; Lee, Heung-Man; Wong, Harriet K T; Zhu, Xun; Siu, Jennifer J; He, Lan; Guan, Jing; Liu, Li-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Peter C Y; Chan, Juliana C N

2012-04-01

109

Application of an efficient strategy for discovery and purification of bioactive compounds from Chinese herbal medicines, a case study on the Puerariae thomsonii Flos.  

PubMed

In this study, an efficient strategy based on bioassay-guided fractionation, high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established to screen and purify bioactive compounds from Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs). This screening system was efficient and successfully applied to reveal anti-prostate cancer candidates from Puerariae thomsonii Flos. As a result, an active fraction with strong in vitro anti-prostate cancer activity was obtained, and the main compounds in the fraction were purified by HSCCC, giving 82 mg of tectoridin, 36 mg of tectorigenin-7-O-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranoside and 64 mg of tectorigenin. Among them, tectorigenin, possessing the highest anti-prostate cancer activity with IC?? value of 0.08 ?M, has priority to be lead compound. The results of this work demonstrated that the developed method was efficient and could be employed for the rapid screening, identification and purification of active components from CHMs. PMID:23312381

Wang, Qi; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Li, Huan; Qin, Xiao-Ying; Ge, Chi-Yu; Liu, Rui; Qi, Lian-Wen; Qin, Min-Jian

2013-03-01

110

Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced native fluorescence detection for the analysis of berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine in Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

LIF detection is one of the most sensitive detection methods for CE. However, its application is limited because the analyte is usually required to be derivatized with a fluorescent label. As a result, LIF is seldom used to analyze active ingredients in plants. In this work, we introduce a rapid, simple, and sensitive method of nonaqueous CE (NACE) coupled with laser-induced native fluorescence detection for the simultaneous analysis of berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine. This method skillfully utilizes the native fluorescence of these alkaloids and requires no troublesome fluorescent derivatization. As these alkaloids can fluoresce to some degree, they were simply detected by a commercially available 488 nm Ar+ laser. The native fluorescence of the analytes was greatly enhanced by nonaqueous media. Compared with the reported UV detection method, much lower LOD was achieved (6.0 ng/mL for berberine, 7.5 ng/mL for palmatine, and 380 ng/mL for jatrorrhizine). This method was successfully applied to analyze berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine in two Chinese herbal medicines, Rhizoma coptidis and Caulis mahoniae. PMID:16833085

Liu, Qian; Liu, Yingju; Li, Yangqing; Yao, Shouzhuo

2006-06-01

111

An overview on safety issues of interactions between traditional herbal medicines and pharmaceutical medicines (Una apreciación global sobre la seguridad de las interacciones entre las medicinas herbarias tradicionales y los fármacos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity world-wide of using herbal medicinal materials (HMM) from ethnic traditional medicine such as the widely used Chinese materia medica (CMM) or other ethnic herbal medicines and related proprietary health products (PHP), functional food and prescription herbal medicines has raised concerns over their concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines (PHARMED) and the consequential adverse effects. In most cases the

Kelvin CHAN

2008-01-01

112

Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test.  

PubMed

This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP) on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP) from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as 'low' risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.94, -0.47) and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92) in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials. PMID:24622390

Chen, Xiankun; May, Brian; Di, Yuan Ming; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lin, Lin

2014-01-01

113

Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine for Improvement of Quality of Life in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose This study evaluates published clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that employ a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome measure. Methods Searches were conducted in April 2011 on MEDLINE®, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL, Scopus, and Chinese databases (CNKI, CQVIP, WANFANG). Randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM formulae or single herb, with or without blinding, compared to placebo, no treatment, routine pharmacotherapy control, or CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy, with a HRQoL questionnaire as an outcome measure were identified. The methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Results A total of 27 studies involving 1966 patients were identified. St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) or Cai's QoLQ were used in 13 and 14 studies, respectively. Assessment of the Cochrane risk of bias revealed adequate sequence of generation in 10 studies and adequate allocation concealment in 1 study; double blinding was not described adequately in any studies. Seventeen (17) studies addressed incomplete outcome data, and 17 studies were free of selective reporting. The main results of meta-analysis showed improvement of total HRQoL scores (SGRQ and Cai's QoLQ) when CHM was compared to no treatment (?6.07 [?9.21, ?2.93] and ?0.20 [?32, ?0.07], respectively) and for CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy (?5.15 [?7.26, ?3.05]) and (?0.25 [?0.37, ?0.13]). Conclusions While the results of CHM on HRQoL for stable COPD sufferers were promising, they need to be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems, which should be addressed in future trials. PMID:22803654

An, Xuedong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.; Lin, Lin; Xu, Yinji

2012-01-01

114

Effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicines on the pharmacokinetics of western drugs in SD rats of different ages. I. Aminophylline-Tin chuan Tang and aminophylline-Hsiao Ching Long Tang.  

PubMed

The effect of the traditional Chinese herbal medicines (Tin Chuan Tang and Hsiao Ching Long Tang) on the serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics of aminophylline was examined in three different ages of SD rats. Each traditional Chinese herbal medicine was orally preadministered to SD rats for one week and then aminophylline was administered intravenously. The serum concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline were estimated by a two-compartment open model. The liver isolated after the last blood sampling was homogenized and the activity of hepatic cytochrome p-450 was determined. Significant difference was found in some pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline such as K10, t 1/2, Cl and Vd for three different ages of SD rats without pretreatment with Chinese herbal drugs (p less than 0.05). However, pretreatment with Tin Chuan Tang or Hsiao Ching Long Tang did not affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline in three different ages of SD rats (p greater than 0.05). We also found that there was no correlation between age and activity of cytochrome p-450 of SD rats (p greater than 0.05). The decline in some pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline in the elderly rats perhaps might be attributed to the decrease in hepatic blood flow and liver volume. It is concluded that there was no drug interaction between theophylline and Tin Chuan Tang or Hsiao Ching Long Tang in the different ages of SD rats. PMID:1941501

Lin, S Y; Hou, S J; Wu, W H; Chen, S M; Young, T K

1991-04-01

115

The Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Many published studies reflect the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) use in combination with conventional cancer therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with conventional chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Publications in 11 electronic databases were extensively searched, and 24 trials were included for analysis. A sum of 2,109 patients was enrolled in these studies, at which 1,064 patients participated in CT combined CHM and 1,039 in CT (six patients dropped out and were not reported the group enrolled). Compared to using CT alone, CHM combined with CT significantly increase one-year survival rate (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.15–1.60, p?=?0.0003). Besides, the combined therapy significantly increased immediate tumor response (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.19–1.56, p<1.0E?5) and improved Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (RR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.62–5.18, p?=?0.0003). Combined therapy remarkably reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.12–0.50, p?=?0.0001) and prevented the decline of hemoglobin and platelet in patients under CT at toxicity grade of I–IV (RR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.51–0.80, p<0.0001). Moreover, the herbs that are frequently used in NSCLC patients were identified. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjuvant therapy can reduce CT toxicity, prolong survival rate, enhance immediate tumor response, and improve KPS in advanced NSCLC patients. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials in the included studies, further larger scale trials are needed. PMID:23469033

Ou-Yang, Chen Sheng; Wang, Xi-Xin; Yang, Zhen-Jiang; Tong, Yao; Cho, William C.S.

2013-01-01

116

Herbal medicine takes root in Germany  

PubMed Central

The sale of Herbal Medicine is a growth industry in Germany, where physicians routinely prescribe these products and annual sales have surpassed $ 2 billion. Pam Harrison says the rising popularity has been driven by German patients, who began demanding herbal alternatives to synthetic drugs. Medical schools responded by reintroducing lessons on a topic that had been phased out of the medical curriculum. PMID:9526483

Harrison, P

1998-01-01

117

Effectiveness of a Chinese herbal medicine preparation in the treatment of cough in uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: a randomised double-blinded placebo-control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Rigorous scientific and well-designed clinical trials to evaluate the effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is lacking. We, therefore, designed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of a commonly used TCM preparation in treating acute cough of uncomplicated URTI in adults and to search for a safe, effective and affordable alternative treatment for this common condition. Methods A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-control study comparing this TCM preparation with a placebo was conducted in 82 patients who attended the Family Medicine Training Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong between November and December, 2003. The TCM herbal preparation includes nine commonly used TCM herbs for cough such as chuanbei, fangfeng, jiegeng, gancao and baibu (see Table 1) The treatment lasted for 5 days and patients were followed-up for another 6 days. Patients were asked to fill in a cough score and validated Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ). Table 1 The components of TCM formulary in treating acute cough of uncomplicated URTIs Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae 27.3% Herba Schizonepetae 10.5% Radix Ledebouriellar 10.5% Radix Platycodi 10.5% Radix Glycyrrhizae 4.4% Radix Asteris 10.5% Radix Stemonae 10.5% Rhizoma Cynanchi Stannotonii 10.5% Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae 5.3% Results 62 patients (75.6%) had completed the trial and no adverse effects were reported. Both intervened and control groups had improved in cough score and LCQ in the follow-up period, despite no overall statistical significance was observed in the differences of scores between the two groups. Women taking TCM had significantly fewer problems with sputum production (p = 0.03) and older subjects (>35 years of age) reported a significant improvement in hoarseness (p = 0.05) when compared to those using placebo. Conclusion TCM was well-tolerated and received among the Hong Kong Chinese population. This TCM preparation appeared to have some benefits in the treatment of cough. Future research on TCM should concentrate more on commonly encountered conditions such as UTRI and cough. Our experience on the sensitivity of assessment tools used in detecting subtle differences in an otherwise self-limiting illness and clinical trial methodology when applying the underlying theory of how TCM works in disease management was invaluable. PMID:16790070

WCW, Wong; A, Lee; AT, Lam; KT, Li; CYM, Leung; PC, Leung; ELY, Wong; JL, Tang

2006-01-01

118

Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.  

PubMed

We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

2012-06-01

119

Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims  

PubMed Central

Background Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions. Results There were 868 (80.0%) patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM prescriptions were prescribed concurrently. Among these coprescriptions, the most frequently used CHM was jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (21.2%), and the most frequently coprescribed WM was acetaminophen (38.9%), followed by tamoxifen (25.5%). There were 346 patients using systemic adjuvant therapy and CHM concurrently. The most commonly coprescribed CHM with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab was xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, and zhi-gan-cao-tang, respectively. Conclusion The combined use of CHM with WM is prevalent. The main purpose of combining CHM with systemic cancer treatment is to alleviate the treatment-related adverse effects. However, the combination may result in the potential risk of drug–herb interactions. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CHM and WM coprescriptions for FBC patients. PMID:24855343

Wang, Bih-Ru; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Jing Chong; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching

2014-01-01

120

A Prescribed Chinese Herbal Medicine Improves Glucose Profile and Ameliorates Oxidative Stress in Goto-Kakisaki Rats Fed with High Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet ? cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn’t show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation “Qing Huo Yi Hao” (QHYH) improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet ? cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD) in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n?=?20) and chow diet feeding group (n?=?10). Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d) or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet ? cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet ? cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT) and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving ? cell function partly via its antioxidant effect. PMID:23565214

Wu, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Hongguang; Xu, Ping; Gao, Xin

2013-01-01

121

[Indirect determination of rare earth elements in Chinese herbal medicines by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].  

PubMed

Based on their similarity in chemical properties, rare earth elements were able to form stable coordinated compounds with arsenazo III which were extractable into butanol in the presence of diphenylguanidine. The butanol was removed under reduced pressure distillation; the residue was dissolved with diluted hydrochloric acid. As was released with the assistance of KMnO4 and determined by hydrogen generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry in terms of rare earth elements. When cesium sulfate worked as standard solution, extraction conditions, KMnO4 amount, distillation temperature, arsenazo III amount, interfering ions, etc were optimized. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated using national standard certified materials, showing a good agreement. Under optimum condition, the linear relationship located in 0.2-25 microg x mL(-1) and detection limit was 0.44 microg x mL(-1). After the herbal samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, the rare earth elements were determined by this method, showing satisfactory results with relative standard deviation of 1.3%-2.5%, and recoveries of 94.4%-106.0%. The method showed the merits of convenience and rapidness, simple instrumentation and high accuracy. With the rare earths enriched into organic phase, the separation of analytes from matrix was accomplished, which eliminated the interference. With the residue dissolved by diluted hydrochloric acid after the solvent was removed, aqueous sample introduction eliminated the impact of organic phase on the tubing connected to pneumatic pump. PMID:25269316

Zeng, Chao; Lu, Jian-Ping; Xue, Min-Hua; Tan, Fang-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Yan

2014-07-01

122

Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

Gori, Luigi

2007-01-01

123

Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

2011-01-01

124

Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Improve Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of infertile couples are choosing Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant therapy to improve their success when undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). There is no systematic review to evaluate the impact of CHM on the IVF outcomes. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of CHM with concurrent IVF versus IVF alone on the outcomes of IVF and its safety. Methods The protocol of this study is registered at PROSPERO. Eligible RCTs searched from 8 databases which compared a combination of CHM and IVF with IVF alone were included. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Meta-analysis of RCTs was conducted if there was non-significant heterogeneity (evaluated by I2 test) among trials. All statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. Results Twenty trials involving 1721 women were included in the meta-analysis. Three trials were evaluated as having an unclear risk of bias. The remaining trials were evaluated as having a high risk of bias. Combination of CHM and IVF significantly increases clinical pregnancy rates (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.67 to 2.49, p<0.00001) and ongoing pregnancy rates (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.17 to 3.10, p?=?0.009). Use of CHM after embryo transfer had no better outcome in reducing the rate of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.14 to 1.11, p?=?0.08). Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that combination of IVF and CHM used in the included trials improve IVF success, however due to the high risk of bias observed with the trials, the significant differences found with the meta-analysis are unlikely to be accurate. No conclusion could be drawn with respect to the reproductive toxicity of CHM. Further large randomized placebo controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings before recommending women to take CHM to improve their IVF success. PMID:24339951

Cao, Huijuan; Han, Mei; Ng, Ernest H. Y.; Wu, Xiaoke; Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

2013-01-01

125

Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

2006-01-01

126

Therapeutics of Herbal & Other Natural Medicinals Phar 5270 (2 Credits)  

E-print Network

Therapeutics of Herbal & Other Natural Medicinals Phar 5270 (2 Credits) Fall 2013 Course Syllabus as well as required readings assigned by the instructors. The following are references in herbal medicine. (1997). Weiss, R.F. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers (1988). Newall, C. and L. Anderson and J

Thomas, David D.

127

Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

2012-01-01

128

Herbal medicines as adjuvants for cancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

2012-01-01

129

The Chinese herbal medicine formula MSSM-002 suppresses allergic airway hyperreactivity and modulates T H1\\/T H2 responses in a murine model of allergic asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asthma is a major public health problem worldwide, and the morbidity and mortality of asthma have increased in the past two decades. The reputed efficacy, low cost, and relative absence of side effects of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have led to increasing interest in the use of TCMs for the treatment of asthma in Western countries. However, there are

Xiu-Min Li; Chih-Kang Huang; Teng-Fei Zhang; Ariel A. Teper; Kamal Srivastava; Brian H. Schofield; Hugh A. Sampson

2000-01-01

130

Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

2011-01-01

131

Clinical Study of Effects of Jian Ji Ning, a Chinese Herbal Medicine Compound Preparation, in Treating Patients with Myasthenia Gravis via the Regulation of Differential MicroRNAs Expression in Serum  

PubMed Central

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, of which the pathogenesis has remained unclear. At present, MG does not have any effective treatment with minor side effects. Jian Ji Ning (JJN), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of 11 medicinal plants, has been used in the treatment of MG for many years. The present study aims to determine if the Chinese herbal medicine JJN could lighten the clinical symptoms of patients with MG via the regulation of differential microRNAs (miRNAs) expression in serum. JJN should be orally administered twice a day for 6 months. In the efficacy evaluation adopting the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMG), we found that JJN could improve the clinical symptoms of patients with MG more effectively. Besides, we found that JJN could regulate differential miRNAs expression in serum of patients with MG. Accordingly, we speculate that the effects of JJN on improving clinical symptoms and blood test indicators of patients with MG may be due to its inhibition of apoptotic pathways of some immune cells and its connection with the regulation of serum miRNAs of some patients. In conclusion, we believe that JJN has a reliable curative effect on patients with MG-induced neuropathologic changes. PMID:24734107

Jiang, Chao; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Jingsheng; Bao, Wenjing; Qiu, Shaobo; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Lin

2014-01-01

132

Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

2014-01-01

133

Traditional Herbal Medicine for the Control of Tropical Diseases  

PubMed Central

Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese (“Cang Zhu”), Japan (“So-jutsu”) and Thai (“Khod-Kha-Mao”) traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA—xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

2014-01-01

134

TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. Description The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski’s rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. Conclusions The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php. PMID:24735618

2014-01-01

135

Treating gynaecological disorders with traditional Chinese medicine: a review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal syndrome, uterine fibroids, chronic pelvic inflammation, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), cervicitis and vaginitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and acupuncture. The use of TCM in the field of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has also been included in the review. In addition, thirty-two commonly used Chinese medicinal formulas in treating gynaecological disorders have been introduced. PMID:20606770

Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan

2009-01-01

136

Traditional Chinese medicine use among Chinese immigrant cancer patients.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) includes both herbal remedies and non-herbal practices. Chinese cancer patients are particularly at high risk for herb-drug interactions. Providers, both primary care physicians and oncologists, frequently do not ask patients about TCM use, which has potentially dangerous consequences. This study describes an assessment of TCM use while undergoing conventional cancer treatment, among a cohort of Chinese immigrant cancer patients in New York City. The Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center assists underserved cancer patients through a patient navigation program, the Cancer Portal Project. Six questions related to TCM are included in the existing Portal Needs Assessment Intake. Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking Portal patients enrolled between January 2010 and May 2012 were surveyed. One hundred nine Chinese-speaking patients were enrolled in the Portal Project during the study period. Forty-six completed the TCM questions. Ninety-six percent preferred to speak Mandarin, Cantonese, or Fujianese in the healthcare setting. Thirty-nine percent (n?=?18) of the 46 participants reported using TCM since being diagnosed with cancer. Nearly all (n?=?16) who used TCM reported using herbal medicines. Ten TCM users did not describe sharing their use with Western doctors. Eight (44%) of TCM users reported concurrently using TCM and conventional cancer treatment. Larger scale studies should further explore the concurrent use of TCM and conventional cancer treatment in this unique population. Future research should also address patient-provider communication related to the concurrent use of TCM and cancer treatment. This is also an important area of education for both patients and providers. PMID:24072455

Leng, Jennifer C F; Gany, Francesca

2014-03-01

137

Recent advances in analysis of Chinese medical plants and traditional medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinal plants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined

Pavel Drašar; Jitka Moravcova

2004-01-01

138

Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines  

PubMed Central

Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

2014-01-01

139

Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

140

Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

2014-01-01

141

Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

2013-01-01

142

Immunomodulatory Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury Mice  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang (SFYCT), consisting of 13 medicinal plants, was used to treat patients with lung diseases. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT on intratracheal lipopolysaccharides- (LPS-) challenged acute lung injury (ALI) mice. SFYCT attenuated pulmonary edema, macrophages, and neutrophils infiltration in the airways. SFYCT decreased inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production but increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of LPS-challenged mice. TNF? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LPS-challenged mice as well as LPS-stimulated lung epithelial cell and macrophage were decreased by SFYCT treatment. SFYCT treatment also decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the lung of mice and macrophage with LPS stimulation. SFYCT treatment dose dependently decreased the LPS-induced NO and reactive oxygen species generation in LPS-stimulated macrophage. In conclusion, SFYCT attenuated lung inflammation during LPS-induced ALI through decreasing inflammatory cytokines production while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines production. The immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT is related to inhibiting NF-?B phosphorylation. PMID:23997804

Lin, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Wang, Jen-Shu; Kao, Shung-Te

2013-01-01

143

Establishing an EU-China consortium on traditional Chinese medicine research  

E-print Network

and the USA, the consortium provides forums and collaboration platforms on quality control, extraction technology, component analysis, toxicology, pharmacology and regulatory issues of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as well as on acupuncture studies, with a...

Uzuner, Halil; Fan, Tai-Ping; Dias, Alberto; Guo, De-an; El-Nezami, Hani S; Xu, Qihe

2010-12-14

144

Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

2010-01-01

145

Perioperative Use of Herbal, Complementary, and Over the Counter Medicines in Plastic Surgery Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: Over the last 50 years, there has been a surge of interest by both the public and medical practitioners in therapies and disciplines that are not considered part of mainstream medical care. The title given to these is complementary and alternative medicine. Of all these branches, our interest is the increasing use of herbal medicines, traditional medicines (such as Chinese or Indian), homeopathy and “dietary supplements,” and the influence they may have on our practice. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and reasons for use of complementary and alternative medicines, the current regulations, and proposed policy changes affecting the licensing of these products. In addition, we highlight some of the problems that have been experienced with herbal and traditional medicines. Methods: A prospective analysis of herbal and over the counter medicines used by elective plastic surgery patients. Results: Of 100 elective plastic surgery patients undergoing procedures at St Andrew's Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, 44% of patients were taking a dietary supplement, herbal, or homeopathic remedy. In none of the patients was this documented in the notes by either the surgeon or anesthetist. Conclusions: We recommend that clear documentation of the use of nonprescribed medicines becomes part of standard practice and, furthermore, that patients stop all such medications 2 weeks prior to surgery until the efficacy, interactions, and safety profiles are clearly established. PMID:21625528

Collins, Declan; Oakey, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

2011-01-01

146

The peri-operative implications of herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An increasing number of patients are taking herbal medicines such as echinacea, garlic, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, St John's Wort, valerian, ephedra, kava, grapefruit juice and ginger. Although these herbal medications are considered natural products that may have some benefits, adverse effects such as increased bleeding tendencies and drug interactions are associated with their use. Surgeons and anaesthetists may be

P. J. Hodges; P. C. A. Kam

2002-01-01

147

Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

Torres, Eliseo

148

Commonly used herbal medicines in the United States: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicines are widely used in the United States, with approximately one quarter of adults reporting use of an herb to treat a medical illness within the past year. Herbs contain complicated mixtures of organic chemicals, the levels of which may vary substantially depending upon many factors related to the growth, production, and processing of the herbal product. While many

Stephen Bent; Richard Ko

2004-01-01

149

Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

2006-01-01

150

The Chinese herbal medicine FTZ attenuates insulin resistance via IRS1 and PI3K in vitro and in rats with metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Fu Fang Zhen Zhu Tiao Zhi formula (FTZ), a Chinese medicinal decoction, has been used to relieve hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and other symptoms associated with metabolic disorders in the clinic. Methods To evaluate the effect of FTZ on insulin resistance, HepG2 cells were induced with high insulin as a model of insulin resistance and treated with FTZ at one of three dosages. Next, the levels of glucose content, insulin receptor substrate1 (IRS1) protein expression and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) subunit p85 mRNA expression were measured. Alternatively, MS was induced in rats via gavage feeding of a high-fat diet for four consecutive weeks followed by administration of FTZ for eight consecutive weeks. Body weight and the plasma levels of lipids, insulin and glucose were evaluated. Finally, the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in adipose tissue of rats was measured. Results Our results revealed that FTZ attenuated glucose content and up-regulated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells in vitro. Moreover, FTZ reduced body weight and the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in insulin resistant MS rats. FTZ also elevated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in the adipose tissues of MS rats. Conclusion FTZ attenuated MS symptoms by decreasing the plasma levels of glucose and lipids. The underlying mechanism was attenuation of the reduced expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in both insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and MS rats. PMID:24555840

2014-01-01

151

Evidence-based chinese medicine for hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

152

Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

153

Herbal medicines in Hawaii from tradition to convention.  

PubMed

The stories of kava and chaulmoogra demonstrate the importance of herbal products in ancient and recent Hawaiian medicine. Kava is a psychoactive beverage that has been used ceremonially for millennia throughout the Pacific. It is a nonfermented depressant that causes tranquil intoxication in which thoughts and memory remain clear. Its broad pharmacologic activity led to use in Hawaii to treat skin disorders and later in Germany to treat gonorrhea. Kava is now available outside the Pacific basin as a relaxant, emerging as a popular, albeit deritualized, natural product. In the late 19th century, the main treatment for leprosy was chaulmoogra, extracted from Hydnocarpus seeds. Chaulmoogra had been a traditional treatment for skin diseases in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. Chaulmoogra from Asian markets was expensive and usually adulterated so the USDA decided to plant Hydnocarpus in Hawaii. Joseph Rock, a botanist at University of Hawaii, trekked through southeast Asia collecting fresh seeds to plant on Oahu. Rock's trees provided chaulmoogra for leprosy patients on Molokai and elsewhere until it was replaced by dapsone. Chaulmoogra, once the treatment for leprosy worldwide, is now nearly forgotten; kava, once poorly known outside the Pacific, is now a widely-used alternative medicine. Hawaii will probably continue its role in the transition of plants from traditional use to conventional use. PMID:9509742

Norton, S A

1998-01-01

154

Differences in the origin of philosophy between Chinese medicine and Western medicine: Exploration of the holistic advantages of Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body. PMID:23975136

Sun, Da-zhi; Li, Shao-dan; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yin; Mei, Rong; Yang, Ming-hui

2013-09-01

155

Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-02-15

156

A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.  

PubMed

Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines. PMID:25087935

Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

2014-11-15

157

Herbal hepatoxicity from Chinese skullcap: A case report  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal supplements has increased considerably over the last decade. We report a case of an elderly woman who began taking Move Free Advanced for arthritis, which in addition to glucosamine and chondroitin, contained two herbal ingredients, Chinese skullcap and Black Catechu. Our patient presented with significant cholestasis and hepatitis which significantly improved after discontinuation of the supplement. Since neither the patient nor the treating physician recognized this supplement as a potential hepatotoxin, she resumed taking the supplement and again suffered from considerable hepatotoxicity. Liver biopsy at that time was consistent with acute drug induced liver injury. She, once again, recovered after discontinuation of the supplement. Review of the literature confirms that Chinese skullcap has been implicated as a possible hepatotoxic agent which was demonstrated in this case. PMID:22855699

Yang, Leslie; Aronsohn, Andrew; Hart, John; Jensen, Donald

2012-01-01

158

Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed. PMID:20939821

He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

2010-01-01

159

History and Experience: A Survey of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is practiced in the Chinese health care system for more than 2,000 years. In recent years, herbal medicines, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China based on TCM or modern pharmacological theories have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we discuss etiology and pathogenesis of AD, TCM therapy, and herbal extracts for the treatment of AD. There is evidence to suggest that TCM therapy may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits for the treatment of AD. Chinese herb may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in view of TCM. PMID:24624220

Liu, Ping; Kong, Mingwang; Yuan, Shihe; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Ping

2014-01-01

160

Effect of Chinese herbal medicine for activating blood circulation and detoxifying on expression of inflammatory reaction and tissue damage related factors in experimental carotid artery thrombosis rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To observe the pharmaceutical effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation (Xiongshao Capsule, XSC, ????) and\\u000a for activating blood circulation and detoxification (Xiongshao Capsule and Huanglian Capsule, XSHLC, ????) in terms of the\\u000a indices of thrombosis, inflammatory reaction and tissue damage related factors in experimental carotid artery thrombosis rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifty Wistar rats were randomly divided into the sham operation

Mei Xue; Lu Zhang; Lin Yang; Yue-rong Jiang; Chun-yu Guo; Hui-jun Yin; Ke-ji Chen

2010-01-01

161

Effects of Chinese Herbal Compound "Xuemai Ning"on Rabbit Atherosclerosis Model and Expression of ABCA1  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease. PMID:24170990

Chen, Min

2013-01-01

162

Prescription Patterns of Chinese Herbal Products for Osteoporosis in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese herbal products (CHPs), acupuncture, and traumatology manipulative therapies. TCM physicians often prescribe CHP to treat patients with osteoporosis; however, the drugs used and their patterns of prescriptions have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the CHP used for the treatment of osteoporosis in Taiwan and their prescription patterns. Methods. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was analyzed to evaluate the frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for osteoporosis. Association rules were then applied to evaluate the CHP coprescription patterns and the prevalence of osteoporosis. Results. The osteoporosis cohort included 16?544 patients, of whom more than 70% had used TCM on one or more occasion. Of these patients, 4?292 (25.9%) had been hospitalized at least once because of fracture. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion. This study identified patterns of CHP use for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, further research is required to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of these CHP. PMID:23093986

Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung

2012-01-01

163

Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components

Songlin Li; Quanbin Han; Chunfeng Qiao; Jingzheng Song; Chuen Lung Cheng; Hongxi Xu

2008-01-01

164

Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

Mills, Melinda B.

1994-01-01

165

Chinese herbal prescriptions for osteoarthritis in Taiwan: analysis of national health insurance dataset  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male?=?1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study conducted a large scale pharmaco-epidemiology survey of Chinese herbal medicine use in OA patients by analyzing the NHIRD in Taiwan in year 2002. PMID:24606767

2014-01-01

166

Bioactive proteins and peptides isolated from Chinese medicines with pharmaceutical potential  

PubMed Central

Some protein pharmaceuticals from Chinese medicine have been developed to treat cardiovascular diseases, genetic diseases, and cancer. Bioactive proteins with various pharmacological properties have been successfully isolated from animals such as Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech), Eisenia fetida (earthworm), and Mesobuthus martensii (Chinese scorpion), and from herbal medicines derived from species such as Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma, Momordica cochinchinensis, Viscum album, Poria cocos, Senna obtusifolia, Panax notoginseng, Smilax glabra, Ginkgo biloba, Dioscorea batatas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. This article reviews the isolation methods, molecular characteristics, bioactivities, pharmacological properties, and potential uses of bioactive proteins originating from these Chinese medicines. PMID:25067942

2014-01-01

167

RAPD Analysis for Determination of Components in Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for determination of the components in an Ayurvedic herbal prescription, Rasayana Churna. One-hundred-and-twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened in the RAPD analysis to identify three Ayurvedic medicines, dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia, dried fruit of Emblica officinalis and dried fruit of Tribulus terestris, the Ayurvedic prescription. Primer OPC-6 simultaneously generated three distinct amplicons, each specific to one component. The marker with 600 bp is specific to Tinospora cordifolia; the marker 500 bp is specific to Emblica officinalis and the remaining marker >1000 bp was present in Tribulus terestris. Presence of three herbal medicines was determined when RAPD reaction with OPC-6 was performed. The technique was proved to contribute to the identification of components in Ayurvedic herbal preparation and thus helping to serve as a complementary tool for quality control. PMID:18227927

Dhalwal, K.; Mahadik, K. R.; Joshi, K. S.; Patwardhan, B. K.

2007-01-01

168

Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

2014-01-01

169

On the natural medical features of traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Heaven-human-earth Pattern (HHE) regarded as a crucial conception of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been applied extensively in TCM diagnostics, etiology, acupuncture therapeutics, materia medica and herbal formula, etc. It associates closely with Chinese classic cosmology. Since ancient time of China, many cosmic phenomena have been introduced to prove or illustrate TCM theories. Moreover, the five-element theory has been proven to be in keeping with some modern approaches of life provenance and life evolution. As a result, Chinese materia medica develops in a way of a pure natural medicine. It is of great significance that by realizing the natural features, the public nowadays can understand TCM better in its scientific connotations. PMID:17710818

Zhu, Ming; Gong, Jiapei; Liu, Yuanlong

2007-06-01

170

Trends in Utilization of Herbal Medicine: Implications for Health Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract English: Over the last few decades, people have increasingly used herbal medicine as an alternative or adjunct to modern drugs. Few of the herbs available to the public have undergone testing for safety, efficacy, or potential interaction with other drugs taken for an ailment. Alt hough herbs are generally safe when used properly, they can be harmful and even

Behjat A. Sharif

171

The liver in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Medical thinkers in China visualized the liver in microcosmal and macrocosmal terms. An anatomical tradition did not exist, hence the liver was described grossly in broad outline. It was recognized as being functionally important in the movement of qi (vital energy) and storage of xue ('blood'). The liver corresponded to various phenomena in both the natural and social orders, according to the scheme of yin yang and five phases. These interrelationships provided the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of liver dysfunctions. The disorders fell into three general groups: (i) hepatic qi stasis; (ii) hepatic yang excess with yin deficiency; and (iii) hepatic yin insufficiency. The signs and symptoms represented the logical outcomes of the disturbed physiology. Acupuncture, moxibustion and herbal drugs were used to redress the imbalance of hepatic qi and yin-yang. The impact of Western medicine led traditional authors to recognize the hepatobiliary role in bile secretion and in jaundice. The exchange between the Western and Chinese medical traditions revealed that active agents were included in the Chinese formulary, such as glycyrrhizin, which has recently been shown to be beneficial in chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:9641312

Chen, T S; Chen, P S

1998-04-01

172

Inflammation, Macrophage in Cancer Progression and Chinese Herbal Treatment  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is associated with cancer development, and has been recognized as the seventh hallmarks of the cancer. Cancer-related inflammation can be activated by genetic or epigenetic changes in cancer cells (intrinsic pathway) or mediated by tumor-infiltrating immune cells (extrinsic pathway). Immune cells involved in cancer-related inflammation mainly including tumor-associated macrophages or M2 macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, and lymphocytes. As major players of the cancer-related inflammation, M2 macrophages, secreting various of growth factors, immunomodulatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, participate in remodeling of extracellular matrix, contribute to cancer invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and inhibit anti-cancer immunity. Inflammation has been considered as an important target for cancer therapy. Some Chinese herbal ingredients have been confirmed to be effective in inhibit inflammation related gene expression in cancer cells, such as COX-2 and NF-B. However, there is a shortage of study on Chinese herb or herbal ingredient against extrinsic cancer inflammation, especially in tumor-associated macrophages. Related studies may provide new insight into cancer treatment. PMID:24826036

Deng, Shan; Hu, Bing; Shen, Ke-Ping; Xu, Ling

2012-01-01

173

Chinese medicine and the surgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgeon aims at a direct, complete removal of the pathology. In spite of the modern advancements of imaging facilities\\u000a and precision instrumentations, unsatisfactory results and recurrences are not uncommon. This paper provides a general review\\u000a of the four specific areas in surgery that would benefit from Chinese medicine. Extensive searches were made on four surgical\\u000a areas based on available

Ping-chung Leung; Sreedhar Biji; Chung-kwong Yeung

2011-01-01

174

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195

Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

2004-02-01

175

The toxicity and pathology of selected dietary herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Toxicity studies were conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to provide information on the potential for toxicity from long-term use of commonly used herbal medicines. Here, we review the findings from these NTP toxicology/carcinogenesis 2-year rodent studies of 7 commonly used herbs. In these studies, the individual herb or herbal product was administered to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by oral administration for up to 2 years. The spectrum of carcinogenic responses ranged from no or equivocal evidence for carcinogenic activity (ginseng, milk thistle, and turmeric oleoresin) to a liver tumor response (ginkgo, goldenseal, kava), thyroid tumor response (ginkgo), or an intestinal tumor response (Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract). Different mechanisms may be involved in the occurrence of liver (ginkgo, goldenseal, and kava kava) and gastrointestinal toxicity (turmeric oleoresin and Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract), while the toxic lesion is the same. The results from these hazard identification toxicity/carcinogenesis studies along with those from ongoing National Institute of Health clinical trials of herbal medicines provide more complete information on the risks and benefits from herbal medicine use in the general population. PMID:23262639

Dunnick, June K; Nyska, Abraham

2013-02-01

176

Herbal medicines for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: current scenario and future prospects.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Nammi, Srinivas

2014-01-01

177

Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

2014-01-01

178

Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2~1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

Xiao-li, Zhao; Jiu-sheng, Li

2011-02-01

179

The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine  

PubMed Central

The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23983772

2013-01-01

180

Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task. PMID:23840246

Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2013-01-01

181

Sampath Kumar et.al Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology HERBAL MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Herbal medicines have become popular for healthcare. The consumption of such formulations and botanicals has increased in recent years. Herbal products are defined as herbal medicines that are administered to patients and are mixtures of herbal substances. In the preparation of herbal formulation various parts of plants are used such as roots, bark, stem, seeds, fruit, leaves etc. The various parts of the plants contain different constituents which have different pharmacological effects. Recently, the traditional use of plants for wound healing has received attention by the scientific community. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines in use are for the treatment of wounds and skin disorders, compared to only 1-3 % of modern drugs. Medicinal plants are coming into prominence because of the conventional medicine such as antibiotics which have developed resistance to many of the infection organisms which no longer responsive to conventional medicines. Herbal preparation can be more effective and safer than conventional medicines.

Ismail Shaik; K. P. Samapth Kumar

182

Preclinical safety evaluation of the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese herbal formula Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the safety of oral administration of Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods The toxicological information of HLXLD and its individual constituent herbs was searched in cintcm or TCMlars (www.cintcm.com), PubMed (MEDLINE), Chinese Herbal Medicine (1999) and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Vol. I—III). Single-dose acute toxicity was assessed by using the highest possible dosage. Motor function test was used to determine whether the herbal formula might cause motor impairment. Nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects, and 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects in rats were also assessed. Results The literature searches showed that HLXLD and its eleven ingredient herbs had no side/adverse effects listed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature. Under the dosages proposed in the formula, the HLXLD formula had no side/adverse effects according to MEDLINE, Chinese Herbal Medicine and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. The studies in rats showed: (1) in single-dose acute toxicity assessment, the maximal feasible single oral dose, 9.20 g/kg HLXLD, showed no significant effect on clinical signs, or body weight and mortality over a 14-day period in rats; (2) during motor function test, nine-day repeat-dose of daily HLXLD treatment at 4.60 g/kg did not cause motor impairment; (3) in nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessment, there were no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes or obvious adverse reactions and signs in complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats (highest observed dosage: 4.60 g/kg), and no noticeable adverse effects were observed during, or 14 days after nine-day treatment at 4.60 g/kg in non-inflamed rats; (4) during 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessments, no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes, no obvious adverse reactions and signs were observed in normal rats administered with HLXLD at a dose of 2.30 g/kg and the values of serum biochemistry and histopathology were in normal range. Conclusion Both existing information and animal data support that Modified HLXLD is a safe herbal product for clinical application. PMID:20456842

FAN, Arthur Yin; LAO, Lixing; ZHANG, Rui-xin; ZHOU, An-nan; BERMAN, Brian M.

2013-01-01

183

Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential. PMID:17486320

Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

2007-09-01

184

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

185

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning.  

PubMed

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

Gunturu, Krishna S; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; McPhedran, Peter; Goodman, Thomas R; Hodsdon, Michael E; Strout, Matthew P

2011-01-01

186

Purity control of some Chinese crude herbal drugs marketed in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of herbal drugs, among which those coming from eastern Countries, has created a more compelling need for quality, a pre-requisite that can influence safety.In the present study, 10 Chinese crude herbal drugs marketed in Italy (Radix Ginseng, Radix Astragali, Rhizoma Coptidis, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Radix Polygalae, Radix

G. Mazzanti; L. Battinelli; C. Daniele; S. Costantini; L. Ciaralli; M. G. Evandri

2008-01-01

187

Valvular Heart Disease Caused By Chinese Preprietary Slimming Medicine Adulterated With Fenfluramine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorectic drugs containing fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine have been classified as 'off-label' drugs in Hong Kong for several years. In this study, we report a case of valvular heart disease found in a teenager who had been taking Chinese proprietary medicine as a weight reducing agent for six months. Fenfluramine was identified in the diet pills. Two other herbal proprietary slimming

K CHANG; TWL MAK; L KWONG; KT SO

2005-01-01

188

Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

2014-01-01

189

Herbal and other complementary medicine use by Texas midwives.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional survey sought to document complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by Texas midwives, as well as to determine whether licensed direct-entry midwives (LMs) and certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) differed significantly in their patterns of use. All respondents (n = 69) indicated that they used, recommended, or referred their clients for at least one CAM therapy during the preceding year. Ninety percent (90%) of respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for an herbal remedy (not including homeopathic tinctures). Herbal therapies were among the top three modalities recommended for 7 of 12 (58%) clinical indications. Herbs were the most salient CAM therapy used for cervical ripening (83%), followed closely by use for nausea, vomiting, and hyperemesis (80%), and labor induction (77%). Herbal therapies also constituted 50% or more of the CAM therapies used for the following indications: anemia/iron supplementation (70%), perineal healing (66%), and anxiety/stress/fatigue (50%). LM respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for a greater number of herbal therapies compared to CNMs. While several of the CAM modalities used or recommended by Texas midwives show potential for clinical benefit, few have been studied sufficiently to determine their efficacy or safety during pregnancy. PMID:17826710

Bayles, Bryan P

2007-01-01

190

Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative\\/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have

Jean-San Chia; Jia-Ling Du; Wei-Bin Hsu; Andy Sun; Chun-Pin Chiang; Won-Bo Wang

2010-01-01

191

Traditional Chinese medicine recognition based on FNN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy logic neural network based method is proposed. The method is only used to recognize the composition of traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese pharmaceutical medicine. The network is built on the idea of ART while referring to a normal fuzzy neural network. The network takes on two-phase modus operandi: first, study the network structure by samples; and then study

Yibo Li; Xiaoyuan Huang

2002-01-01

192

Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science  

PubMed Central

Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

2013-01-01

193

Forensic problems with the composition and content of herbal medicines.  

PubMed

A survey of herbal medicines available for internet and over-the-counter purchase in South Australia, Australia, was conducted looking specifically at those used for 'arthritis', 'cold and flu', 'gastrointestinal', 'stress' and 'premenstrual syndrome'. 121 products consisted of 29 in the 'arthritis' category, 33 in 'cold and flu', 19 in 'gastrointestinal' 30 in 'stress' and 10 in 'premenstrual syndrome'. Twenty two (18%) of 121 products were not registered with the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG), despite this being a legal requirement for their sale. Of the registered products 59 (60%) of 99 had differing ingredient concentrations on the website compared to their ARTG listing. Only three of the 15 purchased products had ingredient concentrations which were consistent between the website, ARTG listing and product packaging. These findings demonstrate that it may not be possible to determine what herbal substance an individual has been exposed to prior to death and in what concentration, based on packaging from medications seized at the scene, or from examination of website data and the ARTG listing. These discrepancies may increase the problems that exist in attempting to determine what role herbal medicines may play in the mechanism of death in certain forensic cases. PMID:24661699

Blacksell, Lauren; Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian F

2014-03-01

194

Popular Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine in HIV Patients in the HAART era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-six Chinese male HIV patients were interviewed on their use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). All except one\\u000a had undetectable viral load, 28 had already progressed to AIDS. Forty-five (59.2%) had used TCM – 11 infrequently and 33 commonly. No specific TCM recipe was preferentially used, while a variety of herbal tea and other over-the-counter health products\\u000a of TCM in

Kurtland Ma; Shui-Shan Lee; Elsie K. Y. Chu; Dennise K. P. Tam; Victoria S. C. Kwong; Choi-Fung Ho; Kathy Cheng; Ka-Hing Wong

2008-01-01

195

The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II.  

PubMed

Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is a time-honored tonic food and herbal medicine in China, where recent research has shown that many of its traditional uses may be viewed from the basis of pharmacological activities. The ongoing exploration of C. sinensis in its wild form and cultured, fermented mycelial products derived from it, are reviewed from English and Chinese literature. Part II concludes the series with a review of C. sinensis in preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, and open-label and double-blinded clinical trials on the respiratory, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, immunologic, and nervous systems, and its effects on cancer, glucose metabolism, inflammatory conditions, and toxicological studies. In Part I, which appeared in the Fall 1998 issue of this journal (4(3):289-303), we discussed the effects of C. sinensis on antisenescence, endocrine and sexual functions, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and free radicals. PMID:9884180

Zhu, J S; Halpern, G M; Jones, K

1998-01-01

196

[Safety evaluation of Chinese medicine on tumor therapy].  

PubMed

As a characteristic tumor therapy in China, Chinese medicine (CM) plays an important position in comprehensive treatment of tumor. It's a critical issue of objective realization, analysis and evaluation of CM safety for scientific decision-making in tumor safe medication and it also is a pivotal issue which affects the international communication. The safety evaluation of CM includes three phases: pre-clinical safety evaluation, clinical trials (micro-dose studies and traditional clinical trials) and post-marketing CM safety assessment. The key point of evaluation should be distinguished among different stages and various types of CM (such as classic formulas, Chinese herbal extracts, etc). Emphasis should be given to chronic toxicity when evaluating oral Chinese herbal , microdose studies and quality control must be underlined while injection is evaluated and more attention should be pay to the dose-effect relationship and time-effect relationship when turned to toxic Chinese medicine , and so as for the toxicity grading study. Moreover, we should constantly improve CM safety assessment method in various stages of tumor treatment, such as introducing the concept of syndrome classification theory, bringing in metabonomics and real-world research method which are similar to the CM therapeutic concept. Most importantly, we must keep its own feature of CM theory when we learn the concept of safety evaluation from abroad. Actively exploring the anti-tumor medicine safety evaluation methods and strategies is of great significance for clinical and experimental research, and it can provide supportability platform to CM's international communication. PMID:24791513

Liu, Rui; Hua, Bao-Jin; Li, Jie

2013-12-01

197

New exploration and understanding of traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), originating from oriental philosophy and culture, has been developing through a series of special research and experiments with meditation, accumulation of experiences, and a complete comprehension of ancient theories and methods. However, compared with Conventional Western Medicine (CWM), the theory of TCM is complicated and not easily accepted by Westerners. It is important to explore TCM by using modern scientific techniques and theories. Utilizing his frontier experience and up-to-date scientific knowledge, Dr. Qian Xuesen has been trying to incorporate some key principles with the comprehensive understanding of TCM and clarify difficult but important concepts and principles. Some examples are the existence of invisible matter; 'Qi' and 'Qi monism'; the Heart representing the 'whole will' of human beings; the water environment functioning as a fundamental condition of life; the human body being united with nature and universe as one; the spirit and physical body always being considered unified and connected with the five viscera, especially with the Heart; and the Chinese herbal formula working with different principles than CWM drugs. These works are important for understanding the essence of TCM, the promoting of the modernization of TCM theories by means of the latest of achievements in scientific developments, establishing the direction for future medicines with TCM characteristics, uniting Chinese and Western medicines, and exploiting a bright future for the health of mankind. PMID:19606504

Xutian, Stevenson; Zhang, Jun; Louise, Wozniak

2009-01-01

198

[Construction and thinking of data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy information].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop the data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy information, to provide application standards and models of TCM clinical pharmacy for the electronic medical record (EMR). The developed line of work is as follows: initially establish research through four forms: literature analysis, questionnaires, discussion groups, expert advice. The research range from the Chinese herbal medicine research, herbal origin, harvesting, processing, identification of traits, physical and chemical identification, modern research, character, taste, Indications, clinical application, processing, dispensing medicine, Chinese medicine specifications, usage, dosage, caution, efficacy indications to small packaging applications, drug research, management and other related issues, including traditional Chinese medicine theory, application and hospital management information; according to the general and part 16 content of the national "Health Information Data Element Standards", and the basic method of extracting data element to study and develop the data element of TCM clinical pharmacy information from the defining content. Correspondingly propose the ideas and methods of construction of the "Data Element Standard Directory of TCM Clinical Pharmacy Information", sort out medicine clinical information data element standard catalog, divided into basic categories, clinical application class, management class three parts, and set norms and standards of identifying data elements, definitions, allowable value of traditional Chinese medicine clinical information, and discuss the sources and standards of information collection, leaving the interface, standardized and scientific terminology, docking with the existing standards, maintenance and management program and oter issues. PMID:25095392

Wang, Xiao-Xia; Jin, Zhong-Zheng; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

2014-05-01

199

[Pyrrolizidine alkaloids-containing Chinese medicines in the Chinese pharmacopoeia and related safety concerns].  

PubMed

It has been well-known that many medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine contain hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (HPAs), and some even have been recorded in many editions of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP). In order to clarify the current status of these PAs-containing Chinese materia medica and proprietary Chinese formulae, the ChP 2010, the newest version, and the related safety issues were thoroughly investigated and analyzed on the current advances in research. Total nine crude drugs (not including the processed slices) were found to contain HPAs, which may be present in tens of Chinese proprietary drugs prepared with these crude drugs. Because of the lack of the alkaloid limitation in most monographs, their potential threats to human health may be underestimated. For this reason, attention should be drawn to the importance of the issue. The key point is to conduct the basic studies immediately on these PA-containing herbal plants or products, whose possible hazards need to be carefully assessed. Further efforts should also be made to elevate the criteria for quality control and ensure the drugs' safety in clinic for human health. PMID:22010344

Tang, Jun; Hattori, Masao

2011-07-01

200

Clearance of Free Silica in Rat Lungs by Spraying with Chinese Herbal Kombucha  

PubMed Central

The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50?mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun

2013-01-01

201

Clearance of free silica in rat lungs by spraying with chinese herbal kombucha.  

PubMed

The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50?mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

Fu, Nai-Fang; Luo, Chang-Hui; Wu, Jun-Cai; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Gan, Yong-Jin; Ling, Jian-An; Liang, Heng-Qiu; Liang, Dan-Yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xian-Jun; Pan, Rui-Hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-Jun

2013-01-01

202

Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given as a therapy for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the utilization of TCM among type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. Methods. The use of TCM for type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 77.9% (n = 31,289) of type 2 diabetic patients utilized TCM and 13.9% (n = 4,351) of them used TCM for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among the top ten most frequently prescribed herbal formulae, four remedies, Zhi-Bo-Di-Huang-Wan, Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan and Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan are derivative formulae of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan. In other words, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan and its derivatives were found to be the most common herbal formulae prescribed by TCM doctors for the treatment of diabetes in Taiwan. Conclusion. Although some evidence does support the use TCM to treat diabetes, the results from the current study may have been confounded by placebo effect, which emphasize the need for well conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in order to further evaluate the efficacy of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan on patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23843864

Huang, Chung-Yu; Lai, Jung-Nien; Hsu, Feng-Lin

2013-01-01

203

Target network differences between western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients in treating cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25104437

2014-01-01

204

HPLC DETERMINATION OF BERBERINE IN MEDICINAL HERBS AND A RELATED TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HPLC method was developed for the determination and identification of the berberine content in Coptidis Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and a related commercially prepared traditional Chinese medicine, Huang-Lian-Jiee-Dwu-Tang. Berberine was separated by a phenyl-bound column with two kinds of mobile phases of acetonitrile : methanol : 20 mM phosphate (35 : 20 : 45, v\\/v\\/v) and acetonitrile : 20 mM phosphate (30 : 70, v\\/v) for single herb and herbal preparation, respectively. Both mobile

Pi-Lo Tsai; Tung-Hu Tsai

2002-01-01

205

Polyphenols contents and antioxidant capacity of 68 Chinese herbals suitable for medical or food uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study estimated in vitro antioxidant activities of 68 common Chinese herbals both for medical and food uses, using Folin–Ciocalteu, ferric-reducing\\/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assays. The results showed different extraction had various antioxidant properties. Six plant materials including Chinese White Olive, Clove, Pricklyash Peel, Villous Amomum Fruit, Chinese Star Anise and Pagodatree Flower appeared highest total

Haiying Liu; Nongxue Qiu; Huihuang Ding; Ruiqi Yao

2008-01-01

206

Value creation through modernizing Chinese medicine  

E-print Network

My first hypothesis in this thesis is that there is significant value vested in traditional Chinese medicine that can be captured by converting them into ethical drugs through scientific analysis, screening and validation. ...

Sun, Lizhe

2007-01-01

207

Compilation of a herbal medicine formulary for herbal substances in Malta and its usefulness amongst healthcare professionals  

PubMed Central

Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care. PMID:24023448

Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.

2013-01-01

208

Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by ?-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by ? irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by ?-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

Xingwang, Fang; Jilan, Wu

1998-06-01

209

Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by ?-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by ? irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by ?-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

210

Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients.  

PubMed

Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property. PMID:21854570

Wang, Xinsheng; Tian, Jiaher; Chan, Albert Wai-Kit

2011-01-01

211

Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients  

PubMed Central

Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property. PMID:21854570

2011-01-01

212

Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

2012-01-01

213

Prescription pattern of chinese herbal products for breast cancer in taiwan: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488

Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der

2012-01-01

214

Characterization of Satureja khuzestanica Leaf as a Herbal Medicine.  

PubMed

Dried leaves of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad are a popular herbal medicine and dental anesthetic among the nomadic inhabitants of southwestern Iran. The present study establishes criteria for identification of S. khuzestanica dried whole, fragmented and powdered leaves for specification as a herbal substance using macroscopic and microscopic characterization. Quantitative microscopy techniques were also considered. Macroscopically leaves exhibit a grayish-green color, are broadly ovate in shape with an acute apex, attenuate base, and ciliate margin and have a surface covered by an indumentum of glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Microscopically leaves have an isobilateral amphistomatic structure containing peltate glandular trichomes consisting of a multiseriate stalk (five cells) and an enlarged secretory head composed of 12 cells, capitate glandular trichomes of variable morphology together with two types of non-glandular trichomes. Oval-shaped hygromorphic diacytic stomata with an adaxial stomatal index of 13.54, collateral vascular bundles consisting of xylem, and three layers of sclerenchymatous tissue close to phloem together with cluster, prismatic and raphide calcium oxalate crystals were also identified as useful pharmacognostic parameters for identification of S. khuzestanica dried leaves. PMID:25156661

Malmir, Maryam; Serrano, Rita; Reza Gohari, Ahmad; Silva, Olga

2014-10-01

215

Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer. PMID:25364657

Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

2014-01-01

216

Evidence-based practice of Chinese medicine in physical rehabilitation science.  

PubMed

Chinese medicine is among other traditional medical systems practiced either as a coadjutant intervention to Greek medicine or as the unique therapeutic intervention for illness prevention, treatment or rehabilitation. The complete spectrum from that traditional system includes acupuncture and moxibustion, herbal and food therapy, massage therapy (tuina), physical exercises (taijiquan), and breathing exercises (qigong). In this article, it is presented several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews on the application of all therapeutic modalities from Chinese medicine in the physical rehabilitation scenario. The discussed studies encompasses both "positive" and "negative" results of Chinese medicine intervention for disabilities due to illnesses of the nervous, musculoskeletal or cardiovascular systems. Additionally, the importance of the personalized approach for Chinese medicine and rehabilitation is emphasized together with the need for reproducible methods for pattern differentiation and intervention selection. Chinese medicine resources are recognized as promising methods for therapeutic rehabilitation and can be incorporated into the rehabilitation science. The wide variety of therapeutic resources explains why Chinese medicine is currently a multidisciplinary practice for health protection and promotion, early diagnosis and treatment as well as rehabilitation with roles in the public health care system. PMID:23504579

de Sá Ferreira, Arthur

2013-10-01

217

Review of the regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines in USA.  

PubMed

In 2012, USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 39 new drugs, however, there are only two botanical drugs (one topical and one oral) approved by FDA since the publication of the FDA's industry guidelines for the botanical drug product in June 2004. The approval shows the Western guideline can be used for herbal medicines, authors investigate current regulation on herbal medicine clinical research, identify challenges conducting clinical trials, and seek to produce some guidance for potential investigators and sponsors considering a clinical trial in this area. Key words were formulated for searching on Medline and FDA website to locate relevant regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines to understand current environment for herbal medicine usage and examine the barriers affecting herbal medicine in clinical trials. Authors critically explore case study of the 1st FDA approved botanical drugs, Veregen (sinecatechins), green tea leaves extract, a topical cream for perianal and genital condyloma. In consideration of current regulation environment in USA, based on the findings and analysis through the literature review and Veregen case study, authors produce and propose a Checklist for New Drug Application of Herbal Medicines for potential investigators and sponsors considering in a herbal medicine clinical trial. PMID:25428336

Tang, Tony Yuqi; Li, Fang-Zhou; Afseth, Janyne

2014-12-01

218

Adverse Events Associated with Metal Contamination of Traditional Chinese Medicines in Korea: A Clinical Review  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted. PMID:25048473

Kim, Hyunah; Hawes, Emily M.

2014-01-01

219

Adverse events associated with metal contamination of traditional chinese medicines in Korea: a clinical review.  

PubMed

This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted. PMID:25048473

Kim, Hyunah; Hughes, Peter J; Hawes, Emily M

2014-09-01

220

Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM. PMID:21172056

2010-01-01

221

Purity control of some Chinese crude herbal drugs marketed in Italy.  

PubMed

The widespread use of herbal drugs, among which those coming from eastern Countries, has created a more compelling need for quality, a pre-requisite that can influence safety. In the present study, 10 Chinese crude herbal drugs marketed in Italy (Radix Ginseng, Radix Astragali, Rhizoma Coptidis, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Radix Polygalae, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) were analysed by the following purity assays: foreign matter, total ash, microbial and heavy metal contamination. Each herbal drug was purchased in Italy from three different sources: two Chinese firms and one Chinese herbal shop. Except for the heavy metal content, the tests were performed according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The presence of parasites was shown in two samples; moreover, level of ash (in three samples), lead content (in one sample) and total viable aerobic count (in one sample), were higher than the limits set by the European or Italian Pharmacopoeias. Our results, even if obtained from a small number of herbal drugs, show some purity issues and underline the importance of the quality control, particularly for this kind of products whose therapeutic value is not always demonstrated. PMID:18586067

Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Costantini, S; Ciaralli, L; Evandri, M G

2008-09-01

222

[Development of traditional Chinese medicine in United States].  

PubMed

The United States government established Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) to meet the public needs. In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) approved the first acupuncture clinic for their patients. The National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was founded at NIH in 1998 to sponsor and develop CAM research. In 2001, the budget for NCCAM had grown to 130 million USD. Of the 3 300 papers on CAM published in the past ten years, 520 were funded by NIH. NCCAM goals are to focus on "mind and body medicine" and "herbals" for future research. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the major components in CAM. From 1998 to 2012, NCCAM funded 248 research subjects on TCM, with a total budget of 236 million USD. The subjects were as follows: 160 for acupuncture, 36 for Chinese medicine, 33 for Tai Chi, and 19 for Qigong. The American public is increasingly supportive of CAM, including TCM. According to the national survey in 2008, nearly 40% of American used CAM, 11% of them were children, self-spending 33.9 billion USD in 2007. In the same year, 3.7 million people received acupuncture in the United States. The data also indicate that women, higher income and higher educated people used CAM more frequently. An increasing number of allopathic medical professionals are open to CAM, and recommend their patients to use acupuncture and other modalities. TCM, as an important part of CAM, has become a new option for patients in improving their healthcare services in conjunction with allopathic medicine. TCM will have more potential to be utilized in the United States. PMID:23073580

Tian, Xiao-ming

2012-10-18

223

Effects of traditional Sino-Japanese herbal medicines on aqueous flare elevation after small-incision cataract surgery.  

PubMed

We evaluated prospectively the effects of traditional Sino-Japanese herbal medicines on elevation of aqueous flare. Fifty-four patients with age-related cataract undergoing phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were studied. In the control group, 20 patients received no herbal medicine. In the treated groups, 14 patients were given Orengedoku- to (Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang in Chinese) granules (7.5 g daily), 10 patients were given Kakkon-to (Ge-Gen-Tang in Chinese) granules (7.5 g daily), and 10 patients were given Sairei-to (Cai-Ling-Tang in Chinese) granules (9.0 g daily), for 3 days before surgery, the day of surgery, and for 7 days after surgery. Aqueous flare was measured before and after surgery. The differences in preoperative flare intensities among the four groups were not significant. In the control group, the flare was 29.4 photon counts/msec on day 1, and then gradually decreased. The flare intensities on days 1, 3, and 5 in the Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to groups were significantly lower than in the control group. The flare intensities in the Sairei-to group were the same as those of the controls. Oral administration of Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to decreased aqueous flare elevation after small-incision cataract surgery. Sairei-to had no effect on the elevation. PMID:11322638

Ikeda, N; Hayasaka, S; Nagaki, Y; Hayasaka, Y; Kadoi, C; Matsumoto, M

2001-02-01

224

Pharmacokinetic profiles of anticancer herbal medicines in humans and the clinical implications.  

PubMed

A number of herbal medicines are increasingly used by cancer patients worldwide, despite the fact that the clinical evidence that supports their use to fight cancer is weak or lacking. Pharmacokinetic studies have been integrated into modern drug development, but they are generally not needed for herbal remedies. To update our knowledge in this field, this paper highlights the pharmacokinetic properties of anticancer herbal medicines and the clinical relevance. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase ((all from inception to May 2011). An extensive literature search indicatesthat there are limited data on the pharmacokinetic properties of anticancer herbal medicines in humans. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of anticancer herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal medicines including curcumin, ginseng, ginkgo, ginger and milk thistle. For an anticancer herbal medicine, the pharmacological activity is gained when the active agents or the active metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and pharmacokinetic processes of active herbal components in the body determine their target-site concentrations and thus the anticancer effect. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of anticancer herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of anticancer herbal remedies, further studies to explore their pharmacokinetic properties and the relevance to pharmacodynamics and toxicity in humans are certainly warranted. PMID:21671861

Chen, X-W; Sneed, K B; Zhou, S-F

2011-01-01

225

Chinese Medicine BioMed Central Editorial Chinese Medicine: a peer-reviewed open access journal for evidence-led Chinese medicine  

E-print Network

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. What is Chinese Medicine? The new journal, Chinese Medicine (CM), is a peerreviewed, open access, international, interdisciplinary and scholarly journal in Chinese medicine. CM aims to provide evidence-led force for the advancement of Chinese medicine research. CM is the official journal of the International Society for Chinese Medicine (ISCM) [1] with academic support from leading research institutes as its members and financial support from the Macao Foundation of the Macao Special Administrative Region, China. Chinese Medicine will serve as an unbiased and non-commercial platform for publishing advanced Chinese medicine research. An open access online version of CM is published by BioMed Central (BMC) [2], a London-based

Hin Wing Yeung; Hin Wing Yeung

2006-01-01

226

Chinese Herbal Ingredients Are Effective Immune Stimulators for Chickens Infected with the Newcastle Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at vari- ous concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly

X.-F. Kong; Y.-L. Hu; Y.-L. Yin; G.-Y. Wu; R. Rui; D.-Y. Wang; C.-B. Yang

227

The Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescription Pattern of Endometriosis Patients in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), when given for symptom relief, has gained widespread popularity among women with endometriosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM among women with endometriosis in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of service, and the Chinese herbal products prescribed for endometriosis, among endometriosis patients, were evaluated using a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Results. Overall, 90.8% (N = 12, 788) of reproductive age women with endometriosis utilized TCM and 25.2% of them sought TCM with the intention of treating their endometriosis-related symptoms. Apart from the usage of either analgesics or more than one type of medical treatment, the odds of using TCM and Western medicine were similar in all types of conventional endometriosis treatment. However, endometriosis patients suffering from symptoms associated with endometriosis were more likely to seek TCM treatment than those with no symptoms. There were 21,056 TCM visits due to endometriosis and its related symptoms, of which more than 98% were treated with Chinese herbal products (CHPs). Conclusion. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) containing sedative and anti-inflammatory agents is the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula mainly for the treatment of endometriosis-related symptomatic discomfort and the effects of these TCMs should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:23056141

Fang, Ruei-Chi; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Yeh, Chia-Hao; Wu, Chien-Tung

2012-01-01

228

Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition PMID:20226092

2010-01-01

229

An herbal medicine orengedokuto prevents indomethacin-induced enteropathy.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key regulator of gastrointestinal, immunological, and mucosal homeostasis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the prostaglandin-producing enzyme cyclooxygenases (COXs), and can induce serious complications, such as gastrointestinal damage, with long-term treatment. Orengedokuto (OGT), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), is effective in various animal models of enteropathy. In the present study we examined whether OGT prevents enteropathy induced by NSAIDs in mice. Ulceration in the small intestine was induced with 2 subcutaneous injections of indomethacin (20 mg/kg body weight). Orally administered OGT prevented or reduced lethality, intestinal lesions, bleeding, increased serum nitrate/nitrite levels, and reduction of mucosal PGE2 induced by indomethacin. These beneficial effects of OGT were accompanied by increased production of PGE2 and interleukin 10 by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells; COX-2 in these cells may be a major source of PGE2 in normal intestines. These findings suggest that OGT could be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and adverse reactions to NSAIDs. PMID:17329845

Miura, Naoko; Fukutake, Masato; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Iizuka, Seiichi; Imamura, Sachiko; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Ishimatsu, Makoto; Nakamura, Yuichi; Ishige, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kase, Yoshio; Takeda, Shuichi

2007-03-01

230

Chinese "Herbal" Cigarettes are as Carcinogenic and Addictive as Regular Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the Chinese tobacco industry's claim that herbal cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 135 herbal cigarette smokers and 143 regular smokers from one city in China completed a questionnaire on smoking behavior and provided a urine sample. Main Outcome Measures Cotinine and trans-3?-hydroxycotinine in all samples and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (PAHs) (1-hydroxypyrene, naphthols, hydroxyfluorenes and hydroxyphnanthrenes) and the tobacco specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronide in randomly selected 98 samples (47 from the herbal smokers' group and 51 from the regular smokers' group). Values were normalized by creatinine to correct for possible variability introduced by dilution or concentration of the urine. Results Health concern was among the main reasons that smokers switched to herbal cigarettes from regular cigarettes. Smokers reported increased consumption after switching to herbal cigarettes from regular cigarettes. For all the four markers analyzed (cotinine, trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, total NNAL, total PAHs), we observed no significant difference in the levels (p=0.169, p=0.146, p=0.171, p=0.554) between smokers of herbal cigarettes and smokers of regular cigarettes. Both total NNAL and total PAHs were significantly correlated with cotinine and trans-3?-hydroxycotinine (p<0.001 for all four correlations). Conclusions Our findings showed that herbal cigarettes did not deliver less carcinogens than regular cigarettes. The public needs to be aware of this fact and the Chinese tobacco industry should avoid misleading the public when promoting herbal cigarettes as safer products. PMID:19959701

Gan, Quan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Gonghuan; Goniewicz, Maciej; Benowitz, Neal L.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2009-01-01

231

Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview  

PubMed Central

Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components have not been fully elucidated or easily monitored. Bioactive, characteristic, main, synergistic, correlative, toxic and general components may be selected. This article reviews the effective use of chemical markers in the quality control of herbal medicines including the selection criteria considering the roles and physicochemical factors which may affect the effective use of chemical markers. PMID:18588699

Li, Songlin; Han, Quanbin; Qiao, Chunfeng; Song, Jingzheng; Lung Cheng, Chuen; Xu, Hongxi

2008-01-01

232

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Controlled Clinical Studies Published in Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databases from their inception to November 2011. We bibliometrically analyzed the included studies and assessed the reporting quality. Results A total of 2964 reports (involving 253,434 cancer patients) including 2385 randomized controlled trials and 579 non-randomized controlled studies were included. The top seven cancer types treated were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer by both study numbers and case numbers. The majority of studies (72%) applied TCM therapy combined with conventional treatment, whilst fewer (28%) applied only TCM therapy in the experimental groups. Herbal medicine was the most frequently applied TCM therapy (2677 studies, 90.32%). The most frequently reported outcome was clinical symptom improvement (1667 studies, 56.24%) followed by biomarker indices (1270 studies, 42.85%), quality of life (1129 studies, 38.09%), chemo/radiotherapy induced side effects (1094 studies, 36.91%), tumor size (869 studies, 29.32%) and safety (547 studies, 18.45%). Completeness and adequacy of reporting appeared to improve with time. Conclusions Data from controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies in cancer treatment is substantial, and different therapies are applied either as monotherapy or in combination with conventional medicine. Reporting of controlled clinical studies should be improved based on the CONSORT and TREND Statements in future. Further studies should address the most frequently used TCM therapy for common cancers and outcome measures should address survival, relapse/metastasis and quality of life. PMID:23560092

Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan

2013-01-01

233

[Modes and types of protecting natural resources of Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

To investigate a set of scientific and systematic methods for the sustainable utilization of natural resources of Chinese medicine. To summarize and review the studies on the reservation and sustainable using the resources of Chinese medicine. Five resource types, as well as the relevant reservation modes, are put forward for the Chinese medicine. PMID:18831220

Zhou, Tao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Lv, Dong-Mei

2008-06-01

234

Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in M?xico  

PubMed Central

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

2008-01-01

235

Introducing considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine.  

PubMed

This article introduces the document, Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why the Considerations is necessary, the specificity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and specific issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-specific language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document. PMID:25074890

Pritzker, Sonya E; Hui, Ka-Kit

2014-07-01

236

Concurrent Use of Conventional Drugs with Chinese Herbal Products in Taiwan: A Population-based Study  

PubMed Central

The increased use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) worldwide has raised the concern of herb–drug interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and utilization patterns of concurrent use of conventional drugs and CHPs in Taiwan. The usage and frequency of services in the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug were evaluated. Subjects were recruited from a simple random sample of 1,000,000 subjects from over 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in 2007. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug (CH + D) and a conventional drug alone (D-alone). The prevalence of the CH + D was 14.1%. Females, regular salary earners, and elderly (65 years and above) were more likely to consume a CHP and a conventional drug concurrently. Painkillers, especially acetaminophen, and anti-cough medicines were the top two conventional drugs that were most frequently co-prescribed with a CHP. Anti-cough medication is the most common conventional drug co-prescribed with CHP, after painkillers. We recommend that safety issues be investigated in future research and integrating both healthcare technologies may be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of patients. PMID:24716186

Chen, Ming-Chen; Lai, Jung-Nien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

2013-01-01

237

Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Chinese Herbal Formula IBS-20 In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder and the etiology is not well understood. Currently there is no cure for IBS and no existing medication induces symptom relief in all patients. IBS-20 is a 20-herb Chinese medicinal formula that offers beneficial effects in patients with IBS; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study showed that IBS-20 potently inhibited LPS- or IFN?-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as classically activated macrophage marker nitric oxide synthase 2. Similarly, IBS-20 or the component herb Coptis chinensis decreased LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from JAWS II dendritic cells. IBS-20 or the component herbs also blocked or attenuated the IFN?-induced drop in transepithelial electric resistance, an index of permeability, in fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the up-regulation of key inflammatory cytokines in inflamed colon from TNBS-treated mice was suppressed significantly by orally administrated IBS-20, including IFN? and IL-12p40. These data indicate that the anti-inflammatory activities of IBS-20 may contribute to the beneficial effects of the herbal extract in patients with IBS, providing a potential mechanism of action for IBS-20. In addition, IBS-20 may be a potential therapeutic agent against other Th1-dominant gut pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:22461841

Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Ip, Siu Po; Che, Chun-Tao; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Wu, Justin C.; Sung, Joseph J.; Berman, Brian; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

2012-01-01

238

Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecular Biology Perspective  

PubMed Central

Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio of RA and RAS used in DBT for osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays. Moreover, the optimal concentration of DBT for bone cell culture was also determined by colorimetric, ALP activity, nodule formation, Western blotting, wound-healing, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays. Consequently, the most appropriate weight ratio of RA to RAS for the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was 5?:?1. Moreover, the most effective concentration of DBT was 1,000??g/mL, which significantly increased the number of osteoblasts, intracellular ALP levels, and nodule numbers, while inhibiting osteoclast activity. Additionally, 1,000??g/mL of DBT was able to stimulate p-ERK and p-JNK signal pathway. Therefore, DBT is highly promising for use in accelerating fracture healing in the middle or late healing periods.

Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

2014-01-01

239

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

2014-01-01

240

Comprehensive review on herbal medicine for energy intake suppression.  

PubMed

The obesity drug development is present not a bright and successful story. So far, drugs reported to be effective, either from synthetic or natural sources, mostly stimulated controversy because of serious adverse effects, which ended with stopping clinical trials or even withdrawal from the market. However, obesity and its comorbidities have become rapidly a major problem in both developed and developing countries. This has encouraged pharmaceutical companies and academia to keep on struggling on developing novel effective but safe obesity drugs, and on characterizing novel obesity drug targets. From existing scientific work on obesity drug discovery and commercial slimming preparations, compounds originating from nature, especially from plants, seem to be the first choice. Traditional belief that herbal medicine is safer than synthetic ones is one of the classical arguments, although scientifically this is not always true (e.g. ban on Ephedra). But in general, it has been widely acknowledged that a plant compound, with its unique scaffolds and rich diversity is an unlimited source of novel lead compounds. This paper aims to summarize all works focused on screening plant materials by targeting important pathways related to energy intake regulation, either by in vivo or in vitro experiments. PMID:20659298

Yuliana, N D; Jahangir, M; Korthout, H; Choi, Y H; Kim, H K; Verpoorte, R

2011-07-01

241

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

242

Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not. PMID:22943789

2012-01-01

243

[The safety of herbal medicines in the psychiatric practice].  

PubMed

The use of alternative medicines is increasing world-wide and in Israel. These drugs, considered by the Ministry of Health as food supplements, are to be obtained at pharmacies and health stores and are being sold freely, without any professional advice. Many of the herbs are used by patients to treat psychiatric disorders. These herbs have a pharmacological activity, adverse effects and interactions with conventional drugs, which can produce changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. We present the most commonly used herbal drugs, and discuss their safety and efficacy in psychiatric practice. Hypericum--used as an antidepressant and as an antiviral medicine, was reported in 23 randomized clinical trials reviewed from the MEDLINE. It was found to be significantly more effective than placebo and had a similar level of effectiveness as standard antidepressants. Recent studies almost clearly prove that this herb, like most of the conventional antidepressants, can induce mania. Valerian--is used as an anti-anxiety drug, and reported to have sedative as well as antidepressant properties. In contrast to the significant improvement in sleep that was found with the use of valerian, compared to placebo, there are several reports on the valerian root toxicity. This includes nephrotoxicity, headaches, chest tightness, mydriasis, abdominal pain, and tremor of the hands and feet. Ginseng--another plant that is widely used as an aphrodisiac and a stimulant. It has been associated with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding, mastalgia, mental status changes and Stevens-Johnson syndrome after it's chronic administration. It has interactions with digoxin, phenelzine and warfarin. Ginkgo--in clinical trials the ginkgo extract has shown a significant improvement in symptoms such as memory loss, difficulties in concentration, fatigue, anxiety, and depressed mood. Long-term use has been associated with increased bleeding time and spontaneous hemorrhage. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in patients receiving aspirin, NSAIDs, anticoagulants or other platelet inhibitors. Health care professionals can no longer ignore the widespread use of alternative medicines and cannot continue with the "don't ask, don't tell" policy. Clinicians should ask the patients about their use of herbs in a non-judgmental way, and should document the patient's use of these drugs. Finally, we must be more aware of the side effects and the potential drug interactions of these herbs, and advise our patients to avoid long term use of these drugs due to lack of information regarding the safety of these medicines. PMID:11547487

Boniel, T; Dannon, P

2001-08-01

244

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Herbal Medicine on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine (HM) as an adjunct therapy has been shown to be promising for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of herbs in COPD remains largely unexplored. In this present study, we conducted the systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of herbs in COPD. 176 clinical studies with reporting pulmonary function were retrieved from English and Chinese database. Commonly used herbs for acute exacerbations stage (AECOPD) and stable COPD stage (SCOPD) were identified. A meta-analysis conducted from 15 high quality studies (18 publications) showed that HM as an adjunct therapy had no significant improvement in pulmonary function (FEV1, FEV%, FVC, and FEV1/FVC) compared to conventional medicine. The efficacy of the adjunct HM on improving the arterial blood gas (PaCO2 and PaO2) for AECOPD and SCOPD remains inconclusive due to the heterogeneity among the studies. However, HM as an adjunct therapy improved clinical symptoms and quality of life (total score, activity score, and impact score of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Studies with large-scale and double-blind randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the role of the adjunct HM in the management of COPD. PMID:24795773

Chen, Hai Yong; Ma, Chun Ho; Cao, Ke-Jian; Chung-Man Ho, James; Ziea, Eric; Wong, Vivian Taam; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2014-01-01

245

Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

erbs have been used as medical treatments since the beginning of civilization and some derivatives (eg, aspirin, reserpine, and digitalis) have become mainstays of hu- man pharmacotherapy. For cardiovascular diseases, herbal treatments have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, ath- erosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency, and arrhythmia. However, many herbal remedies used today have

Nick H. Mashour; George I. Lin; William H. Frishman

1998-01-01

246

Maturation and Activation of Dendritic Cells by Botanicals Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Role in Immune Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually attributed to its up- or downregulation of immune\\u000a responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a central role in the initiation and\\u000a regulation of immune responses. A number of TCM herbal medicines or their components have in vitro and in vivo activity in promoting major functions of

Xin Chen

247

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Case Series Published in the Chinese Literature  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in cancer in China. Case series report a series of cases exposed to a certain intervention. To understand the current situation of case series of TCM for cancer, we performed this review. We included case series of cancer patients treated with TCM therapy. Electronic searches were conducted in four main Chinese databases until February 2011. A total of 1,217 reports of case series (92,945 patients) were included. The top five types of cancer were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, leukemia, and esophageal cancer. Leukopenia and hiccup treated by TCM were the most common adverse reactions after surgery or induced by chemo/radiotherapy. More than half of the patients were treated with TCM therapies alone. The application of herbal medicines especially formula based on syndrome differentiation was highly prevalent, and the typical administration route was oral usage. 1,182 reports were published in a structured format. The quantity of TCM case series for cancer treatment is substantial. Further studies should focus on the most common types of cancer and the most frequently applied TCM therapies. We presented a recommendation from the methodological point of view for the format of reporting. PMID:22778776

Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xun; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia; Song, Xue; Chen, Jizhong; Guo, Yu; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Shana; Zhang, Zhiqi; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Liu, Jianping

2012-01-01

248

[Development of quality traceability system of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The development of Chinese medicine is directly related to the quality and safety issues, It has drawn great attention of people. Chinese traditional medicine quality issue involves two aspects of traditional Chinese medicine itself and human. In order to prevent man-made or illegal factors led to the decrease of the quality of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or security risk, it needs to establish a feasible system to guarantee, in which the construction and development of traditional Chinese medicine quality traceability system is an important direction of the development of the traditional Chinese medicine in the future. This paper first reviews the development of quality traceability system status and critical retrospective techniques, then introduced current development status of quality traceability system of traditional Chinese medicine( QTS-TCM), pointing out the characteristics of QTS-TCM, and finally given the current research findings of QTS-TCM. PMID:24558859

Cai, Yong; Hu, Hao; Ni, Jing-Yun; Wang, Yi-Tao

2013-11-01

249

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-04-01

250

Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality control application in herbal medicine industries.

Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

2014-09-01

251

Database of traditional Chinese medicine and its application to studies of mechanism and to prescription validation  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely practised and is viewed as an attractive alternative to conventional medicine. Quantitative information about TCM prescriptions, constituent herbs and herbal ingredients is necessary for studying and exploring TCM. Experimental approach: We manually collected information on TCM in books and other printed sources in Medline. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Database TCM-ID, at http://tcm.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/tcm-id/tcmid.asp, was introduced for providing comprehensive information about all aspects of TCM including prescriptions, constituent herbs, herbal ingredients, molecular structure and functional properties of active ingredients, therapeutic and side effects, clinical indication and application and related matters. Results: TCM-ID currently contains information for 1,588 prescriptions, 1,313 herbs, 5,669 herbal ingredients, and the 3D structure of 3,725 herbal ingredients. The value of the data in TCM-ID was illustrated by using some of the data for an in-silico study of molecular mechanism of the therapeutic effects of herbal ingredients and for developing a computer program to validate TCM multi-herb preparations. Conclusions and Implications: The development of systems biology has led to a new design principle for therapeutic intervention strategy, the concept of ‘magic shrapnel' (rather than the ‘magic bullet'), involving many drugs against multiple targets, administered in a single treatment. TCM offers an extensive source of examples of this concept in which several active ingredients in one prescription are aimed at numerous targets and work together to provide therapeutic benefit. The database and its mining applications described here represent early efforts toward exploring TCM for new theories in drug discovery. PMID:17088869

Chen, X; Zhou, H; Liu, Y B; Wang, J F; Li, H; Ung, C Y; Han, L Y; Cao, Z W; Chen, Y Z

2006-01-01

252

Traditional chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 25 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect beta cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

2008-06-01

253

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect ? cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

2008-01-01

254

[Comparative study on the original plant differences of Chinese traditional medicines and Japanese Kampo medicines].  

PubMed

Based on the Chinese pharmacopeia 2000 ed and Japanese pharmacopeia 14st ed., the original plant differencesof Chinese raditional medicines and Japanese Kampo medicines were compared by making list. The differences and reasons were analyzed. PMID:15506274

Chen, Hu-Biao; Cai, Shao-Qing; Mikage, Masayuki; Naoko, Kondo

2004-08-01

255

Assessment of genotoxicity of herbal medicinal products: a co-ordinated approach.  

PubMed

The submission of data on genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorisation respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) with well established or traditional use in some countries. In European regulatory guidelines prepared by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) of the European drug regulatory agency EMA, a test strategy is defined giving a pragmatic framework adapted to the assessment of the potential genotoxicity of HMPs. It describes a stepwise approach, including the possibility to reduce the number of extracts of a herbal drug to be tested by the use of a bracketing and matrixing approach. According to this strategy, Kooperation Phytopharmaka, a scientific society in the field of HMPs, has so far coordinated the conduction of genotoxicity tests for 30 herbal drugs within the frame of a joint project of several manufacturers of HMPs. Results are delivered to the cooperation partners for use in regulatory applications. PMID:22301069

Kelber, Olaf; Steinhoff, Barbara; Kraft, Karin

2012-03-15

256

Three patients with lead poisoning following use of a Chinese herbal pill  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the Editor—It was certainly not a surprise to us that trad- itional Chinese medication gave rise to the complication de- scribed in the paper by Auyeung et al. 1 In Hong Kong, the public often assume that these 'non-western' remedies are safe because they are termed 'traditional' and 'herbal', and are plant-derived products, but as many researchers have revealed,

KO Sun

257

The European Herbal Medicines Directive: could it have saved the lives of Romeo and Juliet?  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety. PMID:18422382

Routledge, Philip A

2008-01-01

258

Cardiac glycosides in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of cardiac glycosides containing medicinal herbs, e.g. Ting Li Zi (Descurainia sophia), against heart failure was detected by traditional Chinese doctors at the beginning of the first century, more than 16 centuries\\u000a before Withering’s discovery of digitalis to promote diuresis. We ran infer the diagnosis from the description of the symptom\\u000a complex, for which the herb as the

Lu Fu-hua

1987-01-01

259

Modern Cancer Research on Chinese Medicine: Acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acupuncture, a popular modality of Chinese medicine, is commonly used to control cancer- or cancer therapy-caused symptoms,\\u000a and accumulated evidence shows that it can play an important role in support care for cancer patients. The anti-emetic effects\\u000a of acupuncture are well documented: studies consistently report that the modality significantly reduces the incidences of\\u000a vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy, and animal

Ruixin Zhang; Lixing Lao

260

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

Wang, Zhijun

2013-01-01

261

An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438

2004-01-01

262

The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of their breastfed infants. Conclusions The use of herbal medicines is common amongst breastfeeding women, while information supporting their safety and efficacy is lacking. This study has demonstrated the need for further research into commonly used herbal medicines. Evidence-based information should be available to breastfeeding women who wish to consider use of all medicines, including complementary medicines, to avoid unnecessary cessation of breastfeeding or compromising of pharmacotherapy. PMID:24219150

2013-01-01

263

A pilot study of herbal medicine use in a Midwest Latino population  

PubMed Central

Background Herbal medicine use is common in the United States, especially in immigrant populations. This plant use is incompletely understood, with significant gaps in the literature for people living in the Midwest, about the plant species used, and about how home herbal medicine use interacts with allopathic medicine. Methods This pilot project used a qualitative research approach (interviews and focus groups, convenience sampling) to explore this topic for Latin America immigrants living in Madison, Wisconsin. Results Eight interviews and focus groups consisting of 42 people yielded 199 minutes of audio recordings and the mention of 57 medicinal plants. These plants were obtained from gardens, relatives and friends (abroad and local), mail order, and ten local retail establishments. Retail sites sold fresh plants, dried plants, spices, foods, and packaged products, ranging from 20 to over 150 plant products per site. A preponderance of plants, especially in Latino-focused stores, was food that also served a medicinal purpose. Participants mentioned 35 distinct health and disease categories for which herbal medicines were used, and sometimes, but not always, discussed plant use with their health care provider. When compared with likely Latin binomial taxonomic names, clinically-relevant confusions with the use of common plant names were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the findings presented illustrate the complexities surrounding herbal medicine use, and create a case for future work to involve other demographics, and focus on botanical identification, the quantification of disclosure rates, and the development of educational interventions for physicians and patients. PMID:24908901

Kiefer, David; Bradbury, E. Jane; Tellez-Giron, Patricia

2014-01-01

264

Navigating traditional chinese medicine network pharmacology and computational tools.  

PubMed

The concept of "network target" has ushered in a new era in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As a new research approach, network pharmacology is based on the analysis of network models and systems biology. Taking advantage of advancements in systems biology, a high degree of integration data analysis strategy and interpretable visualization provides deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms of TCM theories, including the principles of herb combination, biological foundations of herb or herbal formulae action, and molecular basis of TCM syndromes. In this study, we review several recent developments in TCM network pharmacology research and discuss their potential for bridging the gap between traditional and modern medicine. We briefly summarize the two main functional applications of TCM network models: understanding/uncovering and predicting/discovering. In particular, we focus on how TCM network pharmacology research is conducted and highlight different computational tools, such as network-based and machine learning algorithms, and sources that have been proposed and applied to the different steps involved in the research process. To make network pharmacology research commonplace, some basic network definitions and analysis methods are presented. PMID:23983798

Yang, Ming; Chen, Jia-Lei; Xu, Li-Wen; Ji, Guang

2013-01-01

265

Navigating Traditional Chinese Medicine Network Pharmacology and Computational Tools  

PubMed Central

The concept of “network target” has ushered in a new era in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As a new research approach, network pharmacology is based on the analysis of network models and systems biology. Taking advantage of advancements in systems biology, a high degree of integration data analysis strategy and interpretable visualization provides deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms of TCM theories, including the principles of herb combination, biological foundations of herb or herbal formulae action, and molecular basis of TCM syndromes. In this study, we review several recent developments in TCM network pharmacology research and discuss their potential for bridging the gap between traditional and modern medicine. We briefly summarize the two main functional applications of TCM network models: understanding/uncovering and predicting/discovering. In particular, we focus on how TCM network pharmacology research is conducted and highlight different computational tools, such as network-based and machine learning algorithms, and sources that have been proposed and applied to the different steps involved in the research process. To make network pharmacology research commonplace, some basic network definitions and analysis methods are presented. PMID:23983798

Chen, Jia-Lei; Xu, Li-Wen

2013-01-01

266

Evaluating the traditional Chinese literature for herbal formulae and individual herbs used for age-related dementia and memory impairment.  

PubMed

Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547

May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L

2012-06-01

267

[The risks of combining medicine and herbal remedies].  

PubMed

The risks of using herbal remedies, considered 'natural', should not be disregarded, as some have serious side effects and some interact with and influence conventional medical therapeutics. The effect may be pharmacokinetic by altering absorption or metabolism, and may be pharmacodynamic, by changing the final effect of the drug. St. John's wort, for example, an antidepressant herbal remedy, may pharmacodynamically interact with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), causing a serotonin syndrome. St. Johns wort also causes serious pharmacokinetic interactions by activating the cytochrome CYP3A4, dangerously decreasing blood levels of cyclosporin, warfarin, and theophylline, and reducing the efficacy of contraceptive pills and AIDS therapy. The article presents a review of a number of herbal remedies, commonly used in Israel, that have documented drug interactions, providing details of common indications, adverse reactions and drug interactions of each herbal remedy. Physicians should recognize the fact that patients use herbal remedies, purchased directly at pharmacies or health stores, and be aware of the potential interactions of these remedies with conventional drugs. PMID:17078430

Goldstein, L H; Elias, M; Berkovitch, M; Golik, A

2006-09-01

268

Comparison of a Chinese Herbal Medicine (CCH1) and Lactulose as First-Line Treatment of Constipation in Long-Term Care: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, and Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Many institutionalized patients and their healthcare providers are dissatisfied with current laxative therapy. This study compared therapeutic efficacy, safety, and laxative cost of an herbal formula (CCH1) and lactulose for long stay patients with constipation. In this double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 93 residents with chronic constipation from two long-term care facilities in Taiwan to receive either CCH1 with lactulose placebo or CCH1 placebo with lactulose for 8 weeks, then followed up for 4 weeks without study medication. Both treatments were effective and well tolerated for patients, but CCH1 produced more spontaneous bowel movements, less rectal treatments, less amount of rescue laxative, and lower laxative cost than lactulose during treatment. No significant differences were found in stool consistency, stool amount, global assessment, and safety concerns. In conclusion, our results suggest that CCH1 may have better efficacy and could be used as an alternative option to lactulose in the treatment of constipation in long-term care. PMID:22474530

Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lin, Jui-Shan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lee, Shih-Chang; Wang, Hsiu Po; Lue, Hung-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang

2012-01-01

269

Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions  

PubMed Central

A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

2014-01-01

270

[Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs].  

PubMed

Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:21749831

Xiao, Bin; Tao, Ou; Luo, Ji; Wang, Yun

2011-07-01

271

Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal  

PubMed Central

Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention. PMID:21144003

2010-01-01

272

The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

Ekor, Martins

2014-01-01

273

A Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Efficacy of Herbal Medicines for Primary Dysmenorrhea  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca2+ reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended.

Park, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon

2014-01-01

274

Popular use of traditional Chinese medicine in HIV patients in the HAART era.  

PubMed

Seventy-six Chinese male HIV patients were interviewed on their use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). All except one had undetectable viral load, 28 had already progressed to AIDS. Forty-five (59.2%) had used TCM--11 infrequently and 33 commonly. No specific TCM recipe was preferentially used, while a variety of herbal tea and other over-the-counter health products of TCM in origin were reported. A minority (28.9%) have consulted a TCM practitioner in the preceding 6 months. Most patients admitted using TCM for the treatment of minor ailments (60.0%) and general health maintenance (57.8%), while western medicine was chosen for the therapy of major medical illnesses. TCM did not seem to have significant influence on the conventional HAART in this cohort. Many used TCM at a time interval from HAART in order not to affect the latter's effectiveness. PMID:17492500

Ma, Kurtland; Lee, Shui-Shan; Chu, Elsie K Y; Tam, Dennise K P; Kwong, Victoria S C; Ho, Choi-Fung; Cheng, Kathy; Wong, Ka-Hing

2008-07-01

275

Biopharmaceutical characterisation of herbal medicinal products: are in vivo studies necessary?  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products have to meet comparable standards concerning the assessment of efficacy, safety and (bio)pharmaceutical quality as chemically defined synthetic drugs. However, these requirements are not fulfilled for many herbal products so far, particularly regarding in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability. The necessity of in vivo studies for a biopharmaceutical characterisation of the products depends on the solubility/permeability properties of the active drug ingredient as well as dissolution behaviour of the dosage form. Also, in the case of herbal medicinal products, a waiver of in vivo BA/BE studies is recommended as long as the active ingredient is highly soluble according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System and dissolution of the dosage form takes place rapidly (>85%/20 min) in physiological buffer systems (pH 1-8). PMID:11032090

Blume, H H; Schug, B S

2000-01-01

276

Availability and needs of herbal medicinal information resources at community pharmacy, Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia was conducted over a period of 6 months from July through December 2011. Data collection was carried out using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The survey questionnaire consisted of a brief introduction to the study and eleven questions. The questions consisted of close ended, multiple-choice, and fill-in short answers. A stratified random sample of one thousand and seven hundred registered pharmacy practitioners all over Saudi Arabia were randomly chosen to respond to the survey. The data from each of the returned questionnaire were coded and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) which was used for statistical analysis. Only one thousand four hundred one pharmacists responded to the survey (response rate is 82.4%) with a completely answered questionnaire. The study results show that 59.7% of the participants sometimes discuss herbal medicine use with their patients, while only 4.25% never discuss it. The study shows 48.5% of participated pharmacists record herbal medicine use sometimes where only 9.4% of them never did so. However, with regard to initiation of the discussion, the study shows that 44.3% of the respondents reported that patients initiate herbal issue discussion while 20.8% reported that pharmacists initiate the discussion. This discussion was reported to be a one time discussion or an ongoing discussion by 14.3% or 9.9% of the respondents respectively. According to the study results, respondents reported that the most common barriers that limit discussing herbal medicines’ use with their patients were lack of time due to other obligations assigned to the community pharmacist (46%), lack of reliable resources (30.3%), lack of scientific evidence that support herbal medicine use (15.2%), or lack of knowledge of herbal medicines (13.4%). Yet, a small number of respondents was concerned about interest in herbal medicines (9.1%) and other reasons (2.4%). So it is urgent to ensure that pharmacists are appropriately educated and trained. Extra efforts are needed to increase the awareness of pharmacists to adverse drug reactions reporting system at Saudi Food and Drug Authority. Finally, more consideration to herbal issues should be addressed in both pharmacy colleges’ curricula and continuous education program.. PMID:24227954

Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.

2013-01-01

277

[Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].  

PubMed

The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries (including China), and therefore, more generally accepted. How to do that? We should start from the present clinical practice, refer to the tradition, face the future, and work hard. Borrowing WM disease names is of great significance. It will help to bring the theory of Zang-Fu organs back to its origin, clinically help to deepen the combination of disease and syndrome, disease and formula, promote the objectification and micronization of syndrome differentiation in CM, and possibly bring about new theories of CM which will in return promote clinical development. CM will be able to occupy an important position in the field of world medicine and make its own contributions to the health of the global population. PMID:23980347

Su, Zhan-Qing

2013-06-01

278

Antagonistic effects of two herbs in Zuojin Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on catecholamine secretion in bovine adrenal medullary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to research the target of superior efficacy and lesser side effects, combination of herbal materials has been applied to phytotherapy for thousands of years in China and some other countries. Zuojin Wan (ZJW), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, is used in treating gastric diseases in China. It is composed of two herbs, Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) and Fructus

F.-R. Zhao; H.-P. Mao; H. Zhang; L.-M. Hu; H. Wang; Y.-F. Wang; N. Yanagihara; X.-M. Gao

2010-01-01

279

[Zebrafish--useful model for pharmacodynamics and toxicity screening of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Zebrafish has been an important model for developmental and genetic studies. In the past ten years, it has also been widely used for environmental toxicity monitoring, additive effect and toxicity of many chemical materials including heavy metals, pesticides, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and other carcinogens. Zebrafish is increasingly used in drug screening and toxicological studies in recent years with the advantage of high-throughput handling. It is a useful model of choice for in vivo pharmacodynamic screening and toxicity investigation of Chinese medicine and it has a wide application prospect in the field of new herbal-drug research. PMID:20209941

Liang, Aihua

2009-11-01

280

Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market. PMID:24566115

Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

2014-05-01

281

A new method for testing synthetic drugs adulterated in herbal medicines based on infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a simple and fast method to analyze possibly adulterated synthetic drugs in suspected herbal medicines (HM) is both methodologically and commercially significant. This paper constructs a new approach named local straight-line screening (LSLS), to the solution of the problem, after carefully observing the characteristics of the spectral line shapes. LSLS can be applied to both the qualitative and quantitative

Feng Lu; Shu Li; Jian Le; Guiliang Chen; Yan Cao; Yunpeng Qi; Yifeng Chai; Yutian Wu

2007-01-01

282

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: scott.jordan@hc-sc.gc.c [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)

2010-03-01

283

Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

284

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

285

Asserted and neglected issues linking evidence-based and Chinese medicines for cardiac rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

High blood pressure is among the most prevalent chronic disease in adults that impacts on the quality of life of patients, which are often subjected to physical rehabilitation. Chinese medicine intervention in patients with hypertension presents promising albeit inconclusive results, mostly due to methodological issues. This paper discusses asserted and neglected issues linking evidence-based and Chinese medicines as related to systemic arterial hypertension, as well as their impact on the physical rehabilitation of those patients. On the one hand, natural history of hypertension, pulse palpation, and herbal therapy are among the asserted issues because of the scientific evidence collected about them, either in favor or against its integration to the current medical practice. On the other hand, anatomical variations of vessels and comparative physiology are among the most commonly neglected issues because previous researches on integrative medicine ignored the possible effects of these issues as related to the study’s outcome. The asserted issues highlighted in this paper stimulate the increasing use of Chinese medicine for health care and the continuity of research on integrative medicine in the cardiovascular field for rehabilitation. The neglected issues poses additional challenges that must not be overlooked in future research on this topic so that the integration of both traditional and current knowledge may be of benefit to the population with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24944759

Ferreira, Arthur de Sa; de Moura, Nathalia Gomes Ribeiro

2014-01-01

286

Thinking and practice of accelerating transformation of traditional Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine. PMID:21695621

Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong

2011-06-01

287

Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by the source of these ingredients. PMID:25081126

Jamal, Salma

2014-01-01

288

Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review*  

PubMed Central

In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID:17965759

2007-01-01

289

Chinese medicine: a cognitive and epistemological review*.  

PubMed

In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting-activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally-and perhaps historically-related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID:17965759

Kavoussi, Ben

2007-09-01

290

Validation and Application by LC for Simultaneous Determination of Imperatorin and Isoimperatorin in Traditional Chinese Medicinal Preparations Containing Radix Angelicae dahuricae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was established for the simultaneous determination of imperatorin and isoimperatorin\\u000a in eleven kinds of traditional Chinese medicinal preparations (TCMPs) containing Radix Angelicae dahuricae (Chinese herbal name: Baizhi). Imperatorin and isoimperatorin were successfully separated on an Ultimate XB-C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 50 mmol L?1 sodium acetate (pH

Guangde Yang; Li Zhang; Baolu Feng; Jiye Zhang

2008-01-01

291

Trends in the Treatment of Hypertension from the Perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a major public-health issue. Much consensus has been reached in the treatment, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. However, the standard-reaching rate of blood pressure is far from satisfaction. Considering these data and the seriousness of the effects of hypertension on the individual and society as a whole, both economically and socially, physicians must look for more effective and alternative ways to achieve the target blood pressure. Could treatment of hypertension be improved by insights from traditional Chinese medicine? As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, TCM is regularly advocated for lowering elevated blood pressure. Due to the different understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension between ancient and modern times, new understanding and treatment of hypertension need to be reexplored. Aiming to improve the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating hypertension, the basis of treatment is explored through systematically analyzing the literature available in both English and Chinese search engines. This paper systematically reviews the trends in emerging therapeutic strategies for hypertension from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23878594

Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Chu, Fuyong; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

2013-01-01

292

Utilization of and Attitudes towards Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies in a Chinese Cancer Hospital: A Survey of Patients and Physicians  

PubMed Central

Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of patients had used TCM. Use was greatest for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM; 55.8%). Only 1.3% of patients used acupuncture and 6.8% Qi Gong or Tai Qi. Sixty-three percent of patients notified their oncologist about TCM use. The most common reason for use was to improve immune function. CHM was often used with a goal of treating cancer (66.4%), a use that 57% of physicians agreed with. Physicians were most concerned with interference with treatment, lack of evidence, and safety. Ninety percent of physicians have prescribed herbs and 87.5% have used TCM themselves. Conclusion. The use of TCM by Chinese cancer patients is exceptionally high, and physicians are generally well informed and supportive of patients' use. Botanical agents are much more commonly used than acupuncture or movement-based therapies. PMID:23093982

McQuade, Jennifer L.; Meng, ZhiQiang; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Bei, WenYing; Palmer, J. Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo

2012-01-01

293

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines. PMID:24363556

Bonifacio, Bruna Vidal; da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Tais Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

2014-01-01

294

Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

295

Herbal medicine: a survey of use in Nigerian presurgical patients booked for ambulatory anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Background Utilization of herbal medicines in the preoperative period by Nigerian patients booked for day case surgery has not been explored. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 60 patients presenting for day-case surgery at a tertiary healthcare institution over a 3-week period in August 2011 was conducted. Using a structured questionnaire, inquiries were made concerning use of herbal medicines in the immediate preoperative period. Socio-demographic characteristics, information on use of concurrent medical prescriptions, types of herbs used, reasons for use, perceived side effects and perceived efficacy were obtained. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results Fifty-two (86.7%) were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 1 while 8 (13%) were ASA 2. Most patients (86.7%) had their procedures done under local infiltration with monitored anaesthesia care (MAC), while 5.0% and 8.3% had their procedures done under regional and general anaesthesia, respectively. About 48.3% of respondents were on concurrent medical prescriptions while 51.7% were not. Forty percent (40%) of patients admitted to use of herbal medicine, all by the oral route, in the immediate perioperative period; 87.5% did not inform their doctor of their herbal use. Types of herbs used included ‘dogonyaro’, ‘agbo’, ‘nchanwu’, and Tahitian noni. Treatment of malaria was commonest reason for use in 29.2% of patients, while cough and concurrent surgical condition were reasons given by 12.5% of patients, respectively. Seventy-nine percent (79.2%) of patients considered their herbal medications effective. Perceived side effects of herbal medication (16.6%) included fever, waist pain and intoxication. There were no variations in use between ASA 1 and ASA 2 patients and none between respondents on conventional medication against those that were not. Variables such as age less than 35 years, female gender, being married and being an urban dweller did not show any significant difference in use. Conclusion This survey revealed many patients were on one or more herbal preparations in the immediate preoperative period. In consideration of possible untoward drug interactions between conventional medication, herbal preparations and anaesthesia, doctors (especially anaesthetists) should routinely assess all patients booked to be anaesthetized, especially those for day case surgery. The authors recommend surveys with larger respondent numbers to determine prevalence of use and possible interactions between indigenous Nigerian herbs and anaesthesia. PMID:22906201

2012-01-01

296

Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture for Breast Cancer Palliative Care and Adjuvant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease among women worldwide with annual rates of reported incidence and death increasing alarmingly. Chemotherapy is a recommended and effective treatment option for breast cancer; however, the narrow therapeutic indices and varied side effects of currently approved drugs present major hurdles in increasing its effectiveness. An increasing number of literature evidence indicate that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in treatment-related symptom control and alleviation of side effects plays an important role in increasing survival rate and quality of life in breast cancer patients. This review focuses on the use of herbal medicines and acupuncture in palliative care and as adjuvants in the treatment of breast cancer. Herbal medicinal treatments, the correlation of clinical use with demonstrated in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action, and the use of certain acupoints in acupuncture are summarized. The aim of this review is to facilitate an understanding of the current practice and usefulness of herbal medicine and acupuncture as adjuvants in breast cancer therapy. PMID:23840256

Liao, Guo-Shiou; Shyur, Lie-Fen

2013-01-01

297

Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

2013-01-01

298

Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25050339

Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

2014-01-01

299

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS  

PubMed Central

To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AIDS, were demonstrated to have positive effects. Study of peripheral leukocytes, which are a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, suggested that an integrated treatment approach may be of benefit. The overall methodological quality of the trials was adequate; however, randomization methods should be clearly described and fully reported in these trials according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). PMID:23326295

Zou, Wen; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongjuan; Liao, Xing

2012-01-01

300

Desired Chinese medicine practitioner capabilities and professional development needs: a survey of registered practitioners in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The State of Victoria in Australia introduced Chinese medicine practitioner registration in 2000 and issued its education guidelines in late 2002 for introduction in 2005. This study obtained practitioners' views on desired capabilities for competent Chinese medicine practice and to identify professional development needs. Methods A questionnaire, consisting of 28 predefined capabilities in four categories with a rating scale of importance from one to five, was developed and sent to all registered Chinese medicine practitioners in the State of Victoria, Australia in October, 2005. Results Two hundreds and twenty eight completed questionnaires were returned which represented a response rate of 32.5%. Of the four categories of capabilities, technical capabilities were considered to be the most important for clinical practice. Specifically, the ability to perform acupuncture treatment and/or dispense an herbal prescription was ranked the highest. In contrast, research and information management capabilities were considered the least important. The educational background of practitioners appeared to be an important factor influencing their rating of capabilities. Significantly, nearly double the number of practitioners with Australian qualifications than practitioners trained overseas valued communication as an important capability. For continuing professional education, clinical skills courses were considered as a priority while research degree studies were not. Conclusion Registered Chinese medicine practitioners viewed skills training as important but did not support the need for research and information management training. This represents a significant hurdle to developing Chinese medicine as a form of evidence-based healthcare. PMID:18234119

Xue, Charlie C; Zhou, Wenyu; Zhang, Anthony L; Greenwood, Kenneth; Da Costa, Cliff; Radloff, Alex; Lin, Vivian; Story, David F

2008-01-01

301

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

302

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

303

The Western model of integrative oncology: the contribution of Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Western integrative oncology (IO) combines conventional mainstream medicine with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the care of cancer patients. Since it includes patient orientation and the holistic approach of many CAM options, IO offers not only preventive measures, but also a wide spectrum of treatment modalities for all stages of illness, from the acute phases through the rehabilitation period. Many therapeutic methods of IO are supported by scientific evidence, for example, dietary and nutritional counseling, exercise, and mind-body medicine, among others. IO also includes therapeutic interventions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). At present acupuncture, qigong, and foot massage play an important role in the Western care of cancer patients. However, unlike in China, in Western countries herbal remedies are usually only used during those periods in which chemotherapy is not applied in order to avoid herb-drug interactions. Instead, acupuncture is widely used to manage the side-effects that often accompany chemotherapy. This paper focuses on the role of Chinese medicine in Western IO and reviews the scope and limitations of IO in the care of cancer patients today. The future challenges of IO will also be discussed in this paper. PMID:22936317

Dobos, Gustav J; Kirschbaum, Barbara; Choi, Kyung-Eun

2012-09-01

304

Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium

Mizue Ohsugi; Wenzhe Fan; Koji Hase; Quanbo Xiong; Yasuhiro Tezuka; Katsuko Komatsu; Tsuneo Namba; Tomohiro Saitoh; Kenji Tazawa; Shigetoshi Kadota

1999-01-01

305

PA02.24. Importance of microscopic techniques for the identification/authentication of herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Acceptance of Ayurveda is increasing in the society because of disclosure of its strong fundamental concepts and holistic approach. As a result, demand of Ayurvedic medicines are increasing day by day which results in the unprecedented requirement and depletion of raw materials, especially those of herbal origin. This depletion of herbs along with ignorance of herbal drug collectors from wild sources causes adulteration of drugs. Misinterpretation of Sanskrit slokas from classical texts also plays an important role. Adulteration of raw materials adversely affects the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic preparations. Therefore standardization and documentation is essential to ensure the genunity of ayurvedic drugs. Identification and Authentication of medicinal plants are normally done by different methods like organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic and chemical characters. Among them, microscopic techniques are one of the most important methods. The present work reveals the various microscopic characters to determine their authentication, genuity etc.

Nini; Mohan, Deepthi; Krishnadas, B Sajini; Jyothi, KV

2013-01-01

306

Neonatal Jaundice — Traditional Chinese Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal treatment of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) has been practiced in China for a long time. Even to-date, a variety of herbal items, including “Yin-chin” (Artemisia), “Huang-qin” (Scutellaria), “Da-huang” (Rheum officinale), “Gan-cao” (Glycyrrhiza), and “Huang-lin” (Coptis chinesis), are still being prescribed to jaundiced infants, often in combination with modern treatment such as phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Their efficacy has, however, not

Tai Fai Fok

2001-01-01

307

Evidence of ERalpha and ERbeta selectivity and partial estrogen agonism in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

The use of complementary and alternative medicine and herbal products, especially traditional Chinese medicines, is progressively rising for both adults and children. This increased use is based on the popular belief that these medicines are safe and harmless. In this report, we describe the results of a bedside-to-bench study that involved a short-statured 4-year-old boy with deficiencies in growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone due to an ectopic posterior pituitary gland and invisible pituitary stalk. Although the boy was given replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and L-thyroxin, the parents refused to treat him with growth hormone and consulted a naturopath who prescribed a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to stimulate the boy's growth. From the age of 20 months, the child's growth was regularly monitored while he was being treated with hydrocortisone, thyroxin, and the TCM. Over a 36-month period, the child's growth velocity accelerated (3 cm/year to 8 cm/year), his height increment substantially increased (-2 SD to -0.8 SD), and his bones matured. In the laboratory investigation, estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta reporter cell lines were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the TCM medicine and its 18 components, and the results established that the medicine and some of its components have estrogen receptor ERalpha and ERbeta selectivity and partial estrogen agonism. Partial estrogenic activity of the TCM was confirmed using whole-cell competitive binding, cell proliferation, and endogenous gene expression assays in the ERalpha-positive breast cancer cell lines. Although the presence of evidence is not always evidence of causality, we have concluded that this traditional Chinese medicine contains ingredients with estrogenic activity that can sustain bone growth and maturation without affecting other estrogen-dependent tissues. PMID:25300391

Tiosano, Dov; Paris, Françoise; Grimaldi, Marina; Georgescu, Vera; Servant, Nadège; Hochberg, Zeev; Balaguer, Patrick; Sultan, Charles

2014-01-01

308

Evaluation of Residual Diazinon and Chlorpiryfos in Children Herbal Medicines by Headspace-SPME and GC-FID  

PubMed Central

The oldest method for the managing of the illness is the use of medicinal plants. The use of herbal products as the first choice in self-treatment of minor conditions continues to expand rapidly across Iran. This makes the safety of herbal products an important public health issue. Pesticides are used widely in agriculture to increase the production by controlling the harmful insects and disease vectors, however it has some hazards on biological system of human especially children. The present study was designed to examine the residual amount of organophosphorus pesticides (Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos) in children herbal medicines available in the Iranian market. Five children herbal medicine liquid dosage forms were purchased from pharmacy store. They were extracted with SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) using the PDMS-DVB fibre. Then the extracts were injected into a GC. The gas chromatograph was Younglin model YL 6100 equipped with a flame ionization detector. The column was Technokroma 60 m length, 0.53 mm internal diameter and 1.25 µm film coated. The presence and quantity of Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos were evaluated using their standard curves. Trace amounts of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were detected in a few herbal medicines. Based on European pharmacopeia, threshold limits of chlorpyrifos and diazinon residues for medicinal plant materials are 0.2 and 0.5 mg/Kg, respectively. Our analysis results showed that residue limits of these two pesticides in five children herbal medicines are ignorable.

Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Fakhrossadat; Asghari, Gholamreza

2014-01-01

309

Computer aided design of medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients - An R&D approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herbal products have gained increasing popularity in the last decades, and are now broadly used to treat illness and improve health. Notwithstanding the public opinion, both, safety and efficacy, are major sources of dispute among the scientific community, mainly due to lack of (or scarcity or scattered) conclusive data linking a herbal constituent to pharmacological action in vivo, in a way that benefit overrides risk. This paper presents a methodological framework for addressing natural medicine in a systematic and holistic way with a view to providing medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients.

Siontorou, Christina G.

2012-12-01

310

Establishing an EU-China consortium on traditional Chinese medicine research  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used in the European Union (EU) and attracts intense research interests from European scientists. As an emerging area in Europe, TCM research requires collaboration and coordination of actions. Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era, also known as GP-TCM, is the first ever EU-funded 7th Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action, aiming to inform the best practice and harmonise research on the safety and efficacy of TCM through interdisciplinary exchange of experience and expertise among clinicians and scientists. With its increasingly large pool of expertise across 19 countries including 13 EU member states, Australia, Canada, China, Norway, Thailand and the USA, the consortium provides forums and collaboration platforms on quality control, extraction technology, component analysis, toxicology, pharmacology and regulatory issues of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as well as on acupuncture studies, with a particular emphasis on the application of a functional genomics approach. The project officially started in May 2009 and by the time of its conclusion in April 2012 a Europe-based academic society dedicated to TCM research will be founded to carry on the mission of GP-TCM. PMID:21156056

2010-01-01

311

Correction of retention time shifts for chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the combination of chemometric resolution and cubic spline data interpolation was investigated as a method to correct the retention time shifts for chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD). With the help of the resolution approaches in chemometrics, it was easy to identify the purity of chromatographic peak clusters and then

Fan Gong; Yi-Zeng Liang; Ying-Sing Fung; Foo-Tim Chau

2004-01-01

312

Traditional Chinese medicine--What are we investigating??  

PubMed Central

Summary CAM researchers commonly treat traditional medicines as unchanging systems. This article questions the validity of this approach by examining the treatment of menopausal syndrome by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Such treatment strategies were invented in 1964 and betray a strong influence of biomedical thinking. While they determine TCM treatment of menopausal syndrome in the West, physicians in China and Japan use many other treatment strategies from within the wider Chinese medical tradition in clinical practice. Cultural variability in the manifestation of menopausal syndrome furthermore questions the usefulness of simply importing treatment strategies from China to the West. This leads me to conclude that Chinese medicine as such can never be evaluated by means of clinical research. What we can do is use Chinese medicine as a resource for thinking about illness, and for formulating clinical interventions that may then be assessed using methods of evidence based research. PMID:17352972

Scheid, Volker

2007-01-01

313

Low Potency Homeopathic Remedies and Allopathic Herbal Medicines: Is There an Overlap?  

PubMed Central

Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance. PMID:24019954

Csupor, Dezso; Boros, Klara; Hohmann, Judit

2013-01-01

314

Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-A? activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom. PMID:21808655

Lin, Zhihong; Gu, Jie; Xiu, Jin; Mi, Tingyan; Dong, Jie; Tiwari, Jyoti Kumar

2012-01-01

315

Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-A? activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom. PMID:21808655

Lin, Zhihong; Gu, Jie; Xiu, Jin; Mi, Tingyan; Dong, Jie; Tiwari, Jyoti Kumar

2012-01-01

316

Identification and quality control of Chinese medicine based on the fingerprint techniques.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) contains a large number of herbal medicine and Chinese patent medicine, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. The homonym and synonym are very popular in TCM for its source complex. How to identify species and control the quality of TCM has become urgent, and fingerprint techniques have now been widely used in TCM for these purposes. In the present paper, four popular fingerprinting techniques (CE, HPLC, GC, and XRD) and their current applications in TCM are reviewed. All these techniques are proved to be an advanced and effective way to get an accurate and integral fingerprint, and each is discussed in detail with examples. CE, HPLC and GC are widely considered as the ideal methods to work out fingerprint analysis. GC is outstanding in analyzing the volatile components and HPLC has advantages in the analysis of the majority of chemical components of TCM. However, because of the complexity of chemical components in TCM, it is very hard for single CE, HPLC or GC to characterize all these components. Hyphenated techniques are strongly recommended for the purpose of quality control of TCM. It is concluded that more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCM is essential and the fingerprint techniques might be a powerful tool for quality control of TCM in the near future for their unique advantages. PMID:19689283

Zhong, Xian-Ke; Li, Di-Cai; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2009-01-01

317

Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). One class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics and work by increasing the excretion of urine from the body as well as the amount of sodium in urine. There are a growing number of studies purporting diuretic effects with traditional medicines. The aim of this article was to review these studies and identify which extracts promote diuresis (which we assessed on terms of urine excreted and urinary sodium excretion) and also to identify the research needs in this area. We identified a number of species and genuses reporting diuretic effects. Of these, the most promising, at the present time, are the species Foeniculum vulgare, Fraxinus excelsior, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Petroselinum sativum and Spergularia purpurea, and species from the genuses Cucumis (Cucumis melo and Cucumis trigonus), Equisetum (Equisetum bogotense, Equisetum fluviatile, Equisetum giganteum, Equisetum hiemale var. affine and Equisetum myriochaetum), Lepidium (Lepidium latifolium and Lepidium sativum), Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus corcovadensis and Phyllanthus sellowianus) and Sambucus (Sambucus mexicana and Sambucus nigra). However, there the number of studies is limited and we recommend that further studies be conducted to confirm reported effects. Such evidence is needed to provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines and even be helpful in the development of future medicines, treatments and treatment guidelines. PMID:17804183

Wright, C I; Van-Buren, L; Kroner, C I; Koning, M M G

2007-10-01

318

[Female infertility from the perspective of Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Infertility is a common condition. Because of traditional Chinese concepts that emphasize the importance of consanguinity, infertility has been a problem long recognized in Chinese history. The subject of infertility was addressed in the I-Jing, written some 3,000 years ago. The Nei-Jing, written during China's Warring States Period, described the mechanisms of infertility. Afterward, the library of knowledge on infertility steadily grew and became more sophisticated. The causes of female infertility in Chinese medicine include congenital deformity, menstruation abnormalities, organ dysfunctions, disturbances in the Qi or blood, malfunctions in the Chong or Ren meridians, emotional effects and the compression of concretions or conglomerations. Based on symptoms and mechanisms, female infertility can be classified into five patterns, including congenital deformity, kidney vacuity, liver depression, phlegm-damp and blood stasis. Chinese medicinal therapies for female infertility include Chinese herb drugs with pattern identification, artificial menstruation cycle therapy, single formula therapy, combined Chinese and Western medicine therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion. The relatively large range of therapies, while a hallmark of Chinese medicine, also points up instabilities in treatment outcomes. Thus, determining the most effective therapy is the most important point of clinical studies. PMID:19051171

Lin, Chung-Shuen

2008-12-01

319

Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS. PMID:22363129

Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2012-02-21

320

Chinese Massage Combined with Herbal Ointment for Athletes with Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Non-specific low back pain (NLBP) is an increasing health problem for athletes. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for NLBP. 110 athletes with NLBP were randomly assigned to experimental group with Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment or control group with simple massage therapy. The primary outcome was pain by Chinese Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (C-SFMPQ). The secondary outcome was local muscle stiffness by Myotonometer. After 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced significant improvements in C-SFMPQ and in local muscle stiffness compared with control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, ?1.24 points, P = 0.005 in sensory scores; ?3.14 points, P < 0.001 in affective scores; ?4.39 points, P < 0.001 in total scores; ?0.64 points, P = 0.002 in VAS; ?1.04 points, P = 0.005 in local muscle stiffness during relaxation state). The difference remained at one month followup, but it was only significant in affective scores (?2.83 points, P < 0.001) at three months followup. No adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for athletes with NLBP. PMID:23258996

Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Tao, Ji Ming; Qi, Gao Wei; Cheng, Ying Wu

2012-01-01

321

[Sixty years of study on history of Chinese legal medicine].  

PubMed

The paper introduces all aspects of history of Chinese legal medicine, including brief history of legal medicine, comments on ancient methods of inspection, bibliography, books on criminalislics, figures, special subjects, division of historical periods, re-printed ancient works and its foreign versions, and international academic exchanges. PMID:11618799

Jia, J

1996-01-01

322

Intercellular communication, NO and the biology of Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

New multiple categories of health disciplines have become popular in the west and integration between the medicinal approaches has become essential. The hypothesis presented here suggests a novel integrative view that combines Western biochemistry with the Chinese medicinal concept of qi. The core for this hypothesis is that transmission of qi along the meridians is based on informational molecules that

Dina Ralt

2005-01-01

323

Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds: a review of their role on hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

Since the significant public health hazard of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and obvious drug resistance and dose-dependent side effects for common antiviral agents (e.g., interferon ?, lamivudine, and adefovir), continuous development of agents to treat HBV infection is urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an established segment of the health care system in China. Currently, it is widely used for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China and many parts of the world. Over a long period of time in clinical practice and in basic research progress, the effectiveness and beneficial contribution of TCM on CHB have been gradually known and confirmed. Based upon our review of related papers and because of our prior knowledge and experience, we have selected some Chinese medicines, including Chinese herbal formulas (e.g., Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Xiao-Yao-San, and Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang), single herbs (e.g., Phyllanthus niruri, Radix astragali, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rheum palmatum, and Salvia miltiorrhiza) and related active compounds (e.g., wogonin, artesunate, saikosaponin, astragaloside IV, and chrysophanol 8-O-beta-Dglucoside) and Chinese medicine preparations (e.g., silymarin, silibinin, kushenin, and cinobufacini), which seem effective and worthy of additional and indepth study in treating CHB, and we have given them a brief review. We conclude that these Chinese herbal medicines exhibit significant anti-HBV activities with improved liver function, and enhanced HBeAg and HBsAg sero-conversion rates as well as HBV DNA clearance rates in HepG2 2.2.15 cells, DHBV models, or patients with CHB. We hope this review will contribute to an understanding of TCM and related active compounds as an effective treatment for CHB and provide useful information for the development of more effective antiviral drugs. PMID:24423652

Qi, F H; Wang, Z X; Cai, P P; Zhao, L; Gao, J J; Kokudo, N; Li, A Y; Han, J Q; Tang, W

2013-12-01

324

A critical review of traditional Chinese medicine use amongst women with menopausal symptoms.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives To provide the first critical review of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use amongst symptomatic menopausal women, drawing upon work examining the perspectives of both TCM users and TCM practitioners. Methods A search was conducted in three English-language databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and AMED) and three Chinese-language databases (CNKI, VIP and CBM Disc) for 2002-2013 international peer-reviewed articles reporting empirical findings of TCM use in menopause. Results A total of 25 journal articles reporting 22 studies were identified as meeting the review inclusion criteria. Chinese herbal medicine appears to be the most common therapy amongst symptomatic menopausal women, and vasomotor symptoms and emotional changes are the most frequent symptoms for which TCM is sought. However, evidence regarding the prevalence of TCM use and users' profile in menopause is limited. Existing studies are of varied methodological quality, often reporting low response rate, extensive recall bias and a lack of syndrome differentiation. Conclusions This review provides insights for practitioners and health policy-makers regarding TCM care to symptomatic menopausal women. More nationally representative studies are required to rigorously examine TCM use for the management of menopausal symptoms. Syndrome differentiation of menopausal women is an area which also warrants further attention. PMID:24678630

Peng, W; Sibbritt, D W; Hickman, L; Kong, X; Yang, L; Adams, J

2014-12-01

325

Transparently reporting adverse effects of traditional Chinese medicine interventions in randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Although all Chinese materia medica (CMM) come from nature, CMM interventions have both therapeutic effects and adverse effects (AEs). Normally, AEs in randomized controlled trial (RCT) with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be divided into five types as follows: 1) AEs under proper TCM principles and guidelines, such as the toxicity (acute and chronic) and allergy; 2) AEs due to improper usage without following TCM principles, involving without following the TCM therapeutic principles, over-dosage, improper processing and preparation methods, improper formula strategy, etc; 3) AEs due to contamination in CMM, such as heavy metal and pesticides contaminations in Chinese herbal medicine interventions, and intentional or unintentional contamination with drug(s); 4) AEs due to replacement of CMMs; 5) AEs due to drug-herb interaction. AEs of TCM should be treated properly. Overestimation or underestimation about AEs of TCM intervention will bring a wrong message to patients and health care providers. In order to give readers a more comprehensive understanding about the safety issue of study intervention, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for TCM should involve the background information on side effects of each CMM constituents and/or the study intervention, specific outcome assessment on AEs, the details of reported AEs and the interpretation of the AEs occurrence in a structural RCT report. PMID:18782527

Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Li, You-Ping; Moher, David; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Dagenais, Simon; Li, Jing; Li, Ting-Qian

2008-09-01

326

Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy by Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

In spite of the impressive progress in the investigation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), the complex mechanisms underlying the onset and deterioration of HE are still not fully understood. Currently, none of the existing theories provide conclusive explanations on the symptoms that link liver dysfunction to nervous system disorders and clinical manifestations. This paper summarized the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used for HE in modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine and provided future perspective in HE therapies from the viewpoint of holistic and personalized Chinese medicine. PMID:22567035

Yao, Chun; Tang, Nong; Xie, Guoxiang; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Liu, Ping; Fu, Lei; Xie, Wu; Yao, Fan; Li, Houkai; Jia, Wei

2012-01-01

327

Static headspace-multicapillary column with gas chromatography coupled to ion mobility spectrometry as a simple approach for the discrimination of crude and processed traditional Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

The processing procedure can alter the nature and chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicine to accommodate different clinical dispensing and preparation requirements. In this study, static headspace-multicapillary column with gas chromatography coupled to ion mobility spectrometry was developed for the rapid and sensitive discrimination of crude and processed traditional Chinese medicine. Using Radix Paeoniae Alba as a traditional Chinese medicine model, the combined power of this approach was illustrated by classifying the crude and processed Radix Paeoniae Alba samples into two main categories. The contents of the main components in Radix Paeoniae Alba varied significantly. The established method could promote the use of ion mobility spectrometry in intrinsic quality control and differentiation of herbal medicines from other processed products or preparations. PMID:25113615

Cao, Gang; Shou, Qiyang; Li, Qinglin; Jiang, Jianping; Chen, Xiaocheng

2014-11-01

328

Herbal antitussives.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of actions of cough medicines are not always known. The problem is exacerbated for herbal medicines, where the effectiveness of the plant or its phytochemicals have rarely been carefully evaluated. Moreover, the most active phytomedicinal constituent is difficult to identify, and the expense and difficulty of such studies discourages sponsors who may not be able to benefit by subsequent exclusive marketing of the herbal remedy. Most popular herbs used as cough medicines appear to be demulcents whose action is confined to the oropharynx. It is probable that the vast majority of allegedly effective herbal cough medicines act as non-specific emetic-expectorants. The proof of activity of even marketed herbal derivatives such as guaifenesin and codeine is difficult to obtain. It is therefore likely that herbal cough medications will never be shown to be more active than placebos. Nevertheless, these plant products will continue to be popular remedies for patients and their health care advisors. PMID:12099787

Ziment, Irwin

2002-01-01

329

Herbal Medicines Used During the First Trimester and Major Congenital Malformations An Analysis of Data from a Pregnancy Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

affected child, the family and society. Any kind of medicine used during pregnan- cy might have a harmful impact; therefore, such practice has raised concerns. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between the use of herbal medicines by pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformation in their

Chao-Hua Chuang; Pat Doyle; Jung-Der Wang; Pei-Jen Chang; Jung-Nien Lai

330

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating

Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said

2006-01-01

331

Chamomile tea: herbal hypoglycemic alternative for conventional medicine.  

PubMed

Chamomile is considered as one of the oldest and also documented as medicinal plant. It has shown to be an anti-inflammatory, astringent and antioxidant especially in floral part since ancient times. Recent studies reported that chamomile has potential to lower blood sugar levels in hyperglycemia. In the present study we have investigated the pharmacological effects of chamomile tea on fasting and post prandial glucose levels and HbA1C in blood of diabetic rats (alloxan induced) and the results were compared with glibenclamide as standard. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. It has been observed in our study that it has reduced progressively the fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels, significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats particularly on day 30 and 60. It also reduced the level of HbA1C significantly at the end of the study and the effects were similar to that of the standard group. Chamomile tea administration has also controlled the reduction in weight in diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control and the results were not very much different from standard. Results from the present study indicate that chamomile tea have a glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats so its daily consumption can be potentially useful in hyperglycemia and it can be used as a substitute of conventional drug treatment. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact molecular mechanism involved in anti-diabetic action of chamomile. PMID:25176245

Khan, Saira Saeed; Najam, Rahila; Anser, Humera; Riaz, Bushra; Alam, Nausheen

2014-09-01

332

Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations\\u000a and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire\\u000a piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or\\u000a 2 g\\/kg of the powder,

X. F. Kong; Y. L. Yin; Q. H. He; F. G. Yin; H. J. Liu; T. J. Li; R. L. Huang; M. M. Geng; Z. Ruan; Z. Y. Deng; M. Y. Xie; G. Wu

2009-01-01

333

Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review.  

PubMed

The concomitant use of herbal medicines and pharmacotherapy is wide spread. We have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between seven popular herbal medicines (ginkgo, St John's wort, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto and kava) and conventional drugs. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and we identified 128 case reports or case series, and 80 clinical trials. Clinical trials indicate that St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), via cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein induction, reduces the plasma concentrations (and/or increases the clearance) of alprazolam, amitriptyline, atorvastatin, chlorzoxazone, ciclosporin, debrisoquine, digoxin, erythromycin, fexofenadine, gliclazide, imatinib, indinavir, irinotecan, ivabradine, mephenytoin, methadone, midazolam, nifedipine, omeprazole, oral contraceptives, quazepam, simvastatin, tacrolimus, talinolol, verapamil, voriconazole and warfarin. Case reports or case series suggest interactions of St John's wort with adrenergic vasopressors, anaesthetics, bupropion, buspirone, ciclosporin, eletriptan, loperamide, nefazodone, nevirapine, oral contraceptives, paroxetine, phenprocoumon, prednisone, sertraline, tacrolimus, theophylline, tibolone, tryptophan, venlafaxine and warfarin. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) decreases the plasma concentrations of omeprazole, ritonavir and tolbutamide. Clinical cases indicate interactions of ginkgo with antiepileptics, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), diuretics, ibuprofen, risperidone, rofecoxib, trazodone and warfarin. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) may interact with phenelzine and warfarin. Kava (Piper methysticum) increases the clearance of chlorzoxazone (a CYP2E1 substrate) and may interact with alprazolam, levodopa and paroxetine. Garlic (Allium sativum) interacts with chlorpropamide, fluindione, ritonavir and warfarin; it also reduces plasma concentrations of chlorzoxazone (a CYP2E1 probe). Echinacea might affect the clearance of caffeine (a CYP1A2 probe) and midazolam (a CYP3A4 probe). No interactions have been reported for saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Numerous interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs have been documented. While the significance of many interactions is uncertain, several interactions, particularly those with St John's wort, may have serious clinical consequences. PMID:19719333

Izzo, Angelo A; Ernst, Edzard

2009-01-01

334

Insights on the formulation of herbal beverages with medicinal claims according with their antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Several herbal beverages claim medicinal benefits due to their antioxidant properties. However, operational factors such as the extracted herbal component, preparation method or concentration levels, might influence their biological activity. To assess this effect, the antioxidant activity of beverages prepared with Camellia sinensis, Aspalathus linearis or Cochlospermum angolensis, used solely or mixed with different fruit, plant or algae extracts, was studied using different formulations (bags, leaves, roots, granulates, powders, liquids) and different preparation methods (infusion, solubilisation or promptly used). The DF50 (dilution factor responsible for 50% of antioxidant activity) values were calculated to compare their antioxidant activity. A linear discriminant analysis was used to categorize the assayed samples according to their antioxidant activity and bioactive molecules profiles. The results indicated that antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds are significantly affected by formulation and preparation method, but overall the labelled antioxidant benefits were validated. Green tea showed the highest activity, but with different behaviour within each used formulation. The high DF50 values calculated for some products might be used to adjust the dietary dose or formulation, preventing also putative pro-oxidant effects. Hence, the obtained results might be useful to define the formulation of these highly consumed herbal beverages, enhancing their health effects. PMID:23459297

Barreira, João C M; Morais, Ana L; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

2013-01-01

335

Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p?=?0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR?=?3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p?=?0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR?=?2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p?=?0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR?=?5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p?=?0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda. PMID:23209545

Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

2012-01-01

336

[Factors related to the choice of clinic between Chinese traditional medicine and Western medicine].  

PubMed

The study applied Andersen's health-service utilization model to analyze the basic demographic, enabling and need factors related to the choice of traditional Chinese medicine clinic or modern Western medicine clinic by single-method-treatment (i.e. traditional Chinese medicine or modern Western medicine only) patients. During the period from August 1989 to October 1989, systemic sampling was done and a structured questionnaire survey was carried out among patients from the Out-patient Departments of 13 teaching hospitals accepting reimbursement by Labor Medical Insurance in Taiwan. The total number of valid respondents was 579: 378 (65.3%) were visiting modern Western medicine clinics and 201 (34.7%), traditional Chinese medicine clinics. There were 339 (58.6%) males and 240 (41.4%) females, aged from 15 to 85 years old, with a mean of 40.7 years. Under univariate analysis, the significant variables (p < 0.05) related to visiting the two types of clinics were: nativity, religious belief, career, general health condition, severity of illness of this episode, types of disorder as neuromusculoskeletal, digestive, circulatory, endocrine-metabolic and sense-and-skin. By logistic regression analysis, the significant variables (p < 0.05) relating to visiting two types of clinics were religion, career, and two kinds of disorders. Folk-religion believers, farmers and businessmen favored traditional Chinese medicine; and patients who suffered from musculoskeletal, sense organs or skin disorders were also likely to visit traditional Chinese medicine clinics. PMID:7920095

Kang, J T; Lee, C F; Chen, C F; Chou, P

1994-03-01

337

[Behind the naming of herbal section as the decoction section in Treasured Mirror Of Eastern Medicine].  

PubMed

Heo Jun, who is the main compiler of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, states to applicate Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica, Rihuazi's annotations and Li Gao and Zhu Zhenheng's opinion to arrange materia medica on the introductory notes of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine. While Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica and Rihuazi's annotations are both conventional texts dealing with materia medica, Li Gao and Zhu Zhenheng are just clinical practitioners. Not only Li Gao has no authorship on materia medica, but also Zhu Zhenheng's Supplement to the Elucidation of Materia Medica is assessed to have no distinctive achievements. Nevertheless, Heo Jun shows positive considerations for their achievements of materia medica. Specifically, on the Decoction Section in Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, theories of lift, lower, float, sink and Channel Entry, both representative achievements of Yishui school-including Li Gao-are adopted as it is, and Zhu Zhenheng's expressions are frequently utilized for conclusive remarks of medicinal effect. Furthermore, applications of both clinicians can be found within nature & flavour which is one of the principal terms of understanding materia medica. While being based on the conventional materia medica text Classified Emergency Materia Medica, the Decoction section in Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine is not restrained by the intricate traditional compositions and shows a new aspect of depiction by adding clinical information. And I think it is a important meaning of the Decoction section, which is the herbal chapter of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine. PMID:22343697

Oh, Chaekun

2011-12-31

338

Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products?-?part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.  

PubMed

This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

2014-07-01

339

Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ER?-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ER?-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

2009-01-01

340

Establishing high temperature gas chromatographic profiles of non-polar metabolites for quality assessment of African traditional herbal medicinal products.  

PubMed

The quality assessment of African traditional herbal medicinal products is a difficult challenge since they are complex mixtures of several herbal drug or herbal drug preparations. The plant source is also often unknown and/or highly variable. Plant metabolites chromatographic profiling is therefore an important tool for quality control of such herbal products. The objective of this work is to propose a protocol for sample preparation and gas chromatographic profiling of non-polar metabolites for quality control of African traditional herbal medicinal products. The methodology is based on the chemometric assessment of chromatographic profiles of non-polar metabolites issued from several batches of leaves of Combretum micranthum and Mitracarpus scaber by high temperature gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, performed on extracts obtained in refluxed dichloromethane, after removal of chlorophyll pigments. The method using high temperature gas chromatography after dichloromethane extraction allows detection of most non-polar bioactive and non-bioactive metabolites already identified in leaves of both species. Chemometric data analysis using Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares after Orthogonal Signal Correction applied to chromatographic profiles of leaves of Combretum micranthum and Mitracarpus scaber showed slight batch to batch differences, and allowed clear differentiation of the two herbal extracts. PMID:24211706

Bony, Nicaise F; Libong, Danielle; Solgadi, Audrey; Bleton, Jean; Champy, Pierre; Malan, Anglade K; Chaminade, Pierre

2014-01-01

341

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.  

PubMed

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

342

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

343

Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding  

PubMed Central

To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb–Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%–31.92% and 4.05%–14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

2014-01-01

344

Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding.  

PubMed

To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb-Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%-31.92% and 4.05%-14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

2014-01-01

345

Herbal medicinal products in the paediatric population--status quo and perspectives.  

PubMed

The limited extent of data available for herbal medicinal products (HMPs) in the paediatric population is related to missing documentation of their use in practice and in literature. Therefore, information for properly evaluating indications, posology, length of treatment and safety in children is often lacking. Frequently, these documentation gaps are reflected in the product information of HMPs as final result of regulatory decisions. On the other hand, there is long-term experience of HMPs as well established and traditionally used medicinal products, which also covers the use in the paediatric population, as applied by parents themselves, and the recommendations of physicians, other health practitioners and pharmacists. The methodology of pharmaco-epidemiologic studies is a valuable tool to evaluate data of the practical use of HMPs in children. The documentation gap may be closed by such methodologies, and HMPs may be applied prospectively on the basis of well-documented empirical knowledge. PMID:23377951

Wegener, Tankred

2013-02-01

346

Current Evidence of Chinese Herbal Constituents with Effects on NMDA Receptor Blockade  

PubMed Central

NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) is an important molecular entity governing a wide range of functions in the central nervous system. For example, the NMDA-R is involved in memory and cognition, and impairment of both (as in Alzheimer’s Disease) is attributed to NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity. With greater understanding of the NMDA-R structure, antagonists with varying degrees of binding-site and subtype selectivity have been developed and put into clinical use. Discovery of target-specific Chinese herbs have also been made in parallel. This article provides an overview of the known active sites on the NMDA-R, followed by a discussion of the relevant herbs and their constituents. Experimental evidence supporting the inhibitory role of the herbal compounds on the NMDA-R is highlighted. For some of the compounds, potential research directions are also proposed to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the herbs. It is envisaged that future investigations based on the present data will allow more clinically relevant herbs to be identified. PMID:24276380

Liang, Willmann; Lam, Wai Ping; Tang, Hong Chai; Leung, Ping Chung; Yew, David T.

2013-01-01

347

Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

2014-01-01

348

Application of isoabsorption plots generated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to the development of multicomponent quantitative analysis of traditional herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Multicomponent quantitative analysis is one of the mainstream quality control methods of traditional herbal medicines. Since the constituents of traditional herbal medicines samples are complex, the development of high-performance liquid chromatography methods is laborious. In this study, an isoabsorption plot, a chromatographic/spectrometric data image plotted by diode array detection was utilized to facilitate the establishment of a high-performance liquid chromatography method by optimizing and validating the detection conditions off-line. Consequently a simple, reliable and accurate method for simultaneous determination of seven active polyphenolic components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, scutellarin, and apigenin) in Qingfei mixture, a long-used Chinese prescription, was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution of phosphoric acid aqueous solution (0.05%, v/v) and acetonitrile, and a wavelength switch program optimized with isoplot was adopted for detection. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the seven polyphenolic components in different production batches of Qingfei Mixture. These results indicated that isoplot is an effective tool to improve the establishment of multicomponent quantitative analysis methods. PMID:25146493

Fang, Luo; Yang, Guonong; Song, Yu; Li, Fanzhu; Lin, Nengming

2014-11-01

349

A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC1/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 µg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening ?2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of ?2-adrenoceptor. PMID:19353741

Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

2009-01-01

350

[Determination of potassium, sodium, chromium and nickel in 11 Chinese traditional medicines by FAAS].  

PubMed

Four metallic elements in 11 Chinese traditional medicines such as potassium, sodium, chromium and nickel were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that there are rich metal elements, but the contents are different in 11 Chinese traditional medicines, providing useful data for discussing relations between trace elements in Chinese traditional medicines and the cure for CHD. PMID:15819073

Dong, S; Zhu, Z; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Xu, Z

1999-06-01

351

Traditional Chinese medicine typing of affective disorders and treatment.  

PubMed

According to the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), 50 patients with affective disorders were typed into the categories of depressed liver resulting in fire, mild Yang deficiency and mild Yin deficiency and were treated with Xiao Yao San Jia Wei. The results are 26 patients with marked improvement, 17 patients with improvement and 7 patients with no improvement. PMID:7872244

Zhang, L D; Zhang, Y L; Xu, S H; Zhou, G; Jin, S B

1994-01-01

352

Chinese medicines as a resource for liver fibrosis treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single

Yibin Feng; Kwok-Fan Cheung; Ning Wang; Ping Liu; Tadashi Nagamatsu; Yao Tong

2009-01-01

353

East meets West: current issues relevant to integrating Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article describes the challenges that integration of Chinese medicine (CM) and biomedicine are likely to bring for improving safety, research, education, and cross-disciplinary communication. Potential strategies to meet these challenges are suggested, including the use of accessible language for the Western biomedical community, and further development of whole-system randomized controlled trials that support individualized treatment approaches. PMID:22943066

2012-01-01

354

The biosynthetic products of chinese insect medicine, Aspongopus chinensis  

PubMed Central

A new oxazole (1) was obtained from chinese insect medicine Aspongopus chinensis, along with three known N-acetyldopamine derivatives (2–4). Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. The possible biosynthetic pathways of the isolated compounds are discussed. Cytotoxicities of those compounds against 10 selected cancer cells were measured in vitro. PMID:22430116

Luo, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Jiang, Hai-Long; Yang, Jun-Li; Crews, Phillip; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Wu, Quan-Xiang

2012-01-01

355

Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?  

PubMed Central

Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

2011-01-01

356

The model of Western integrative medicine: the role of Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

The basic concept of integrative medicine (IM) is that by combining mainstream (biomedicine) with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), synergistic therapeutic effects can be attained. When the methods of mind/body medicine (MBM) are added to this combination, as in Western countries, a new concept emerges that drastically changes the approach toward illness.It is interesting to note that the joining of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the early days of the Peoples' Republic of China preceded the Western model of IM by almost 50 years. Several elements that make up the key components of IM as practiced today in the West were already present in the Chinese version of IM, and Chinese medicine has played and continues to play an important role in advancing IM. However, one of the major differences between the Chinese and the Western models of IM today, besides MBM and some other treatment options, is that Western integrative medicine (WIM) strictly requires its CAM methods to be supported by scientific evidence.The therapeutic methods of IM and their applications are many and varied. However, they are most frequently employed to treat chronic medical conditions, e.g., bronchial asthma, rheumatic disease, chronic inflammatory bowel disorder and chronic pain. Other fields in which IM may be applied are internal medicine (inflammatory bowel diseases and cardiovascular diseases), musculoskeletal disorders, oncology (chemotherapy-induced side effects), obstetrics and gynecology (dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, infertility and menopausal complaints), pediatrics, geriatrics, neurology (migraine and chronic headache), and psychiatry (anxiety and depression).The concept of WIM is discussed here in detail by reviewing its scope and implications for the practice of medicine and focusing on the role of Chinese medicine in WIM. PMID:21258891

Dobos, Gustav; Tao, Iven

2011-01-01

357

The role of Chinese medicine in clinical oncology.  

PubMed

Chinese Medicine (CM) has been used for several thousand years, playing an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases including cancer. In the recent four decades, a number of CM herbs have aroused extreme interest in the world-isolating anticancer components from medicinal herbs, using them as biological response modifiers, and most recently as angiogenesis inhibitors. The present review reports both the experimental and clinical results obtained in the field of clinical oncology, especially conducted by our group. The review also presents the possible future of integration of CM and modern medicine in basic research and clinical practice, especially when CM used as adjuvant and maintenance therapy. PMID:24126976

Sun, Yan

2014-01-01

358

“Zahraa”, a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: Components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as “Zahraa” in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout.

M. D. Carmona; R. Llorach; C. Obon; D. Rivera

2005-01-01

359

Systems Pharmacology Dissection of Multi-Scale Mechanisms of Action for Herbal Medicines in Stroke Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes. PMID:25093322

Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Yonghua

2014-01-01

360

Chinese medicine and biomodulation in cancer patients--Part one  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese Medicine (tcm) may be integrated with conventional Western medicine to enhance the care of patients with cancer. Although tcm is normally implemented as a whole system, recent reductionist research suggests mechanisms for the effects of acupuncture, herbs, and nutrition within the scientific model of biomedicine. The health model of Chinese medicine accommodates physical and pharmacologic interventions within the framework of a body–mind network. A Cartesian split does not occur within this model, but to allow for scientific exploration within the restrictions of positivism, reductionism, and controls for confounding factors, the components must necessarily be separated. Still, whole-systems research is important to evaluate effectiveness when applying the full model in clinical practice. Scientific analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that will improve the design of clinical studies and enhance safety. Enough preliminary evidence is available to encourage quality clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of integrating tcm into Western cancer care. PMID:18317584

Sagar, S.M.; Wong, R.K.

2008-01-01

361

Application of herbal drugs to health care in Japan.  

PubMed

Kampo, derived from traditional Chinese medicine, has been adopted in Japan for centuries, and the demand for herbal drugs is increasing. At present herbal drugs are utilized in pharmaceutical forms such as granules of the extracts. A special commission has evaluated and selected traditional prescriptons for their efficacy and safety by clinical experience. The Kampo preparations are also accepted by the national health care insurance. About 80% of the plants used are imported. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia reports 116 herbal drugs, the majority of Chinese origin, under specifications established and reviewed by the Pharmacopoeia Committee. In Japan, high quality research, which has developed during the last century, has partly ascertained the active principles in the herbal drugs and pharmacological tests have also been adopted, although limitations exist in the modern pharmacological methods. The handling of herbal drugs is limited to licensed pharmacists in order to ensure their good management. PMID:7464186

Natori, S

1980-03-01

362

Herbal Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.

363

Phytochemistry and biology of Loranthus parasiticus Merr, a commonly used herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Loranthus parasiticus Merr (L. parasiticus) is a member of Loranthaceae family and is an important medicinal plant with a long history of Chinese traditional use. L. parasiticus, also known as Sang Ji Sheng (in Chinese), benalu teh (in Malay) and baso-kisei (in Japanese), is a semiparasitic plant, which is mostly distributed in the southern and southwestern regions of China. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of L. parasiticus and to highlight the needs for further investigation and greater global development of the plant's medicinal properties. To date, pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant biological activities, which support the traditional use of the plant as a neuroprotective, tranquilizing, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antiviral, diuretic and hypotensive agent. In addition, studies have identified antioxidative, antimutagenic, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and antinephrotoxic activity. The key bioactive constituents in L. parasiticus include coriaria lactone comprised of sesquiterpene lactones: coriamyrtin, tutin, corianin, and coriatin. In addition, two proanthocyanidins, namely, AC trimer and (+)-catechin, have been recently discovered as novel to L. parasiticus. L. parasiticus usefulness as a medicinal plant with current widespread traditional use warrants further research, clinical trials and product development to fully exploit its medicinal value. PMID:24467533

Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Kamarudin, Muhamad Noor Alfarizal; Chan, Chim Kei; Goh, Bey Hing; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

2014-01-01

364

Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray: phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetics of an important herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray is mainly distributed throughout Asia, Oceania and North America and is used as an important herbal medicine. H. japonicum contains many valuable secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, phloroglucinols and xanthones and has hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities and effects on the cardiovascular system and immunity. Coupled with phytochemical and pharmacological research, a series of analytical methods have been developed to evaluate the quality of H. japonicum based on its bioactive components. A pharmacokinetics study involved the absorption of two main flavonoids of H. japonicum in rats. This review aims to present an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetics of H. japonicum, which should be useful for the greater development of H. japonicum, especially in the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases. PMID:25061723

Liu, Lin-Sheng; Liu, Meng-Hua; He, Jing-Yu

2014-01-01

365

Evaluation of the anti-proliferative properties of selected psoriasis-treating Chinese medicines on cultured HaCaT cells.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which affects approximately 2-3% of the population worldwide. The current conventional therapy cannot offer satisfactory clinical results for most of the patients, largely due to the fact that many anti-psoriatic drugs have serious side effects and psoriasis is prone to developing drug resistance after long term exposure. Traditionally, Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used to treat psoriasis and produced promising clinical results; however, its underlying mechanisms of action have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate those Chinese medicinal materials, which are commonly prescribed in Chinese medicine practice for psoriasis, for their anti-proliferative effects on HaCaT cells in vitro. Sixty Chinese medicinal materials were selected and extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol. The dry extracts were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities by microplate SRB and MTT assays. Three Chinese medicinal materials i.e. the root of Rubia cordifolia L. (Rubiaceae), Realgar and the rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. (Ranunculaceae) were found to have significant anti-proliferative effects, with IC(50) being 1.4, 6.6 and 23.4 microg/ml, respectively as measured by MTT assay. While Realgar was also able to modestly inhibit the growth of Hs-68 cells in vitro, Rubia cordifolia and Coptis chinensis did not exert cytotoxicity to this human fibroblast cell line. PMID:16730935

Tse, Wai-Pui; Che, Chun-Tao; Liu, Ken; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

2006-11-01

366

Depression, constraint, and the liver: (Dis)assembling the treatment of emotion-related disorders in Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is today practiced worldwide, rivaling biomedicine in terms of its globalization. One of the most common TCM diagnoses is "Liver qi constraint," which, in turn, is commonly treated by an herbal formula dating back to the 10th century. In everyday TCM practice, biomedical disease categories such as depression or anxiety and popular disease categories such as stress are often conflated with the Chinese medical notion of constraint. Medical anthropologists, meanwhile, argue that constraint reveals to us a distinctive aesthetics of constructing body/persons in Chinese culture, while psychologists seek to define constraint as a distinctive psychiatric disorder distinctive from depression and anxiety. All of these actors agree in defining constraint as a concept dating back two thousand years to the very origins of Chinese medicine. This article disassembles the articulations by means of which these different facts about constraint are constructed. It shows how ideas about constraint as a disorder caused by the penetration of external pathogens into the body were gradually transformed from the eleventh century onward into constraint as an emotion-related disorder, while treatment strategies were adjusted to match perceptions about body/self that developed among the gentry elite of southeast China in late imperial China. PMID:23315392

Scheid, Volker

2013-03-01

367

Patent applications for using DNA technologies to authenticate medicinal herbal material  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicines are used in many countries for maintaining health and treating diseases. Their efficacy depends on the use of the correct materials, and life-threatening poisoning may occur if toxic adulterants or substitutes are administered instead. Identification of a medicinal material at the DNA level provides an objective and powerful tool for quality control. Extraction of high-quality DNA is the first crucial step in DNA authentication, followed by a battery of DNA techniques including whole genome fingerprinting, DNA sequencing and DNA microarray to establish the identity of the material. New or improved technologies have been developed and valuable data have been collected and compiled for DNA authentication. Some of these technologies and data are patentable. This article provides an overview of some recent patents that cover the extraction of DNA from medicinal materials, the amplification of DNA using improved reaction conditions, the generation of DNA sequences and fingerprints, and the development of high-throughput authentication methods. It also briefly explains why these patents have been granted. PMID:19930671

2009-01-01

368

Chinese medicinal materials and their interface with Western medical concepts.  

PubMed

Chinese medicine (CM), one of the oldest continuously surviving traditions, has been practised to maintain good health and treat diseases in the Chinese communities and recently by other ethnic groups worldwide. Chinese medicinal</