Sample records for chinese herbal medicine

  1. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

  2. The History of Chinese herbal Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyao Wang

    After using and accumulating information about herbal medicine for thousands of years, the first book of Chinese herbal medicine, Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Ben means root and Cao means shoot) was written about 2500 years after the death of Shen Nong. The authors named the book after Shen Nong to call attention from people (Zhu Jianping). The book recorded

  3. Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-ling Sun; Yuan-liang Hu; De-yun Wang; Bao-kang Zhang; Jia-guo Liu

    2006-01-01

    Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological

  4. Chinese Herbalism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

  5. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  6. Comparative study on adjuvanticity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deyun Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Junling Sun; Xiangfeng Kong; Baokang Zhang; Jiaguo Liu

    2005-01-01

    In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) and filtrate best prescription and dose, two initial screened cCHMIs were prepared and mixed with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine respectively at three doses to vaccinate 17-day-old chickens, taking the non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant vaccines as controls. On day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after

  7. Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun-Ling; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Wang, De-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Kang; Liu, Jia-Guo

    2006-03-20

    Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological saline in the control, were respectively injected to the rabbits vaccinated with inactivated rabbit hemorrhagic disease vaccine. On Days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of serum antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In chicken immune trial, all of cCIs and cCMs were mixed respectively with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine virus to vaccinate chickens, taking oil-adjuvant and non-adjuvant vaccine as controls. On Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers were tested respectively by MTT method and HI test method. The results showed that both cCIs could significantly raise antibody titer in rabbits, which the effect of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 1 (cCIs 1) was better than that of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 2 (cCIs 2). All of cCIs and cCMs could markedly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance antibody titer in chickens, which was similar to oil adjuvant, the immunologic enhancement of cCIs were slightly superior to that of the cCMs. PMID:16378665

  8. Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations. PMID:19842218

  9. Discovering herbal functional groups of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Deng, Ke; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Delin; Liu, Jun S; Geng, Zhi

    2012-03-30

    For the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a prescription for a patient often contains several herbs. Some herbs are often used together in prescriptions, and these herbs can be considered as a functional group. In this paper, we propose an approach for discovering herbal functional groups from a large set of prescriptions recorded in TCM books. These functional groups are allowed to overlap with each other. Our approach is validated with a simulation study and applied to a data set containing thousands of TCM prescriptions. PMID:21413055

  10. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Depression: The Research Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing. PMID:23476701

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (?? zh?ng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (?? d?n sh?n), Notoginseng Radix (?? s?n q?), Lycii Fructus (??? g?u q? z?), Cnidii Fructus (??? shé chuáng z?), Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n), Puerariae Radix (?? gé g?n), Puerariae Flos (?? gé hu?), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (?? hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (?? jié g?ng), and Trigonellae Semen (??? hú lú b?). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

  13. Materializing complementary and alternative medicine: aromatherapy, chiropractic, and Chinese herbal medicine in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus A. Doel; Jeremy Segrott

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores the materiality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), with particular reference to aromatherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, and chiropractic, as presented in the journals of UK-based practitioner associations. The paper begins by arguing for a poststructuralist approach to materiality. It then considers how certain materials play a signature (or emblematic) role in the definition and practice of various

  14. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

  15. Treatment of asthma and food allergy with herbal interventions from traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2-3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with a high prevalence of anxiety, particularly in adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine, used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western healthcare. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine for asthma treatment. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of "antiasthma" herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention is the only antiasthma traditional Chinese medicine product that is a Food and Drug Administration investigational new drug that has entered clinical trials in the United States. Research into the effects and mechanisms of action of antiasthma herbal medicine intervention in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on traditional Chinese medicine herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 is the only Food and Drug Administration botanical investigational new drug under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. This review article discusses promising traditional Chinese medicine interventions for asthma, food allergy, and comorbid conditions, and explores their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21913200

  16. Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Anthony Lin; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, there has been no systematic evaluation of its safety. This review examined the adverse events (AEs) reported in clinical studies of CHM for COPD. Five English databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and CENTRAL) and four Chinese databases (CBM, CNKI, CQVIP, and Wanfang Data) were searched from inception to May 2013. Adverse event data, including nature, severity, author-assigned causality, management, and outcome, were extracted from included studies. Descriptive statistics were used for the rate of adverse events. Of the 152 included studies, AEs were reported in 47 studies. The rate of adverse events was slightly lower in the CHM groups compared with controls (84 events in 5,909 participants, 1.4% versus 102 events in 5,676 participants, 1.8%). The most frequently reported adverse event was nausea (28 cases in the CHM groups and 19 cases in the control groups), which was more common in studies where CHM was combined with pharmacotherapy to treat acute exacerbation of COPD. Other frequent adverse events were abdominal discomfort, dry mouth, and dizziness. Detailed information about the adverse events was scant. Overall, CHM appears to be well tolerated in people with COPD. PMID:25883670

  17. Network Pharmacology: A New Approach for Chinese Herbal Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-biao; Li, Qing-ya; Chen, Qi-long; Su, Shi-bing

    2013-01-01

    The dominant paradigm of “one gene, one target, one disease” has influenced many aspects of drug discovery strategy. However, in recent years, it has been appreciated that many effective drugs act on multiple targets rather than a single one. As an integrated multidisciplinary concept, network pharmacology, which is based on system biology and polypharmacology, affords a novel network mode of “multiple targets, multiple effects, complex diseases” and replaces the “magic bullets” by “magic shotguns.” Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been recognized as one of the most important strategies in complementary and alternative medicine. Though CHM has been practiced for a very long time, its effectiveness and beneficial contribution to public health has not been fully recognized. Also, the knowledge on the mechanisms of CHM formulas is scarce. In the present review, the concept and significance of network pharmacology is briefly introduced. The application and potential role of network pharmacology in the CHM fields is also discussed, such as data collection, target prediction, network visualization, multicomponent interaction, and network toxicology. Furthermore, the developing tendency of network pharmacology is also summarized, and its role in CHM research is discussed. PMID:23762149

  18. Usage and adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Y K Chan; Julian A J H Critchley

    1996-01-01

    The great majority of Chinese herbal preparations are safe, and in the past, some useful Western drugs have been derived from these herbs.Nearly all serious poisonings are due to the few preparations containing aconitine, podophyllin or anti cholinergics or else proprietary preparations containing dangerous Western drugs or heavy metals. Both medical professionals and the general public should be alerted to

  19. Comparative study on adjuvanticity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Sun, Junling; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Baokang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2005-05-25

    In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) and filtrate best prescription and dose, two initial screened cCHMIs were prepared and mixed with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine respectively at three doses to vaccinate 17-day-old chickens, taking the non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant vaccines as controls. On day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers in the chickens were determined by means of MTT method and hemagglutination inhibition test. The results showed that two cCHMIs could promote peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer, of which adjuvant activity was similar to and even stronger than oil adjuvant in promoting lymphocyte proliferation at some time points, and there was a certain dose-effect relationship. The best adjuvant activity of cCHMIs 2 in promoting cellular immunity occurred at middle dose, and cCHMIs 1 in enhancing humoral immunity, at high dose. Based on good synergistic effects of their components, two cCHMIs would be expected as new-type immunologic adjuvants to substitute for oil adjuvant. PMID:15882531

  20. [Analysis of toxicity of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and its connotation].

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming

    2009-02-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849

  1. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis—a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peishan Xie; Sibao Chen; Yi-zeng Liang; Xianghong Wang; Runtao Tian; Roy Upton

    2006-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic

  2. Antibacterial properties of Chinese herbal medicines against nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Shen; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active partition fractions ranged from 0.25 to 11.0 mg/L. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography. The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin. In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan. PMID:18186590

  3. [Feasibility for inhibiting tumor metastasis with Chinese herbal medicines as angiogenesis inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-rong; Li, Xiu-rong

    2007-07-01

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the important ways to control tumor growth and metastasis, and searching for anti-angiogenesis herbs targeting tumor angiogenesis has become a hot topic in both basic and clinical research for tumor. Utilizing the traditional Chinese medicine theory, authors of this article discussed the feasibility and research of anti-angiogenesis effect of Chinese medicine on tumor. To develop new drugs inhibiting tumor angiogenesis from the Chinese native herbal medicine has an extremely vital significance in blocking tumor invasion and metastasis, as well as improving the patients' prognosis and their survival rates. PMID:17631799

  4. Empirical Study on Modeling Quantitative Composition Activity Relationships in Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuewei Wang; Yi Wang; Yiyu Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) consists of up hundreds of chemical components, which have complex relationships with their bioactivities. Quantitatively modeling composition-activity relationships playing a crucial role in drug design from CHM. In this paper, principle component regression, partial least square regression and least square support vector machine were used to perform this task and exhibit high predictive precisions

  5. In vitro anti- Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Li; Chen Xu; Qiang Zhang; Jun Yan Liu; Ren Xiang Tan

    2005-01-01

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed

  6. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

  7. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  8. Yin Zi Huang, an Injectable Multicomponent Chinese Herbal Medicine, Is a Potent Inhibitor of T-Cell Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Chen; Teresa Krakauer; Joost J. Oppenheim; O. M. Zack Howard

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical efficacy of many multiherbal Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) is partially at- tributable to their immunoregulatory properties. In this study we evaluated the effect of eight commonly used, commercially available multiherbal Chinese medicines on T-cell activation. We focused on Yin Zhi Huang (YZH, an injectable herbal medicine commonly used for the treatment of liver diseases in China), because

  9. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap between the two medicinal cultures. PMID:25914456

  10. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  11. Compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients can enhance immune response and efficacy of RHD vaccine in rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longsheng Yang; Yuanliang Hu; Jiabin Xue; Fang Wang; Deyun Wang; Xiangfeng Kong; Peng Li; Weizhong Xu

    2008-01-01

    In order to validate the immune-enhancement efficacy of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs), made with astragalus polysaccharide (APS), epimedium polysaccharide (EPS), propolis flavone (PF) and ginsenosides (GS), as immune potentiator or vaccine adjuvants for rabbits, the effects of two cCHMIs on rabbit lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? and IL-10 mRNA expression of T lymphocyte in vitro were determined. At the

  12. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage in China and other Asian countries for long time. We conducted this review to systematically summarize the evidences of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the prevention and treatment of recurrent miscarriage in randomized trials, and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM compared with placebo or conventional medicine. Methods We searched studies in PubMed, ClinicalTrials, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed and VIP databases until December, 2012. Randomized trials on CHM alone or in combination with conventional medicine for recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo or conventional medicine were included. We evaluated the methodological quality of each included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results A total of 41 RCTs (3660 participants) were included. The majority of trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. CHM used alone or plus progesterone-based treatment showed superior effect over progesterone-based treatment in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state (measured by B ultrasound). However, there is substantial heterogeneity within each subgroup analysis (I2 ranging from 35% to 71%). CHM plus progesterone and hCG-based treatment was superior to progesterone and hCG-based treatment in improving the embryonic developmental state, but not live birth rate. No severe adverse events were reported in relation to CHM. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines or in combination with progesterone-based treatment demonstrated potentially beneficial effect in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state for women with recurrent miscarriage. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity among the herbal interventions and limitations of methodological quality of the included trials, it is not possible to recommend any specific CHMs for recurrent miscarriage. Further rigorous clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM. PMID:24245671

  13. Rapid identification of traditional Chinese herbal medicine by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Chunmei; Huang, Liang; Liu, Li; Guo, Yunlong; Ma, Li; Liu, Shuying

    2014-10-01

    Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed as a novel fast method to identify traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In order to obtain high quality mass spectra, the ionization temperature was optimized for every kind of sample. With minimal or no sample pretreatment, major TCHM components, including alkaloids, flavonoids and some ginsenosides, were directly detected within several seconds, while thirteen ginsenosides need derivatization to get good mass spectra. Pseudoginsenoside F11, compound K, protopanaxatriol (PPT) and protopanaxadiol (PPD), for the first time were detected without derivatization. Among five of eight tested Chinese herbal medicines, Rhizoma Corydalis, Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Arecae Semen, Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis and Scutellariae Radix, were first time identified by DART-MS. In addition, the ionization mechanisms of major herbal components, alkaloids, flavonoids and ginsenosides, were discussed in detail. Our results demonstrated that DART-MS could provide a rapid, reliable and environmental friendly method for the rapid identification of TCHM, and may be applicable to other plants. PMID:25201274

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction and clean-up of organochlorine pesticides in Chinese herbal medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-C Ling; H.-C Teng; C Cartwright

    1999-01-01

    A method involving the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by gas chromatography–electron capture detection and mass spectrometric confirmation. The pesticides in the study consisted of ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 4,4?-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene), dieldrin, endrin, 4,4?-DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane),

  15. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P?=?0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P?=?0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P?=?0.05) and acetate was higher (P?=?0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P?=?0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P?=?0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treating Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hui; Li, Xinxue; Liu, Jianping; Andrew, Flower; George, Lewith

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is no curative treatment for primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is widely used in the treatment of PSS in China. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM for PSS. Methods. PubMed, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Wanfang Data, and the Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM or CHM plus conventional medicine for PSS compared with placebo or conventional medicine. RevMan 5.0.17 was employed to conduct data analyses and assess homogeneity. Statistical models were chosen according to heterogeneity. Results. A total of 52 RCTs were included. The overall methodological quality of included trials was low. 49 trials reported response rates, of which 32 found significant improvements favoring CHM treatment against controls; 20 trials reported lacrimal function by Schirmer test scores, of which 16 trials reported a significant difference favoring CHM treatment. 21 trials reported salivary function by salivary flow rate, of which 10 reported significant favorable effects of CHM treatment. Other trials found no difference. The reported adverse effects of CHM included nausea, diarrhea, and other minor digestive symptoms, but more frequent adverse effects occurred in conventional medicine groups. Conclusions. Preliminary evidence from RCTs suggests the effect of CHM is promising for relieving symptoms, improving lacrimal and salivary function in PSS. However, the poor methodological quality of the included trials means that further well-designed, multicentered, larger trials are needed. PMID:22969828

  17. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  18. Identification of Western Medicines as Adulterants in Chinese Herbal Medicines Using a Broad-Spectrum Drug Screening HPLC System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jason Lai; Steven R. Binder; Herbert Essien; Kuo-Ching Wen

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of herbal medicines is a difficult task because of the complexity and variety of the available formulations. Identification of adulterants in herbal medicines poses an even greater challenge to the laboratories which are required to conduct a routine surveillance program. There is no single broad spectrum screening method which will be able to screen all non-herbal medicine in a

  19. [Liu Yue-heng and Shengcaoyaoxingfangpu (Guidebook of Chinese medicinal herbal properties)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Li

    2010-09-01

    Liu Yue-heng, a famous doctor in Hunan province during Qing dynasty is the author of Shengcaoyaoxingfangpu (Guidebook of Chinese medicinal herbs) which systematically summed up the properties, flavors and channel tropism of the local herbal medicines and supplemented a lack knowledge of those. The book collected broadly folk and proved prescriptions and, combined with the author's clinical experiences. He collected and classified them as chapters, reflected geographical environment and folk custom culture with the distinctive regional characteristics of Huxiang. Its achievement is mainly embodied in the following aspects: it attached importance to herbs, highlighted Huxiang characteristics, the skilful use of folk and proved prescriptions and comprehensively differentiated etiology and pathogenesis, and proposed for doctors' professional ethics. PMID:21163083

  20. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Obesity-Related Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Feng, Bo; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for obesity-related hypertension. Search Strategy. Electronic databases were searched until January, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) testing CHM against nondrug therapy and conventional western medicine, or combined with conventional western medicine against conventional western medicine. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. 11 trials were included. Methodological quality was evaluated as low. 1 trial investigated the efficacy of CHM plus nondrug therapy versus nondrug therapy. Positive results in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD: ?5.40 [?5.88, ?4.92]; P < 0.00001) were found in combination group. 1 trial investigated the efficacy of CHM versus conventional western medicine. Positive results in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD: ?1.39 [?2.11, ?0.67]; P = 0.0002) were found in CHM. 9 trials investigated the efficacy of CHM plus conventional western medicine versus conventional western medicine. Positive results in SBP (WMD: -6.71 [?11.08, ?1.25]; P = 0.02) were found in combination group. The safety of CHM is unknown. Conclusions. No definite conclusion could be got due to poor methodological quality. Rigorously designed trials are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23853663

  1. Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Eczema: Implications from a Nationwide Prescription Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-hung; Chen, Jiun-liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies. PMID:25685167

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Aspirin Resistance: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-ju; Li, Hui-qin; Li, Ji-huang; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Dong; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin resistance (AR) is a prevalent phenomenon and leads to significant clinical consequences, but the current evidence for effective interventional strategy is insufficient. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for AR. A systematical literature search was conducted in 6 databases until December 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for AR. As a result, sixteen RCTs with a total of 1011 subjects were identified, suggesting that the interests of the medical profession and the public in the use of CHM for AR have grown considerably in the recent years. Tongxinluo capsule and Danshen-based prescriptions were the most frequently used herbal prescriptions, while danshen root, milkvetch root, Leech, and Rosewood were the most frequently used single herbs. Despite the apparent reported positive findings, it is premature to determine the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of AR due to poor methodological quality and insufficient safety data. However, CHMs appeared to be well tolerated in all included studies. Thus, CHM as a promising candidate is worthy of improvement and development for further clinical AR trials. Large sample-size and well-designed rigorous RCTs are needed. PMID:24701247

  3. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology: an improved pharmacology approach for chinese herbal medicine research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Ying-Wu; Qin, Xiu-de; Hua, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Lian; Kang, Li-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in the health maintenance of specific survival environment for neurons and glial cells, has been constructed and applied to CHM research for treating ND. In the present review, the concept and advantages of CSFP are briefly introduced. The approaches and key technologies of CSFP in CHM research are also collated and analyzed. Furthermore, the developing tendency of CSFP is summarized, and its framework in CHM research is also proposed. In summary, CSFP provides a new strategy not only to eliminate some barriers of CHM research for treating ND, but also to broaden the pharmacology research for bridging the gap between CHM and modern medicine. Moreover, the advancements in CSFP will bring about a conceptual move in active ingredients discovery of CHM and make a significant contribution to CHM modernization and globalization. PMID:24454505

  5. Protection against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chung Liu; Shu-Chi Wang; Min-Lung Tsai; Meng-Chi Chen; Ya-Chen Wang; Ji-Hong Hong; William H. McBride; Chi-Shiun Chiang

    2006-01-01

    Liu, W-C., Wang, S-C., Tsai, M-L., Chen, M-C., Wang, Y-C., Hong, J-H., McBride, W. H. and Chiang, C-S. Protec- tion against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine. Radiat. Res. 166, 900-907 (2006). Bone marrow and intestinal damage limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer and can result in death if the whole body

  6. Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan

    1993-03-01

    Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

  7. A study of western pharmaceuticals contained within samples of Chinese herbal\\/patent medicines collected from New York City’s Chinatown

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gretchen M. Miller; Richard Stripp

    2007-01-01

    In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal\\/patent medicines (CHM\\/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine

  8. Compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients can enhance immune response and efficacy of RHD vaccine in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longsheng; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Jiabin; Wang, Fang; Wang, Deyun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Peng; Xu, Weizhong

    2008-08-18

    In order to validate the immune-enhancement efficacy of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs), made with astragalus polysaccharide (APS), epimedium polysaccharide (EPS), propolis flavone (PF) and ginsenosides (GS), as immune potentiator or vaccine adjuvants for rabbits, the effects of two cCHMIs on rabbit lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA expression of T lymphocyte in vitro were determined. At the same time, two cCHMIs were injected into 35-day-old rabbits after mixed with rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) vaccine taking aluminum adjuvant and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as controls. On days 7, 14, 21, 35 and 49 after the vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers of the rabbits were analyzed. On day 63, all rabbits were challenged with RHD virus. The results showed that the two cCHMIs could significantly promote rabbit lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA expression of T lymphocyte in vitro. In vivo, two cCHMIs could significantly enhance serum antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation. Their adjuvanticity was slightly superior to aluminum adjuvant. All the rabbits vaccinated with the cCHMIs adjuvant vaccine were protected. These findings confirmed that two cCHMIs possessed better immune-enhancement efficacy and would be used as effective immune adjuvant of RHD vaccine. PMID:18602959

  9. Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edzard Ernst

    2002-01-01

    Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population. Because they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone, serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. In this article, evidence suggesting that some Asian herbal medicines contain toxic heavy metals or undeclared prescription drugs is reviewed. In particular, Indian and Chinese

  10. A study of western pharmaceuticals contained within samples of Chinese herbal/patent medicines collected from New York City's Chinatown.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gretchen M; Stripp, Richard

    2007-09-01

    In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal/patent medicines (CHM/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine the presence of undeclared pharmaceuticals and therapeutic substances within CHM/CPM sold in New York City's Chinatown. Ninety representative samples randomly purchased in the form of pills, tablets, creams and teas were screened by appropriate analytical techniques including TLC, GC/MS and HPLC. Five samples contained nine different western pharmaceuticals. Two of these samples contained undeclared or mislabeled substances. One sample contained two pharmaceuticals contraindicated in people for whom the product was intended. Drugs identified include promethazine, chlormethiazole, chlorpheniramine, diclofenac, chlordiazepoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, diphenhydramine and sildenafil citrate (Viagra). PMID:17652006

  11. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  12. Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Hu, Yuanliang; Rui, Rong; Wang, Deyun; Li, Xiangrui

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to study the effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer in chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease. Nine CHMIs were chosen for the experiments. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Epimedium flavone (EF), Propolis flavone (PF), Astragalosides (AS) and Ginsenosides (GS) could promote lymphocyte proliferation and antibody titer, while Epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) mainly stimulated cellular immune responses. Chinese angelica polysaccharide (CAPS) and Propolis polysaccharide (PPS) exerted weaker effects on promoting immune responses. APS, IRPS, PPS and PF in promoting lymphocyte proliferation, and IRPS, PPS, EF and PF in promoting humoral immunity in higher dose were significantly stronger than in lower dose. Our results indicated that almost all of the nine CHMIs could promote both humoral and cellular immune responses and would be expected as the component drug of a new-type immunopotentiator. PMID:15233143

  13. High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography: Quantitative Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM preparation in powder…

  14. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized. PMID:15814268

  15. Quality control of herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Zeng Liang; Peishan Xie; Kelvin Chan

    2004-01-01

    Different chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques commonly used in the instrumental inspection of herbal medicines (HM) are first comprehensively reviewed. Chemical fingerprints obtained by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques, especially by hyphenated chromatographies, are strongly recommended for the purpose of quality control of herbal medicines, since they might represent appropriately the “chemical integrities” of the herbal medicines and therefore be used for

  16. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  17. Constipation and herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  18. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicinal Ingredients on IL2 mRNA Levels of T Lymphocytes in Mice Measured Using Semiquantification RT-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue-feng CHU; Xin-min YAN; Xiang-rui LI; Yuan-liang HU

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the IL-2 mRNA levels of T lymphocytes in normal mice stimulated by nine Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) were measured using Semiquantification reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that astragalus polysaccharide (APS), epimedium polysaccharide (EPS), Chinese angelica polysaccharide (CAPS), propolis flavone (PF), and astrogalosides (AS) promoted IL-2 mRNA levels in T lymphocytes in vitro and

  19. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  20. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Debbie; Graeme, Ladds; Pierre, Duez; Elizabeth, Williamson; Kelvin, Chan

    2012-04-10

    Pharmacovigilance is essential for developing reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines as used in Europe and the US. The existing systems were developed for synthetic medicines and require some modification to address the specific differences of medicinal herbs. Traditional medicine from many different cultures is used in Europe and the US which adds to the complexities and difficulties of even basic questions such as herb naming systems and chemical variability. Allied to this also is the perception that a 'natural' or herbal product must be safe simply because it is not synthetic which means that the safety element of monitoring for such medicines can be overlooked because of the tag associated with such products. Cooperation between orthodox physicians and traditional practitioners is needed to bring together the full case details. Independent scientific assistance on toxicological investigation, botanical verification can be invaluable for full evaluation of any case report. Systematic pharmacovigilance is essential to build up reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines for the development of appropriate guidelines for safe effective use. PMID:22342381

  1. Selected Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicines: Their Effect on NF-?B, PPAR? and PPAR? and the Respective Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Rozema, E; Atanasov, A G; Fakhrudin, N; Singhuber, J; Namduang, U; Heiss, E H; Reznicek, G; Huck, C W; Bonn, G K; Dirsch, V M; Kopp, B

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicinal (CHM) extracts from fourteen plants were investigated in cell-based in vitro assays for their effect on nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), a key regulator of inflammation, as well as on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) being key regulators of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. 43% of the investigated CHMs showed NF-?B inhibitory and 50% PPAR? and PPAR? activating effects. Apolar extracts from cortex and flos of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. and processed rhizomes of Arisaema sp. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. that effectively inhibited TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation and dose-dependently activated PPAR? and PPAR? were further investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation and analysis by GC-MS led to the identification of fatty acids as PPAR agonists, including linoleic and palmitic acid. PMID:22675394

  2. Selected Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicines: Their Effect on NF-?B, PPAR? and PPAR? and the Respective Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, E.; Atanasov, A. G.; Fakhrudin, N.; Singhuber, J.; Namduang, U.; Heiss, E. H.; Reznicek, G.; Huck, C. W.; Bonn, G. K.; Dirsch, V. M.; Kopp, B.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicinal (CHM) extracts from fourteen plants were investigated in cell-based in vitro assays for their effect on nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), a key regulator of inflammation, as well as on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) being key regulators of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. 43% of the investigated CHMs showed NF-?B inhibitory and 50% PPAR? and PPAR? activating effects. Apolar extracts from cortex and flos of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. and processed rhizomes of Arisaema sp. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. that effectively inhibited TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation and dose-dependently activated PPAR? and PPAR? were further investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation and analysis by GC-MS led to the identification of fatty acids as PPAR agonists, including linoleic and palmitic acid. PMID:22675394

  3. Herbal medicines for immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Amirghofran, Zahra

    2012-06-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185

  4. Targeting Cancer-Related Inflammation: Chinese Herbal Medicine Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Huaqiang; Yin, Jianhua; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Chunzheng; Liu, Luming

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally fatal disease resulting from early invasion of adjacent structures and metastasis and the lack of an effective treatment modality. Our previous studies have shown that Qingyihuaji Formula (QYHJ), a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, had significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer. Here, we examined the effects of QYHJ on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis and the potential associated mechanism(s). We found that QYHJ inhibited both tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice with human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts. Further study indicated that QYHJ inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized by increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin, N-cadherin and Slug expression. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages, could promote cancer cell EMT and invasion. In contrast, treatment with QYHJ inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumors by decreasing infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and IL-6 production, thus preventing cell invasion and metastasis. These results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine QYHJ could inhibit pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis in part by reversing tumor-supporting inflammation. PMID:23922983

  5. [Determination of aristolochic acids A and B in Chinese herbals and traditional Chinese patent medicines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Han, Shen; Feng, Qian; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of aristolochic acids A and B in some Chinese herbals and traditional Chinese patent medicines by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Fourteen samples, including Radix Bupleuri, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Radix Platycodonis, Longdanxieganwan, Xiaopangwan, Slimming Tea, etc., were extracted with methanol-water (70: 30, v/v) and purified with Oasis MAX solid-phase extraction cartridges, then analyzed on an Eclipse RP HD C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (pH 7.5)-acetonitrile (75: 25, v/v) as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometric acquisition was carried out by means of electrospray ionization in positive mode (ESI+) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. The good linearities (r2 > 0.995) were achieved within the ranges of 0.5 - 200 microg/L and 1 - 200 microg/L for aristolochic acids A and B, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 5 microg/kg for aristolochic A and 7.5 microg/kg for aristolochic B, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 12.5 microg/kg and 25 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of aristolochic acids A and B at the spiked levels of 100 microg/kg and 500 microg/kg ranged from 60.3% to 96.4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) not more than 10.2%. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is efficient, sensitive, reproducible, reliable and suitable for the trace determination of aristolochic acids A and B in Chinese herbals and traditional Chinese patent medicines. PMID:22393694

  6. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne P. Boyle; Paul J. Doolan; Clare E. Andrews; Raymond G. Reid

    2011-01-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western

  7. Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

  8. In vitro anti-microbial and in vivo cytokine modulating effects of different prepared Chinese herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyh-Jye Lin; Chung-Shih Chen; Shih-Shen Lin; Ming-Yung Chou; Hung-Che Shih; I-Pang Lee; Chia-Tze Kao; Chuan-Chen Ho; Fong-Lin Chen; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Kuang-Hui Hsieh; Chi-Ruei Huang; Chi-Chiang Yang

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity, antimicrobial and cytokine modulating effects of herbal medicines in treating periodontal diseases were evaluated in this study. Using the broth dilution method and disc agar diffusion test, in individual and combined decocted preparations, different concentrations of Ching–Wei–San and its individual herbal components, Coptidis rhizoma, Angelicae sinensis radix, Rehmanniae radixet rhizom, Moutan radicis cortex, and Cimicifuga foetida, were tested

  9. The effects of two Chinese herbal medicinal formulae vs. placebo controls for treatment of allergic rhinitis: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when compared to a placebo control group. Methods A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with repeated-measures, three-parallel-groups design was conducted in a random sample of 249 participants recruited from one university in Hong Kong. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to CS, YS, or placebo groups (n?=?83 per group). The main outcomes, including symptom severity, quality of life, and body constitution, were measured with self-administered questionnaires at baseline and immediately, 1 and 3 months after the 4-week interventions. Results 240 participants completed the trial, with 9 (3.6%) drop-outs. The results of Generalised Estimating Equations test followed by pairwise contrasts tests indicated that the participants who received CS showed significantly greater reduction of symptoms (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?26.13–34.55, P <0.0005) and improvements in quality of life (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?12.81–16.76, P <0.001), and body constitution in ‘Qi-deficiency’, ‘Yang-deficiency’, and ‘Inherited Special’ (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?7.05–8.12, 7.56–8.92, and 4.48–8.10, P?=?0.01–?herbal formula CS was found effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in young adults (nursing students) with allergic rhinitis in ‘Yang- and/or Qi-deficiency’ body constitution. Further controlled trials of its effects in Chinese and/or Asians with allergic rhinitis in terms of socio-demographic, ethnic and illness characteristics and a longer-term follow-up are recommended. Trial registration The trial has registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with an ID: NCT02027194 (3 January 2014). PMID:24986270

  10. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. PMID:22459934

  11. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  12. [The study on Chinese herbal medicinal prescription with enzyme inhibitory activity. III. The study of mao-to with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate phosphodiesterase].

    PubMed

    Nikaido, T; Ohmoto, T; Kuge, T; Yanagisawa, A; Teinozawa, K; Takeda, H; Tsukamoto, H

    1990-07-01

    Mao-to, a Chinese herbal medicinal prescription was studied for the inhibitory activity of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase. The inhibitory activity for this enzyme depended mainly on Ephedra herb and Glycyrrhiza in this prescription. Apricot kennel acted as a mitigatory component for Ephedra herb in cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitory test. In ephedrine and the related compounds the inhibitory activity of cAMP phosphodiesterase was not shown. PMID:2172509

  13. Development of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analyzing furanocoumarin components in citrus fruit juices and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ku; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Huang, Chia-Hui; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2009-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation of five furanocoumarins (bergaptol, psoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and bergamottin) is developed and validated. HPLC analysis of these five furanocoumarins is performed on a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column with a particle size of 5 microm. Using only water and acetonitrile as solvents, good separation, good precision, and high accuracy are obtained for the analysis of furanocoumarin components. This method is validated and applied to analyze the composition of five furanocoumarins in four citrus fruit juices (grapefruit, pomelo I, pomelo II, and shaddock) and ten Chinese herbal medicines (Bai-Zhi, Qiang-Huo, Du-Huo, Fang-Feng, Dang-Gui, Huang-Qin, Gan-Cao, Chen-Pi, Ge-Gen, and Yin-Chen-Hao) prepared by water decoction or an alcohol infusion. Results show that four of the five furanocoumarins (but not bergapten) are detected in grapefruit, pomelo I, and pomelo II, and the highest amount of these components is found in grapefruit juice. In the ten Chinese herbal medicines, the five furanocoumarins are not detected in Ge-Gen or Yin-Chen-Hao. The remaining herbs contain various compositions and amounts of furanocoumarins. In general, Chinese herbal medicines prepared by the 40% ethanol infusion contain larger amounts of furanocoumarins than those prepared by hot water decoction. PMID:19298708

  14. Herbal medicines for asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, A; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to determine if there is any evidence for the clinical efficacy of herbal preparations for the treatment of asthma symptoms.?METHODS—Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data were extracted in a standardised, predefined manner and assessed critically.?RESULTS—Seventeen randomised clinical trials were found, six of which concerned the use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and eight described traditional Indian medicine, of which five investigated Tylophora indica. Three other randomised trials tested a Japanese Kampo medicine, marihuana, and dried ivy leaf extract. Nine of the 17 trials reported a clinically relevant improvement in lung function and/or symptom scores.?CONCLUSIONS—No definitive evidence for any of the herbal preparations emerged. Considering the popularity of herbal medicine with asthma patients, there is urgent need for stringently designed clinically relevant randomised clinical trials for herbal preparations in the treatment of asthma.?? PMID:11050261

  15. Herbal Medicine Use in Parturients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Hepner; Miriam Harnett; Scott Segal; William Camann; Angela M. Bader; Lawrence C. Tsen

    2002-01-01

    Alternative medicine use has increased dramatically over the last decade. Recently a 22% incidence of herbal medicine use in presurgical patients was reported. Of concern is the potential for these medications to cause adverse drug-herb interactions or other effects such as bleeding complications. We sought to determine the prevalence and pattern of use of herbal remedies in par- turients. A

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure: Three-Stage Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liangtao; Chen, Jianxin; Guo, Shuzhen; Wang, Juan; Gao, Kuo; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Chan; Zhao, Huihui; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) for a long time. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and the main characteristic of TCM is the fundamental principle of TCM practice. In this study protocol, we have designed a trial to assess the efficacy and safety of CHM on CHF based on syndrome differentiation. Methods/Design. This is a three-stage trial of CHM in the treatment of CHF. The first stage is a literature review aiming to explore the common syndromes of CHF. The second is a multicentral, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of CHF. The third is a multicentral, randomized controlled clinical trial aiming to make cost-effectiveness analysis and evaluate the feasibility, compliance, and universality of CHM on CHF. Discussion. This trial will evaluate the efficacy, safety, feasibility, compliance, and universality of CHM on CHF. The expected outcome is to provide evidence-based recommendations for CHM on CHF and develop a prescription of CHM in the treatment of CHF. This trial is registered with NCT01939236 (Stage Two of the whole trial).

  17. Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients affect secretion of NO, IL-10, ICAM-1 and IL-2 by endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiyi; He, Kongwang; Zhu, Haodan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-endotoxin effects of sinomenine, fangchinoline, stachydrine, chuanxionggzine, oxymartrine and evodiamine alkaloids commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. Porcine endothelial cells were challenged with 1??g LPS/ml for 3?h and then treated with one of the six alkaloids at three concentrations (1, 5 or 10??g/ml) for a further 21?h. The supernatants of the cultures were then collected and analyzed for levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-10, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and IL-2 using ELISA kits. The results revealed that sinomenine, stachydrine and chuanxionggzine inhibited production of NO; stachydrine and evodiamine inhibited secretion of IL-10; sinomenine and chuanxionggzine down-regulated ICAM-1 expression; oxymartrine and evodiamine decreased production of IL-2 by the LPS-stimulated endothelial cells. Overall, the data from these studies suggested to us that these six alkaloids might effectively reduce inflammatory responses in situ via changes in the formation of these key regulatory molecules/proteins. PMID:25986990

  18. Hedyotis diffusa Combined with Scutellaria barbata Are the Core Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine Used for Breast Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104

  19. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

  20. Frequency and pattern of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009: analysis of the national health insurance database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale pharmaco-epidemiological studies of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treatment of urticaria are few, even though clinical trials showed some CHM are effective. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions for urticaria by analysing the population-based CHM database in Taiwan. Methods This study was linked to and processed through the complete traditional CHM database of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2009. We calculated the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions used for treatment of urticaria, of which the diagnosis was defined as the single ICD-9 Code of 708. Frequent itemset mining, as applied to data mining, was used to analyse co-prescription of CHM for patients with urticaria. Results There were 37,386 subjects who visited traditional Chinese Medicine clinics for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009 and received a total of 95,765 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 18 and 35 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (32.76%). In addition, women used CHM for urticaria more frequently than men (female:male?=?1.94:1). There was an average of 5.54 items prescribed in the form of either individual Chinese herbs or a formula in a single CHM prescription for urticaria. Bai-Xian-Pi (Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb while Xiao-Feng San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. The most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Xiao-Feng San plus Bai-Xian-Pi while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Xiao-Feng San, Bai-Xian-Pi, and Di-Fu Zi (Kochia scoparia). Conclusions In view of the popularity of CHM such as Xiao-Feng San prescribed for the wind-heat pattern of urticaria in this study, a large-scale, randomized clinical trial is warranted to research their efficacy and safety. PMID:23947955

  1. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Herbal Medicine URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  3. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%-98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

  4. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  5. Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

    2013-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

  6. [Chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under six Chinese herbal medicines on Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Jun; Geng, Zeng-Chao; Yin, Jin-Yan; Wang, Hai-Tao; Ji, Peng-Fei

    2012-10-01

    This paper studied the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in different habitats of six Chinese herbal medicines, including Pyrola decorata, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Polygonatum odoratum, Potentilla glabra, Polygonum viviparum, and Potentilla fruticosa, on the Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains. In the rhizosphere soils of the herbs, the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus and the soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) were higher, presenting an obvious rhizosphere aggregation, and the soil enzyme activities also showed an overall stronger characteristics, compared with those in non-rhizosphere soils. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the rhizosphere soils had significant positive correlations with soil neutral phosphatase activity, and the soil CEC had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. In the non-rhizosphere soils, the soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil urease, catalase and neutral phosphatase, and the soil CEC showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of soil urease, catalase, neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The comprehensive fertility level of the rhizosphere soils was higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils, and the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of P. fruticosa, P. viviparum, and P. glabra had higher comprehensive fertility level than those of P. decorata, P. odoratum and C. fortunei. In the evaluation of the fertility levels of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under the six Chinese herbal medicines, soil organic matter content and CEC played important roles, and soil neutral phosphatase could be the preferred soil enzyme indicator. PMID:23359927

  7. Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

    2014-02-01

    In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

  8. Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction) Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhua; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15) studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1), arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2), clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-? and IL-8) when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled), and mucolytics. PMID:25165477

  9. Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine Bushen Qinggan Formula for Blood Pressure Variability and Endothelial Injury in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jingchun; Zhao, Yingke; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure variability (BPV) independent of average blood pressure is related to cardiovascular damage. Meanwhile, BPV is also associated with measures of endothelial injury. Decoction, a traditional used form of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is inconvenient to prepare, carry, and store. Dispensing granules is now developing as an alternative to decoction, but the evidence supporting its clinical efficacy the same as decoction remains unclear. Objective. To examine the therapeutic effects on mean blood pressure (MBP), blood pressure variability, and endothelial function by giving Bushen Qinggan Formula, a compound Chinese Herbal Medicine and also to evaluate the difference in efficacy between decoction and granule. Methods. A total of 150 patients with hypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive the placebo, Bushen Qinggan decoction, or Bushen Qinggan granule in addition to the standard medications (amlodipine-5?mg/d) for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). The outcome was the reduction in the MBP and BPV and also included changes in the endothelial markers including endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) after 8 weeks of treatment. Results. Compared with the control group, the Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule groups had significant improvement (P < 0.01) in BPV and endothelial founction. The level of BPV and endothelial function between decoction and granule group had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based on the standard treatment, Bushen Qinggan Formula further improved BPV and endothelial function. The efficacy of Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule is similar in improving BPV and endothelial function. However, no significant antihypertensive effects could be demonstrated. PMID:25028590

  11. Efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal medicine shuganjieyu with and without adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for geriatric depression: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    XIE, Minmin; JIANG, Wenhai; YANG, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment of geriatric depression is often ineffective because patients cannot tolerate adequate doses of antidepressant medications. Aim Examine the efficacy and safety of shuganjieyu – the first Chinese herbal medicine approved for the treatment of depression by China’s drug regulatory agency -- with and without adjunctive treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of geriatric depression. Methods Sixty-five inpatients 60 or older who met ICD-10 criteria for depression were randomly assigned to an experimental group (shuganjieyu + rTMS) (n=36) or a control group (shuganjieyu + sham rTMS)(n=29). All participants received 4 capsules of shuganjieyu daily for 6 weeks. rTMS (or sham rTMS) was administered 20 minutes daily, five days a week for 4 weeks. Blinded raters used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale to assess clinical efficacy and safety at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Over the six-week trial, there was only one dropout from the experimental group and two dropouts from the control group. Results None of the patients had serious side effects, but 40% in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced minor side effects that all resolved spontaneously. Both groups showed substantial stepwise improvement in depressive symptoms over the 6 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA found no differences between the two groups. After 6 weeks, 97% of the experimental group had experienced a 25% or greater drop in the level of depression, but only 20% had experience a 50% or greater drop in the level of depression; the corresponding values in the control group were 96% and 19%. There were some minor, non-significant differences in the onset of the treatment effect between the different types of depressive symptoms, but by the second week of treatment all five HAMD-17 subscale scores had improved significantly in both groups Conclusion The Chinese herbal medicine shuganjieyu is effective and safe in the treatment of geriatric depression, but only a minority of patients have greater than 50% improvement in their depressive symptoms after 6 weeks of treatment. Adjunctive use of rTMS with shuganjieyu does not improve the overall outcome and does not significantly speed up the onset of action of shuganjieyu.

  12. CE-electrochemiluminescence with ionic liquid for the facile separation and determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2011-06-01

    A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082

  13. Herbal medicines--what do clinicians know?

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    In 1986, DTB published an article called Herbal medicines - safe and effective?, which discussed some of the issues around the availability, safety and efficacy of such treatments.1 We highlighted how the failure of orthodox medicines to cure, and anxiety about their potentially serious unwanted effects, had led some people to turn to herbal medicines for treatment for chronic and disabling conditions often in the belief, that natural medicines must be intrinsically safe. The article concluded by discussing the potential problems associated with herbal medicines and the role that doctors should play in asking about patients' use of such products. Revisiting these themes, here we present an overview of the results of an online survey conducted among DTB readers to explore four key issues: What do healthcare professionals know about herbal medicines? What challenges (if any) does patients' use of herbal medicines raise for healthcare professionals? What awareness do healthcare professionals have about the regulatory arrangements for herbal medicines? What sources of information (if any) do healthcare professionals use to inform themselves about herbal medicines? PMID:20392781

  14. Preclinical Studies of the Chinese Herbal Medicine formulation PHY906 as a Potential Adjunct to Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Sara; Grove, Tina A.; Liu, Yanfeng; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Higgins, Susan A; Booth, Carmen J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is limited by the radiosensitivity of the small and large intestine. PHY906, a state-of-the-art adaptation of a traditional Chinese medicine, decreased intestinal injury from chemotherapy in preclinical studies and is in clinical trials with chemotherapy. This project assessed whether PHY906 would also reduce intestinal injury from whole-abdomen irradiation in mice. Materials/Methods BALB/c mice received whole-abdomen irradiation (2 Gy/day) ± PHY906 by oral gavage twice daily for 4 days. Intestinal injury was assayed by physiological observations and histological studies. Effects of PHY906 on tumor radiation response were assayed in tumor growth studies. Results PHY906 decreased the toxicity of fractionated abdominal irradiation. Radiation alone produced marked blunting and loss of villi, crypt loss, crypt hyperplasia and irregular crypt morphology, which were reduced by PHY906. The radiation-induced reduction in viable crypt counts was also mitigated by PHY906. PHY906 did not alter radiation-induced weight loss, but resulted in more rapid recovery. PHY906 did not alter growth, local invasion or metastatic spread of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors or protect tumors from growth delays produced by single-dose and fractionated irradiation. Conclusion In this mouse model system, PHY906 decreased the toxicity of abdominal irradiation, without protecting tumors, thereby increasing the therapeutic ratio. PMID:22856538

  15. Tissue distribution and excretion of herbal components after intravenous administration of a Chinese medicine (Shengmai injection) in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shu-Yu; Shao, Qing; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Li, Zheng; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2014-04-19

    Shengmai injection, consisting of Panax ginseng, Radix ophiopogonis and Schisandra chinensis, is a widely used Chinese medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In this study, tissue distribution and excretion of its multiple active components including protopanaxatriol-type (Ppt-type) ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf and Rg2), protopanaxadiol-type (Ppd-type) ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rb1, Rd and Rc), ophiopogonin (ophiopogonin D), and lignan (schisandrin, schisandrol B and schizandrin B) in rat after single intravenous administration of Shengmai injection were reported. Ppt-type ginsenosides exhibited quick and wide distribution from blood into tissues and were eliminated rapidly through biliary, urinary and fecal excretions. Ppd-type ginsenosides Rb1, Rd and Rc distributed quickly from blood to all tissues but exhibited slow elimination by biliary and urinary excretions. Ophiopogonin D was excreted into bile with no urinary and fecal excretion, indicating its elimination in the form of secondary metabolites. Schisandrin, schisandrol B and schizandrin B was found to distribute quickly from blood into most tissues and had accumulation in these tissues. Very low biliary, urinary and fecal excretion implied that lignan was mainly excreted in the form of their metabolites. This study produced a first hand in vivo tissue distribution and dynamic profiles of the active components of Shengmai injection, providing valuable information for drug development and clinical application of Shengmai injection. PMID:24748511

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Conventional Therapy for Blood Pressure Variability in Hypertension Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Liqiong; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate effect of Chinese medicine combined with conventional therapy on blood pressure variability (BPV) in hypertension patients. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing Chinese medicine with no intervention or placebo on the basis of conventional therapy were included. Data extraction, analyses, and quality assessment were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 13 RCTs and assessed risk of bias for all the trials. Chinese medicine has a significant effect in lowering blood pressure (BP), reducing BPV in the form of standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variability (CV), improving nighttime BP decreased rate, and reversing abnormal rhythm of BP. Conclusions. Chinese medicine was safe and showed beneficial effects on BPV in hypertension patients. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are warranted to give high level of evidence before recommending Chinese medicine as an alternative or complementary medicine to improve BPV in hypertension patients.

  17. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiankun; May, Brian; Di, Yuan Ming; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP) on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP) from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as 'low' risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.94, -0.47) and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92) in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials. PMID:24622390

  18. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2007-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in Westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine therapies including traditional Chinese medicines. This trend has begun to attract interest from mainstream health care providers and scientific investigators and has stimulated government agencies in the United States to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of complementary and alternative medicine. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better health care/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  19. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  20. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  1. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim Sooi, Law

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  2. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine – Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Hongliang; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF) is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively) and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE. PMID:26186537

  3. The Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Albuminuria Levels in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ya; Liu, Yanyan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhou, Lin; Bi, Jianlu; Cheng, Jingru; Li, Fei; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on albuminuria levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), we performed comprehensive searches on Medline database, Cochrane Library, CNKI database, CBM database, Wanfang database, and VIP database up to December 2012. A total of 29 trials including 2440 participants with DN met the selection criteria. CHM was tested to be more effective in reducing urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) (MD ?82.95??g/min, [?138.64, ?27.26]) and proteinuria (MD ?565.99?mg/24?h, [?892.41, ?239.57]) compared with placebo. CHM had a greater beneficial effect on reduction of UAER (MD ?13.41??g/min, [?20.63, ?6.19]) and proteinuria (MD ?87.48?mg/24?h, [?142.90, ?32.06]) compared with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Combination therapy with CHM and ACEI/ARB showed significant improvement in UAER (MD ?28.18??g/min, [?44.4, ?11.97]), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (MD ?347.00, [?410.61, ?283.39]), protein-creatinine ratio (MD ?2.49, [?4.02, ?0.96]), and proteinuria (MD ?26.60?mg/24?h, [?26.73, ?26.47]) compared with ACEI/ARB alone. No serious adverse events were reported. CHM seems to be an effective and safe therapy option to treat proteinuric patients with DN, suggesting that further study of CHM in the treatment of DN is warranted in rigorously designed, multicentre, large-scale trials with higher quality worldwide. PMID:24062795

  4. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

  5. [Indirect determination of rare earth elements in Chinese herbal medicines by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Lu, Jian-Ping; Xue, Min-Hua; Tan, Fang-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    Based on their similarity in chemical properties, rare earth elements were able to form stable coordinated compounds with arsenazo III which were extractable into butanol in the presence of diphenylguanidine. The butanol was removed under reduced pressure distillation; the residue was dissolved with diluted hydrochloric acid. As was released with the assistance of KMnO4 and determined by hydrogen generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry in terms of rare earth elements. When cesium sulfate worked as standard solution, extraction conditions, KMnO4 amount, distillation temperature, arsenazo III amount, interfering ions, etc were optimized. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated using national standard certified materials, showing a good agreement. Under optimum condition, the linear relationship located in 0.2-25 microg x mL(-1) and detection limit was 0.44 microg x mL(-1). After the herbal samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, the rare earth elements were determined by this method, showing satisfactory results with relative standard deviation of 1.3%-2.5%, and recoveries of 94.4%-106.0%. The method showed the merits of convenience and rapidness, simple instrumentation and high accuracy. With the rare earths enriched into organic phase, the separation of analytes from matrix was accomplished, which eliminated the interference. With the residue dissolved by diluted hydrochloric acid after the solvent was removed, aqueous sample introduction eliminated the impact of organic phase on the tubing connected to pneumatic pump. PMID:25269316

  6. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes "holy water" green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for "body cleansing" and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  7. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  8. Herbal remedies: integration into conventional medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nuala

    There is evidence of increasing use of complementary therapies. The benefits and possible side-effects of herbal and dietary supplements in respiratory disorders are discussed. Questions have been raised about the safety of herbal products, yet their legal status is uncertain. Promotion of the integration of conventional and traditional medicine is suggested as the way forward, together with standardisation of practice and manufacturing procedures of these products. PMID:14515565

  9. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

  10. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

  11. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David R

    2002-12-27

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity. PMID:12505367

  12. Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

  13. Herbal medicines for asthma: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Huntley; E Ernst

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDAsthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to

  14. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  15. Regulation of traditional herbal medicinal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Hikoichiro; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Kampo medicines are the main traditional herbal medicines in Japan and are classified as pharmaceuticals. They are based on ancient Chinese medicine and have evolved to the Japanese original style over a long period of time. Ethical Kampo formulations are prescribed in general practice by physician under the National Health Insurance reimbursement system. Over-the-counter (OTC) Kampo formulations can be purchased and used for self-medication in primary health care settings. Kampo medicines have a substantial role in the Japanese healthcare system. In the early 1970s, "The Internal Assignments on the Review for Approval of OTC Kampo Products", known as "210 OTC Kampo Formulae", was published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). In 2008, "210 OTC Kampo Formulae" was revised and presented as "The Approval Standards for OTC Kampo Products" and now 294 Kampo formulae are listed in the standards. These products have had wide spread usage in Japan. Crude drugs and Kampo extracts have been listed in The Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Both The Approval Standards and The Quality Standards play a key role in regulation of Kampo products. "Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs" was published in 2007. Other ethnopharmaceuticals mostly from Europe could be approved as OTC drugs in Japan. PMID:25043783

  16. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

  17. Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

    1997-01-01

    China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future. PMID:9240055

  18. Chinese Herbal Therapy for the Treatment of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. Although food allergy has not been described in the TCM literature, a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), was developed using TCM principles. Using a well-characterized murine model of peanut allergy, FAHF-2 has been shown to be highly effective in providing long-term protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis, with a high safety margin. Phase 1 human trials have demonstrated the safety of FAHF-2 in food allergic individuals. Currently, a phase 2 trial examining efficacy of FAHF-2 is on-going. Other TCMs also show a potential for treating food allergies in preclinical studies. PMID:22581122

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida as Add-On Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Ineffectively Managed by Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Tian, Jiaxing; Chen, Xinyan; Li, Zhibin; Piao, Chunli; Guo, Junjie; Ma, Licheng; Zhao, Lijuan; Xia, Chengdong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Background Metformin plays an important role in diabetes treatment. Studies have shown that the combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications is more effective than metformin monotherapy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we evaluated whether Jinlida, a Chinese herbal medicine, enhances the glycemic control of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c was ineffectively controlled with metformin alone. Methods A total of 186 diabetes patients were enrolled in this double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive either Jinlida (9 g) or the placebo TID for 12 consecutive weeks. All subjects in both groups also continuously received their metformin without any dose change. During this 12-week period, the HbA1c, FPG, 2h PG, body weight, BMI were assessed. HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ?-cell function (HOMA- ?) were also evaluated. Results At week 12, compared to the HbA1c level from week 0, the level of the Jinlida group was reduced by 0.92 ± 1.09% and that of the placebo group was reduced by 0.53 ± 0.94%. The 95% CI was 0.69 - 1.14 for the Jinlida group vs. 0.34 - 0.72 for the placebo group. There was a very significant HbA1c reduction between the two groups after 12 weeks (p < 0.01). Both FG and 2h PG levels of the Jinlida group and placebo group were reduced from week 0. There were a very significant FG and 2h PG level reductions between the two groups after 12 weeks (both p < 0.01). The Jinlida group also showed improved ?-cell function with a HOMA-? increase (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was observed in the body weight and BMI changes. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Jinlida significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action of metformin when the drug was used alone. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value as an add-on medication to metformin monotherapy. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13003159 PMID:26098833

  20. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  1. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  2. Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki

    Herbal medicines include a range of pharmacologically active compounds: in some cases it is not well understood which ingredients are important for a therapeutic effect. The supporters of herbal medicine believe that isolated ingredients in the majority of cases have weaker clinical effects than whole plant extract, a claim that would obviously require proof in each case. Generalizations about the

  3. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-08-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health. PMID:18797616

  4. The use of orchids in Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bulpitt, Christopher J; Li, Yan; Bulpitt, Pauline F; Wang, Jiguang

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the therapeutic uses of five Chinese medicines that contain orchids are discussed, together with a brief report of some of the animal experimentation undertaken. The impression that these preparations have no therapeutic use may be incorrect. However, herbal preparations have not usually been subject to the rigorous characterization and standardization necessary for clinical study, and persuading practitioners that substances in use for many centuries still need to be tested in randomized controlled clinical trials is proving a significant challenge. PMID:18065708

  5. Chinese medicines as a resource for liver fibrosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single compounds with composite formulae or conventional medicines. Action mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis Chinese medicines, clinical application, herbal adverse events and quality control are also reviewed. Evidence indicates that some Chinese medicines are clinically effective on liver fibrosis. Strict quality control such as research to identify and monitor the manufacturing of Chinese medicines enables reliable pharmacological, clinical and in-depth mechanism studies. Further experiments and clinical trials should be carried out on the platforms that conform to international standards. PMID:19695098

  6. The peri-operative implications of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P J; Kam, P C A

    2002-09-01

    An increasing number of patients are taking herbal medicines such as echinacea, garlic, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, St John's Wort, valerian, ephedra, kava, grapefruit juice and ginger. Although these herbal medications are considered 'natural' products that may have some benefits, adverse effects such as increased bleeding tendencies and drug interactions are associated with their use. Surgeons and anaesthetists may be unaware of their patients' use of these medications because it is common for patients not to disclose their use of this form of medication, and both surgeons and anaesthetists often fail to enquire about their use. Anaesthetists and surgeons must be familiar with the effects of herbal medicines and should specifically enquire about the use of herbal medicines during pre-operative assessment. Currently available data suggest that all herbal medicines should be ceased 2 weeks before surgery. PMID:12190754

  7. Determination of rutin and quercetin in Chinese herbal medicine by ionic liquid-based pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Chen, Meilan; Fan, Yunchang; Elsebaei, Fawzi; Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-15

    A novel ionic liquid-based pressurized liquid extraction (IL-PLE) procedure coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem chemiluminescence (CL) detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of rutin and quercetin in four Chinese medicine plants including Flos sophorae Immaturus, Crateagus pinnatifida Bunge, Hypericum japonicum Thunb and Folium Mori was described in this paper. To avoid environmental pollution and toxicity to the operators, ionic liquids (ILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(n)mim][Cl]) aqueous solutions were used in the PLE procedure as extractants replacing traditional organic solvents. In addition, chemiluminescence detection was utilized for its minimal interference from endogenous components of complex matrix. Parameters affecting extraction and analysis were carefully optimized. Compared with the conventional ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the optimized method achieved the highest extraction efficiency in the shortest extraction time with the least solvent consumption. The applicability of the proposed method to real sample was confirmed. Under the optimized conditions, good reproducibility of extraction performance was obtained and good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients (r) between 0.9997 and 0.9999. The detection limits of rutin and quercetin (LOD, S/N=3) were 1.1×10(-2)mg/L and 3.8×10(-3)mg/L, respectively. The average recoveries of rutin and quercetin for real samples were 93.7-105% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 5.7%. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first contribution to utilize a combination of IL-PLE with chemiluminescence detection. And the experimental results indicated that the proposed method shows a promising prospect in extraction and determination of rutin and quercetin in medicinal plants. PMID:22265491

  8. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Lai, Yunfeng; Yang, Qing; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  9. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  10. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

  11. Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in ‘modern’ CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region. PMID:16322804

  12. Commonly used herbal medicines in the United States: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Bent; Richard Ko

    2004-01-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used in the United States, with approximately one quarter of adults reporting use of an herb to treat a medical illness within the past year. Herbs contain complicated mixtures of organic chemicals, the levels of which may vary substantially depending upon many factors related to the growth, production, and processing of the herbal product. While many

  13. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  14. The Chinese herbal medicine FTZ attenuates insulin resistance via IRS1 and PI3K in vitro and in rats with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Fu Fang Zhen Zhu Tiao Zhi formula (FTZ), a Chinese medicinal decoction, has been used to relieve hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and other symptoms associated with metabolic disorders in the clinic. Methods To evaluate the effect of FTZ on insulin resistance, HepG2 cells were induced with high insulin as a model of insulin resistance and treated with FTZ at one of three dosages. Next, the levels of glucose content, insulin receptor substrate1 (IRS1) protein expression and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) subunit p85 mRNA expression were measured. Alternatively, MS was induced in rats via gavage feeding of a high-fat diet for four consecutive weeks followed by administration of FTZ for eight consecutive weeks. Body weight and the plasma levels of lipids, insulin and glucose were evaluated. Finally, the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in adipose tissue of rats was measured. Results Our results revealed that FTZ attenuated glucose content and up-regulated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells in vitro. Moreover, FTZ reduced body weight and the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in insulin resistant MS rats. FTZ also elevated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in the adipose tissues of MS rats. Conclusion FTZ attenuated MS symptoms by decreasing the plasma levels of glucose and lipids. The underlying mechanism was attenuation of the reduced expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in both insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and MS rats. PMID:24555840

  15. POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hakim Mohammed

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

  16. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds. PMID:25808157

  17. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  18. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide production and iNOS protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat aorta and Raw 264.7 macrophages by ethanol extract of a Chinese herbal medicine formula (RCM101) for allergic rhinitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Binh Lenon; Chung Guang Li; Charlie Changli Xue; Francis Chung Kong Thien; David Frederick Story

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the studyA Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101) has shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the actions and synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). l-Arginine-induced endothelium-independent relaxations were studied in rat isolated aorta which was pre-treated

  19. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets. PMID:16322803

  20. Chinese Herbal Therapy for Chronic Tension-Type Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tong, YanQing; Yu, LiXiang; Sun, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal therapy on chronic tension-type headache. Method. 132 patients with chronic tension-type headache were enrolled in the study. All patients filled in headache questionnaire at baseline phase and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after baseline. As an alternative therapeutic method, the patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Therapeutic effects were evaluated during 12 weeks of followup. Result. In the primary outcome analysis, mean headache scores were significantly lower in the group. Scores fell by 25%–40% during 12 weeks of followup. Patients fared significantly well for most secondary outcome measures. From baseline to 4–12 weeks of followup, the number of days with headache decreased by 6.8–9.5 days. Duration of each attack also significantly (P < 0.05) shortened from 5.3 hours at 4 weeks to 4.9 hours after 8 weeks of followup. Days with medication per four weeks at followup were lower than those at the baseline. The differences were significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) for all end points. Days with medication fell by 56.6% at 12 weeks. Conclusion. The study has provided evidence that Chinese herbal therapy can be clinically useful for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache.

  1. Research progress on the mechanism of single-Chinese medicinal herbs in treating diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Xia; Liu, Tong-Hua; Huang, Zong-Tao; Li, Juan-E; Wu, Li-Li

    2011-03-01

    Treating diabetes mellitus (DM) with Chinese medicine (CM) has had a few thousands years of history. Past Chinese medical texts had already recorded numerous medicinal herbs as well as recipes for treating DM and accumulated much clinical experience. In the following article, the prevention of DM using CM in the past 5 years is retrospectively studied, and mainly focuses on the usage of simple Chinese herbal extracts or monomers in terms of cellular as well as molecular biology. PMID:21359928

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture LQ arrests FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells in G0/G1 phase in 2D plastic, 2.5D Matrigel®, and 3D Gelfoam® culture visualized with FUCCI imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G2/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G0/G1 (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 ?m), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G2/M. In 2.5D Matrigel® culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G2/M. LQ arrested the cells in G0/G1 after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G2/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam® culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G2/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G0/G1 phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G2/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time. PMID:25779660

  3. Stimulation of Apolipoprotein AIV expression in Caco-2\\/TC7 enterocytes and reduction of triglyceride formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by potential anti-obesity Chinese herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ava Jiangyang Guo; Roy Chi-yan Choi; Anna Wing-han Cheung; Jun Li; Ivy Xiaoying Chen; Tina Tingxia Dong; Karl Wah-keung Tsim; Brad Wing-chuen Lau

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chinese medicine has been proposed as a novel strategy for the prevention of metabolic disorders such as obesity. The present study tested 17 Chinese medicinal herbs were tested for their potential anti-obesity effects. METHODS: The herbs were evaluated in terms of their abilities to stimulate the transcription of Apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) in cultured Caco-2\\/TC7 enterocytes. The herbs that showed

  4. Effects of Chinese Herbal Compound “Xuemai Ning”on Rabbit Atherosclerosis Model and Expression of ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease. PMID:24170990

  5. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Rodriguez-Fragoso; Jorge Reyes-Esparza; Scott W. Burchiel; Dea Herrera-Ruiz; Eliseo Torres

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we

  6. Traditional Herbal Medicine: A Review of Potential of Inhibitory Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Basic Research and Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang

    2013-01-01

    Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC. PMID:23956767

  7. Herbal medicines with psychiatric indications: a review for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Goethe, J W; Price, A L

    2000-06-01

    The use of herbal medicines remains controversial despite their wide use by consumers. By U.S. standards few of these products have been sufficiently evaluated in scientific studies to determine with certainty their efficacy and safety. The authors review the herbal medicines with reputed psychiatric indications and discuss the potential adverse events with which physicians should be familiar. Whatever their potential benefits, some of these herbal products have potentially serious side effects, and many can interact with prescription medications. Patients frequently do not tell their physicians about their use of alternative medicines, and practitioners must ask specifically about products patients may be taking for health promotion and disease prevention as well as for the treatment of the presenting complaint. PMID:10909198

  8. Identification and standardization of anti food allergy Chinese herbal formula FAHF-5 by HPLC chromatographic fingerprint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. M. Zou; H. W. Zhang; K. D. Srivastava; H. A. Sampson; X. M. Li

    2004-01-01

    RationaleChinese herbal formula is a complex mixture of chemical components. Chromatographic fingerprint has been suggested to be a practical and comprehensive approach for identifying authenticity and evaluating the quality, consistency and the stability of raw herbal materials and herbal extracts. We recently generated a simplified anti-food allergy herbal formula FAHF-5. This study was undertaken to establish the chromatographic fingerprint HPLC

  9. Chinese herbal prescriptions for osteoarthritis in Taiwan: analysis of national health insurance dataset

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male?=?1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study conducted a large scale pharmaco-epidemiology survey of Chinese herbal medicine use in OA patients by analyzing the NHIRD in Taiwan in year 2002. PMID:24606767

  10. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine Liu Jun Zi Tang and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang for Functional Dyspepsia: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ya; Liu, Yan-yan; Yu, Ke-qiang; Ouyang, Ming-zi; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-shan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang (XSLJZT) for treating functional dyspepsia. Methods. Literature searches were carried out on Medline database, Cochrane Library, CNKI database, Chinese Biomedical Literature database, Wanfang database, and VIP database up to July 2012. Hand search for further references was conducted. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. Fifteen publications in total were suitable for inclusion. There was evidence that LJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.36). There was also evidence that XSLJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.03). No adverse events were reported in LJZT or XSLJZT group in any of these randomized controlled trials. Conclusion. LJZT and XSLJZT might be more effective compared with prokinetic drugs in the treatment of functional dyspepsia, and no side effects are identified in the included trials. However, due to poor methodological quality in the majority of included studies, the potential benefit from LJZT and XSLJZT need to be confirmed in rigorously designed, multicentre, and large-scale trials. PMID:23304226

  12. Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songlin Li; Quanbin Han; Chunfeng Qiao; Jingzheng Song; Chuen Lung Cheng; Hongxi Xu

    2008-01-01

    Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components

  13. Herbalism, home gardens, and hybridization: Wõthïhã medicine and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Heckler, S L

    2007-03-01

    Using the example of the Wõthïhã of the Manapiare River Valley, Amazonas State, Venezuela, I challenge the image of the indigenous Amazonian as an expert in herbalism. I argue that the observed absence of medicinal plant use in early Wõthïhã ethnography, rather than reflecting researcher oversight, reflects the centrality of shamanism. According to Wõthïhã shamanic cosmology, herbal medicines, while useful to relieve symptoms and treat minor injuries, fail to address the underlying cause of illness. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, I find that as the role and influence of shamanism have dramatically decreased, the Wõthïhã have turned elsewhere for medical treatment. Biomedical remedies have shown to be effective, thereby encouraging an acceptance of symptom-specific treatments. Biomedicine's patchy availability, however, has encouraged the Wõthïhã to look beyond biomedicine. Several folk healing traditions are being incorporated by the Wõthïhã, each with its own herbal tradition. PMID:17405697

  14. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

  15. [Advances in identification of Chinese medicines by NIRS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongchuan; Tian, Xiaoxin; Liu, Lei; Hu, Shilin

    2012-04-01

    This review addresses the latest situations and advances of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in which detection of counterfeits and imitations, as well as monitoring origin and quality of Chinese crude drugs and Chinese patent medicines (CCDM) through consultation and summarization of relative literatures. On the one hand, NIRS gradually reveals its advantages and discriminating ability in the ways of nondestructive, rapid, simple, easy, and handy assessment. However NIRS still has some problems in representative samples and models stability for practice of CCDM. In order to keep up with popularization of NIRS in other areas, applications in detection of precious and/or priceless herbals, on-line quality control of valuable herbs, and screening of some chemicals illegally mixed into herbal preparations may be focused preferentially. PMID:22779351

  16. Discrimination of herbal medicines according to geographical origin with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y A; Kim, H J; Cho, J H; Chung, H

    1999-11-01

    Herbal medicines have an important role in clinical therapy in Asian countries such as Korea, Japan, and China. The objective of this study is to develop a nondestructive and accurate analytical method to discriminate herbal medicines according to geographical origin. Even though they are the same species, their qualities are different by growing conditions such as climate and soil. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy and a pattern recognition technique were applied for discrimination of herbal medicines according to geographical origin (Korea and China). Astragali Radix (AR), Ganoderma, and Smilacis Rhizoma (SR) were examined. It is shown that the representative NIR reflectance spectra in each group are different according to geographical origin after second derivatization to enhance spectral features. Also, the NIR reflectance spectra of Chinese and Korean samples were differentiated using principal component (PC) score plots. To establish the discrimination rule, Mahalanobis distance and discriminant analysis with PLS2 were utilized. PMID:10703997

  17. Inflammation, Macrophage in Cancer Progression and Chinese Herbal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shan; Hu, Bing; Shen, Ke-Ping; Xu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with cancer development, and has been recognized as the seventh hallmarks of the cancer. Cancer-related inflammation can be activated by genetic or epigenetic changes in cancer cells (intrinsic pathway) or mediated by tumor-infiltrating immune cells (extrinsic pathway). Immune cells involved in cancer-related inflammation mainly including tumor-associated macrophages or M2 macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, and lymphocytes. As major players of the cancer-related inflammation, M2 macrophages, secreting various of growth factors, immunomodulatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, participate in remodeling of extracellular matrix, contribute to cancer invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and inhibit anti-cancer immunity. Inflammation has been considered as an important target for cancer therapy. Some Chinese herbal ingredients have been confirmed to be effective in inhibit inflammation related gene expression in cancer cells, such as COX-2 and NF-B. However, there is a shortage of study on Chinese herb or herbal ingredient against extrinsic cancer inflammation, especially in tumor-associated macrophages. Related studies may provide new insight into cancer treatment. PMID:24826036

  18. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  19. Trends in Utilization of Herbal Medicine: Implications for Health Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behjat A. Sharif

    Abstract English: Over the last few decades, people have increasingly used herbal medicine as an alternative or adjunct to modern drugs. Few of the herbs available to the public have undergone testing for safety, efficacy, or potential interaction with other drugs taken for an ailment. Alt hough herbs are generally safe when used properly, they can be harmful and even

  20. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  1. Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Chan

    2003-01-01

    A World Health Organisation survey indicated that about 70–80% of the world populations rely on non-conventional medicine mainly of herbal sources in their primary healthcare. In recent years, we have witnessed the increasing growth in popularity of over-the-counter (OTC) health foods, nutraceuticals, and medicinal products from plants or other natural sources in developed countries. This indirectly indicates that the public

  2. The importance of pharmacological synergy in psychoactive herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic effects of many herbal medicines have been well established; however, definitive mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated for many psychoactive herbal medications. Although several mechanisms have been identified, they are often insufficient to account for the observed effects of the plant or its extracts. This review emphasizes that, in addition to searching for more potent mechanisms, one must consider the additive and supra-additive effects of a plant's multiple constituents. Synergy may occur through pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions. Examples are given that illustrate synergistic actions in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), kava kava (Piper methysticum), and valerian (Valeriana officinalis). PMID:11991792

  3. [Progress of diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive renal damage by Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive renal damage is based on the extent and duration of hypertension, renal damage caused by varying severity. Hypertensive renal damage due to various causes imbalance of vascular active substances, renal arteriosclerosis, so that the abnormal renal hemodynamic, renal ischemia, low specific gravity of urine, low osmotic pressure and urine. The rapidly increasing incidence of hypertensive renal damage has become one of the most important reasons of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Effective treatment of hypertension is limited by poor compliance and significant adverse reaction of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, some patients have turned to Chinese medicine (CM), hoping that such treatments might improve the efficiency. The author reviews relevant theory and the latest researches, on the basis of combining diseases and syndrome, discusses state and achievement of hypertensive renal damage with Chinese herbal medicines from fundamental and clinical research and action mechanism from standpoints of Chinese herbal compound and herbal effective chemical composition to take future research for important reference. PMID:24754161

  4. Is the Improvement of Prognosis of Patients With Metastatic Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Treated With TCM Herbal Medicine due to Lag Time to Treatment Bias?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiru Guo; Luming Liu; Jan P. A. Baak

    2011-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine was associated with improved prognosis in patients with performance score 0-1 at the time of diagnosis of stage IV pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy (PBT). Objective. The authors investigated the effect of 1- to 4-month lag time to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment on the median and 1-year survival of PBT-PAC patients. Methods.

  5. [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2006-10-01

    Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies. PMID:17111709

  6. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  7. Preclinical safety evaluation of the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese herbal formula Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan

    PubMed Central

    FAN, Arthur Yin; LAO, Lixing; ZHANG, Rui-xin; ZHOU, An-nan; BERMAN, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of oral administration of Modified Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods The toxicological information of HLXLD and its individual constituent herbs was searched in cintcm or TCMlars (www.cintcm.com), PubMed (MEDLINE), Chinese Herbal Medicine (1999) and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants (Vol. I—III). Single-dose acute toxicity was assessed by using the highest possible dosage. Motor function test was used to determine whether the herbal formula might cause motor impairment. Nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects, and 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects in rats were also assessed. Results The literature searches showed that HLXLD and its eleven ingredient herbs had no side/adverse effects listed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature. Under the dosages proposed in the formula, the HLXLD formula had no side/adverse effects according to MEDLINE, Chinese Herbal Medicine and WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. The studies in rats showed: (1) in single-dose acute toxicity assessment, the maximal feasible single oral dose, 9.20 g/kg HLXLD, showed no significant effect on clinical signs, or body weight and mortality over a 14-day period in rats; (2) during motor function test, nine-day repeat-dose of daily HLXLD treatment at 4.60 g/kg did not cause motor impairment; (3) in nine-day HLXLD repeat-dose sub-chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessment, there were no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes or obvious adverse reactions and signs in complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats (highest observed dosage: 4.60 g/kg), and no noticeable adverse effects were observed during, or 14 days after nine-day treatment at 4.60 g/kg in non-inflamed rats; (4) during 42-day chronic toxicity/adverse effects assessments, no noticeable abnormal behavioral changes, no obvious adverse reactions and signs were observed in normal rats administered with HLXLD at a dose of 2.30 g/kg and the values of serum biochemistry and histopathology were in normal range. Conclusion Both existing information and animal data support that Modified HLXLD is a safe herbal product for clinical application. PMID:20456842

  8. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  9. A traditional Chinese medicine versus Western combination therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: two-stage study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The common randomized controlled trial design has distinct limitations when applied to Chinese medicine, because Chinese medicine identifies and treats 'Chinese medicine patterns' rather than diagnosed diseases. Chinese medicine patterns are a group of associated symptoms, tongue appearances and pulse characteristics. These limitations could be overcome by developing new strategies to evaluate the effect of Chinese medicine. The idea behind pattern-based efficacy evaluations may optimize clinical trial design by identifying the responsiveness-related Chinese medicine patterns. Methods/Design This is a two-stage multi-center trial of Chinese herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. The stage one trial is an open-label trial and aims to explore what groups of Chinese medicine information (such as symptoms) correlates with better efficacy, and the stage two trial is a randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial that incorporates the efficacy-related information identified in the stage-one trial into the inclusion criteria. Discussion The indication of a Chinese herbal formula is a specific Chinese medicine pattern and not a single disease and stratifying a disease into several patterns with a group of symptoms is a feasible procedure in clinical trials. This study is the first to investigate whether this approach in the design of Chinese herbal medicine trials can improve responses. Trial registration ChiCTR-TRC-10000989 PMID:21639923

  10. The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23983772

  11. Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

  12. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non?embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25873199

  13. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply to herbal products based on clinical evidence and traditional herbal medicinal products. The basic principle is that the quality of herbal medicinal products is intrinsically associated with the quality standard of the herbal substances and/or herbal preparations. Furthermore, the herbal substance or herbal preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. Consequently, a mere determination of the content of marker(s) or constituents with known therapeutic activity is not sufficient for the quality control of herbal medicinal products. Specific quality requirements include thorough product characterisation, adherence to the Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, good manufacturing practices and validated manufacturing process, e.g., raw material testing, in-process testing, fingerprint characterisation etc. Quality control of herbal medicinal products is primarily intended to define the quality of the herbal substance/preparation and herbal medicinal product rather than to establish full characterisation. PMID:25086408

  14. Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of specific herbal medicinal products, potential effects of long term use as well as possible interactions of herbal medicinal products with concomitantly used conventional medicines. PMID:24988878

  15. Corporate Change and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuang-cheng Wang

    This paper attempts to examine the role of business functions in the corporate change in light of the traditional Chinese medicine and provide a unique view that the corporate change hinges on the timely termination of the old business model. The five elements theory has been successfully applied to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). If organizations are considered

  16. Herbal and alternative medicine use during pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Gibson; Raymond Powrie; Jami Star

    2001-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal and alternative medical therapies has been increasing rapidly across the United States over the past 10 years. Women of reproductive age often are users of herbs. The use of herbal and alternative medical therapies among pregnant women is important but poorly studied to date.Objective: To determine the frequency of use of herbal and alternative medicine

  17. Cytotoxic effect of four herbal medicines on gastric cancer (AGS) cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tooba Ghazanfari; Roya Yaraee; Jalaleddin Shams; Batool Rahmati; Tayebeh Radjabian; Hoda Hakimzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-cancer herbal drugs is of importance. Herbal medication is now being used for treatment of various diseases, including cancer in many countries. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of traditional herbal medicines (Aloe vera, Ginger, Ziziphora and Saffron extracts)

  18. Herbal medicines today and the roots of modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Goldman, P

    2001-10-16

    The transformation of digitalis from a folk medicine, foxglove, to a modern drug, digoxin, illustrates principles of modern pharmacology that have helped make drugs safer and more effective. Digitalis was improved because its preparation was standardized, first by bioassay and then by chemical methods; however, few of today's herbs are standardized by methods that can ensure a consistent product and, hence, consistent safety and efficacy profiles. Many herbs have been evaluated in randomized, controlled trials, and several-St. John's wort and ginkgo, for example-are apparently effective. Yet, many trials of herbs have limited value because of poor design, small samples, and, above all, use of products of uncertain composition and consistency. The uncertain composition of many herbal products raises questions about their safety, as does evidence indicating that herbs may have harmful interactions with prescription drugs. Such adverse effects of herbs are probably underreported. Meanwhile, systematic studies, such as those identifying adverse reactions to drugs, are hindered because herbal preparations are not standardized-one brand of St. John's wort, for example, will differ chemically from another-and, unlike for prescription drugs, there are no databases linking herb consumption to later medical problems. Since herbal medicines are regulated as dietary supplements, they are not subject to the premarketing regulatory clearance required for drugs. The burden of proof is on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to show a dietary supplement is unsafe, unlike for drugs, which cannot be approved until the manufacturer has demonstrated safety and effectiveness. PMID:11601931

  19. [Study on self-similarity of property combination mode of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Bai-Xia; Yan, Su-Rong; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    The combination of medicinal properties refers to expression forms of elements with active properties combined according to a specific sequence. The mode of medicinal property combination refers to the compatible relationship multiple medicinal property combinations. In this paper, based on the mode, safflower, Taohong Siwu decoction, Xuefu Zhuyu decoction and Buyang Huanwu decoction were taken for example to study the characteristics of the compatibility among single herb, herbal pairs and prescriptions. The authors discovered the similarities and differences among them, interpreted the self-similarity in medicinal property combinations of traditional Chinese medicines, and analyzed the compatible relationship among multiple medicinal property combinations, so as to bring forth new ideas in discovering the correlation between the compatibility study mode of traditional Chinese medicines based medicinal property combinations and the efficient compatibility of medicinal property combination. PMID:25276946

  20. Clearance of Free Silica in Rat Lungs by Spraying with Chinese Herbal Kombucha

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50?mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

  1. Clearance of free silica in rat lungs by spraying with chinese herbal kombucha.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nai-Fang; Luo, Chang-Hui; Wu, Jun-Cai; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Gan, Yong-Jin; Ling, Jian-An; Liang, Heng-Qiu; Liang, Dan-Yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xian-Jun; Pan, Rui-Hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50?mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

  2. A Comparison of the ancient use of ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known medicinal herb native to China and Korea, and has been used as a herbal remedy in eastern Asia for thousands of years. However, there is different evidence of ginseng efficacy between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials. In TCM, ginseng is a highly valued herb and has been applied

  3. TCMGeneDIT: a database for associated traditional Chinese medicine, gene and disease information using text mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ching Fang; Hsuan-Cheng Huang; Hsin-Hsi Chen; Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complementary and alternative medical system in Western countries, has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in East Asian countries. In recent years, many herbal medicines were found to exhibit a variety of effects through regulating a wide range of gene expressions or protein activities. As available TCM data continue to

  4. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  5. [Prevention and Sanfujin Tianjin therapy of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2006-08-01

    This paper aims to introduce the experience of treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, health care is disease prevention by means of integrating the body with the environment in a manner which takes account of the changing seasons as well as of the weather. Sanfujin Tianjin therapy, a special Chinese herbal moxibustion of surgical treatments, contributes to the prevention of disease by nurturing Yang in spring and summer and treating winter diseases in summer. Even though this treatment is effective, convenient and safe, it should be noted that there are indications and contraindications. In the future, more efforts should be put into evidence-based study in order to verify the scientific effectiveness of Sanfujin Tianjin therapy. PMID:16874605

  6. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines in Africa: Questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

    2015-08-01

    In order to describe and evaluate Herbal Medicine (HM) pharmacovigilance in African countries who are members of the WHO International Programme for Drug Monitoring a survey questionnaire was sent to the national centres and national drug regulatory agencies of these countries. Data collection was carried out from October 1st to 31st December, 2014. Among the total of 39 African countries, 34 (87.2%) answered the questionnaire and 25 (64.1%) accepted to share their data in this publication. Spontaneous adverse reaction reporting for HM is voluntary in 7 (43.7%) countries. HM pharmacovigilance programmes covered suspected adverse HM reactions in 14 (87.5%) countries; HM information in 7 (43.7%) countries; HM dependence or abuse in 6 (37.5%) countries; medication errors in 5 (31.2%) countries; falsification and adulteration in 2 (each 12.5%) countries and HM-drug interactions in 1 (6.3%) country. Groups in countries encouraged to submit herbal reports were pharmacists and physicians (both n=15); nurses (n=13); herbal therapists (n=12); patients (n=11) and local manufacturers (n=8). The number of herbal reports received by most countries was very low or even insignificant. VigiFlow is used by 10 countries. Information from pharmacovigilance activities is disseminated using many means. Only five countries have regulatory status and quality control of their HM products. The participants identified a need for HM regulation, technical and training assistance, and funding as being major challenges to HM pharmacovigilance in countries. Particular attention to the development of pharmacovigilance of HM is required in Africa. PMID:26027756

  7. Folk herbal medicines used in birth control and sexual diseases by tribals of southern Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Jain; S. S. Katewa; B. L. Chaudhary; Praveen Galav

    2004-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey of tribal area of southern Rajasthan was carried out during the year 2001–2002 for ethnosexicological herbal medicines. The information on ethnosexicological herbs is based on the exhaustive interview with local medicine-men and -women, birth attendants and other knowledgeable persons who prescribe their own herbal preparation to check birth control, including abortion at initial stages, preventing conception or

  8. HPLC DETERMINATION OF BERBERINE IN MEDICINAL HERBS AND A RELATED TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pi-Lo Tsai; Tung-Hu Tsai

    2002-01-01

    A HPLC method was developed for the determination and identification of the berberine content in Coptidis Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and a related commercially prepared traditional Chinese medicine, Huang-Lian-Jiee-Dwu-Tang. Berberine was separated by a phenyl-bound column with two kinds of mobile phases of acetonitrile : methanol : 20 mM phosphate (35 : 20 : 45, v\\/v\\/v) and acetonitrile : 20 mM phosphate (30 : 70, v\\/v) for single herb and herbal preparation, respectively. Both mobile

  9. Combining ZHENG Theory and High-Throughput Expression Data to Predict New Effects of Chinese Herbal Formulae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuhao; Guo, Zhizhong; Guan, Yan; Lu, Yi-Yu; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue; Su, Shi-Bing

    2012-01-01

    ZHENG is the key theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and it is very important to find the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese herbal formulae. One ZHENG is related to many diseases and the herbal formulae are aiming to ZHENG. Therefore, many herbal formulae whose effects on a certain disease have been confirmed might also treat other diseases with the same ZHENG. In this study, the microarrays collected from patients with QiXuXueYu ZHENG (Qi-deficiency and Blood-stasis syndrome) before treatment and after being treated with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule were analyzed by a high-throughput gene microarrays-based drug similarity comparison method, which could find the small molecules which had similar effects with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule. Besides getting the results of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis drugs which embody the known effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule, many other small molecules were screened out and could reflect other types of effects of this formula in treating QiXuXueYu ZHENG, including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, hyposenstive effect. Then we integrated this information to display the effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule and its potential multiple-target molecular pharmacology. Moreover, through using clinical blood-tested data to verify our prediction, Fuzheng Huayu Capsule was proved to have effects on diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:22666299

  10. China traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Patent Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhuai Liu; Yanling Sun

    2004-01-01

    The deep indexed China Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Patent Database was established by the State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) of PR China. The purpose of creating this database was mainly to meet the need of patent examination. The database has already been put to use in the patent examination department in SIPO since April 2002.The Chinese version of the database

  11. Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by ?-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by ? irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by ?-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

  12. Chinese medicine single-walled carbon nanotube targeting compound for antitumor therapy: a feasible way?

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-long; Li, Jie; Yan, Chun-yin; Lai, Ze-feng; Hu, Gui-jie

    2014-01-01

    Malignant cancer is the leading cause of death in man, exceeding cerebrovascular disease and heart disease. More than half of the total mortality due to malignant cancer is from lung, liver, intestinal and gastric cancer. Chemotherapy is one of the effective treatments for cancer. However, the great majority of Western anticancer medicines have considerable side effects. Herbal medicines offer many more advantages than synthesized compounds because they are made from purely natural compounds and have less adverse effects. However, the single administration methods used as standard in herbal medicine, and deficient drug targeting, severely limit their anticancer activity. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be used as drug carriers. They have been modified to form Chinese anticancer medicine-SWNT compounds which can specifically target tumors, thereby significantly increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of these medicines. Water-soluble SWNTs have high stability. As a drug carrier, SWNTs functional modification of the anticancer medicine may improve the targeting and killing of tumor cells. SWNTs have been attached to the Chinese antitumor medicines paclitaxel and plumbagin and have achieved excellent therapeutic effects. Furthermore, choosing the best administration methods such as internal iliac arterial infusion, intravesical infusion and embedment of a hypodermic chemotherapeutic pump, may also improve the anticancer effects of Chinese medicine. PMID:22370871

  13. Chinese herbal extracts (SK0506) as a potential candidate for the therapy of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Wang, Zheng-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Seale, John P; Qu, Xianqin

    2011-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, but currently there is a lack of effective therapies for this multifactorial endocrine disease. TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) has been utilized to treat a wide variety of diseases for centuries in the People's Republic of China, subsequently becoming a promising source for the development of new therapeutic agents. Chinese medicinal herbs Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Coptis chinensis and Salvia miltiorrhiza have been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic and antidiabetic properties. In this study, we have investigated the metabolic effects of a mixture of these three herbal extracts (SK0506) in a rodent model of the metabolic syndrome induced by an HFD (high-fat diet). SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats that were fed on an HFD for 4 weeks gained 33% more weight compared with chow-fed rats (P<0.05). Four weeks treatment with SK0506 prevented weight gain with decreased visceral fat (P<0.01 compared with vehicle treatment). SK0506 also significantly reduced plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides), NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) and cholesterol. SK0506 exerted similar effects to RSG (rosiglitazone) on impaired glucose intolerance. SK0506 also significantly enhanced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in adipose tissue during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Western blotting analysis revealed that SK0506 enhanced GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) expression in adipose tissue, and RSG markedly up-regulated GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle. Overall, the present study has discovered that SK0506 can reverse several components of the metabolic syndrome primarily through acting on hyperlipidaemia and visceral obesity. The results from the present study suggest that it is worthwhile to conduct a randomized clinical trial to confirm the potential that SK0506 may be a new oral agent for treating the metabolic syndrome and preventing Type 2 diabetes. PMID:20950275

  14. Adverse Events Associated with Metal Contamination of Traditional Chinese Medicines in Korea: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunah; Hawes, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted. PMID:25048473

  15. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome

    2007-08-01

    This paper reports a critical review of 27 herbal medicines and formulas in treating a broad range of psychiatric disorders (in addition to anxiety and depression), including obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar depressive, psychotic, phobic and somatoform disorders. Ovid Medline, Pubmed and the Cochrane Library were searched for pharmacological and clinical evidence of herbal medicines with psychotropic activity. A forward search of later citations was also conducted. Whilst substantial high-quality evidence exists for the use of kava and St John's wort in the treatment of anxiety and depression respectively, currently there is insufficient robust clinical evidence for the use of many other herbal medicines in psychiatric disorders. Phytotherapies which potentially have significant use in psychiatry, and urgently require more research are Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for depression; Passiflora incarnata (passionflower), Scutellaria lateriflora (scullcap) and Zizyphus jujuba (sour date) for anxiety disorders; and Piper methysticum (kava) for phobic, panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders. While depression and anxiety are commonly researched, the efficacy of herbal medicines in other mental disorders requires attention. The review addresses current issues in herbal psychotherapy: herbal safety, future areas of application, the relationship of herbal medicine with pharmaceuticals and the potential prescriptive integration of phytomedicines with synthetic psychotropic medicines. Particular attention is given to clinical and safety issues with St John's wort and kava. PMID:17562566

  16. Analysis of adulterants in a traditional herbal medicinal product using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aik-Jiang Lau; Michael J Holmes; Soo-On Woo; Hwee-Ling Koh

    2003-01-01

    Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with herbal medicine and this can potentially cause serious adverse effects. It is therefore important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicine to ensure patients’ safety. The objective of this study was to develop sensitive and specific methods to analyse phenylbutazone, caffeine and oxyphenbutazone present in a traditional Indonesian herbal

  17. Problems and Prospects for Good Manufacturing Practice for Herbal Drugs in Indian Systems of Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pulok K. Mukherjee

    2002-01-01

    The concept of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is well known to every pharmaceutical company in the world. Many countries express GMP in regulations, codes, and guidelines. In this era of worldwide herbal drug revolution, there is a need to implement GMP in the production of medicinal products from natural resources (herbal drugs). In addition to the widespread use of phytomedicine

  18. Herbal Medicines and Epilepsy: The Potential for Benefit and Adverse Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Spinella

    2001-01-01

    The widespread availability and use of herbal medicines raise the potential for adverse effects in the epilepsy population. Herbal sedatives (kava, valerian, chamomile, passionflower) may potentiate the effects of antiepileptic medications, increasing their sedative and cognitive effects. Despite some antiseizure effects in animal models, they should not be used in place of standard seizure medications because efficacy has not been

  19. Integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practices: issues and prospects.

    PubMed

    Fong, Harry H S

    2002-09-01

    The integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practices including cancer treatments must take into account the interrelated issues of quality, safety, and efficacy. Quality is the paramount issue because it can affect the efficacy and/or safety of the herbal products being used. Current product quality ranges from very high to very low due to intrinsic, extrinsic, and regulatory factors. Intrinsically, species differences, organ specificity, diurnal and seasonal variations can affect the qualitative and quantitative accumulation of active chemical constituents in the source medicinal plants. Extrinsically, environmental factors; field collection methods such as cultivation, harvest, post-harvest transport and storage; manufacturing practices; inadvertent contamination and substitution; and intentional adulteration are contributing factors to the quality of herbal medicinal products. Source plant materials that are contaminated with microbes, microbial toxins, environmental pollutants, or heavy metals; or finished products that are adulterated with foreign toxic plants or synthetic pharmaceutical agents can lead to adverse events. Substandard source materials or finished products will yield therapeutically less effective agents. Herbal medicine quality can also be attributed to regulatory practices. In a number of countries, herbal medicines are unregulated, which has led to product quality differences. Product quality improvement may be achieved by implementing control measures from the point of medicinal plant procurement under good agricultural practices (GAPs) and the manufacture of the finished botanical products under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), plus post-marketing quality assurance surveillance. The lack of pharmacological and clinical data on the majority of herbal medicinal products is a major impediment to the integration of herbal medicines into conventional medical practices. For valid integration, pharmacological and especially, clinical studies, must be conducted on those plants lacking such data. Adverse events, including drug-herb interaction must also be monitored to promote a safe integration of efficacious herbal medicine into conventional medical practices. PMID:14667286

  20. Proteomics and syndrome of Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chuan-Li; Qv, Xiao-Ying; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Syndrome of Chinese medicine is an understanding of the regularity of disease occurrence and development and its performance of symptoms. Syndrome is the key to recognize diseases and the foundation to treat them. However, because of the complexity of the concept and the limitation of present investigations, the research of syndrome is hard to go further. Proteomics has been received extensive attention in the area of medical diagnosis and drug development. In the holistic and systemic context, proteomics have a convergence with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, which could overcome the one-sidedness and singleness of TCM and avoid the complication and tedious processes. Chinese medicine has a wealth of experience and proteomics has a substantial research potential, the integration of the two aspects will bring a great enhancement of our knowledge of disease. PMID:20874721

  1. Immunomodulatory activity of a Chinese herbal drug Yi Shen Juan Bi in adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman; Peng, Cheng; Fang, Weirong; Han, Caifeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the immunomodulating mechanisms of a Chinese herbal medicine Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) in treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) were measured by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Expression of TNF-? mRNA and IL-1? mRNA in synovial cells was measured with the semi-quantitative technique of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while caspase-3 was examined by western blot analysis. Results: The administration of YJB significantly decreased the production of serum TNF-? and IL-1?. It also decreased significantly the TNF-? mRNA, IL-1? mRNA, and caspase-3 expression in synoviocytes. Conclusions: YJB produces the immunomodulatory effects by downregulating the over-activated cytokines, while it activates caspase-3, which is the key executioner of apoptosis in the immune system. This may be the one of the underlying mechanisms that explains how YJB treats the rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:20711367

  2. Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songlin; Han, Quanbin; Qiao, Chunfeng; Song, Jingzheng; Lung Cheng, Chuen; Xu, Hongxi

    2008-01-01

    Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components have not been fully elucidated or easily monitored. Bioactive, characteristic, main, synergistic, correlative, toxic and general components may be selected. This article reviews the effective use of chemical markers in the quality control of herbal medicines including the selection criteria considering the roles and physicochemical factors which may affect the effective use of chemical markers. PMID:18588699

  3. Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Glenn, Ashley; Meyer, Karen; Kuhlman, Alyse; Townesmith, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition. PMID:20226092

  4. Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition PMID:20226092

  5. Herbal medicines for cancer cachexia: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612. PMID:24893603

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Controlled Clinical Studies Published in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databases from their inception to November 2011. We bibliometrically analyzed the included studies and assessed the reporting quality. Results A total of 2964 reports (involving 253,434 cancer patients) including 2385 randomized controlled trials and 579 non-randomized controlled studies were included. The top seven cancer types treated were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer by both study numbers and case numbers. The majority of studies (72%) applied TCM therapy combined with conventional treatment, whilst fewer (28%) applied only TCM therapy in the experimental groups. Herbal medicine was the most frequently applied TCM therapy (2677 studies, 90.32%). The most frequently reported outcome was clinical symptom improvement (1667 studies, 56.24%) followed by biomarker indices (1270 studies, 42.85%), quality of life (1129 studies, 38.09%), chemo/radiotherapy induced side effects (1094 studies, 36.91%), tumor size (869 studies, 29.32%) and safety (547 studies, 18.45%). Completeness and adequacy of reporting appeared to improve with time. Conclusions Data from controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies in cancer treatment is substantial, and different therapies are applied either as monotherapy or in combination with conventional medicine. Reporting of controlled clinical studies should be improved based on the CONSORT and TREND Statements in future. Further studies should address the most frequently used TCM therapy for common cancers and outcome measures should address survival, relapse/metastasis and quality of life. PMID:23560092

  7. Chinese medicinal materials and their interface with Western medical concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelvin Chan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese medicine (CM), one of the oldest continuously surviving traditions, has been practised to maintain good health and treat diseases in the Chinese communities and recently by other ethnic groups worldwide. Chinese medicinal materials (Chinese materia medica, CMM) and proprietary CM products (PCM), acupuncture and related physical therapies, as well as special life styles are often used together in the

  8. Guideline for postmarketing Chinese medicine pharmacoeconomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Xing; Chang, Yan-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacoeconomics is an important part of the postmarketing Chinese medicine (CM) evaluation, and postmarketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation can reveal the clinical and market value of CM. The purpose of establishing the guideline for pharmacoeconomic evaluation is to make the evaluation process and results regarding Chinese patent medicines both scientific and fair. Every country's guidelines for pharmacoeconomic evaluation act as reference guidelines, we have already drawn up the guideline that takes into account the special characteristics of CM; and these are in preparation for the postmarketing CM pharmacoeconomic evaluation. PMID:24671571

  9. Genipin, a metabolite derived from the herbal medicine Inchin-ko-to, and suppression of Fas-induced lethal liver apoptosis in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Yamamoto; Naoko Miura; Nobuhiro Ohtake; Sakae Amagaya; Atsushi Ishige; Hiroshi Sasaki; Yasuhiro Komatsu; Kazunori Fukuda; Takashi Ito; Katsutoshi Terasawa

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: We showed previously that a Kampo (Chinese\\/Japanese herbal) medicine, Inchin-ko-to (ICKT), inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor ?1 in vitro. The present study investigated whether ICKT or its ingredients inhibit Fas-mediated liver apoptosis in vivo. Methods: Acute liver injury was induced by an intravenous injection of anti-Fas antibody, Jo2. The effects of ICKT and its

  10. Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis associated with Chinese herbal drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chwei-Shiun Yang; Ching-Hao Lin; Shu-Horng Chang

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid has been identified as Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHNP). From 1995 to 1998, we observed 12 Chinese people from different areas of Taiwan who underwent renal biopsy for unexplained renal failure. Medical history gave no clue to the causes of impaired renal function except for the ingestion of traditional

  11. A capsule review of recent studies on the application of mass spectrometry in the analysis of Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zongwei; Lee, F S C; Wang, X R; Yu, W J

    2002-10-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide as an alternative approach to the development of pharmaceuticals in therapeutic applications. Chemical characterization and compositional analysis of Chinese medicines provide the necessary scientific basis for the discovery and development of new drugs of natural origin. Applications of mass spectrometry in the analysis of Chinese herbal medicines have been growing rapidly in recent years owing to the rapid technical advances and increasing availability of the instrumentation. This paper reviews the current status of how different mass spectrometric techniques are being used to support research studies of Chinese medicines. The focus is on crude herbal medicines and their derived products. The review is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a general overview of the various research activities in this rapidly expanding field. In the discussion of specific herbs, the emphasis is placed on ginseng and Danshen, two of the herbs for which active experimental work is on-going in the authors' laboratories. Other selected herbs will be discussed only briefly, aiming primarily to illustrate the current status of research in the area. PMID:12375275

  12. [Herbal textural analysis on the Chinese drug xuancaogen].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T J

    1993-09-01

    The results of herbal textural research showed that the original plants of Xuancaogen in ancient times were Hemerocallis fulva, H. fulva var. kwanso, H. citrina, H. lilio-asphodelus and H. minor. The cause of confusion about Xuancao, Lilu and Lucong was discriminated. The erroneous scientific names of Beihuanghuacai and Shexiangcao in contemporary literature were corrected. A suggestion that H. aurentiaca be supplemented as an independent specise was raised. PMID:8011103

  13. Alternative Perspectives: How Chinese Medicine Understands Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kylie A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of cardiovascular disease, albeit under the auspices of other clinical descriptors to those described in western biomedicine, has a long history in China. Chinese Medicine (CM) is guided by unique philosophical underpinnings and theories. There are differences in how the heart is conceptualised traditionally in CM compared to biomedicine. This paper focusses on how hypercholesterolemia is understood from within the Chinese medical paradigm, including its aetiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. A brief overview of the key characteristics and theories of CM is given to provide context. Modern science has demonstrated that many Chinese herbs have cholesterol-lowering properties. Examples of research into individual herbs and medicinal formulae, combinations of herbs are presented. At a more sophisticated level, some researchers are challenging some of the very assumptions upon which CM is based, including applicability of CM theory to modern clinical entities such as hypercholesterolemia, and are seeking intersections of knowledge between CM and biomedicine that may extend CM theory. PMID:21490916

  14. Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas YK Chan; Kenneth KC Lee; Albert YW Chan; Julian AJH Critchley

    1995-01-01

    1 To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese pro prietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admit ted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied.2 There were 54 women and 17 men with their

  15. [Construction of research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier].

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Xu, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wei, Ying-Jie; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Xu-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-02-01

    Based on practice of Epimedium processing mechanism for many years and integrated multidisciplinary theory and technology, this paper initially constructs the research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier, which to form an innovative research mode of the " chemical composition changes-biological transformation-metabolism in vitro and in vivo-intestinal absorption-pharmacokinetic combined pharmacodynamic-pharmacodynamic mechanism". Combined with specific examples of Epimedium and other Chinese herbal medicine processing mechanism, this paper also discusses the academic thoughts, research methods and key technologies of this research system, which will be conducive to systematically reveal the modem scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine processing, and enrich the theory of Chinese herbal medicine processing. PMID:24946533

  16. Maturation and Activation of Dendritic Cells by Botanicals Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Role in Immune Enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Chen

    \\u000a The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually attributed to its up- or downregulation of immune\\u000a responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a central role in the initiation and\\u000a regulation of immune responses. A number of TCM herbal medicines or their components have in vitro and in vivo activity in promoting major functions of

  17. The potential contributions of traditional Chinese medicine to emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Hou, Xiang-yu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed and used to treat acute and urgent illness for many thousands of years. TCM has been widely perceived in western societies that TCM may only be effective to treat chronic diseases. The aim of this article is to provide some scientific evidence regarding the application of TCM in emergency medicine and its future potential. METHODS: Multiple databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Academic Search Elite and Science Direct) were searched using the terms: Traditional Chinese Medicine/ Chinese Medicine, Emergency Medicine, China. In addition, three leading TCM Journals in China were searched via Oriprobe Information Services for relevant articles (published from 1990—2012). Particular attention was paid to those articles that are related to TCM treatments or combined medicine in dealing with intensive and critical care. RESULTS: TCM is a systematic traditional macro medicine. The clinical practice of TCM is guided by the TCM theoretical framework – a methodology founded thousands of years ago. As the methodologies between TCM and Biomedicine are significantly different, it provides an opportunity to combine two medicines, in order to achieve clinical efficacy. Nowadays, combined medicine has become a common clinical model particular in TCM hospitals in China. CONCLUSIONS: It is evident that TCM can provide some assistance in emergency although to combine them in practice is still its infant form and is mainly at TCM hospitals in China. The future effort could be put into TCM research, both in laboratories and clinics, with high quality designs, so that TCM could be better understood and then applied in emergency medicine. PMID:25215100

  18. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

  19. Comparison of sasang constitutional medicine, traditional chinese medicine and ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc; Koh, Byung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora. PMID:21949669

  20. [Application characteristics and situation analysis of volatile oils in database of Chinese patent medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ya-Qi; Hu, Peng-Yi; Jie, Xiao-Lu; Han, Fei; Wang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in China, with wide varieties. Volatile oils are active ingredients extracted from aromatic herbal medicines, which usually contain tens or hundreds of ingredients, with many biological activities. Therefore, volatile oils are often used in combined prescriptions and made into various efficient preparations for oral administration or external use. Based on the sources from the database of Newly Edited National Chinese Traditional Patent Medicines (the second edition), the author selected 266 Chinese patent medicines containing volatile oils in this paper, and then established an information sheet covering such items as name, dosage, dosage form, specification and usage, and main functions. Subsequently, on the basis of the multidisciplinary knowledge of pharmaceutics, traditional Chinese pharmacology and basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, efforts were also made in the statistics of the dosage form and usage, variety of volatile oils and main functions, as well as the status analysis on volatile oils in terms of the dosage form development, prescription development, drug instruction and quality control, in order to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the market development situations of volatile oils and the future development orientation. PMID:25522633

  1. [Development of quality traceability system of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Hu, Hao; Ni, Jing-Yun; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-11-01

    The development of Chinese medicine is directly related to the quality and safety issues, It has drawn great attention of people. Chinese traditional medicine quality issue involves two aspects of traditional Chinese medicine itself and human. In order to prevent man-made or illegal factors led to the decrease of the quality of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or security risk, it needs to establish a feasible system to guarantee, in which the construction and development of traditional Chinese medicine quality traceability system is an important direction of the development of the traditional Chinese medicine in the future. This paper first reviews the development of quality traceability system status and critical retrospective techniques, then introduced current development status of quality traceability system of traditional Chinese medicine( QTS-TCM), pointing out the characteristics of QTS-TCM, and finally given the current research findings of QTS-TCM. PMID:24558859

  2. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltsum, U., E-mail: um-mik@yahoo.co.id [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Siswanta, D., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality control application in herbal medicine industries.

  3. Brain Food for Alzheimer-Free Ageing: Focus on Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (A?), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process. Plants can be considered as chemical factories that manufacture huge numbers of diverse bioactive substances, many of which have the potential to provide substantial neuroprotective benefits. Medicinal herbs and health food supplements have been widely used in Asia since over 2,000 years. The phytochemicals utilized in traditional Chinese medicine have demonstrated safety profiles for human consumption. Many herbs with anti-amyloidogenic activity, including those containing polyphenolic constituents such as green tea, turmeric, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Panax ginseng, are presented. Also covered in this review are extracts from kitchen spices including cinnamon, ginger, rosemary, sage, salvia herbs, Chinese celery and many others some of which are commonly used in herbal combinations and represent highly promising therapeutic natural compounds against AD. A number of clinical trials conducted on herbs to counter dementia and AD are discussed. PMID:26092628

  4. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

  5. Herbal medicines for the management of opioid addiction: safe and effective alternatives to conventional pharmacotherapy?

    PubMed

    Ward, Jeanine; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Hernon, Christina; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2011-12-01

    Striking increases in the abuse of opioids have expanded the need for pharmacotherapeutic interventions. The obstacles that confront effective treatment of opioid addiction - shortage of treatment professionals, stigma associated with treatment and the ability to maintain abstinence - have led to increased interest in alternative treatment strategies among both treatment providers and patients alike. Herbal products for opioid addiction and withdrawal, such as kratom and specific Chinese herbal medications such as WeiniCom, can complement existing treatments. Unfortunately, herbal treatments, while offering some advantages over existing evidence-based pharmacotherapies, have poorly described pharmacokinetics, a lack of supportive data derived from well controlled clinical trials, and severe toxicity, the cause for which remains poorly defined. Herbal products, therefore, require greater additional testing in rigorous clinical trials before they can expect widespread acceptance in the management of opioid addiction. PMID:22133323

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect ? cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

  7. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

  8. A pilot study of herbal medicine use in a Midwest Latino population

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, David; Bradbury, E. Jane; Tellez-Girón, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbal medicine use is common in the United States, especially in immigrant populations. This plant use is incompletely understood, with significant gaps in the literature for people living in the Midwest, about the plant species used, and about how home herbal medicine use interacts with allopathic medicine. Methods This pilot project used a qualitative research approach (interviews and focus groups, convenience sampling) to explore this topic for Latin America immigrants living in Madison, Wisconsin. Results Eight interviews and focus groups consisting of 42 people yielded 199 minutes of audio recordings and the mention of 57 medicinal plants. These plants were obtained from gardens, relatives and friends (abroad and local), mail order, and ten local retail establishments. Retail sites sold fresh plants, dried plants, spices, foods, and packaged products, ranging from 20 to over 150 plant products per site. A preponderance of plants, especially in Latino-focused stores, was food that also served a medicinal purpose. Participants mentioned 35 distinct health and disease categories for which herbal medicines were used, and sometimes, but not always, discussed plant use with their health care provider. When compared with likely Latin binomial taxonomic names, clinically-relevant confusions with the use of common plant names were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the findings presented illustrate the complexities surrounding herbal medicine use, and create a case for future work to involve other demographics, and focus on botanical identification, the quantification of disclosure rates, and the development of educational interventions for physicians and patients. PMID:24908901

  9. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of their breastfed infants. Conclusions The use of herbal medicines is common amongst breastfeeding women, while information supporting their safety and efficacy is lacking. This study has demonstrated the need for further research into commonly used herbal medicines. Evidence-based information should be available to breastfeeding women who wish to consider use of all medicines, including complementary medicines, to avoid unnecessary cessation of breastfeeding or compromising of pharmacotherapy. PMID:24219150

  10. Cardiac glycosides in traditional Chinese medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Fu-hua

    1987-01-01

    Summary  The effect of cardiac glycosides containing medicinal herbs, e.g. Ting Li Zi (Descurainia sophia), against heart failure was detected by traditional Chinese doctors at the beginning of the first century, more than 16 centuries\\u000a before Withering’s discovery of digitalis to promote diuresis. We ran infer the diagnosis from the description of the symptom\\u000a complex, for which the herb as the

  11. Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Network Pharmacology Could Lead to New Multicompound Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Niu, Xuyan; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lin, Na; Lu, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug. PMID:23346189

  12. Herbal medicines for the treatment of functional and inflammatory bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    In many parts of the world, there continues to be a long-standing tradition of prescribing herbal products for a range of gastrointestinal conditions. Scientific evidence supporting the use of all herbal preparations is imperfect, however, and available studies are plagued by methodological limitations. For functional gastrointestinal disorders, there is limited evidence supporting the use of some well-characterized preparations. A number of herbals have immunomodulatory activity, and in inflammatory bowel disease there are limited positive placebo-controlled trials; other studies used active controls with suboptimal doses of the comparators. Like all drugs, herbals can lead to serious adverse events (eg, hepatic failure). Quality control is a serious issue to consider when prescribing herbal medicines. Many herbal preparations are marketed without evidence for stringent adherence to good manufacturing practice guidelines. Unpredictable environmental conditions may affect the composition and the concentration of the active ingredients of plant extracts. Further, commercial herbal products usually combine a variable plethora of chemical families with possible medicinal utility. While some of these ingredients might be of benefit, the concentration and dose of these constituents needs to be closely monitored. Physicians and regulators need to remain very cautious about the use of herbal remedies. Appropriate scientific evidence for the claimed clinical benefits should become mandatory worldwide, and the standards for production and safety monitoring should comply with established standards for chemically defined products. If these principles were adopted, the full value of herbal remedies may come to light, particularly as the individually bioactive compounds present in these preparations become recognized. PMID:24674944

  13. Navigating Traditional Chinese Medicine Network Pharmacology and Computational Tools

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Lei; Xu, Li-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “network target” has ushered in a new era in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As a new research approach, network pharmacology is based on the analysis of network models and systems biology. Taking advantage of advancements in systems biology, a high degree of integration data analysis strategy and interpretable visualization provides deeper insights into the underlying mechanisms of TCM theories, including the principles of herb combination, biological foundations of herb or herbal formulae action, and molecular basis of TCM syndromes. In this study, we review several recent developments in TCM network pharmacology research and discuss their potential for bridging the gap between traditional and modern medicine. We briefly summarize the two main functional applications of TCM network models: understanding/uncovering and predicting/discovering. In particular, we focus on how TCM network pharmacology research is conducted and highlight different computational tools, such as network-based and machine learning algorithms, and sources that have been proposed and applied to the different steps involved in the research process. To make network pharmacology research commonplace, some basic network definitions and analysis methods are presented. PMID:23983798

  14. Proliferative effect of Hachimijiogan, a Japanese herbal medicine, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Takashi; Tsuiji, Kenji; Li, Bin; Tadakawa, Mari; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hachimijiogan (HJG), Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in Chinese, is one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japanese Kampo. HJG is often prescribed for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Muscle atrophy plays an important role in aging-related disabilities such as sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of HJG on skeletal muscle. Methods Cells of murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12 were used as an in vitro model of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of HJG on C2C12 cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed. We counted the number of myotubes morphologically to assess the degree of differentiation. Results HJG treatment (200 ?g/mL) for 3 days significantly increased C2C12 cell number by 1.23-fold compared with that of the control. HJG promoted the proliferation of C2C12 cells through activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the Akt signaling pathway. HJG did not affect the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Conclusion HJG had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation. These findings may provide a useful intervention for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:25709418

  15. [A Case of Lead Poisoning with Drug-induced Liver Injury after Ingestion of Herbal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jeon, Gi Jung; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Min Sung; Yu, Jong Won; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Min Sik

    2015-06-25

    A 61-year-old male patient was admitted because of unexplained abdominal pain and anemia. His past medical history was unremarkable except for having taken herbal medicine to treat facial palsy two months ago. The result of health examination performed about a month ago showed increased serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase level, and he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis by herbal medicine. When the patient presented to the outpatient department three weeks ago, follow-up liver function test results showed improvement but he complained of abdominal pain. Despite extensive blood chemistry tests and computed tomography, the cause of pain could not be found. After much deliberation, serum lead level and herbal medicines analysis was performed based on the fact that he took herbal medicine two months ago, and he could finally be diagnosed with lead poisoning. Since the serum lead level was high enough to be indicated for lead chelating therapy, conservative management was given. When a patient with toxic hepatitis due to herbal medication presents with abdominal pain, the possibility of lead poisoning should always be taken into consideration. PMID:26087694

  16. Sasang constitutional medicine and traditional chinese medicine: a comparative overview.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Kim, Chungmi; Lee, Junhee; Lixing, Lao

    2012-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart), typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology. PMID:21941592

  17. African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Mills; Curtis Cooper; Dugald Seely; Izzy Kanfer

    2005-01-01

    In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV\\/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for

  18. The use of herbal medicines by people with cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gratus, Christine; Wilson, Sue; Greenfield, Sheila M; Damery, Sarah L; Warmington, Sally A; Grieve, Robert; Steven, Neil M; Routledge, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Background Between 7% and 48% of cancer patients report taking herbal medicines after diagnosis. Because of the possibility of unwanted side effects or interactions with conventional treatments, people with cancer are generally advised to tell the professionals treating them if they are taking any form of medication, including herbal medicines and supplements. Studies suggest that only about half do so and that the professionals themselves have at best very limited knowledge and feel unable to give informed advice. This study is intended to inform the future development of information resources for cancer patients, survivors and healthcare professionals including tools for use before or during consultation to make it easier for patients to mention, and for healthcare professionals to ask about, use of herbal medications. Methods/design This is a three-phase study. In phase 1, a systematic review of the literature on self-medication with herbal medicines among UK populations living with cancer will establish the current evidence base on use of herbal medicine, sources of information, characteristics and motivations. This will allow us to better understand what aspects need further investigation and inform the topic guide for a qualitative study (phase 2). Six focus groups of six to eight cancer patients who have used at least one herbal preparation since diagnosis will explore behaviour, beliefs, knowledge, information sources and needs in an informal conversational setting. Informed by the findings of the systematic review and qualitative study, in phase 3 we will construct and pilot a questionnaire for a future large-scale survey to quantify and prioritise people's beliefs, needs and information preferences. Discussion Despite known interactions with conventional cancer treatments and contraindications for some herbal remedies with specific cancers, reliable information resources for patients are very limited. Identifying cancer patients' information needs and preferences is the first step in creating a suitable resource for both the public and the professionals advising them. PMID:19442268

  19. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

  20. [Development history of methodology of Chinese medicines' authentication].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Li; Huang, Lin-Fang; Liu, Yi-Mei

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviewed the emergence process of the subject and methodology of Chinese Medicines' Authentication. Based on the research progress and major achievements acquired in research of each methodology including identification of origin, description, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Chinese medicines, it is expounded that the development process of each methodology combined modem digital technology, information science and its own characteristics. And the development direction is further described for methodology of Chinese Medicines' Authentication towards systematization and informationization. PMID:25011254

  1. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027

  2. Self-reference chemical profiling in the comprehensive dissolution test of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Zhanguo; Yu, Wenjun; Zhong, Ting; Dai, Weiyang; Xu, Liang; Gong, Tao; Lan, Ke

    2012-11-01

    The power of chemical profiling in characterizing the samples' chemical pools has greatly raised the interests of phytomedicine researchers. Unfortunately, the semi-quantitative nature of chemical profiling retards its exploration into the dissolution test of herbal medicines, which is a crucial quantitative measure to evaluate and control the in vitro releasing properties as the prerequisite for biomembrane permeation of herbal constituents. Here, a method integrating chemical profiling approach and self-reference strategy is developed for the purpose of dissolution test of herbal medicines. The chromatographic fingerprints of the self-reference samples are translated by principal component analysis (PCA) into chemical profiles that highly correlate to their nominal gross concentrations in spite of the poor quantitative performances of some individual peaks. Pareto scaling previous to PCA selectively highlights the relative loadings of peaks with good quantitative performances. An example of ginkgo biloba tablets shows that this method is efficient to judge whether the detected constituents are simultaneously released or not, determine both the gross release and the respective dissolution rates of them, and rapidly screen the slowly released ones that may have potential clinical implications. This method has potentials to enable deep insight into the molecular diffusion and dissolution of complex herbal formulations, and open a new window to comprehensively consider the bioavailable properties of herbal medicines. PMID:22748665

  3. A Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Efficacy of Herbal Medicines for Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca2+ reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended. PMID:25431607

  4. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

  5. Components of the peptidome and transcriptome persist in lin wa pi: The dried skin of the Heilongjiang brown frog ( Rana amurensis) as used in traditional Chinese medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Zhou; Yang Liu; Tianbao Chen; Xuexun Fang; Brian Walker; Chris Shaw

    2006-01-01

    Although the ancient practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilizes predominantly herbal ingredients, many of which are now the subject of intense scientific scrutiny, significant quantities of animal tissue-derived materials are also employed. Here we have used contemporary molecular techniques to study the material known as lin wa pi, the dried skin of the Heilongjiang brown frog, Rana amurensis, that

  6. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well. PMID:25753512

  7. Proficiency tests for contaminants in food and herbal medicine in the Asia Pacific region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan W. Tholen; Samuel T. C. Cheung; Yee-Lok Wong; Amos L. S. Cheng; Chuen-shing Mok; Yiu-chung Wong; Wang-wah Wong

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency-test (PT) programs organized by Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation have been recognized as supporting mutual recognition arrangement amongst member laboratories for more than 15 years. Responding to the needs of laboratories in the region, several recent programs have had specific focus on food and herbal medicine testing. This article describes the overall performance of participating laboratories and the operation

  8. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: scott.jordan@hc-sc.gc.c [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  9. Yang-Dan-Tang, Identified from 15 Chinese Herbal Formulae, Inhibits Human Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation via Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tien-Chun; Fang, Chih-Nan; Shen, Chih-Chien; Wei, Hui-Yu; Weng, Yui-Ping; Lin, Jung-Yaw; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei; Lee, Chen-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer has long been one of the most deadly forms of cancer. The majority of lung cancers are of the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) type. Here we used the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549 to screen 15 different traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulae to explore the possible mechanisms of alternative medicine in lung cancer therapy. We identified three formulae (Formulae 3, 5, and 14) that substantially decreased the survival of A549 cells but did not affect MRC5 normal lung tissue cells. Formula 14, Yang-Dan-Tang, a modified decoction of Ramulus Cinnamomi Cassiae, was chosen for further characterization. Flow cytometry analysis showed that treatment of Formula 14 induced cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2 phase without causing significant cell death. These results were also confirmed by Western blot analysis, with decreased expression of G1/S and G2/M promoting cell cycle machinery including cyclin D3, cyclin B1, CDK4, and CDK6. This study provides further insight into the possible working mechanism of Yang-Dan-Tang in patients. PMID:22693529

  10. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnection of herbal medicines and its potential solutions with cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Lu, Meng; Ji, Wei; Niu, Fang; Zha, Weibin; Wu, Xiaolan; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji

    2012-06-01

    Recently, there is a global trend of using herbal medicines to treat various chronic diseases and promote health. But the controversy over the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines is a focus of attention, primarily because of the many unknown and unrevealed natures of herbal medicines, which strongly restricts their application and development. Pharmacokinetics is a bridge linking the herbal medicines and their pharmacological responses. It is assumed in traditional pharmacokinetics that an excellent drug should have appropriate pharmacokinetic behaviours and its pharmacological effect is related with plasma drug concentrations. However, most herbal medicines exhibit excellent pharmacological responses despite poor pharmacokinetic behaviours. As most drugs are intracellulartargeted, we put forward cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy, which is focused on the intracellular fate of drugs. This strategy could partially explain the marked pharmacological activities of herbal medicines from their intracellular pharmacokinetic behaviours, rather than their plasma concentrations. It is a helpful complementarity to traditional pharmacokinetics, and takes a potential role in the research and development of new herb-origined drugs. In this review, the pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnections of herbal medicines (such as ginseng, berberine and danshen) are retrospected. Then our proposed cellular pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic strategy, its characteristics, as well as its research procedures are described, followed by the subcellular distributions of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes which are the determinants of cellular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics. Finally, our successful applications of cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy in elucidating ginsenoside Rh2 as an adjuvant agent and tanshinone IIA as an anticancer agent are illustrated. PMID:22475335

  11. Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  12. Shosaiko-to and other Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicines: a review of their immunomodulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Borchers, A T; Sakai, S; Henderson, G L; Harkey, M R; Keen, C L; Stern, J S; Terasawa, K; Gershwin, M E

    2000-11-01

    The use of alternative medicine, including consumption of herbal products and dietary supplements, has been increasing substantially both in the United States and in Western Europe. One area that is garnering increased attention is the use of Oriental Medicine including Kampo, or Japanese herbal medicine. Herein, we review representative examples of research available on the most common use of Kampo medicinals, namely to improve the immune response. We also provide an extensive background on the history of Kampo. There are more than 210 different Kampo formulae used in Japan and most uses of Kampo are to modulate the immune response, i.e. to improve immunity. We have extracted data on seven common Kampo medicinals, and the data are reviewed with respect to in vitro and in vivo activities for both humans and experimental animals; the ingredients as well as the problems with classification of these materials are presented. Research suggests that Kampo herbals are biologically active and may have therapeutic potential. While it is believed that Kampo medicines have few side effects, there is a paucity of data on their toxicity as well as a relative lack of knowledge of the bioactive constituents and potential drug interactions of these agents. PMID:11025134

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Bauer, Rudolf; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1? (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?) were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses. PMID:24723959

  14. A comparison of the treatment of hypertension with Chinese herbal and Western medication.

    PubMed

    Black, H R; Ming, S; Poll, D S; Wen, Y F; Zhou, H Y; Zhang, Z Q; Chung, Y K; Wu, Y S

    1986-12-01

    Forty-five patients with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) greater than or equal to 105 mmHg were randomly assigned to receive Western (group 1, n = 21) or a classical Chinese herbal preparation (group 2, n = 24) to treat their hypertension (HBP). All remained hypertensive after 4 days in the hospital without treatment. Except for baseline Na+ excretion (higher in group 1) and somewhat more evidence of end organ damage in group 1, the patient groups were comparable. Those in group 1 were given a thiazide diuretic and propranolol if needed, and those in group 2, a mixture of 12 herbs. Patients on active therapy in group 1 had a drop in blood pressure (BP) from 172.6 +/- 27.8/107.4 +/- 13.6 to 141.2 +/- 26.2/89.6 +/- 12.0 mmHg, whereas those in group 2 had no change in BP, 168.8 +/- 22.0/107.7 +/- 9.8 mmHg to 165.7 +/- 23.7/106.0 +/- 11.8 mmHg. Although 66% of patients in group 1 had a DBP under 90 mmHg by discharge, only 8% of those in group 2 did. Except for a fall in serum K+ in group 1, there were no significant biochemical or clinical problems in either group. We conclude that standard Western medication is more effective than a classical Chinese herbal preparation used to treat HBP. PMID:3806153

  15. Trends in the Treatment of Hypertension from the Perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Chu, Fuyong; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public-health issue. Much consensus has been reached in the treatment, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. However, the standard-reaching rate of blood pressure is far from satisfaction. Considering these data and the seriousness of the effects of hypertension on the individual and society as a whole, both economically and socially, physicians must look for more effective and alternative ways to achieve the target blood pressure. Could treatment of hypertension be improved by insights from traditional Chinese medicine? As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, TCM is regularly advocated for lowering elevated blood pressure. Due to the different understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension between ancient and modern times, new understanding and treatment of hypertension need to be reexplored. Aiming to improve the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating hypertension, the basis of treatment is explored through systematically analyzing the literature available in both English and Chinese search engines. This paper systematically reviews the trends in emerging therapeutic strategies for hypertension from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23878594

  16. Retinitis Pigmentosa Treatment with Western Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Peng, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Current management of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) includes an attempt at slowing down the degenerative process through therapies that use either Western or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Novel therapies in Western medicine (WM) include use of tailor-made gene therapy, transplantation of stem cells, or neuroprotection treatment. TCM treatment includes two major approaches. These are orally applied herbal decoctions and acupuncture. In fact, all TCM treatments are based on the differentiation of a symptom-complex, which is the characteristic essence of TCM. Thus, diagnosed RP may be treated via the liver, the kidney, and the spleen. The principle behind these treatments is to invigorate the blood and brighten the eyes by toning up the liver and the kidney. Also treatments to cope with deficiencies in the two concepts that are unique and fundamental to TCM are considered: Qi or “vital energy” and Yin and Yang or the harmony of all the opposite elements and forces that make up existence. In particular, the Qi deficiency that results from blood stasis is addressed in these treatments. This paper also puts forward the existing problems and the prospect of the future development on integrating TCM with WM.

  17. Utilization of and Attitudes towards Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies in a Chinese Cancer Hospital: A Survey of Patients and Physicians

    PubMed Central

    McQuade, Jennifer L.; Meng, ZhiQiang; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Bei, WenYing; Palmer, J. Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of patients had used TCM. Use was greatest for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM; 55.8%). Only 1.3% of patients used acupuncture and 6.8% Qi Gong or Tai Qi. Sixty-three percent of patients notified their oncologist about TCM use. The most common reason for use was to improve immune function. CHM was often used with a goal of treating cancer (66.4%), a use that 57% of physicians agreed with. Physicians were most concerned with interference with treatment, lack of evidence, and safety. Ninety percent of physicians have prescribed herbs and 87.5% have used TCM themselves. Conclusion. The use of TCM by Chinese cancer patients is exceptionally high, and physicians are generally well informed and supportive of patients' use. Botanical agents are much more commonly used than acupuncture or movement-based therapies. PMID:23093982

  18. Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

  19. Determination of noradrenaline and dopamine in Chinese herbal extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Chen; Yan-Ping Shi; Jing-Yan Liu

    2003-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) in Chinese herbal plant extracts from the different parts of Portulaca oleracea L. The effects of various parameters, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration, pH value and proportion of methanol on

  20. [Exploration of influencing factors of price of herbal based on VAR model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nuo; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Based on vector auto-regression (VAR) model, this paper takes advantage of Granger causality test, variance decomposition and impulse response analysis techniques to carry out a comprehensive study of the factors influencing the price of Chinese herbal, including herbal cultivation costs, acreage, natural disasters, the residents' needs and inflation. The study found that there is Granger causality relationship between inflation and herbal prices, cultivation costs and herbal prices. And in the total variance analysis of Chinese herbal and medicine price index, the largest contribution to it is from its own fluctuations, followed by the cultivation costs and inflation. PMID:25751965

  1. Efficacy of the wen dan decoction, a chinese herbal formula, for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Jia-Hua; Ling, Wei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Dai, Zhi-Kai; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2015-07-01

    Context • Metabolic syndrome (MS) refers to the clustering of metabolic derangements that include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and chronic kidney impairment. Those conditions are well known as being synergistically responsible for morbidity from cardiovascular disease as well as for driving the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes. It is still unknown whether an exact unifying pathogenesis of MS exists. Objective • The meta-analysis intended to analyze the use of Chinese medicine (CM) as a therapeutic tool to explore indirectly the unifying pathogenesis of MS. Methods • PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Wanfang databases were systematically searched from inception to November 2013 for randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment efficacy for MS patients using the Wen Dan decoction (WDD), a CM formula, versus Western conventional therapeutics. Outcome Measures • Measurements included tests of the overall therapeutic efficacy of WDD for hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Data were expressed as weighted mean differences (WMDs), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and the odds ratio (OR). Results • A total of 31 RCTs were included for meta-analysis, involving 2512 patients and including 1282 participants in the intervention groups. The pooled data favored WDD over the control treatments as follows: (1) hyperglycemia, with a WMD of -0.95 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.19 to -0.71); (2) hypertension, with a WMD of -7.40 mm Hg (95% CI: -9.86 to -4.93); (3) dyslipidemia: (a) total cholesterol (TC), with a WMD of -0.62 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.90 to -0.33); (b) triglycerides (TGs), with a WMD of -0.32 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.13); (c) low-density lipoproteins (LDPs), with a WMD of -0.22 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.41 to -0.02); and (d) high-density lipoproteins (HDPs), with a WMD of 0.10 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.17); and (4) of renal functions: (a) urea, with a WMD of -3.41 mmol/L (95% CI: -5.50 to -1.32) and (b) creatinine, with a WMD of -68.81 ?mol/L (95% CI: -132.63 to -4.98). No statistical significance was documented in creatinine clearance between the 2 treatments with a WMD of 15.47 mL/min (95% CI: -7.71 to 38.64). The overall efficacy rate was 91.4% for WDD and 66.9% for the control treatments (OR: 5.33; 95% CI: 4.06 to 6.99). Adverse events were rare and minor. Conclusions • The consistent improvements found in metabolic profiles by use of the single herbal formula may indirectly imply a common pathogenesis in MS. PMID:26030117

  2. Herbal medicine: a survey of use in Nigerian presurgical patients booked for ambulatory anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Utilization of herbal medicines in the preoperative period by Nigerian patients booked for day case surgery has not been explored. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 60 patients presenting for day-case surgery at a tertiary healthcare institution over a 3-week period in August 2011 was conducted. Using a structured questionnaire, inquiries were made concerning use of herbal medicines in the immediate preoperative period. Socio-demographic characteristics, information on use of concurrent medical prescriptions, types of herbs used, reasons for use, perceived side effects and perceived efficacy were obtained. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results Fifty-two (86.7%) were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 1 while 8 (13%) were ASA 2. Most patients (86.7%) had their procedures done under local infiltration with monitored anaesthesia care (MAC), while 5.0% and 8.3% had their procedures done under regional and general anaesthesia, respectively. About 48.3% of respondents were on concurrent medical prescriptions while 51.7% were not. Forty percent (40%) of patients admitted to use of herbal medicine, all by the oral route, in the immediate perioperative period; 87.5% did not inform their doctor of their herbal use. Types of herbs used included ‘dogonyaro’, ‘agbo’, ‘nchanwu’, and Tahitian noni. Treatment of malaria was commonest reason for use in 29.2% of patients, while cough and concurrent surgical condition were reasons given by 12.5% of patients, respectively. Seventy-nine percent (79.2%) of patients considered their herbal medications effective. Perceived side effects of herbal medication (16.6%) included fever, waist pain and intoxication. There were no variations in use between ASA 1 and ASA 2 patients and none between respondents on conventional medication against those that were not. Variables such as age less than 35 years, female gender, being married and being an urban dweller did not show any significant difference in use. Conclusion This survey revealed many patients were on one or more herbal preparations in the immediate preoperative period. In consideration of possible untoward drug interactions between conventional medication, herbal preparations and anaesthesia, doctors (especially anaesthetists) should routinely assess all patients booked to be anaesthetized, especially those for day case surgery. The authors recommend surveys with larger respondent numbers to determine prevalence of use and possible interactions between indigenous Nigerian herbs and anaesthesia. PMID:22906201

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetics of three monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids after oral administration of Acontium carmichaeli extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in Sini Decoction to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai; Liu, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cao, Hong; Chai, Yifeng

    2015-07-01

    Sini decoction (SND) is an important traditional Chinese multiherbal formula, which is widely used to treat cardiovascular disease. Acontium carmichaeli (AC) is a leading herb in SND, whose main components are monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids (MDAs). The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics of three MDAs in rat plasma after oral administration of AC extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in SND. A sensitive, accurate and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine the contents of three MDAs in rat plasma. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: AC, AC?+?ZO, AC?+?GU and SND groups. There were significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax , Tmax, t1/2 , AUC(0-24) , MRT and CL). Compared with the AC group, Cmax , AUC(0-24) and CL of three MDAs increased and t1/2 decreased in AC?+?ZO, AC?+?GU and SND groups. Little changed in the AC?+?GU group in comparison with AC?+?ZO group, which indicated that other ingredients in ZO may promote the absorption rate and accelerate excretion rate of MDAs. The results could be helpful for revealing the compatibility mechanism of Chinese multiherbal medicine and providing clinical medication guidance on AC and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in SND. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25516169

  4. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed. PMID:24410911

  5. Identification and determination of the major constituents in Traditional Chinese Medicinal formula Danggui-Shaoyao-San by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linlin Chen; Jin Qi; Yan-xu Chang; Danni Zhu; Boyang Yu

    2009-01-01

    Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of six herbal medicines (Paeonia lactiflora, Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Poria cocos, Atractylodis macrocephalae and Rhizoma Alismatis), has been used as a classical gynecological remedy in China for centuries. However, its active substances have remained unknown. In this paper, an HPLC\\/DAD\\/ESI-MS\\/MS method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of

  6. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li; Xiong, Xing-jiang; Fan, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  7. Assessing the risks and benefits of herbal medicine: an overview of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Barrett, B; Kiefer, D; Rabago, D

    1999-07-01

    The use of herbal medicine is widespread and growing, with as many as 3 in 10 Americans using botanical remedies in a given year. Because many herbal medicines have significant pharmacological activity, and thus potential adverse effects and drug interactions, healthcare professionals must be familiar with this therapeutic modality. This article summarizes the history and current use of plant-based medicine and highlights the evidence of the risks and benefits associated with 6 plants: echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, St John's wort, and valerian. Therapies outside the medical mainstream tend to suffer from a dearth of research and critical evaluation. Critics and supporters alike note the conceptual and practical difficulties in studying many complementary and alternative therapies such as acupuncture, homeopathy, and meditation. Herbal medicine, however, lends itself well to standard evaluation methods. This article summarizes and evaluates evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. We present the results of meta-analyses and subsequent randomized controlled trials for garlic and St John's wort; a comprehensive critical review and subsequent randomized controlled trials for ginkgo; and summaries of all identified randomized controlled trials for echinacea, ginger, and valerian. PMID:10394673

  8. Folk herbal medicines from tribal area of Rajasthan, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Katewa; B. L. Chaudhary; Anita Jain

    2004-01-01

    A floristic survey of ethnomedicinal plants occurring in the tribal area of Rajasthan was conducted to assess the potentiality of plant resources for modern treatments. The information on medicinal uses of plants is based on the exhaustive interviews with local physicians practising indigenous system of medicine, village headmen, priests and tribal folks. The Aravalli hills of Mewar region of Rajasthan

  9. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10?g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  10. Effect of herbal medicine Juzentaihoto on hepatic and intestinal heat shock gene expression requires intestinal microflora in mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miho Kato; Atsushi Ishige; Naoko Anjiki; Masahiro Yamamoto; Yoshifumi Irie; Mitsue Taniyama; Ryoko Kibe; Junichiro Oka; Yoshimi Benno; Kenji Watanabe

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of intestinal microflora in the effects of multi-herbal medicine on gene expression in the gut and liver. METHODS: The multi-herbal medicine Juzentaihoto (JTX) was administered to five germ-free mice and regular mice for 2 wk. Among the results of the comprehensive gene chip analysis of the intestine and liver, we featured heat shock proteins (HSPs)

  11. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mizue Ohsugi; Wenzhe Fan; Koji Hase; Quanbo Xiong; Yasuhiro Tezuka; Katsuko Komatsu; Tsuneo Namba; Tomohiro Saitoh; Kenji Tazawa; Shigetoshi Kadota

    1999-01-01

    The active-oxygen scavenging activity of 70 traditional herbal medicines used in China and Japan as nourishing tonics were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, in order to evaluate their effectiveness for anti-aging and to search for new active-oxygen scavengers from natural resources. Most of the 70 herbal medicines showed scavenging activity with various intensities. Areca catechu (methanol extract), Dendrobium

  12. Do Herbal Medicines Have Potential for Managing Snake Bite Envenomation?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Y. K.; Peshin, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Snake envenomation is a global public health problem, with highest incidence in Southeast Asia. Inadequate health services, difficult transportation and consequent delay in antisnake venom administration are the main reasons for high mortality. Adverse drug reactions and inadequate storage conditions limit the use of antisnake venom. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention. A wide array of plants and their active principles have been evaluated for pharmacological properties. However, numerous unexplored plants claimed to be antidotes in folklore medicine need to be studied. The present article reviews the current status of various medicinal plants for the management of snake bite. PMID:22778503

  13. [Analysis and discussion about current development of relevant studies on "traditional Chinese medicine components"].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-01-01

    As traditional Chinese medicine components have become a hotspot in the field of traditional Chinese medicine study, they have followed a development trend of diversity and false identification. In studies on a new modem product, we shall encourage the diversified development mode, but avoid the false concept identification of traditional Chinese medicine components. In this paper, by analyzing the current development of traditional Chinese medicine components and problems, we discussed the standardization of traditional Chinese medicine components, with the aim of reducing and avoiding the situations to study non-traditional Chinese medicine components as traditional Chinese medicine components. PMID:24761626

  14. LC/MS fingerprinting of Shenmai injection: a novel approach to quality control of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Xiaohui, Fan; Yi, Wang; Yiyu, Cheng

    2006-02-24

    Chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable strategy for the quality control of herbal medicines. Although varieties of chromatographic techniques, particularly HPLC, have been widely employed, hyphenated chromatographic approach has not been sufficiently exploited in chromatographic fingerprinting. In this work, LC/MS fingerprinting of Shenmai injection was developed. Thirty ginsenosides as well as seven ophioponins were selected to construct the LC/MS fingerprint using selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode, while previous HPLC fingerprint [H.J. Zhang, Y.J. Wu, Y.Y. Cheng, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 31 (2003) 175-183] only represents the ginsenosides. Subsequently, the proposed LC/MS fingerprints were applied to identifying the product manufacturers. All the samples were accurately classified based on their LC/MS fingerprints in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA). This study would be potentially helpful to improve the quality control ability of fingerprinting-based strategy for complex herbal medicines. PMID:16356676

  15. Establishing an EU-China consortium on traditional Chinese medicine research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used in the European Union (EU) and attracts intense research interests from European scientists. As an emerging area in Europe, TCM research requires collaboration and coordination of actions. Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era, also known as GP-TCM, is the first ever EU-funded 7th Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action, aiming to inform the best practice and harmonise research on the safety and efficacy of TCM through interdisciplinary exchange of experience and expertise among clinicians and scientists. With its increasingly large pool of expertise across 19 countries including 13 EU member states, Australia, Canada, China, Norway, Thailand and the USA, the consortium provides forums and collaboration platforms on quality control, extraction technology, component analysis, toxicology, pharmacology and regulatory issues of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as well as on acupuncture studies, with a particular emphasis on the application of a functional genomics approach. The project officially started in May 2009 and by the time of its conclusion in April 2012 a Europe-based academic society dedicated to TCM research will be founded to carry on the mission of GP-TCM. PMID:21156056

  16. Effects of traditional herbal medicine on gastric mucin against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Goso; Y. Ogata; K. Ishihara; K. Hotta

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the traditional herbal medicine, Rikkunshi-to and its component crude drugs, Zingiberis Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix, on the gastric mucin was studied using a method developed to separate and quantify the mucin localized in the different layers of rat gastric mucosa. The oral administration of spray-dried extract to Rikkunshi-to (1000 mg\\/kg), Zingiberis Rhizoma (500 mg\\/kg) and Glycyrrhizae Radix

  17. Separation and determination of honokiol and magnolol in herbal medicines by flow injection-capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihong Liu; Xinan Wu; Liuyin Fan; Xingguo Chen; Zhide Hu

    2006-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for the separation and determination of honokiol and magnolol in Magnolia officinalis and related herbal medicines was developed by combination of flow injection (FI) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The analysis was carried out using an unmodified fused-silica capillary (50-?m I.D.; total length 7.5 cm; effective length 4.5 cm). A series of optimization steps afforded the

  18. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD. PMID:25279787

  19. Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Medicines for Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Man, Sui Cheung; Chan, Kam Wa; Lu, Jia-Hong; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Liu, Liang-Feng; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM), as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM), mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD). We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese). were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made. PMID:22235231

  20. Low potency homeopathic remedies and allopathic herbal medicines: is there an overlap?

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezs?; Boros, Klára; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance. PMID:24019954

  1. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  2. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

  3. Chinese Massage Combined with Herbal Ointment for Athletes with Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling Jun; Fang, Min; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Yuan, Wei An; Tao, Ji Ming; Qi, Gao Wei; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2012-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (NLBP) is an increasing health problem for athletes. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment for NLBP. 110 athletes with NLBP were randomly assigned to experimental group with Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment or control group with simple massage therapy. The primary outcome was pain by Chinese Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (C-SFMPQ). The secondary outcome was local muscle stiffness by Myotonometer. After 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced significant improvements in C-SFMPQ and in local muscle stiffness compared with control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, ?1.24 points, P = 0.005 in sensory scores; ?3.14 points, P < 0.001 in affective scores; ?4.39 points, P < 0.001 in total scores; ?0.64 points, P = 0.002 in VAS; ?1.04 points, P = 0.005 in local muscle stiffness during relaxation state). The difference remained at one month followup, but it was only significant in affective scores (?2.83 points, P < 0.001) at three months followup. No adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that Chinese massage combined with herbal ointment may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for athletes with NLBP. PMID:23258996

  4. Cognitive Improvement during Treatment for Mild Alzheimer’s Disease with a Chinese Herbal Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Cui, Yuanwu; Gu, Yun; Guo, Jiakui; Wu, Di; Li, Qiang; Song, Wanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the efficacy of Chinese herbal formula compared with donepezil 5mg/day in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Patients with mild AD meeting the criteria were randomized into Chinese herbal formula Yishen Huazhuo decoction (YHD) group and donepezil hydrochloride (DH) group during the 24-week trial. The outcomes were measured by ADAS-cog, MMSE, ADL, and NPI with linear mixed-effect models. Results 144 patients were randomized. The mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE in both YHD group and DH group both improved at the end of the 24-week treatment period. The results also revealed that YHD was better at improving the mean scores of ADAS-cog and MMSE than DH. Linear mixed-effect models with repeated measures showed statistical significance in time × group interaction effect of ADAS-cog and also in time × group interaction effect of MMSE. The data showed YHD was superior to DH in improving the scores and long term efficacy. Conclusions Our study suggests that Chinese herbal formula YHD is beneficial and effective for cognitive improvement in patients with mild AD and the mechanism might be through reducing amyloid-? (A?) plaque deposition in the hippocampus. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002846 PMID:26076022

  5. Administration of Chinpi, a Component of the Herbal Medicine Ninjin-Youei-To, Reverses Age-Induced Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Nanako; Seiwa, Chika; Uruse, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kayoko; Kawakita, Takuya; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Akio; Takao, Masakatsu; Kudo, Chiaki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Ishige, Atushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Asou, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    The disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanism of myelination and remyelination is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for demyelination diseases. Our previous findings indicated that the FcR?/Fyn cascade is a potential therapeutic target for remyelination caused by the Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine ninjin'youeito (Ninjin-youei-to, NYT), which is a hot-water extract made from 12 medicinal herbs. To identify which constituents of NYT are involved in the reversal of demyelination and to examine the potential therapeutic effect, we tested several of the chemical constituents of NYT. Here, we report that Chinpi, a constituent of NYT, upregulates the FcR?/Fyn signaling cascade resulting in a potentially therapeutic effect against age-induced demyelination. In addition, we observed that phosphorylated (activated) FcR?/Fyn upregulated the expression of the 21.5?kDa isoform of myelin basic protein, inducing rapid morphological differentiation, when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) were cultured in the presence of hesperidin and/or narirutin (the major active constituents of Chinpi). These results suggest that hesperidin and narirutin participate in the FcR?/Fyn signaling pathway in OPCs causing these cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. PMID:21799684

  6. Chinese medicinal formula Fufang Xueshuantong capsule could inhibit the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Shujing; Wang, Yonggang; Long, Chaofeng; Su, Weiwei; Rong, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Fufang Xueshuantong (FXST) capsule, a Chinese medicinal formula composed of four herbals – Panax notoginseng, Radix Astragali, Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae and Radix Scrophulariaceae, has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for many years, but the pharmacological mechanisms underlying its effects has not been clarified. This study investigates if a connection between FXST and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) might be an explanation for its pharmacological effects. ACE inhibition assay was performed on FXST capsule, 50% ethanol extracts from the four herbals and three selected saponins most abundant in P. notoginseng (Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rb1 and Notoginsenoside R1) using a biochemical test. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of liberated hippuric acid from the ACE assay was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect. As a result, FXST and extracts from P. notoginseng showed a significant and dose-dependent inhibition on ACE activity with the IC50 values of 115 ?g/ml and 179 ?g/ml, respectively. But extracts from the other three herbals and the three selected saponins had no significant effect on ACE inhibition. Compared to other reported plant extracts, FXST could be considered as an effective ACE inhibitor. The inhibition of ACE activity supports the traditional use of FXST on blood circulation and the inhibitory property of FXST is mainly caused by P. notoginseng.

  7. Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Wright, C I; Van-Buren, L; Kroner, C I; Koning, M M G

    2007-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). One class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics and work by increasing the excretion of urine from the body as well as the amount of sodium in urine. There are a growing number of studies purporting diuretic effects with traditional medicines. The aim of this article was to review these studies and identify which extracts promote diuresis (which we assessed on terms of urine excreted and urinary sodium excretion) and also to identify the research needs in this area. We identified a number of species and genuses reporting diuretic effects. Of these, the most promising, at the present time, are the species Foeniculum vulgare, Fraxinus excelsior, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Petroselinum sativum and Spergularia purpurea, and species from the genuses Cucumis (Cucumis melo and Cucumis trigonus), Equisetum (Equisetum bogotense, Equisetum fluviatile, Equisetum giganteum, Equisetum hiemale var. affine and Equisetum myriochaetum), Lepidium (Lepidium latifolium and Lepidium sativum), Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus corcovadensis and Phyllanthus sellowianus) and Sambucus (Sambucus mexicana and Sambucus nigra). However, there the number of studies is limited and we recommend that further studies be conducted to confirm reported effects. Such evidence is needed to provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines and even be helpful in the development of future medicines, treatments and treatment guidelines. PMID:17804183

  8. [Analyzing the Chinese medicine pathogenesis of stroke].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Li, Ying-Zi; Yang, Hai-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Both ischemic and hemorrhage stroke pertain to the category of wind stroke in Chinese medicine (CM). Up to date, it is deemed that the etiology and pathogenesis of wind stroke are wind, fire, sputum, qi, stasis, and deficiency. Among them, it is regarded that wind and fire are the key factors triggering wind stroke. By analyzing the time order and causality, it is found that wind stroke is prior to the onset of wind and fire, wind and fire are the secondary outcomes of wind stroke. By parallel comparing stroke with thromboembolism and hemorrhagic diseases in other Zang-organs, it can be comprehended that the reason why wind symptoms appear in stroke is due to its physiological feature of brain itself. Based on Neijing, the pathogenesis of wind stroke is proposed as follows. Tunnels of viscera (vessels) get lesions. The old pathogenic factors of sputum and stasis or the stasis formed by bleeding inside viscera consume qi, and blood of viscera and damage the spirits hidden in them. The damage of Gan-spirit causes symptoms of stroke, such as hemiplegia, deviation of eyes and mouth, and so on. Wind and fire symptoms are caused by the injury of Gan blood and yin, and/or the stagnation of fire in pericardium (the pathway organ) due to obstruction by old pathogenic factors and stasis (formed by bleeding). PMID:22500406

  9. Application of proteomics in Chinese medicine research.

    PubMed

    Cho, William Chi-Shing

    2007-01-01

    Proteomics technologies can be applied to simultaneously study the function, organization, diversity, and dynamic variety of a cell or a whole tissue. The integrative approach of proteomics is in line with the holistic concept and practices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this review, the technologies of proteomics, their adoption leverages the depth and breadth of TCM research are introduced. This article presents some examples to illustrate the use of proteomics technologies in the study of pharmacological effects and their action mechanisms relevant to TCM. Proteomics technologies could be used to screen the target molecules of the TCM actions, identify new bioactive components, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of their effects. With proteomics approaches, it was found that the Siwu decoction could regulate the protein expression of the bone marrow of blood (Xue) deficient mice, including some proteins and enzymes involved in the hemopoiesis system. Ganoderma lucidum spores might promote the survival and axon regeneration of injured spinal motor neurons in rats by regulating the expression levels of proteins involved in the energy and tissue regeneration system. Polygonatum zanlanscianense Pamp exhibited cytotoxicity towards human myeloblast leukemia HL-60 cells through multiple apoptosis-including pathways. Panax ginseng might be beneficial to patients suffering from diabetes mellitus and its complications by alleviating inflammation. Taken together with a discussion on the challenges and perspectives, this paper provides an overview of the recent developments of proteomics technologies in TCM research, and contends that proteomics will play an important role in the modernization and internationalization of TCM. PMID:18186577

  10. An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

  11. Peginterferon plus Chinese herbal therapy is associated with a higher virological response than only peginterferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, D; Liu, E; Li, Y; Liu, R; Bai, L; Chen, Y; Wang, Y; Chu, Y; Wu, M; Cheng, G; Zhao, S

    2014-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal therapies are widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in China and several Asian countries. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing peginterferon therapy with peginterferon plus Chinese herbal therapy for the treatment of CHC. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and China Biomedical Database were searched to identify RCTs that evaluated the virological response of CHC patients to peginterferon therapy and peginterferon plus Chinese herbal therapy. We statistically combined data using a fixed-effects meta-analysis according to the intention-to-treat principle. The literature search yielded 905 studies and nine RCTs composed of 858 patients matched the selection criteria. Overall, sustained virological response (SVR) was significantly higher in patients treated with peginterferon plus Chinese herbs than in patients treated with peginterferon alone (81 % vs. 64 %, respectively; odds ratio, 2.60; 95 % confidence interval: 1.32–5.14; p < 0.05). A combined therapy of peginterferon plus Chinese herbs was also superior to peginterferon therapy in achieving an early viral response (EVR, 80 % vs. 70 %, respectively), a viral response at week 24 of treatment (82 % vs. 73 %, respectively), and end-of-treatment viral response (ETVR, 73 % vs. 62 %, respectively). The combined therapy resulted in fewer relapses, fewer adverse events, and more rapid alanine transaminase normalization; however, both treatments yielded a similar rapid viral response (RVR, 53 % vs. 57 %, respectively). The current evidence suggests that combined therapy of peginterferon plus Chinese herbs yields a higher viral response and results in fewer relapses and fewer adverse events than peginterferon therapy alone. PMID:24022094

  12. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. F. Kong; Y. L. Yin; Q. H. He; F. G. Yin; H. J. Liu; T. J. Li; R. L. Huang; M. M. Geng; Z. Ruan; Z. Y. Deng; M. Y. Xie; G. Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations\\u000a and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire\\u000a piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or\\u000a 2 g\\/kg of the powder,

  13. Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts. PMID:17691984

  14. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Panossian, Alexander; Schweitzer, Isaac; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain mechanisms of action of these botanicals, in addition to a systematic review of controlled clinical trials for treatment of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, which are common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Specific emphasis was given to emerging phytomedicines. Analysis of evidence levels was conducted, as were effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available. Results provided evidence of a range of neurochemical, endocrinological, and epigenetic effects for 21 individual phytomedicines, which are detailed in this paper. Sixty six controlled studies were located involving eleven phytomedicines. Several of these provide a high level of evidence, such as Hypericum perforatum for major depression, and Piper methysticum for anxiety disorders. Several human clinical trials provide preliminary positive evidence of antidepressant effects (Echium amoenum, Crocus sativus, and Rhodiola rosea) and anxiolytic activity (Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Passiflora incanata, E. amoenum, and Scutellaria lateriflora). Caution should however be taken when interpreting the results as many studies have not been replicated. Several herbal medicines with in vitro and in vivo evidence are currently unexplored in human studies, and along with use of emerging genetic technologies "herbomics", are areas of potential future research. PMID:21601431

  15. Tea toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition of Huilliche herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Adsersen, Anne; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2013-01-01

    Eleven species of Huilliche medicinal plants used traditionally against infections and for wound healing were tested for their cholinesterase inhibition activity. Two different teas (a 5-7 min infusion and a 1 h decoction, both in water) were tested for their toxicity against Artemia salina. The results from the present study clearly show that teas boiled for 1 h is much more toxic than teas infused for 5-7 min. These results support the different traditional use of the two teas, where the 1h tea is for external use only. Additionally, significant inhibition of cholinesterase has been observed for MeOH extracts of Acaena argentea, Amomyrtas meli and Pseudopanax laetevirens, with that of A. argentea being the most potent. All findings call for further investigations. PMID:23652640

  16. Herbal medicines for the treatment of acute otitis media: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mi Ju; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this systematic review is to analyse the trial data on the efficacy of herbal medicines for acute otitis media. Methods and analysis The following 11 databases will be searched from their inception: MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and five Korean databases (Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), DBPIA, KoreaMed, Research Information Service System (RISS) and the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS)). The selection of the studies, the data abstraction and the validations will be performed independently by two researchers. Dissemination The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide the healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013005100. PMID:24293205

  17. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    The concomitant use of herbal medicines and pharmacotherapy is wide spread. We have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between seven popular herbal medicines (ginkgo, St John's wort, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto and kava) and conventional drugs. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and we identified 128 case reports or case series, and 80 clinical trials. Clinical trials indicate that St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), via cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein induction, reduces the plasma concentrations (and/or increases the clearance) of alprazolam, amitriptyline, atorvastatin, chlorzoxazone, ciclosporin, debrisoquine, digoxin, erythromycin, fexofenadine, gliclazide, imatinib, indinavir, irinotecan, ivabradine, mephenytoin, methadone, midazolam, nifedipine, omeprazole, oral contraceptives, quazepam, simvastatin, tacrolimus, talinolol, verapamil, voriconazole and warfarin. Case reports or case series suggest interactions of St John's wort with adrenergic vasopressors, anaesthetics, bupropion, buspirone, ciclosporin, eletriptan, loperamide, nefazodone, nevirapine, oral contraceptives, paroxetine, phenprocoumon, prednisone, sertraline, tacrolimus, theophylline, tibolone, tryptophan, venlafaxine and warfarin. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) decreases the plasma concentrations of omeprazole, ritonavir and tolbutamide. Clinical cases indicate interactions of ginkgo with antiepileptics, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), diuretics, ibuprofen, risperidone, rofecoxib, trazodone and warfarin. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) may interact with phenelzine and warfarin. Kava (Piper methysticum) increases the clearance of chlorzoxazone (a CYP2E1 substrate) and may interact with alprazolam, levodopa and paroxetine. Garlic (Allium sativum) interacts with chlorpropamide, fluindione, ritonavir and warfarin; it also reduces plasma concentrations of chlorzoxazone (a CYP2E1 probe). Echinacea might affect the clearance of caffeine (a CYP1A2 probe) and midazolam (a CYP3A4 probe). No interactions have been reported for saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Numerous interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs have been documented. While the significance of many interactions is uncertain, several interactions, particularly those with St John's wort, may have serious clinical consequences. PMID:19719333

  18. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  19. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  20. Insights on the formulation of herbal beverages with medicinal claims according with their antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Morais, Ana L; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2013-01-01

    Several herbal beverages claim medicinal benefits due to their antioxidant properties. However, operational factors such as the extracted herbal component, preparation method or concentration levels, might influence their biological activity. To assess this effect, the antioxidant activity of beverages prepared with Camellia sinensis, Aspalathus linearis or Cochlospermum angolensis, used solely or mixed with different fruit, plant or algae extracts, was studied using different formulations (bags, leaves, roots, granulates, powders, liquids) and different preparation methods (infusion, solubilisation or promptly used). The DF50 (dilution factor responsible for 50% of antioxidant activity) values were calculated to compare their antioxidant activity. A linear discriminant analysis was used to categorize the assayed samples according to their antioxidant activity and bioactive molecules profiles. The results indicated that antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds are significantly affected by formulation and preparation method, but overall the labelled antioxidant benefits were validated. Green tea showed the highest activity, but with different behaviour within each used formulation. The high DF50 values calculated for some products might be used to adjust the dietary dose or formulation, preventing also putative pro-oxidant effects. Hence, the obtained results might be useful to define the formulation of these highly consumed herbal beverages, enhancing their health effects. PMID:23459297

  1. Current Evidence of Chinese Herbal Constituents with Effects on NMDA Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Willmann; Lam, Wai Ping; Tang, Hong Chai; Leung, Ping Chung; Yew, David T.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) is an important molecular entity governing a wide range of functions in the central nervous system. For example, the NMDA-R is involved in memory and cognition, and impairment of both (as in Alzheimer’s Disease) is attributed to NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity. With greater understanding of the NMDA-R structure, antagonists with varying degrees of binding-site and subtype selectivity have been developed and put into clinical use. Discovery of target-specific Chinese herbs have also been made in parallel. This article provides an overview of the known active sites on the NMDA-R, followed by a discussion of the relevant herbs and their constituents. Experimental evidence supporting the inhibitory role of the herbal compounds on the NMDA-R is highlighted. For some of the compounds, potential research directions are also proposed to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the herbs. It is envisaged that future investigations based on the present data will allow more clinically relevant herbs to be identified. PMID:24276380

  2. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Li; F. Q. Yang; Karl W. K. Tsim

    2006-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease.

  3. Herbal or Natural Medicines as Modulators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Related Nuclear Receptors for Therapy of Metabolic Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Hsun-Wei Huang; Bhavani Prasad Kota; Valentina Razmovski; Basil D. Roufogalis

    2005-01-01

    The use of herbal or natural medicines for the treatment of various disorders has a long and extensive history. Many of these herbal medicines are finding their way onto the world market as alternatives to prescribed drugs currently available to treat various disorders\\/ailments. In particular, hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary vascular disease, which can culminate in

  4. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products?-?part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

  5. Individually integrated traditional chinese medicine approach in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a major public health issue causing chronic disability worldwide with the increasing number of aging people. In China and increasingly worldwide, many sufferers with knee OA are using complementary and alternative medicine including herbal drug, herbal patch, acupuncture and Tuina etc., to alleviate their symptoms. However, evidence gathered from systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials (RCT) has only validated acupuncture for the management of osteoarthritic pain. Moreover, such Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) methods above are commonly used in an integrative way. This trial is aimed to compare the efficacy of an individually integrated TCM approach in the management of knee OA with other single treatments as parallel randomized controls. Methods/design Five teaching hospitals will participate in this randomized controlled trial. 500 participants, 100 in each hospital, will be randomly assigned to receive oral administration of a Chinese herbal drug (counter osteophytes capsule), topical use of a Chinese herbal patch (Fufnag Zijin patch), acupuncture, Tuina and the individually integrated TCM approach. The individually integrated TCM approach consists of basic treatment of oral counter osteophytes capsule, variable use of Tuina, acupuncture and a herbal patch based on the severity of the patient's symptoms. The interventions are given for a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the self-reported total score using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Secondary outcome measures include patient and investigator global assessment of response to treatment, patient and investigator global assessment of OA condition, WOMAC pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales, short-form 36 (SF-36) and TCM assessment of OA condition measured by syndromes questionnaire. Mixed models and sensitivity analysis will be used for the statistical analysis. Discussion The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that an individually integrated TCM approach is more effective than four treatment modalities used separately. The major limitation of this study is lack of placebo control and of double blinding. Trial Registration Chinese Cochrane Center ChiCTR-TRC-00000176 PMID:21696615

  6. Chinese integrative medicine: translation toward person-centered and balanced medicine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Gang; Wu, Wei-Kang; Lu, Zhi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Chinese integrative medicine (CIM) focuses on the integration of conventional medicine (biomedicine) with Chinese medicine (CM). Although the CIM field has witnessed several advancements, the definition and classification of CIM is not quite clear, given that an independent theory system has not yet been established in this field. Therefore, future research and studies should focus on the following objectives: (1) emphasizing CM features, (2) improving CIM positioning, and (3) establishing CIM standards. These concerted efforts will help CIM be at par with international standards and criteria. With the development of CIM, the world will embrace a new medical system providing person-centered treatment with a balanced medicine approach. PMID:22231704

  7. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ER?-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ER?-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  8. [The applications of multimedia and web for Chinese medicine nursing].

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2007-08-01

    This paper aims to introduce multimedia and the Internet for nursing. In addition, it identifies papers and projects regarding the development and application of multimedia and the Internet which the researchers found in specified databases. If the latest science and technology can be applied to nursing in traditional Chinese medicine, the development and maturation of that field will accelerate. The researchers hope that the information provided in this paper may contribute to the nursing profession education, practice and research in the field of nursing for traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:17654424

  9. [Industry of traditional Chinese patent medicine science and technology development and review].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed. PMID:22741452

  10. A herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito, improves serum testosterone levels and affects sexual behavior in old male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Ji, Su Yun; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zhang, Er Hong; Bin, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical syndrome characterized with aging and declined serum testosterone levels. Sexual symptoms are also essential for the diagnosis of LOH. Testosterone replacement therapy is used widely to treat LOH. However, the side effects of it should not be ignored, such as fluid retention, hypertension and spermatogenic suppression. Therefore, alternate treatment modalities have been pursued. Herbal medicines used widely in China have achieved satisfying results with little side effects. Nonetheless, there are few pharmacological researches on them. In this study, 24-month-old mice were used as LOH animal models to explore the pharmacological effects of a herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), on serum testosterone levels and sexual functions. Furthermore, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a kind of rate-limiting enzyme of testosterone synthesis, was also examined. As a result, SKRBT improved the serum testosterone levels of these mice at a dose of 300 and 450?mg/kg. Multiple measures of sexual behavior were enhanced. The expression of StAR was also increased. Therefore, this study suggested that SKRBT can improve the serum testosterone levels by activating the expression of StAR and might be a viable option to treat sexual symptoms caused by LOH. PMID:25259618

  11. Comparative anti-inflammatory effects of anti-arthritic herbal medicines and ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joshua J; Samad, Mohammed A; Kim, Kye S; Bae, Soochan

    2014-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen, are widely used over-the-counter drugs to treat arthritis, but they are often associated with side effects. Herbal medicines have been used to treat various diseases such as arthritis, but the scientific profiles are not well understood. In this study, we examined, in comparison with ibuprofen, the inhibitory effects on various inflammatory markers of the most commonly used herbal medicines to treat arthritis, boswellia (Boswellia sapindales), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), guggul (Commiphora wightii), and neem (Azadirachta indica). To elicit inflammatory response, we exposed mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which are cytokines activated during an inflammatory response, were determined. The optimal non-toxic concentration was determined by exposing different concentrations of drugs (from 0.01 to 10 mg/mL). Cell death measurement revealed that the drug concentrations lower than 0.05 mg/mL were non-toxic concentrations for each drug, and these doses were used for the main experiments. We found that neem and licorice showed robust anti-inflammatory responses compared with ibuprofen. However, boswellia and guggul did not demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory responses. We concluded that neem and licorice are more effective than ibuprofen in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation in C2C12 cells. PMID:25918809

  12. A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

  13. Antiviral Effects of Novel Herbal Medicine KIOM-C, on Diverse Viruses.

    PubMed

    Talactac, Melbourne R; Chowdhury, Mohammed Y E; Park, Min-Eun; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cho, Won-Kyung; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify new potential antiviral agents, recent studies have advocated thorough testing of herbal medicines or natural substances that are traditionally used to prevent viral infections. Antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of the total aqueous extract preparation of KIOM-C, a novel herbal medicine, against diverse types of viruses were investigated. In vitro antiviral activity against A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) through the induction of type-I interferon related protein phosphorylation and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were determined. In vivo, KIOM-C-treated BALB/c mice showed higher survivability and lower lung viral titers when challenged with A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W81/2005 (H5N2), A/PR/8/34(H1N1), A/Aquatic bird/Korea/W44/2005(H7N3) or A/Chicken/Korea/116 /2004(H9N2) influenza subtypes in contrast with the non-treated group. The present study revealed that total aqueous extract preparation of KIOM-C stimulates an antiviral state in murine macrophage cells and in mice leading to inhibition of viral infection and protection against lethal challenges. PMID:25942440

  14. Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2014-01-01

    To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb–Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%–31.92% and 4.05%–14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

  15. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of ?-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. PMID:25713534

  16. Korean Herbal Medicine for Treating Henoch-Schonlein Purpura with Yin Deficiency: Five Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Kyun; Ryu, Seung-Seon; Park, Sunju; Park, Sang-Kyun; Choi, Woo-Jin; Sun, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report the clinical effect of Korean medicine (KM) treatment for Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). Methods: Five HSP patients who demonstrated a Yin deficiency and who had a history of a previous upper respiratory tract infection were included in this study. Four patients had arthritis and three had severe stomachache. One of them appeared to have proteinuria and hematuria before starting KM treatment. Results: All patients were improved with only herbal medicine, Jarotang (JRT). Purpura in the lower extremities and abdominal pain, which were not treated by using a corticosteroid, disappeared and had not recurred after 6 months. Conclusion: These cases indicate that JRT may be effective in treating HSP in patients who demonstrate Yin deficiency, even though the number of cases was limited to five. PMID:25780723

  17. Impact of whole systems traditional Chinese medicine on in-vitro fertilization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hullender Rubin, Lee E; Opsahl, Michael S; Wiemer, Klaus E; Mist, Scott D; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing IVF may receive either acupuncture or whole-systems traditional Chinese medicine (WS-TCM) as an adjuvant IVF treatment. WS-TCM is a complex intervention that can include acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, dietary, lifestyle recommendations. In this retrospective cohort study, 1231 IVF patient records were reviewed to assess the effect of adjuvant WS-TCM on IVF outcomes compared among three groups: IVF with no additional treatment; IVF and elective acupuncture on day of embryo transfer; or IVF and elective WS-TCM. The primary outcome was live birth. Of 1069 non-donor cycles, WS-TCM was associated with greater odds of live birth compared with IVF alone (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36 to 3.21), or embryo transfer with acupuncture only (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.52). Of 162 donor cycles, WS-TCM was associated with increased live births compared with all groups (odds Ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% CI 1.05 to 13.24, unadjusted) or embryo transfer with acupuncture only (OR 4.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 16.38, unadjusted). Overall, IVF with adjuvant WS-TCM was associated with greater odds of live birth in donor and non-donor cycles. These results should be taken cautiously as more rigorous research is needed. PMID:25911598

  18. A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC1/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 µg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening ?2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of ?2-adrenoceptor. PMID:19353741

  19. Efficacy-oriented compatibility for component-based Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Zhu, Yan; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2015-06-01

    Single-target drugs have not achieved satisfactory therapeutic effects for complex diseases involving multiple factors. Instead, innovations in recent drug research and development have revealed the emergence of compound drugs, such as cocktail therapies and "polypills", as the frontier in new drug development. A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that is usually composed of several medicinal herbs can serve a typical representative of compound medicines. Although the traditional compatibility theory of TCM cannot be well expressed using modern scientific language nowadays, the fundamental purpose of TCM compatibility can be understood as promoting efficacy and reducing toxicity. This paper introduces the theory and methods of efficacy-oriented compatibility for developing component-based Chinese medicines. PMID:25864650

  20. Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine Injections with a Cell Imaging-Based Multiparametric Assay Revealed a Critical Involvement of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Chen-Xiang; Dong, Ran-Ran; He, Shuang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Tie-Chan; Wang, Zhi-Long; Shen, Xi-Ya; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The safety of herbal medicine products has been a widespread concern due to their complex chemical nature and lack of proper evaluation methods. We have adapted a sensitive and reproducible multiparametric cell-based high-content analysis assay to evaluate the hepatic-safety of four Chinese medicine injections and validated it with classical animal-based toxicity assays. Our results suggested that the reported hepatotoxicity by one of the drugs, Fufangkushen injection, could be attributed at least in part to the interference of mitochondrial function in human HepG2 cells by some of its constituents. This method should be useful for both preclinical screen in a drug discovery program and postclinical evaluation of herbal medicine preparations. PMID:25792997

  1. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

  2. Herbal Safety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.

  3. Chinese Herbal Decoction Based on Syndrome Differentiation as Maintenance Therapy in Patients with Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Exploratory and Small Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; He, Shu lin; Zhao, Yuan chen; Zheng, Hong gang; Li, Cong huang; Bao, Yan ju; Qin, Ying gang; Hou, Wei; Hua, Bao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the treatment effect and treatment length of Chinese herbal decoction (CHD) as maintenance therapy on patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) and to reflect the real syndrome differentiation (Bian Zheng) practices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Patients and Methods. Different CHDs were prescribed for each patient based on syndrome differentiation. The length of CHD treatment was divided into two phases for analyzing progression-free survival (PFS) and postprogression survival (PPS). Results. Three hundred and fifty-seven CHDs were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation during the study period. Median PFS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >3 months than patients who received CHD ?3 months in the first phase (8.7 months versus 4.5 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41–0.99; P = 0.0009). Median PPS was significantly longer in patients who received CHD >7 months than patients who received CHD ?7 months in the second phase (11.7 months versus 5.1 months; HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.90–2.74; P = 0.002). Conclusion. CHD could improve PFS and PPS, which are closely related to treatment time and deepness of response of first-line therapy. In addition, CHD could improve body function and keep patients in a relatively stable state. PMID:25815038

  4. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    1999-01-01

    More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

  5. Effects of a Chinese herbal preparation on vascular cells in culture: mechanisms of cardiovascular protection.

    PubMed

    Ling, Shanhong; Dai, Aozhi; Guo, Zhixin; Yan, Xijun; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2005-07-01

    1. The use of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs or their pharmaceutical products for disease prevention and management is becoming increasingly popular in Western countries. Mixtures of various Chinese herbs have been used for the treatment of syndromes clinically overlapping Western cardiovascular syndromes. One modern preparation, known as the 'Cardiotonic Pill' (CP), is a pharmaceutical product derived mainly from a medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge, and recently widely used in Chinese hospitals for the prevention and management of ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. Although the CP is believed to confer an extensive range of benefits, little is known about the physiological actions of this medicine, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore possible cellular mechanisms of the CP on the cardiovascular system. 2. Cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were exposed to the CP at various concentrations for periods ranging from hours to days. Cellular DNA synthesis was determined by a [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay, proliferation and death were assessed by investigations of cell numbers and apoptosis, whereas the expression of extracellular adhesion molecules was analysed by flow-cytometry and Western blotting. 3. The CP extract at concentrations of less than 200 microg/mL was not associated with cell damage. At doses beyond the therapeutic range (10-20 microg/mL), the CP appeared to exert a mild inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis and proliferation of EC in serum-enriched cultures. The CP significantly attenuated tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in a dose-dependent manner, with 50 and 100 microg/mL CP producing decreases in the expression of ICAM-1 of 26-32% and 32-44%, respectively, and of VCAM-1 of approximately 23% and 27-42%, respectively. The CP did not affect apoptosis in EC under conditions of serum-deprivation. 4. In VSMC, the CP significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor BB-induced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The CP did not affect VSMC expression of adhesion molecules. 5. We conclude that the CP inhibits expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in EC and proliferation of VSMC in a manner that has potentially beneficial therapeutic effects. PMID:16026517

  6. Systems pharmacology dissection of multi-scale mechanisms of action for herbal medicines in stroke treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes. PMID:25093322

  7. “Zahraa”, a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: Components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Carmona; R. Llorach; C. Obon; D. Rivera

    2005-01-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as “Zahraa” in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout.

  8. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of Multi-Scale Mechanisms of Action for Herbal Medicines in Stroke Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes. PMID:25093322

  9. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; de Vilhena Toledo, Maria Alice; Medeiros-Souza, Patrícia; de Souza, Gustavo Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan). Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration. PMID:17173107

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Tetrahydropalmatine, Magnolol, Emodin and Chrysophanol in Chinese Herbal Preparation by RP-HPLC-PDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Bin Shi; Yan-Ping Shi; Yan-Biao Yang; Guang Feng

    2007-01-01

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array (RP-HPLC-PDA) detection method was\\u000a proposed for simultaneous determination of tetrahydropalmatine, magnolol, emodin and chrysophanol in a Chinese herbal preparation\\u000a (Dan’an mixture). The separation was performed on a Diamonsil™ C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) with methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid (88:12, v\\/v) as the mobile phase at the flow-rate of 0.8 mL min?1.

  11. European Physicians and Botanists, Indigenous Herbal Medicine in the Dutch East Indies, and Colonial Networks of Mediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Pols

    2009-01-01

    During the nineteenth and the early twentieth century, European physicians and botanists working in the Dutch East Indies\\u000a displayed an eager interest in Indonesian indigenous herbal medicine or jamu, the investigation of which required them to establish contacts with local informers and mediators who could make indigenous\\u000a medicine understandable to researchers. In the Dutch East Indies, these mediators were Indo-European

  12. Herbal Medicines for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Ki-Ho; Jung, Woo-Sang; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective We conducted systematic review to evaluate current evidence of herbal medicines (HMs) for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Along with hand searches, relevant literatures were located from the electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycInfo, CNKI, 7 Korean Medical Databases and J-East until August, 2010 without language and publication status. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials, which evaluate HMs for idiopathic PD were selected for this review. Two independent authors extracted data from the relevant literatures and any disagreement was solved by discussion. Results From the 3432 of relevant literatures, 64 were included. We failed to suggest overall estimates of treatment effects on PD because of the wide heterogeneity of used herbal recipes and study designs in the included studies. When compared with placebo, specific effects were not observed in favor of HMs definitely. Direct comparison with conventional drugs suggested that there was no evidence of better effect for HMs. Many studies compared combination therapy with single active drugs and combination therapy showed significant improvement in PD related outcomes and decrease in the dose of anti-Parkinson's drugs with low adverse events rate. Conclusion Currently, there is no conclusive evidence about the effectiveness and efficacy of HMs on PD. For establishing clinical evidence of HMs on PD, rigorous RCTs with sufficient statistical power should be promoted in future. PMID:22615738

  13. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  14. Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray: phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetics of an important herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin-Sheng; Liu, Meng-Hua; He, Jing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray is mainly distributed throughout Asia, Oceania and North America and is used as an important herbal medicine. H. japonicum contains many valuable secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, phloroglucinols and xanthones and has hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities and effects on the cardiovascular system and immunity. Coupled with phytochemical and pharmacological research, a series of analytical methods have been developed to evaluate the quality of H. japonicum based on its bioactive components. A pharmacokinetics study involved the absorption of two main flavonoids of H. japonicum in rats. This review aims to present an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetics of H. japonicum, which should be useful for the greater development of H. japonicum, especially in the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases. PMID:25061723

  15. Identification of Licopyranocoumarin and Glycyrurol from Herbal Medicines as Neuroprotective Compounds for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Takahiro; Saiki, Shinji; Tashiro, Etsu; Yamada, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imoto, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    In the course of screening for the anti-Parkinsonian drugs from a library of traditional herbal medicines, we found that the extracts of choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to protected cells from MPP+-induced cell death. Because choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to commonly contain the genus Glycyrrhiza, we isolated licopyranocoumarin (LPC) and glycyrurol (GCR) as potent neuroprotective principals from Glycyrrhiza. LPC and GCR markedly blocked MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death and disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were mediated by JNK. LPC and GCR inhibited MPP+-induced JNK activation through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby inhibiting MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death. These results indicated that LPC and GCR derived from choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to would be promising drug leads for PD treatment in the future. PMID:24960051

  16. What can comparative effectiveness research, propensity score and registry study bring to Chinese medicine?

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-ming

    2014-10-01

    The impact of evidence-based medicine and clinical epidemiology on clinical research has contributed to the development of Chinese medicine in modern times over the past two decades. Many concepts and methods of modern science and technology are emerging in Chinese medicine research, resulting in constant progress. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and other advanced mathematic approaches and statistical analysis methods have brought reform to Chinese medicine. In this new era, Chinese medicine researchers have many opportunities and challenges. On the one hand, Chinese medicine researchers need to dedicate themselves to providing enough evidence to the world through rigorous studies, whilst on the other hand, they also need to keep up with the speed of modern medicine research. For example, recently, real world study, comparative effectiveness research, propensity score techniques and registry study have emerged. This article aims to inspire Chinese medicine researchers to explore new areas by introducing these new ideas and new techniques. PMID:24615256

  17. Patent applications for using DNA technologies to authenticate medicinal herbal material

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Herbal medicines are used in many countries for maintaining health and treating diseases. Their efficacy depends on the use of the correct materials, and life-threatening poisoning may occur if toxic adulterants or substitutes are administered instead. Identification of a medicinal material at the DNA level provides an objective and powerful tool for quality control. Extraction of high-quality DNA is the first crucial step in DNA authentication, followed by a battery of DNA techniques including whole genome fingerprinting, DNA sequencing and DNA microarray to establish the identity of the material. New or improved technologies have been developed and valuable data have been collected and compiled for DNA authentication. Some of these technologies and data are patentable. This article provides an overview of some recent patents that cover the extraction of DNA from medicinal materials, the amplification of DNA using improved reaction conditions, the generation of DNA sequences and fingerprints, and the development of high-throughput authentication methods. It also briefly explains why these patents have been granted. PMID:19930671

  18. Stigma and Beliefs of Efficacy Towards Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Psychiatric Treatment Among Chinese-Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence H. Yang; Jo C. Phelan; Bruce G. Link

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined community attitudes of efficacy and shame to investigate the factors that may underlie mental health service underutilization among Chinese Americans. We administered an experimental vignette to assess beliefs of efficacy and shame toward using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as opposed to Western health services in a sample of 90 Chinese Americans obtained through a national

  19. Choosing chemical markers for quality assurance of complex herbal medicines: Development and application of the herb MaRS criteria.

    PubMed

    Bensoussan, A; Lee, S; Murray, C; Bourchier, S; van der Kooy, F; Pearson, J L; Liu, J; Chang, Dennis; Khoo, C S

    2015-06-01

    With increasing use of herbal medicines for chronic or serious illness, relevant quality assurance methods are essential for making claims of therapeutic benefit. Adequate demonstration of safety and efficacy based on chemical composition and ensuring consistency between manufactured batches is critical. To date, there has been no uniform standard approach or detailed framework provided to industry for selecting relevant chemical markers used to standardize herbal products. We developed the Herbal Marker Ranking System (Herb MaRS) providing guidance on prioritizing the selection of chemical markers for quality control of complex multi-herb mixtures, while also taking into account the bioactivity in relation to the symptoms of the disease and its concentration in the formula. We apply the Herb MaRS evaluation criteria to a seven-herb formulation for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Our ranking scale accommodates the clinical and pharmacological use of the formulation and its claimed indications. PMID:25704128

  20. Chinese herbal ingredients are effective immune stimulators for chickens infected with the Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kong, X-F; Hu, Y-L; Yin, Y-L; Wu, G-Y; Rui, R; Wang, D-Y; Yang, C-B

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at various concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly divided into 10 groups. Chickens in groups 1 to 9 were inoculated with the New-castle disease virus (NDV) strain IV vaccine by intranasal and intraocular administration. Chickens in groups 1 to 8 were also administered subcutaneously on the dorsal region of the neck with 0.5 mL of the corresponding CHI at 2 doses: 29 and 58 mg/kg of BW for APS and IRPS and 7.25 and 14.5 mg/kg of BW for the others, once daily for 3 successive days. In group 9 (CHI-free control) and group 10 (both vaccine- and CHI-free control), chickens were injected with 0.5 mL of physiological saline. New-castle disease virus-specific serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody (Ab) production in immunized chickens was quantified using established methods. The results indicate that a majority of the CHI used at appropriate concentrations were effective in enhancing in vitro proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts in response to the NDV infection. In vivo administration of CHI to vaccinated chickens (7.25 to 58 mg/kg of BW, depending on type) increased serum anti-NDV hemagglutination inhibition Ab titer concentrations, compared with the administration the NDV alone. For all CHI, a beneficial effect on the Ab production was observed on d 21 after the initiation of the vaccination. On the basis of the in vivo doses used, Propolis polysaccharide and Epimedium flavone were more potent than APS and IRPS in promoting the humoral immune response in the young birds (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that appropriate doses of CHI can be used as novel, effective immune stimulators for chickens. PMID:17135673

  1. [Changes and establishment of the principle of "Unity of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine"].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian

    2014-11-01

    "Unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine" was one of the three major health work principles at the early founding of the People's Republic of China. It was not only a choice of political strategy in line with the lack of contemporary health-care resources, but also a part of the revolutionary heritage for more than 20 years in the process of the Chinese Communist Party from the preliminary "application of both traditional and western medicine" to the making of the principles of both "cooperation of traditional Chinese and western medicine" and "unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine". All this was closely related to the concrete environment of the Chinese health work of various stages of Yan'an period with strong revolutionary atmosphere and was not the professional demand of the health workers, rather, this principle set up in 1950 was the result of the careful consideration of Mao Zedong and an adjustment guided under the revolutionary framework of Neo-democracy set up under the guidance of the Common Principle which was a bettered adaptation to the contemporary national condition. PMID:25620359

  2. Food Allergy Herbal Formula1 (FAHF-1) blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Min Li; Teng-Fei Zhang; Chih-Kang Huang; Kamal Srivastava; Ariel A. Teper; Libang Zhang; Brian H. Schofield; Hugh A. Sampson

    2001-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergy is a major cause of fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to foods. There is no curative therapy for this condition. Traditional Chinese medicines have been reported to have antiallergic properties, which might be useful for treating peanut allergy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula, FAHF-1, on peanut

  3. Integrating Traditional Chinese Medicine Services in Community Health Centers: Insights into Utilization Patterns in the Pearl River Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C. H.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Wang, Harry H. X.; Wang, Jia Ji; Hong, Lau Chun; Wei, Xiaolin; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Tang, Jin Ling; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2013-01-01

    In China's healthcare reform, community health centers (CHCs) are designed to take a pivotal role in providing primary care. Whilst about 20% of all outpatient care in China is delivered by the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) sector, hospitals, instead of CHCs, are major providers. Using current patterns of patient utilization this study aims to inform CHCs on how they may strengthen access to TCM services. Three thousand three hundred and sixty CHC patients from six cities within the urban Pearl Delta Region were enumerated using multistage cluster sampling. Fifty-two percent had visited herbalists within three months with a mean visit frequency of 1.50 times. Herbal treatments, which are cheaper than western medicines, were more popular amongst those who needed to pay out of pocket including the uninsured. Herbal medicines appeared to be an alternative for those who are underinsured. Acupuncturists and massage therapists were visited by smaller proportions, 6.58% and 5.98%, respectively, with a mean three-month visit of 0.27 and 0.26 times. Access was restricted by lack of social insurance coverage. Whilst increasing provision of TCM in CHCs might respond to patient demand, increasing insurance coverage for TCM needs to be evaluated using current evidence on safety and effectiveness. PMID:23533480

  4. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:23944085

  5. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Among Hypertensive Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liwa, Anthony C.; Smart, Luke R.; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Peck, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Results Four hundred eighty-one references were retrieved, and 4 articles from 2 countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7%-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p<0.001), male sex (RR 2.58), belief in a supernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). Conclusion More than a third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197

  6. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  7. Does the Couse of Astragalus-Containing Chinese Herbal Prescriptions and Radiotherapy Benefit to Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianmei; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy has been widely used for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), while its low efficacy and high toxicity raise big concerns. Astragalus (as a monarch drug)-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions and radiotherapy were frequently coused for NSCLC in China; however, the effects were not systematically analyzed. Objective. To evaluate the benefits of Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions combined with radiotherapy for NSCLC. Methods. The randomized controlled trials involving NSCLC treatment with Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions combined with radiotherapy were searched. The Review Manager 5.1 software was employed for data analysis. Funnel plot and Egger's test were applied to evaluate publication bias. Results. 29 eligible studies met our criteria. Of the studies, 8, 6, and 4 reported reduced risk of death at one year, two years, and three years, respectively. 26 studies revealed amended tumor response. Six studies showed improved Karnofsky performance status. Among the studies, 14 and 18 displayed a lowered white blood cells (WBC) toxicity and an ameliorated radiation pneumonia, respectively. Conclusion. Couse of Astragalus-containing Chinese herbal prescriptions and radiotherapy may benefit the patients with NSCLC via increasing the therapeutic effectiveness and reducing the toxicity of radiotherapy. To confirm the exact merits, further rigorously designed trials are warranted. PMID:24454494

  8. Can Herbal Medicine Cause Hematoma Enlargement of Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage within 24?hrs Time Window? A Retrospective Study of 256 Cases from a Single Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yafa; Guo, Jianwen; Liu, Xian; Li, Juehui; Wang, Jing; Hou, Lingbo

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients presenting with HICH within 24 hours of ictus presenting between March 2008 and March 2013 who were diagnosed as having HICH by CT scan. Of the 256 patients who matched study inclusion standard, 43 patients hematoma was enlarged (16.8%). The number of the patients who did not take PBC or RBC herbal medicine, took the PBC herbal medicine, and took RBS herbal medicine was 19 (44.2%), 2 (4.7%), and 22 (51.2%) in hematoma enlargement group and 78 (36.6%), 26 (12.2%), and 109 (51.2%) in nonhematoma enlargement group, individually. There was no significant difference between two groups (P = 0.671). PBC and RBS herbal medicine did not increase the incidence of hematoma expansion of ICH within 24 hours after onset of symptom. PMID:25788965

  9. Diverse combination therapies of Chinese Medicine in treating Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wu, S-X; Dong, Z-Y

    2014-10-14

    Objective: There are more than 300 million patients with hypertension in China, and at least 1 in 5 is using or has ever used Chinese Medicine (CM) treatment. Scope: This article reviews the efficacy and safety of CM as monotherapy and in combination with western medicine (WM) to explore its potential role in the clinical management of hypertension. Methods: Relevant articles were identified through PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database, VIP Chinese Journal Database, Wanfang Database, and China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc) search (up to 31 March, 2013). Findings: A total of 27 RCTs and 7 systematic reviews (including meta-analyses) were identified. These articles suggested that although as monotherapy, CM has limited effect for hypertension, while combined with WM, it does have a favorable effect of antihypertension. The combination therapy could not only improve the quality of life and the symptoms of hypertensive patients, such as dizziness and headache, but also stabilize blood pressure variability (BP). Moreover, the combined treatment of CM and WM may further reduce BP to the target levels for patients failed with hypertension control. Besides, the combination therapy also has more favorable effects than any WM monotherapy in protecting target organs as well as avoiding adverse reactions. Conclusion: When combined with WM, CM as a complementary treatment approach has certain effects for the control of hypertension and protection of target organs. However, more well-designed studies should be conducted to make a solid conclusion. PMID:25360839

  10. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of a herbal medicine used for the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Ankrah, Nii-Ayi; Nyarko, Alexander K; Addo, Phyllis G A; Ofosuhene, Mark; Dzokoto, Comfort; Marley, Ethel; Addae, Michael M; Ekuban, Frederick A

    2003-06-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has been reported in several countries. Other anti-malarial drugs in use are expensive and not readily accessible to most people in malaria endemic countries. This has led to renewed interest in the development of herbal medicines that have the potential to treat malaria with little or no side effects. This study obtained a preliminary information on the safety and effectiveness of a plant decoction (AM-1), used in treating malaria. The AM-1 is formulated from Jatropha curcas, Gossypium hirsutum, Physalis angulata and Delonix regia. Patients with suspected malaria attending a herbal clinic were enrolled in the study on voluntary basis. They were hospitalized for treatment, clinical observation, biochemical and haematological monitoring, and parasite clearance while on AM-1. In addition male and female Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity effects of AM-1. The AM-1 eliminated malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malarie) from the peripheral blood of patients with malaria. In addition the AM-1 did not show any undesired effects in the patients as well as in laboratory rats. The AM-1, however, showed differential effect on the activities of selected cytochrome P450 isozymes (7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase) in relation to sex of the laboratory rats. These results indicate that AM-1 could be used to treat malaria. However, it could precipitate interactions with other drugs via their biotransformation and elimination. The obtained data warrant further studies in a large number of malaria subjects with monitoring for possible drug interactions. PMID:12820245

  11. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

    2004-01-01

    Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

  12. Material Basis of Chinese Herbal Formulas Explored by Combining Pharmacokinetics with Network Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Jin; Chen, Xiuping

    2013-01-01

    The clinical application of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using several herbs in combination (called formulas), has a history of more than one thousand years. However, the bioactive compounds that account for their therapeutic effects remain unclear. We hypothesized that the material basis of a formula are those compounds with a high content in the decoction that are maintained at a certain level in the system circulation. Network pharmacology provides new methodological insights for complicated system studies. In this study, we propose combining pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis with network pharmacology to explore the material basis of TCM formulas as exemplified by the Bushen Zhuanggu formula (BZ) composed of Psoralea corylifolia L., Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., and Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss. A sensitive and credible liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 15 compounds present in the three herbs. The concentrations of these compounds in the BZ decoction and in rat plasma after oral BZ administration were determined. Up to 12 compounds were detected in the BZ decoction, but only 5 could be analyzed using PK parameters. Combined PK results, network pharmacology analysis revealed that 4 compounds might serve as the material basis for BZ. We concluded that a sensitive, reliable, and suitable LC-MS/MS method for both the composition and pharmacokinetic study of BZ has been established. The combination of PK with network pharmacology might be a potent method for exploring the material basis of TCM formulas. PMID:23468985

  13. Use of bodily sensations as a risk assessment tool: exploring people with Multiple Sclerosis’ views on risks of negative interactions between herbal medicine and conventional drug therapies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) combine it with conventional medicine. Recent risk assessment studies have shown risks of negative interactions between CAM and conventional medicine, particularly when combining herbal medicine and conventional drug therapies (CDT). Little is known about the way users consider such risks. The present paper aims to gain knowledge about this issue by exploring views on risks of negative interactions when combining herbal medicine and CDT among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This paper draws on a qualitative follow-up study on a survey among members of the Danish MS Society. Semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a strategic selection from the survey respondents. The study was inspired by a phenomenological approach and emerging themes were extracted from the data through meaning condensation. Results Four themes characterized the informants’ views on risks of negative interactions when combining herbal medicine and CDT: 1) ‘naturalness’ in herbal medicine; 2) ‘bodily sensations’ as guidelines; 3) trust in the CAM practitioner; 4) lack of dialogue with medical doctor. Conclusions Generally, the combination of herbal medicine and CDT was considered by the informants to be safe. In particular, they emphasized the ‘non-chemical’ nature of herbal medicine and of their own bodily sensations as warrants of safety. A trustful relation to the CAM practitioner furthermore made some of them feel safe in their use of herbal medicine and CDT in combination. The informants’ use of bodily sensations as a non-discursive risk assessment may be a relevant element in understanding these issues. PMID:24533750

  14. Recent advances in the compound-oriented and pattern-oriented approaches to the quality control of herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhongda; Chau, Foo-tim; Chan, Hoi-yan; Cheung, Chui-yee; Lau, Tsui-yan; Wei, Shuiyin; Mok, Daniel Kam-wah; Chan, Chi-on; Liang, Yizeng

    2008-01-01

    The current approaches to the quality control of herbal medicines are either compound-oriented or pattern-oriented, the former targeting specific components with some known chemical properties and the latter targeting all detectable components. The marker approach uses specific chemical compounds with known molecular structures, while the multi-compound approach uses both chemical compounds with known structures and those with partial chemical information e.g. retention times, mass spectra and ultraviolet spectra. Apart from chromatographic techniques, new techniques such as oscillating and electrochemistry fingerprints have been developed for quality control. Chemometric resolution methods are widely used for component deconvolution and data comparison. Pattern recognition techniques are used for authentication of herbal medicines. PMID:18680568

  15. [Brief introduction of the construction of legal system of traditional Chinese medicine in modern China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Zhao-lin

    2007-10-01

    Since the foundation of PRC, the people's government attaches great importance to the development of traditional Chinese Medicine. With the efforts of people from Chinese medicine and the Party Central Committee's concern, the legal system of traditional Chinese medicine has been progressing step by step. Since 1949, the construction of legal system of traditional Chinese medicine can be divided into three periods with lessons and achievements, each with its own features. Through the retrospect of the history of our legal system of traditional Chinese medicine from 1949 to modern times, and its analytical summary, we could obtain a lot of inspiration for the construction of modern legal system of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:19127846

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine and heart disease: what does Western medicine and nursing science know about it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Davidson; Karen Hancock; Dominic Leung; Esther Ang; Esther Chang; David R. Thompson; John Daly

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interest in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is growing rapidly beyond China. This interest is driven by a combination of factors including recognition of potential benefits of TCM; dissatisfaction with the traditional Western medical model; an increasing commitment to holistic care and increasing evidence for the interaction of psychological factors and outcomes of disease and treatment and health consumer demand.

  17. Anti-HCV activity of the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Youki; Mori, Kyoko; Satoh, Shinya; Dansako, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global health problem. Although the sustained virologic response rate in the treatment of genotype 1 using new triple therapy (pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir/boceprevir) has been improved by more than 70%, several severe side effects such as skin rash/ageusia and advanced anemia have become a problem. Under these circumstances, a new type of anti-HCV oral drug with few side effects is needed. Our recently developed HCV drug assay systems, including the HuH-7 cell line-derived OR6 and AH1R, and the Li23 cell line-derived ORL8 and ORL11, allow genome-length HCV RNAs (several strains of genotype 1b) encoding renilla luciferase to replicate efficiently. Using these systems as anti-HCV candidates, we have identified numerous existing medicines that can be used against HCV with few side effects, such as statins and teprenon. To obtain additional anti-HCV candidates, we evaluated a number of oral health supplements, and found that the capsule but not the liquid form of Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Ascomycotinanorth, North Chinese caterpillar fungus), which is used as a Chinese herbal medicine, exhibited moderate anti-HCV activity. In combination with interferon-? or ribavirin, CM exhibited an additive inhibitory effect. Among the main components of CM, cordycepin, but not ergosterol, contributed to the anti-HCV activity of CM. In consideration of all these results, we suggest that CM would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-? and/or ribavirin. PMID:24726408

  18. Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ali; N. H. Hashim; B. Saad; K. Safan; M. Nakajima; T. Yoshizawa

    2005-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as ‘jamu’ and ‘makjun’ in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween

  19. Chinese Herbal Formula Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan Protects against Bone Damage in Adjuvant Arthritis by Modulating the Mediators of Bone Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2013-01-01

    Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan (HLXL) is an herbal mixture that has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory disorders. Despite the availability of potent conventionally used drugs for RA, their limited efficacy in a proportion of patients coupled with their high cost and severe adverse effects has necessitated the search for novel therapeutics for this debilitating disease. Further, the control of both inflammation and bone damage is essential for effective management of arthritis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of HLXL against arthritic bone damage in adjuvant arthritis (AA) model of RA. Our results show that HLXL treatment suppressed inflammatory arthritis and reduced bone and cartilage damage in the joints of arthritic Lewis rats. HLXL-induced protection against bone damage was mediated primarily via inhibition of mediators of osteoclastic bone remodeling (e.g., receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand; RANKL), skewing of RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio in favor of antiosteoclastic activity, reduction in the number of osteoclasts in the arthrodial joint's bone, and inhibition of cytokine production and MMP activity. Our results suggest that HLXL might offer a promising alternative/adjunct treatment for both inflammation and bone damage in RA. PMID:23762133

  20. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  1. Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan) Involves Changes in Antigen-Induced Immunological and Biochemical Mediators of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Lee, David Y.-W; Ma, Zhongze; Yu, Hua; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major autoimmune diseases of global prevalence. The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. This limitation has necessitated the search for novel therapeutic products. We report here a traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal formula, Huo luo xiao ling dan (HLXL), which has potent antiarthritic activity as validated in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. HLXL (2.3?g/Kg) was fed to Lewis (RT.11) rats daily by gavage beginning at the onset of arthritis and then continued through the observation period. HLXL inhibited the severity of ongoing AA. This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). There was a reduction in the level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-1? but enhancement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. Thus, HLXL is a promising CAM modality for further testing in RA patients. PMID:20981317

  2. Simultaneous determination of multiple sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products with one single reference standard.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Jing; An, Yue-Wei; Hu, Guang; Yin, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2013-01-01

    Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs) has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo), isozedoarondiol (Isoz), aerugidiol (Aeru), (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox), curcumenone (Curc), neocurdione (Neoc), germacrone (Germ) and furanodiene (Fura). Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131-1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available. PMID:23389255

  3. Effects of Two Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuxue; Du, Yijie; Zhang, Hongying; Luo, Qingli; Li, Bei; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Sun, Jing; Jin, Hualiang; Wei, Kai; Zhao, Zhengxiao; Kong, Lingwen; Zhou, Xianmei; Miao, Qing; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Qingwei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of stable COPD. Methods A multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. All groups were treated with additional conventional medicines. There were a 6-month treatment and a 12-month follow-up for 5 times. Primary outcomes included lung function test, exacerbation frequency, score of SGRQ. Second outcomes consisted of 6MWD, BODE index, psychological field score, inflammatory factors and cortisol. Results A total of 331 patients were randomly divided into two active treatment groups (Bushen Yiqi (BY) granule group, n?=?109; Bushen Fangchuan (BF) tablet group, n?=?109) and a placebo group (n?=?113). Finally 262 patients completed the study. BY granule & BF tablet increased the values of VC, FEV1 (%) and FEV1/FVC (%), compared with placebo. BY granule improved PEF. Both treatments reduced acute exacerbation frequency (P?=?0.067), BODE index and psychological field score, while improved 6MWD. In terms of descent rang of SGRQ score, both treatments increased (P?=?0.01). Both treatments decreased inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, and IL-17(P?=?0.0219). BY granule obviously descended IL-17(P<0.05), IL-1? (P?=?0.05), IL-6, compared with placebo. They improved the level of IL-10 and cortisol. BY granule raised cortisol (P?=?0.07) and decreased TNF-?. Both treatments slightly descended TGF-?1. In terms of safety, subject compliance and drug combination, there were no differences (P>0.05) among three groups. Conclusions BY granule and BF tablet were positively effective for the treatment of COPD, and the former performed better in general. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register center ChiCTR-TRC-09000530 PMID:25118962

  4. [Characteristics of the development of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong in 20 century].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Luo, Qian

    2013-09-01

    The majority of Hong Kong people are Chinese. They have trusted and relied on traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. For over a century, the professional medical workers, by making use of the regulations set up by the British Hongkong Government to achieve their survival, actively supported inland campaign to fight against the "proposition of abolishing Chinese medicine" and closely cooperated with them for medical education. Together with the immigration of inland Chinese physicians to HK, the HK Government, to maintain the public health, allowed the opening of the first traditional Chinese medicine hospital, and explore the cooperation of Chinese and western medicine. Moreover, funded by the community, the HK TCM hospital paid more attention to charitable service, forming a solid foundation in the masses. These characteristics form a good foundation for the implementation of the Hong Kong Chinese medical policy after Hong Kong's reunion with its motherland. PMID:24429037

  5. Treatment with qibaomeiran, a kidney-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, antagonizes estrogen decline in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ma, Xiao-ping; Ding, Jie; Liu, Zhen-li; Song, Zhi-qian; Liu, Hong-ning; Lin, Na

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) contain multi-interactive compounds that have been used for treatment of peri-menopausal syndrome and have become a new phytoestrogens resource. The QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR), including Polygoni multiflori radix, Angelicae sinensis radix, Achyranthis bidentatae radix, semen Cuscutae, fructus Lycii, Poria, and fructus Psoraleae, has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in post-menopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function. However, no evidence base links QBMR to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertook a characterization of estrogenic activity of QBMR using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were treated with QBMR at doses of 0.875, 1.75, and 3.5 grams/kg per day for 8 weeks. QBMR treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by vaginal cornification, reversal of atrophy of uterus, vagina, and mammary gland, and up-regulation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression in the reproductive target tissues, where ER? up-regulation was stronger than that of ER?. Meanwhile, treatment with QBMR significantly increased adrenal weight and serum estradiol levels and tended to decrease serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, QBMR significantly decreased weight gain and rectal temperature increase caused by ovariectomy, and the largest changes in rectal temperature were found at the lowest dose. The data suggest that QBMR's estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QBMR components. This study demonstrates that QBMR activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QBMR treatment of post-menopausal symptoms. PMID:24773352

  6. Towards Modernization of the Formulation of the Traditional Uighur Medicine Herbal Preparation Abnormal Savda Munziq

    PubMed Central

    Kizaibek, Murat; Popescu, Ruxandra; Prinz, Sonja; Upur, Halmurat; Singhuber, Judith; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic asthma and cancer. The recommended dose of this decoction for cancer patients is 500?mL administered orally three times a day. Our approach aimed at reducing the high amount of fluid intake required by fractionation of ASMq guided by the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. The fractionation of ASMq resulted in the preparation of an active extract, Extr-4. Using solid phase extraction, Extr-4 was further fractionated into five fractions (SPE-0, SPE-20, SPE-40, SPE-60 and SPE-80), with SPE-40 showing the strongest antiproliferative activity. Caffeic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, luteolin and formononetin were identified in Extr-4 and fractions thereof by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. SPE-40 contained the main compounds responsible for the antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells. Thus, a phenolic fraction with high antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells was obtained from ASMq through the bioassay-guided fractionation process. This could provide a better pharmaceutical formulation that minimizes the administration inconveniencies of a high volume (1.5?L per day) of ASMq decoction for cancer patients. PMID:21837249

  7. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

  8. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-08-28

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed. PMID:16504449

  9. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Meiwan; Wu, Guosheng; Gong, Jian; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Dang, Yuanye; Guo, Jiajie; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

  10. The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow’s medicine. PMID:23763836

  11. An in vitro approach to investigate medicinal chemical synthesis by three herbal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann L. Smith; Hideka Kobayashi; Margaret Gawienowski; Donald P. Briskin

    2002-01-01

    Ever since regulatory changes introduced herbals into mainstream supermarkets and pharmacies, there has been an explosion of demand for herbal plants and extracts which can be used to improve human health and well being. Science still lacks a basic mechanistic understanding of how environmental triggers regulate phytochemical accumulation, but this gap can be bridged using in vitro models to examine

  12. A comparison of the chemical composition and bioactive ingredients of the Chinese medicinal mushroom DongChongXiaCao, its counterfeit and mimic, and fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai-Hao Hsu; Li-Hua Shiao; Chienyan Hsieh; Der-Ming Chang

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese herbal drug DongChongXiaCao, a medicinal and edible mushroom originating from the fungus Cordyceps sp., has been developed into health foods. Counterfeit and mimic types are frequently found in markets. Mycelial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, via submerged fermentation, have been commercialized and also named DongChongXiaCao. This investigation endeavours to characterize the proximate composition, amino acid profiles, and contents of

  13. Approach to Health Supporting System Using Traditional Chinese Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watsuji, Tadashi; Shinohara, Shoji; Arita, Seizaburo

    The primary prevention of disease related to the lifestyle is an essential theme in medical research. Preventing before it arises is the important concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Since TCM, which emphasizes individual physical condition in medical treatment, has recently attracted considerable attention globally, objective diagnostic methods in TCM have been investigated in this work. Firstly, the fuzzy theory was applied to develop a tongue diagnosis supporting system based on the tongue diagnosis in TCM. Secondly, the usefulness of TCM health questionnaire was examined to identify individual physical condition. Our results suggest that the TCM health questionnaire is useful in the construction of a health supporting system based on TCM.

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ADHD: a review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinqiang; Zhang-James, Yanli; Han, Xinmin; Lei, Shuang; Sun, Jichao; Zhou, Rongyi

    2014-10-01

    This review covers an introduction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on the traditional theoretic basis from the perspective of TCM regarding ADHD's cause, pathogenesis, methods of syndrome differentiation, and rationale for treatment. The authors present commonly accepted and successfully practiced clinical procedures used in China for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by TCM clinicians along with the supportive clinical evidence. The authors hope to inspire more research to better understand the mechanisms underlying the therapies and to promote appropriate incorporation of TCM therapies with Western pharmacologic treatment to better help patients with ADHD. PMID:25220091

  15. [Origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Wei; Jia, Hong-Ling

    2014-06-01

    The origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine is explored from related literature in the history. As a result, the Shang period is regarded as initial period of umbilical therapy, while periods from Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Southern-Northern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty could be taken as stage of primary development. Time from Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasties is believed as mature stage. Also the manipulation, application principle, indications and contraindications of umbilical therapy are explained. A brief overview of modern development of umbilical therapy is also described. PMID:25112106

  16. Microscopic research on a multi-source traditional Chinese medicine, Astragali Radix.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun-Zi; Liu, Jing; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Hong, Hao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Astragali Radix is a widely and commonly used Chinese herbal medicine, which is derived from roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Astragalus membranaceus. To find a quick and reliable method of distinguishing these two species of Astragali Radix and of determining the age of a sample, microscopic characteristics of the two species were compared using light microscopy. The results showed that the microscopic characteristics, such as number of layers of phellem, continuing lignified xylem bundles within spring wood and lignified parenchyma cells in the central part of the xylem could be used for the differentiation of the root of A. membranaceus from the root of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus. Growth rings (annual rings) were found for the first time in the roots of both species, and could determine the age of a sample. For the first time, radial fibers in both species of Astragali Radix and pipette-shaped fibers in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus were found. The structure of "rotten heart" cork tissue (decayed central xylem) and tubular cork tissue was carefully studied, and the arranged order of tissues in both "rotten heart" and tubular cork tissues is phelloderm and phellem from outside to inside, which is contrary to that in the periderm. PMID:24085529

  17. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine improves acute pancreatitis via the downregulation of PRSS1 and SPINK1

    PubMed Central

    GAO, QIANG; LIANG, NUSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (ITCM) is known to improve health in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. AP is associated with the expression of PRSS1 and SPINK1. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether ITCM was able to ameliorate AP by regulating the expression levels of protein, serine 1 (PRSS1) and serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1). A total of 100 AP patients were divided at random into two groups. The treatment group were treated externally with a herbal ITCM preparation, while the control group received a routine placebo treatment. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PRSS1 and SPINK1 were subsequently compared between the two groups. The results revealed that the health of the patients who had received ITCM improved significantly when compared with the control group patients (P<0.05). In addition, the expression levels of PRSS1 and SPINK1 were found to be lower in the treatment group when compared with the control group (P<0.05). Therefore, ITCM exhibited a significant therapeutic effect on AP and produced no side effects since the treatment was applied externally. ITCM may ameliorate AP by downregulating the expression of PRSS1 and SPINK1; thus, should be considered as a potential therapy for the development of drugs against AP. PMID:25667658

  18. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  19. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  20. Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

    2006-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

  1. Simultaneous determination of six Aconitum alkaloids in proprietary Chinese medicines by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Xie; Zhi Hong Jiang; Hua Zhou; Hong Xi Xu; Liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    By optimizing the extraction, separation and analytical conditions, a reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with photodiode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of six Aconitum alkaloids, i.e., aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine, in Chinese medicinal herbs, aconite roots, and 12 proprietary Chinese medicines containing processed aconite roots. The separation of these

  2. Chinese Medicines Induce Cell Death: The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuanbin; Tan, Hor Yue; Zhong, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and Methods. Chinese medicines (including Chinese medicinal herbs, animal parts, and minerals) were used in the study. The key words including “cancer”, “cell death”, “apoptosis”, “autophagy,” “necrosis,” and “Chinese medicine” were used in retrieval of related information from PubMed and other databases. Results. The cell death induced by Chinese medicines is described as apoptotic, autophagic, or necrotic cell death and other types with an emphasis on their mechanisms of anticancer action. The relationship among different types of cell death induced by Chinese medicines is critically reviewed and discussed. Conclusions. This review summarizes that CMs treatment could induce multiple pathways leading to cancer cell death, in which apoptosis is the dominant type. To apply these preclinical researches to clinic application will be a key issue in the future. PMID:25379508

  3. [Conversion and transformation: the historical destiny of Chinese medicine and Western medicine classics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao

    2012-11-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) and Western Medicine (WM) show different traces in the inheritance and innovation. The great distinguished physicians in the history of CM and WM, and eternal classic works have experienced similar fates in the river of the history, but they have manifested the same origins and different branches. In this paper, I hold that it is understandable that CM classics and WM classics have experienced different historical destinies from different disciplinary attributes. Their methodological origins could be found from different ideological and cultural bases. They construct necessary tension of mutual reference and bridging from future development of a medical community. PMID:23359963

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Lewith, George T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular for treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) although there is a lack of comprehensive evaluation of current clinical evidence for TCM's therapeutic effect and safety. Objective To review systematically the beneficial and harmful effects of TCM therapies for FM. Methods We searched six English and Chinese electronic databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on TCM for treatment of FM. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trial quality independently. RevMan 5 software was used for data analyses with an effect estimate presented as mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Twenty-five RCTs were identified with 1516 participants for this review. Seven trials (28%) were evaluated as having a low risk of bias and the remaining trials were identified as being as unclear or having a high risk of bias. Overall, ten trials were eligible for the meta-analysis, and data from remaining 15 trials were synthesized qualitatively. Acupuncture reduced the number of tender points (MD, –3.21; 95% CI –4.23 to –2.11; p?Chinese herbal medicine on pain reduction compared with conventional medications. There were no serious adverse effects reported that were related to TCM therapies in these trials. Conclusions TCM therapies appear to be effective for treating FM. However, further large, rigorously designed trials are warranted because of insufficient methodological rigor in the included trials. PMID:20423209

  5. Dietary patterns using Traditional Chinese Medicine principles in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Marion M; Shen, Jennifer M

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional factors have been shown to be associated with many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. There are many approaches to studying dietary intake in relationship to disease; each approach has its strengths and weaknesses. Examples of different methods of studying dietary patterns will be reviewed. In most cultures, consumed and preferred foods are based on cultural and societal influence. Thus, it is important to consider dietary patterns within the context of culture in addition to the standard nutrients or food groupings approach. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers another dimension to food analysis. Our approach classifies dietary intake based on Traditional Chinese Medicine principles of yin and yang, hot and cold, and acidic and alkaline forming food concepts in a case-control study of dietary factors and breast cancer. Our results complement previously reported findings of an increased risk of breast cancer associated with dietary fats in Taiwanese women. Our discussion will focus on the implication of using this dietary pattern research and the challenge of combining this research with culturally sensitive messages to improve health. Our ultimate goal is to design an intervention strategy for disease prevention and health promotion that is culturally appropriate for specific populations. PMID:18296307

  6. The impact of acculturation on the use of traditional Chinese medicine in newly diagnosed Chinese cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Anthony Ferro; Anne Leis; Richard Doll; Lyren Chiu; Michael Chung; Maria-Cristina Barroetavena

    2007-01-01

    Goals of work  This study assessed the impact of acculturation on the prevalence of traditional Chinese medicine and other complementary\\u000a and alternative medicine (TCM\\/CAM) use in newly diagnosed Chinese cancer patients. The individual determinants of TCM\\/CAM\\u000a use among patients were also investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A consecutive sample of Chinese cancer patients treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency was surveyed at

  7. Ginger--an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions.

    PubMed

    Grzanna, Reinhard; Lindmark, Lars; Frondoza, Carmelita G

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have been known and valued for centuries. During the past 25 years, many laboratories have provided scientific support for the long-held belief that ginger contains constituents with antiinflammatory properties. The original discovery of ginger's inhibitory effects on prostaglandin biosynthesis in the early 1970s has been repeatedly confirmed. This discovery identified ginger as an herbal medicinal product that shares pharmacological properties with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ginger suppresses prostaglandin synthesis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. An important extension of this early work was the observation that ginger also suppresses leukotriene biosynthesis by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase. This pharmacological property distinguishes ginger from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This discovery preceded the observation that dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase may have a better therapeutic profile and have fewer side effects than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The characterization of the pharmacological properties of ginger entered a new phase with the discovery that a ginger extract (EV.EXT.77) derived from Zingiber officinale (family Zingiberaceae) and Alpina galanga (family Zingiberaceae) inhibits the induction of several genes involved in the inflammatory response. These include genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, and the inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2. This discovery provided the first evidence that ginger modulates biochemical pathways activated in chronic inflammation. Identification of the molecular targets of individual ginger constituents provides an opportunity to optimize and standardize ginger products with respect to their effects on specific biomarkers of inflammation. Such preparations will be useful for studies in experimental animals and humans. PMID:16117603

  8. Fluorescence, electrophoretic and chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines and their comparative chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Mazina, Jekaterina; Vaher, Merike; Kuhtinskaja, Maria; Poryvkina, Larisa; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the polyphenolic compositions of 47 medicinal herbs (HM) and four herbal tea mixtures from Central Estonia by rapid, reliable and sensitive Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) method in a front face mode. The SFS method was validated for the main identified HM representatives including detection limits (0.037mgL(-1) for catechin, 0.052mgL(-1) for protocatechuic acid, 0.136mgL(-1) for chlorogenic acid, 0.058mgL(-1) for syringic acid and 0.256mgL(-1) for ferulic acid), linearity (up to 5.0-15mgL(-1)), intra-day precision (RSDs=6.6-10.6%), inter-day precision (RSDs=6.4-13.8%), matrix effect (-15.8 to +5.5) and recovery (85-107%). The phytochemical fingerprints were differentiated by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). HM were clustered into four main clusters (catechin-like, hydroxycinnamic acid-like, dihydrobenzoic acid-like derivatives containing HM and HM with low/very low content of fluorescent constituents) and 14 subclusters (rich, medium, low/very low contents). The average accuracy and precision of CA for validation HM set were 97.4% (within 85.2-100%) and 89.6%, (within 66.7-100%), respectively. PARAFAC-PCA/CA has improved the analysis of HM by the SFS method. The results were verified by two separation methods CE-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS also combined with PARAFAC-PCA/CA. The SFS-PARAFAC-PCA/CA method has potential as a rapid and reliable tool for investigating the fingerprints and predicting the composition of HM or evaluating the quality and authenticity of different standardised formulas. Moreover, SFS-PARAFAC-PCA/CA can be implemented as a laboratory and/or an onsite method. PMID:25882431

  9. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G

    1998-11-01

    Herbal medicinals are being used by an increasing number of patients who typically do not advise their clinicians of concomitant use. Known or potential drug-herb interactions exist and should be screened for. If used beyond 8 weeks, Echinacea could cause hepatotoxicity and therefore should not be used with other known hepatoxic drugs, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate, and ketoconazole. However, Echinacea lacks the 1,2 saturated necrine ring associated with hepatoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may negate the usefulness of feverfew in the treatment of migraine headaches. Feverfew, garlic, Ginkgo, ginger, and ginseng may alter bleeding time and should not be used concomitantly with warfarin sodium. Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Ginseng should also not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because of possible additive effects. Since the mechanism of action of St John wort is uncertain, concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is ill advised. Valerian should not be used concomitantly with barbiturates because excessive sedation may occur. Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Shankapulshpi, an Ayurvedic preparation, may decrease phenytoin levels as well as diminish drug efficacy. Kava when used with alprazolam has resulted in coma. Immunostimulants (eg, Echinacea and zinc) should not be given with immunosuppressants (eg, corticosteroids and cyclosporine). Tannic acids present in some herbs (eg, St John wort and saw palmetto) may inhibit the absorption of iron. Kelp as a source of iodine may interfere with thyroid replacement therapies. Licorice can offset the pharmacological effect of spironolactone. Numerous herbs (eg, karela and ginseng) may affect blood glucose levels and should not be used in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:9818800

  10. Quality Control of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction, by (1)H-NMR Metabolic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pui Hei; Zhang, Wendy L; Cheung, Chi Yuen; Tsim, Karl W K; Lam, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is one of the simplest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoctions, first described in China in 1247 AD. DBT is composed of 2 herbs, Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR), boiled together in a 5?:?1 ratio. Clinically, DBT is prescribed to women as a remedy for menopausal symptoms. Here, H-NMR metabolic profiling was conducted for DBT and the water extracts of AR or ASR, to evaluate the potential of this chemical profiling method for quality control of the herbal decoction. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that DBT could be readily distinguished from the water extracts of its constituent herbs by the metabolic profiles. More interestingly, the metabolic profile of DBT was not a simple sum of that of AR and ASR. Asparagine was found at significantly higher concentration in DBT than that in either AR or ASR extract, contributing mainly to the discrimination of DBT sample. In addition, we employed the same method to profile a commercial DBT powder, verifying its authenticity as compared to our prepared DBT. This study is the first to employ H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine decoctions. PMID:24826194

  11. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of patients with shrinking of uterine fibroids or average volume of uterine fibroids, but less effective than mifepristone on reducing average size of uterus (mean difference 23.23 cm3, 95% confidence interval 17.85 to 28.61). There was no significant difference between Nona Roguy herbal product and GnRH agonist in average volume of uterine fibroids or size of uterus. No serious adverse effects from herbal preparations was reported. Authors’ conclusions Current evidence does not support or refute the use of herbal preparations for treatment of uterine fibroids due to insufficient studies of large sample and high quality. Further high quality trials evaluating clinically relevant outcomes are warranted. PMID:19370619

  12. World Science and Technology/Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica "973 "2011CB505101""

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Nevin L.

    -- World Science and Technology/Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica/Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica . v1.52011. http.fineprint.cn #12;-- World Science and Technology/Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica

  13. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: A review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome Sarris; Alexander Panossian; Isaac Schweitzer; Con Stough; Andrew Scholey

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic

  14. [Process and key points of clinical literature evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion. PMID:22292382

  15. An investigation of some Turkish herbal medicines in Salmonella typhimurium and in the COMET assay in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Basaran, A A; Yu, T W; Plewa, M J; Anderson, D

    1996-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a major role in the life of Turkish people and of late medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. Green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information about the biological activities of herbal medicine. In the present study, therefore, various Turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic potential in the Salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay. Extracts from these medicinal herbs and some fractions of these extracts were examined. The species investigated were Arctium minus, Ecballium elatterium, Momordica charantia, Plantago major, Urtica dioica, Viscum album, Salvia triloba, Euphorbia rigida, Stachys lavandulifolia, Acteoside, Abies nordmannia. They are used for various immune disorders and are applied either topically or taken orally as a herbal tea. Of the 19 samples of the extracts and fractions investigated, none produced a positive response in strains TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation, but all produced an increase above negative control values in the COMET assay. Some extracts were investigated further and produced dose-related increases. In the case of Urtica and Euphorbia species, where two fractions from these plants were examined, one fraction produced a greater response than the other. It is suggested that the lesser response of the fractions might be due to less DNA strand-breaking agents in the fractions or they may have antigenotoxic properties. The breaks that are detected in the COMET assay could be alkali-labile AP-sites and intermediates in base- or nucleotide-excision repair and are difficult to interpret in terms of hazard for man. Further studies with additional genotoxicity assays would be required to make such a prediction. PMID:8875742

  16. [Origination and development of syndrome concept in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Yong-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2006-07-01

    In the opinion of dialectical materialism, concept is developing with the deepening and broadening of human being's mind. The developing process of syndrome concept in traditional Chinese medicine also takes the same way. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the connotation of syndrome concept was defined and the embryonic form of syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera was formed. In the Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties, the development of syndrome concept embodied in optimizing the theoretical research based on clinical practice and experiences according to many medical masters in different denominations. The syndrome differentiation of eight principles was established to standardize and perfect the principles of syndrome differentiation in the Qing Dynasty. Modern research of syndrome concept is manifested in objectifying the process of research of syndrome and diseases in different levels and aspects by use of advanced scientific technology. PMID:16834966

  17. Novel PDE4 Inhibitors Derived from Chinese Medicine Forsythia

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Tiffany A.; McKelvey, Alison C.; Weathington, Nate M.; Birru, Rahel L.; Lear, Travis; Leikauf, George D.; Chen, Bill B.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a crucial intracellular second messenger molecule that converts extracellular molecules to intracellular signal transduction pathways generating cell- and stimulus-specific effects. Importantly, specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) subtypes control the amplitude and duration of cAMP-induced physiological processes and are therefore a prominent pharmacological target currently used in a variety of fields. Here we tested the extracts from traditional Chinese medicine, Forsythia suspense seeds, which have been used for more than 2000 years to relieve respiratory symptoms. Using structural-functional analysis we found its major lignin, Forsynthin, acted as an immunosuppressant by inhibiting PDE4 in inflammatory and immune cell. Moreover, several novel, selective small molecule derivatives of Forsythin were tested in vitro and in murine models of viral and bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and cytokine-driven systemic inflammation. Thus, pharmacological targeting of PDE4 may be a promising strategy for immune-related disorders characterized by amplified host inflammatory response. PMID:25549252

  18. The Yang-Tonifying Herbal Medicine Cynomorium songaricum Extends Lifespan and Delays Aging in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hsin-Ping; Chang, Rong-Fu; Wu, Yih-Shyuan; Lin, Wei-Yong; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Aging is highly correlated with the progressive loss of physiological function, including cognitive behavior and reproductive capacity, as well as an increased susceptibility to diseases; therefore, slowing age-related degeneration could greatly contribute to human health. Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. (CS) is traditionally used to improve sexual function and treat kidney dysfunction in traditional Chinese medicine, although little is known about whether CS has effects on longevity. Here, we show that CS supplementation in the diet extends both the mean and maximum lifespan of adult female flies. The increase in lifespan with CS was correlated with higher resistance to oxidative stress and starvation and lower lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) levels. Additionally, the lifespan extension was accompanied by beneficial effects, such as improved mating readiness, increased fecundity, and suppression of age-related learning impairment in aged flies. These findings demonstrate the important antiaging effects of CS and indicate the potential applicability of dietary intervention with CS to enhance health and prevent multiple age-related diseases. PMID:22844336

  19. The role of traditional Chinese medicines in osteogenesis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanqi; Chin, Alice; Zhang, Linkun; Lu, Jiajing; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to review various Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) with both osteogenic and angiogenic effects, alone and in combination, and to consider whether these TCMs promote osteogenesis via angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Each of the TCMs involving in osteogenesis was searched through PubMed and CBMdisc using its Latin name and English name, and keywords such as 'osteogenesis', 'bone', 'osteoblast', 'angiogenesis', 'VEGF' were used. A total of 241 articles were screened from PubMed and CBMdisc. The articles were only chosen if they discussed the relationship of the TCMs with bone formation and/or angiogenesis. Twenty-seven articles were chosen, of which 16 were in English and 11 were in Chinese with English abstract. As a result, the TCMs (Danshen or Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Danggui or Angelica sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus Bunge or Huangqi, and Ge Gan or Puerarin radix) that have a relationship with both osteogenesis and angiogenesis were screened out. It is found that the aforementioned TCMs enhance angiogenesis and osteogenesis. They show a positive effect on bone formation, and the possible mechanisms may be related to their ability to promote angiogenesis via an effect on substances such as VEGF. PMID:23494901

  20. A new dawn for the use of traditional Chinese medicine in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Harendra S; Liu, Gang; Wei, Ming Q

    2009-01-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine has benefitted one fifth of the world's population in treating a plethora of diseases, its acceptance as a real therapeutic option by the West is only now emerging. In light of a new wave of recognition being given to traditional Chinese medicine by health professionals and regulatory bodies in the West, an understanding of their molecular basis and highlighting potential future applications of a proven group of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of a variety of cancers is crucial – this is where their calling holds much hope and promise in both animal and human trials. Furthermore, the rationale for combining conventional agents and modern biotechnological approaches to the delivery of traditional Chinese medicine is an avenue set to revolutionize the future practice of cancer medicine – and this may well bring on a new dawn of therapeutic strategies where East truly meets West. PMID:19298677

  1. [Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along kidney meridian based on medicinal property combination].

    PubMed

    Ren, Ying-Long; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    To study the characteristics of pharmacological effects of property combinations of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) distributing in the stomach meridian based on medicinal property combination, in order to further define the association relationship between properties of TCMs and their pharmacological effects, and build a bridge for the interpenetration and combination between the medicinal property theory of TCMs and their pharmacological effects. On the basis of the studies on the medicinal property theory of TCMs distributing along the kidney meridian and their pharmacological effects, efforts were made to collect relevant data for medicinal properties and pharmacological effects and mine the characteristics of pharmacological effects that were corresponding to relevant medicinal property combination by processing materials related to medicinal properties and pharmacological effects with the association rules method. According to the analysis, TCMs distributing along the kidney meridian with different medicinal property combinations were significantly differentiated in the pharmacological effects, but shared identical pharmacological effects, such as immunological enhancement. In this study, TCMs distributing along the kidney meridian with different medicinal property combinations were taken as the carriers to closely integrate the traditional Chinese medicine theory with the modem study achievements, lay a solid foundation for further developing and enriching the traditional Chinese medical property theory, while providing a new perspective on the development of modem medicine. PMID:25276955

  2. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT) made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and ?-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT). The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26126113

  3. Chinese herbal formula Tongluo Jiunao injection protects against cerebral ischemia by activating neurotrophin 3/tropomyosin-related kinase C pathway

    PubMed Central

    Alesheikh, Peiman; Mashoufi, Arezou; Tang, Hui-ling; Zhang, Wei; Di, Bo; Yan, Yang-yang; Li, Peng-tao; Pan, Yan-shu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herbal formula Tongluo Jiunao, containing the active components Panax notoginseng and Gardenia jasminoides, has recently been patented and is in use clinically. It is known to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia, but the underlying pathway remains poorly understood. In the present study, we established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, and administered Tongluo Jiunao, a positive control (Xuesai Tong, containing Panax notoginseng) or saline intraperitoneally to investigate the pathway involved in the action of Tongluo Jiunao injection. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining showed that the cerebral infarct area was significantly smaller in model rats that received Tongluo Jiunao than in those that received saline. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed significantly greater expression of neurotrophin 3 and growth-associated protein 43 in ischemic cerebral tissue, and serum levels of neurotrophin 3, in the Tongluo Jiunao group than in the saline group. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining showed that after treatment with Tongluo Jiunao or Xuesai Tong, tropomyosin-related kinase C gene expression and immunoreactivity were significantly elevated compared with saline, with the greatest expression observed after Tongluo Jiunao treatment. These findings suggest that Tongluo Jiunao injection exerts a neuroprotective effect in rats with cerebral ischemia by activating the neurotrophin 3/tropomyosin-related kinase C pathway. PMID:25878594

  4. Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Hashim, N H; Saad, B; Safan, K; Nakajima, M; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-12-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as 'jamu' and 'makjun' in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween 20-phosphate buffered saline (1:9, v/v) and a chromatographic system using isocratic mobile phase composed of water-methanol-acetonitrile (70:20:10, v/v/v), was effective in separating AFB1, AFG1 and AFG2 from interference at their retention times. Results were confirmed using post-column derivatization with photochemical reactor. For 23 commercial samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB(1), AFB(2) and AFG1 in positive samples were 0.26 (70%), 0.07 (61%) and 0.10 (30%) microg/kg, respectively; one sample was positive for AFG2 at a level of 0.03 (4%) microg/kg. In contrast to the high levels of AF in crude herbal drugs and medicinal plants reported previously by other researchers, the low contamination levels reported in this study may be attributed to the higher selectivity to AF of the method applied. Based on the AFB1 levels and the daily consumption of positive samples, a mean probable daily intake of 0.022 ng/kg body weight was calculated. PMID:16019122

  5. Rapid and reliable determination of illegal adulterant in herbal medicines and dietary supplements by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qionglin; Qu, Jun; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming

    2006-02-13

    In recent years, dietary supplements and herbal medicines are increasing in popularity all over the world. However, it is problematic that some manufacturers illegally included synthetic drugs in their products. Due to the extremely complex matrices of those products, most existing methods for screening illegal adulterations are time-consuming and liable to false positive. In this paper, a robust LC/MS/MS method for the high-throughput, sensitive and reliable determination of illegal adulterations from herbal medicines and dietary supplements was established. Minimal LC separation was employed and MRM was used to simultaneously monitor the three transitions under their respective optimal collision energy for each compound. Positive results were determined only if well-defined peaks appeared at all of the three transitions and the ratios among the peak areas were within given threshold. In this study, the method had been applied for the screening of nine most commonly adulterated therapeutic substances, such as sildenafil (Viagra) and famotidine, and the lower limits of detection of these compounds ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 ng/ml. Little sample preparation was needed for this method and the analysis time was less than 5 min/sample. The reliability has been demonstrated by the test with blank matrix. Over 200 products that were under suspicion by SDA of China had been assayed and till now no false negative or positive result was found. This method is rapid, simple, reliable and capable of screening multiple adulterants in one run. PMID:16174560

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Yang, Chih-Ching; Li, Ping-Chia; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress induces inflammation to several tissues/organs leading to cell death and long-term injury. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic regulatory functions has been widely used as preventive or therapeutic strategy in modern medicine. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been widely reported to contribute to cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, hepatotoxicity, or sympathetic activation-induced liver inflammation, lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation, and substance P-mediated neurogenic hyperactive bladder based on clinical findings. In this review, we introduce several evidences for TCM treatment including Monascus adlay (MA) produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) with Monascus purpureus on lung injury, Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. of Euphorbiaceae family) on hepatotoxin-induced liver inflammation, Virgate Wormwood Decoction (Y?n Chén H?o t?ng) and its active component genipin on sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, and green tea extract and its active components, catechins, or a modified TCM formula Five Stranguries Powder (W? Lén S?n) plus Crataegi Fructus (Sh?n Zh?) on hyperactive bladder. The pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms of TCM on ameliorating inflammatory diseases are discussed in the review. PMID:24716170

  7. Network pharmacology: a Rosetta Stone for traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da Cheng; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2014-08-01

    Network pharmacology, based on the theory of systems biology, is a new discipline that analyzes the biological network and screens out the nodes of particular interest, with the aim of designing poly-target drug molecule. It emphasizes maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing adverse effect via the multiple regulation of the signaling pathway. Coincidentally, almost all traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and worldwide ethnomedicine exert therapeutic effect by targeting multiple molecules of the human body. In this overview, we offer a critique on the present perception of TCM and network pharmacology; illustrate the utility of network pharmacology in the study of single herb, medicine pair, and TCM formula; and summarize the recent progress of TCM-based drug discovery inspired by network pharmacology. Network pharmacology could be of great help in decreasing drug attrition rate and thus is essential in rational and cost-effective drug development. We also pinpoint the current TCM issues that could be tackled by the flexible combined use of network pharmacology and relevant disciplines. PMID:25160070

  8. [Technical scheme of real-time evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine orally disintegrating tablets].

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong; Chen, Xu-dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-fei; Yuan, Jia-rui; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-12-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), a kind of new solid tablet that rapidly disintegrates to work in the mouth, has became the hot form of new drug research in recent years with many advantages, such as the convenient taking, a widely applicable people, fast acting, high bioavailability, good compliance, and so on. ODT has been widely used in chemical medicines, while the application of it in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is still in the stage of development The development of TCMs ODT provides a new direction for the research of Chinese medicine new dosage, accelerates the pace of connecting to the world and modernization of Chinese medicine. This dosage has a broad market prospect, and its quality control and assessment standards, taste, the disintegration time in vitro and evaluation method are the key factors that affect the industrialization, standardization of Chinese medicine ODT. Therefore, this paper reviewed the characteristics, preparation, taste masking technology and quality evaluation with new technology of ODT. Meantime, numerous application examples of ODT used in traditional Chinese medicine were described. We expect to provide the reference and utilization for the development of traditional Chinese medicine orally disinteeratine tablets. PMID:25898566

  9. Searching for Synergistic Bronchodilators and Novel Therapeutic Regimens for Chronic Lung Diseases from a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Binfeng; Zhou, Mengge; Fang, Runping; Jiang, Min; Hou, Wenbin; Bai, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for ?2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the ?2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective ?AR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD. PMID:25397687

  10. Searching for synergistic bronchodilators and novel therapeutic regimens for chronic lung diseases from a traditional Chinese medicine, Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Binfeng; Zhou, Mengge; Fang, Runping; Jiang, Min; Hou, Wenbin; Bai, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for ?2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the ?2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective ?AR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD. PMID:25397687

  11. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation — Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration?

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity individually and in combinations (i.e., “complex mixtures”) consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary “proof of principle” for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. PMID:21108995

  12. Expression of the psoriasis-associated antigen, Pso p27, is inhibited by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Song; Hilde Lysvand; Yan Yuhe; Wali Liu; Ole-Jan Iversen

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the studyPso p27 is shown to be an autoantigen in psoriasis and the objective of the present study was to investigate whether Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) would influence the expression of Pso p27.

  13. [Application of multivariate statistical analysis and thinking in quality control of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Li, Jun; Li, Bao-Guo

    2014-11-01

    The study of quality control of Chinese medicine has always been the hot and the difficulty spot of the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is also one of the key problems restricting the modernization and internationalization of Chinese medicine. Multivariate statistical analysis is an analytical method which is suitable for the analysis of characteristics of TCM. It has been used widely in the study of quality control of TCM. Multivariate Statistical analysis was used for multivariate indicators and variables that appeared in the study of quality control and had certain correlation between each other, to find out the hidden law or the relationship between the data can be found,.which could apply to serve the decision-making and realize the effective quality evaluation of TCM. In this paper, the application of multivariate statistical analysis in the quality control of Chinese medicine was summarized, which could provided the basis for its further study. PMID:25775806

  14. Computational investigation of the anti-HIV activity of Chinese medicinal formula Three-Huang Powder.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jack Z; Bai, Li; Chen, Da-Gang; Xu, Qi-Tai; Southerland, William M

    2010-06-01

    An essential step in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is integration of the double-stranded retroviral DNA into the genome of the host cell. HIV-1 integrase, the enzyme that inserts the vital DNA into the host chromosome, is an attractive and rational target for anti-AIDS drug design because it is essential for HIV replication and there are no known counterparts in the host cell. Inhibitors of this enzyme have the great potential to complement the therapeutic use of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Natural products have provided a source of new drug candidates for anti-AIDS therapy. Baicalein and baicalin, identified components of a Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, have been shown to inhibit infectivity and replication of HIV. They are therefore promising lead compounds for developing new anti-AIDS drugs. To understand how the inhibitors work and therefore design more potent and specific inhibitors, we have used molecular modeling techniques to investigate the binding modes of these inhibitors. The three-dimensional structures of these inhibitors were first built. Then, computational binding studies of these inhibitors, based on the crystal structure of the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain, were performed to study the complex structure. The preliminary results of our computational modeling study demonstrated that Baicalein binds to the active site region of the HIV-1 integrase. Our study will be of help to identify the pharmacophores of inhibitors binding to HIV-1 integrase and design new pharmaceuticals for the treatment of AIDS. PMID:20640783

  15. Cell-based screening of traditional Chinese medicines for proliferation enhancers of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding; Isherwood, Sarah; Motz, Andrew; Zang, Ru; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput cell-based method was developed for screening traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) for potential stem cell growth promoters. Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were cultured in growth media supplemented with various TCHM extracts. The dosage-dependent effects of TCHM extracts on cell growth, including proliferation and cytotoxicity, were assessed via EGFP fluorescence measurement. Seven TCHMs were investigated, and among them Panax notoginseng (PN), Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae, Rhizoma chuanxiong, and Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) showed potential to improve mES cell proliferation. Eleven mixtures of these four TCHMs were then studied, and the results showed that the mixture of PN and GLS had the strongest growth promoting effect, increasing the specific growth rate of mES cells by 29.5% at a low dosage of 0.01% (wt/vol) PN/GLS (P<0.01) and 34.2% at 0.1% (wt/vol) PN/GLS (P<0.05) compared to the control. The growth promoting effect of PN/GLS was further confirmed with ES cells cultured in spinner flasks. A 29.3-fold increase in the total cell number was achieved in the medium supplemented with 0.01% PN/GLS after 5 days, while the control culture only gave a 16.8-fold increase. This cell-based screening method thus can provide an efficient and high-throughput way to explore potential stem cell growth promoters from TCHMs. PMID:23606670

  16. Establishing Chinese medicine characteristic tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of Chinese medicine oncology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Lei; Liu, Rui; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2012-10-01

    The features and advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) in cancer comprehensive treatment have been in the spotlight of experts both at home and abroad. However, how to evaluate the effect of CM more objectively, scientifically and systematically is still the key problem of clinical trial, and also a limitation to the development and internationalization of CM oncology. The change of tumor response evaluation system in conventional medicine is gradually consistent with the features of CM clinical effect, such as they both focus on a combination of soft endpoints (i.e. quality of life, clinical benefit, etc.) and hard endpoints (i.e. tumor remission rate, time to progress, etc.). Although experts have proposed protocols of CM tumor response evaluation criteria and come to an agreement in general, divergences still exist in the importance, quantification and CM feature of the potential endpoints. Thus, establishing a CM characteristic and wildly accepted tumor response evaluation system is the key to promote internationalization of CM oncology, and also provides a more convenient and scientific platform for CM international cooperation and communication. PMID:22965698

  17. Cordyceps: a traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?

    PubMed

    Paterson, R Russell M

    2008-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are growing in popularity. However, are they effective? Cordyceps is not studied as systematically for bioactivity as another TCM, Ganoderma. Cordyceps is fascinating per se, especially because of the pathogenic lifestyle on Lepidopteron insects. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a TCM for centuries. However, the natural fungus has been harvested to the extent that it is an endangered species. The effectiveness has been attributed to the Chinese philosophical concept of Yin and Yang and can this be compatible with scientific philosophy? A vast literature exists, some of which is scientific, although others are popular myth, and even hype. Cordyceps sinensis is the most explored species followed by Cordyceps militaris. However, taxonomic concepts were confused until a recent revision, with undefined material being used that cannot be verified. Holomorphism is relevant and contamination might account for some of the activity. The role of the insect has been ignored. Some of the analytical methodologies are poor. Data on the "old" compound cordycepin are still being published: ergosterol and related compounds are reported despite being universal to fungi. There is too much work on crude extracts rather than pure compounds with water and methanol solvents being over-represented in this respect (although methanol is an effective solvent). Excessive speculation exists as to the curative properties. However, there are some excellent pharmacological data and relating to apoptosis. For example, some preparations are active against cancers or diabetes which should be fully investigated. Polysaccharides and secondary metabolites are of particular interest. The use of genuine anamorphic forms in bioreactors is encouraged. PMID:18343466

  18. RECENT ADVANCES IN ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huilian; Liu, Min; Chen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities. This paper reviews recent developments in UHPLC in the separation and identification, fingerprinting, quantification, and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, the combination of UHPLC with MS has improved the efficiency of the analysis of these materials. PMID:25045170

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan-Yu Su; Ching-Liang Hsieh

    2011-01-01

    s  Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators,\\u000a reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article\\u000a reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral\\u000a ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The

  20. [Analyses on positive influence of harmonous development of traditional Chinese medicine compounds' researchs and patent protection].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xujie; Xiao, Shiying; Guo, Zan; Wang, Zhimin; You, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Current patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds is far from being satisfactory with increasing research and development achievements. As patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine compounds is closely related with many fields such as research and development of new TCM drugs, industrial development and TCM internationalization, the development of research and harmonious development of TCM compounds and their patent protection is bound to have a far-reaching influence on domestic and even international societies. PMID:22741453

  1. Non-Timber Forest Products Marketing Systems and Market Players in Southwest Virginia: Crafts, Medicinal and Herbal, and Specialty Wood Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah M. Greene; A. L. Hammett; Shashi Kant

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household income. Marketing system of crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products are studied using exploratory and qualitative research methods. Fifty mar- ket players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to get the information on elements of marketing system-products, product differentiation, value addition,

  2. Lessons learned from herbal medicinal products: the example of St. John's Wort (perpendicular).

    PubMed

    Nahrstedt, Adolf; Butterweck, Veronika

    2010-05-28

    The example of St. John's wort offers convincing evidence for the concept that modern methods of pharmacological and phytochemical research are effective in advancing the development of traditional herbal remedies. As a consequence of these efforts, it is known today that several compounds from different structural groups and with different mechanisms of action seem to be responsible for the observed antidepressant efficacy of St. John's Wort. Co-effectors in the extract improve the bioavailability of active constituents such as hypericin (1) (pharmacokinetic synergy). Unwanted side effects are preventable without remarkable loss of activity when the responsible constituent(s) are carefully removed during the extraction process, as demonstrated for hyperforin (3), which is responsible for the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4, in particular). On the basis of our findings, it is likely that positive interactions between single compounds occur more frequently in traditionally used herbal preparations than is known presently. PMID:20408551

  3. A Comparison of Chinese and American Indian (Chumash) Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cecilia; Lien, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Chinese and Chumash traditional medical approaches are similar in terms of disease causation, use of acupuncture or healing touch, plants, spiritual and philosophical approaches. This article provides a brief comparison and discussion of Chinese and Chumash traditional medical practices. A table of 66 plants is presented along with Chinese and Chumash uses of each plant. These uses are compared and contrasted. PMID:18955312

  4. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent CH Chung; Chun Hong Lau; Eng Kiong Yeoh; Sian Meryl Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) challenge

  5. Herbal medicine: Is it an alternative or an unknown? A brief review of popular herbals used by patients in a pain and symptom management practice setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica A. Leak

    1999-01-01

    This article will briefly discuss herbals frequently used by patients in a pain and symptom management practice setting with\\u000a regard to common indications, potential side effects, and drug interactions, as well as a review of available research on\\u000a each substance. An overview of the regulatory morass that continues to surround the herbal products industry will be presented.\\u000a The author will

  6. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Kuan-Chung; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that will affect quality of life and, working efficiency, and produce negative thoughts for patients. Current therapy of RA is treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Although most of these treatment methods are effective, most patients still have a pleasant experience either due to poor efficacy or side effects or both. Interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) is important in the pathogenesis of RA. In this study, we would like to detect the potential candidates which inhibit IL6R against RA from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). We use TCM compounds from the TCM Database@Taiwan for virtually screening the potential IL6R inhibitors. The TCM candidate compound, calycosin, has potent binding affinity with IL6R protein. The molecular dynamics simulation was employed to validate the stability of interaction in the protein complex with calycosin. The analysis indicates that protein complex with calycosin is more stable. In addition, calycosin is known to be one of the components of Angelica sinensis, which has been indicated to have an important role in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, calycosin is a potential candidate as lead compounds for further study in drug development process with IL6R protein against rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24991562

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chiou, Yi-Shiou; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)), pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-24), intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)). However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology. PMID:24716101

  8. Chinese medicine for menopausal syndrome: current status, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yun; Nie, Guang-Ning; Yang, Hong-Yan; Zong, Li-Li

    2011-12-01

    The use of Chinese medicine (CM) for the management of: menopausal syndrome is considered effective both at home and abroad, and more and more clinical studies are confirming its efficacy. However, many problems still exit in current studies, such as the standard of CM syndrome differentiation, the design methodology and criteria to assess the quality of clinical trials and the efficacy of interventions. In this paper, the authors present the CM research and treatment strategies for menopausal syndrome with concepts explaining the CM understanding of the mechanism of the disorder. It is concluded that CM is effective for menopausal syndrome, but improvement in both study methodology and treatment strategy is needed. In detail, it is firstly necessary to conduct clinical studies to evaluate the difference of various CM treatments for menopausal syndrome manifesting different symptoms, so as to establish a comprehensive treatment protocol of CM. Secondly, an acknowledged evaluation system needs to be founded, which embodies the characteristics of CM, and covers appropriate endpoint indices and parameters to objectively evaluate the effect and study quality of CM. Finally, an epidemiological survey with large sample size should be implemented with robust statistical design and CM expertise to collect data for establishing diagnostic criteria for menopause in different stages and with different symptoms. PMID:22139539

  9. Drug Design for Neuropathic Pain Regulation from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tou, Weng Ieong; Chang, Su-Sen; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2013-01-01

    FAAH-like anandamide transporter (FLAT) regulates anandamide transport for hydrolysis and may be an attractive drug target for pain regulation. We aimed to discover potential FLAT antagonists from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using virtual screening, ligand-based drug design and molecular dynamics simulation (MD). Guineensine and Retrofractamide A exhibited high Dock Scores in FLAT. Consensus from multiple linear regression (MLR; R2 = 08973) and support vector machine (SVM; R2 = 0.7988) showed similar bioactivities for Guineensine and the FAAH-1 inhibitor (9Z)-1-(5-pyridin-2-yl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)octadec-9-en-1-one. Contour of Guineensine to CoMFA and CoMSIA features also imply bioactivity. MD revealed shake or vibration in the secondary structure of FLAT complexed with Guineensine and (9Z)-1-(5-pyridin-2-yl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)octadec-9-en-1-one. Ligand movement might contribute to protein changes leading to vibration patterns. Violent vibrations leading to an overall decrease in FLAT function could be the underlying mechanism for Guineensine. Here we suggest Guineensine as a drug-like compound with potential application in relieving neuropathic pain by inhibiting FLAT. PMID:23378894

  10. A novel analgesic Isolated from a Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chaoran; Wang, Lien; Parks, Gregory Scott; Zhang, Xiuli; Guo, Zhimou; Ke, Yanxiong; Li, Kang-Wu; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Vo, Benjamin; Borrelli, Emiliana; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Ling; Wang, Zhiwei; Garcia-Fuster, M. Julia; Luo, Z. David; Liang, Xinmiao; Civelli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Current pain management is limited, in particular, with regard to chronic pain. In an attempt to discover novel analgesics, we combined the approach developed to characterize traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as part of the “herbalome” project, with the reverse pharmacology approach aimed at discovering new endogenous transmitters and hormones. Results In a plant used for centuries for its analgesic properties, we identify a compound, dehydrocorybulbine (DHCB) that is effective at alleviating thermally induced acute pain. We synthesize DHCB and show that it displays moderate dopamine receptor antagonist activities. By using selective pharmacological compounds and dopamine receptor knockout (KO) mice, we show that DHCB antinociceptive effect is primarily due to its interaction with D2 receptors, at least at low doses. We further show that DHCB is effective against inflammatory pain and injury-induced neuropathic pain and furthermore causes no antinociceptive tolerance. Conclusion Our study casts DHCB as a different type of analgesic compound and as a promising lead in pain management. PMID:24388848

  11. Diabetes Mellitus, Cognitive Impairment, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Seto, S. W.; Yang, G. Y.; Kiat, H.; Bensoussan, A.; Kwan, Y. W.; Chang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder affecting a large number of people worldwide. Numerous studies have demonstrated that DM can cause damage to multiple systems, leading to complications such as heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular disorders. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that DM is closely associated with dementia and cognition dysfunction, with recent research focusing on the role of DM-mediated cerebrovascular damage in dementia. Despite the therapeutic benefits of antidiabetic agents for the treatment of DM-mediated cognitive dysfunction, most of these pharmaceutical agents are associated with various undesirable side-effects and their long-term benefits are therefore in doubt. Early evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interventions, which tend to have minimal toxicity and side-effects. More importantly, these TCM interventions appear to offer significant effects in reducing DM-related complications beyond blood glucose control. However, more research is needed to further validate these claims and to explore their relevant mechanisms of action. The aims of this paper are (1) to provide an updated overview on the association between DM and cognitive dysfunction and (2) to review the scientific evidence underpinning the use of TCM interventions for the treatment and prevention of DM-induced cognitive dysfunction and dementia.

  12. Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: Current Evidences and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM. PMID:25949261

  13. Herbal and food folk medicines of the Russlanddeutschen living in Künzelsau/Taläcker, South-Western Germany.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Gray, Charlotte

    2008-07-01

    An urban ethnobotanical study was carried out among a community of Russlanddeutschen (Germans from Russia) who in recent years have moved from Russia and Central Asia to Künzelsau, a small town located in Württemberg, in South-Western Germany. Thirty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with the women in this community, and 62 homemade medicinal preparations derived from 46 botanical species were recorded. As well as common medicinal plant uses that are well known in modern evidence-based German and Western European phytotherapy, we were able to record traces of the community's Russian and Central Asian (Turkic) heritage through the very popular use of sorrel as a depurative or for preventing and treating colds and flu; the use of dill as a digestive; watermelon as a diuretic; birch to relieve rheumatism and arthritis; buckwheat as a tonic; rye-based fermented beverages as a stimulant and as a depurative, diverse berries to prevent colds and flu; coriander as a digestive, and other medicinal foods. Traces of archaic German preparations were also recorded, which were probably Swabian in origin. Nearly half of the overall quoted items represented folk functional foods. The researchers believe that the findings in this study could stimulate public health policies aimed at improving both the phyto-pharmacovigilance of lesser-known herbal drugs, and the health and well-being of migrants by promoting a better understanding of emic health beliefs and newcomers' healing strategies. PMID:18384192

  14. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Buenz; B. A. Bauer; T. W. Osmundson; T. J. Motley

    2005-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a medicinal fungus of Traditional Chinese Medicine. While there are a wide range of reported uses of Cordyceps sinensis in the literature, the reports that extracts of this fungus may alter apoptotic homeostasis are most intriguing. However, there are significant challenges regarding research surrounding Cordyceps sinensis, such as the difficulty identifying the various species of Cordyceps and

  15. Forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) for the authentication of Chinese medicinal materials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chinese medicinal materials may be authenticated by molecular identification. As a definitive approach to molecular identification of medicinal materials, forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) comprises four steps, namely (1) DNA extraction from biological samples, (2) selection and amplification of a specific DNA fragment, (3) determination of the sequence of the amplified DNA fragment and (4) cladistic analysis of the sample DNA sequence against a DNA database. Success of the FINS identification depends on the selection of DNA region and reference species. This article describes the techniques and applications of FINS for authenticating Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:22153058

  16. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zahmatkash, Mohsen; Vafaeenasab, Mohammad Reza

    2011-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is the most common cause of disability among people and it is a common disease of joints that can lead to cartilage damage. In this study the analgesic effects of a herbal ointment containing cinnamon, ginger, mastic (Saghez) and sesame oil is compared with Salicylate ointment in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. It was a double-blind randomized controlled trail study. Patients with diagnosed arthritis were involved in the study and they were divided in two groups via block randomization method. For six weeks, twice a day, intervention group applied herbal ointment and control group used Salicylate ointment. The severity of pain, morning stiffness and limited motion were measured using Visual Analog Pain Scale. In order to analyze the trends of these three indexes, repeated measurement test was used. Ninety two participates with the mean age of 52.2 (+/- 12.4) years and with the mean disease period of 30.45 (+/- 30.3) months were involved in the study. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the distribution of sex, weight, height, BMI and the duration of illness. No statistical difference was observed between two groups regarding pain relief, morning stiffness and limited motion; nevertheless in repeated measurements during second, forth and sixth weeks in both groups the decreasing trend of these three indexes had been statistically significant (p < 0.0001). It seems that using this herbal combination is clinically effective for patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis in order to decrease their pain, morning stiffness and limited motion; its effect is comparable with Salicylate ointment. PMID:22308653

  17. Carrier herbal medicine: an evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activity in some frequently used remedies.

    PubMed

    Ritch-Krc, E M; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

    1996-07-01

    The antimicrobial properties of some traditional Carrier herbal preparations were evaluated using an agar dilution method. Pitch preparations were screened against known human pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results indicated definite antimicrobial activity in the pitch preparations of Picea glauca and Pinus contorta and provide a starting point for pharmacognostic evaluation of these species. In addition, cytoxicity assays, to test the anticancer activity of methanolic extracts of Alnus incana and Shepherdia canadensis against mouse mastocytoma cells, were shown to be positive. PMID:8771456

  18. The current global status of Chinese materia medica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinmin; Zou, Jiangqiang; Sheng, Zhixiang; Su, Guangqiang; Chen, Shilin

    2009-10-01

    The Chinese government has recently established a national project to improve the standards of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) products, particularly regarding their quality control and safety evaluation, in order to promote modernization and increase international trade. In 2006, the global sales value of Chinese medicinal products increased to 20 billion US$, and the export value of CMM was up to more than 1 billion US$. However, the standard of these products still needs to be improved to meet the more stringent requirements of the international markets. Over the past decade we have witnessed the increasing growth in popularity of health foods and herbal medicinal products, especially Chinese Materia Medica products (CMM). PMID:19787664

  19. [Herbalism and germplasm of deltaleaf goldthread rhizome].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chunchu; Wang, Yan; Song, Liangke; Li, Xiaofeng; Dong, Guantao; Tang, Hao

    2011-06-01

    Through textual research of herbalism about Chinese Goldthread Rhizome in different periods of ancients and some modern study, and analysis on correlativity between its name and different germplasm, it showed that the knowledge level of quality of the medicinal materials was gradually increased in its historical record of application by the society improvement and increasing of requirements and population from producing area, diversity of character to germplasm resources. The materials name of Chinese Goldthread Rhizome was from unitary to diversity and referred to the rhizomes of all plants of Coptis in China, while Deltaleaf Goldthread Rhizome took an important role in the evolution of Chinese Goldthread Rhizome. The aim of the work was to provide a reference for the correlative study of phylogeny, individual distribution, ecological environment and medical resources. PMID:22779194

  20. Metabonomic Profiles Delineate the Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Sini Decoction on Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangguo Tan; Wenting Liao; Xin Dong; Genjing Yang; Zhenyu Zhu; Wuhong Li; Yifeng Chai; Ziyang Lou

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn spite of great advances in target-oriented Western medicine for treating myocardial infarction (MI), it is still a leading cause of death in a worldwide epidemic. In contrast to Western medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) uses a holistic and synergistic approach to restore the balance of Yin-Yang of body energy so the body's normal function can be restored. Sini decoction

  1. A Chinese Herbal Formula to Improve General Psychological Status in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial on Sichuan Earthquake Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xian-Ze; Wu, Feng; Wei, Pin-Kang; Xiu, Li-Juan; Shi, Jun; Pang, Bin; Sun, Da-Zhi; Qin, Zhi-Feng; Huang, Yi; Lao, Lixing

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by poor general psychological status (GPS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of a Chinese herbal formula on GPS in earthquake survivors with PTSD. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared a Chinese herbal formula, Xiao-Tan-Jie-Yu-Fang (XTJYF), to placebo in 2008 Sichuan earthquake survivors with PTSD. Patients were randomized into XTJYF (n = 123) and placebo (n = 122) groups. Baseline-to-end-point score changes in the three global indices of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and rates of response in the SCL global severity index (GSI) were the primary endpoints. A subanalysis of the nine SCL factors and the sleep quality score were secondary endpoints. Results and Discussion. Compared to placebo, the XTJYF group was significantly improved in all three SCL global indices (P = 0.001~0.028). More patients in the XTJYF group reported “much improved” than the placebo group (P = 0.001). The XTJYF group performed significantly better than control in five out of nine SCL factors (somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, anxiety, and hostility (P = 0.001~0.036)), and in sleep quality score (P < 0.001). XTJYF produced no serious adverse events. These findings suggest that XTJYF may be an effective and safe treatment option for improving GPS in patients with PTSD. PMID:22028733

  2. Chinese medicine combined with calcipotriol betamethasone and calcipotriol ointment for Psoriasis vulgaris (CMCBCOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psoriasis causes worldwide concern because of its high-prevalence, as well as its harmful, and incurable characteristics. Topical therapy is a conventional treatment for psoriasis vulgaris. Chinese medicine (CM) has been commonly used in an integrative way for psoriasis patients for many years. Some CM therapies have shown therapeutic effects for psoriasis vulgaris (PV), including relieving symptoms and improving quality of life, and may reduce the relapse rate. However, explicit evidence has not yet been obtained. The purpose of the present trial is to examine the efficacy and safety of the YXBCM01 granule, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, with a combination of topical therapy for PV patients. Methods/Design Using an add-on design, the trial is to evaluate whether the YXBCM01 granule combined topical therapy is more effective than topical therapy alone for the treatment of PV. The study design is a double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial comparing the YXBCM01 granule (5.5 g twice daily) to a placebo. The duration of treatment is 12 weeks. A total of 600 participants will be randomly allocated into two groups, YXBCM01 granule group and placebo group, from 11 general or dermatological hospitals in China. Topical use of calcipotriol betamethasone for the first 4 weeks and calcipotriol ointment for the remaining 8 weeks will be the same standard therapy for the two groups. Patients will be enrolled if they have a clinical diagnosis of PV, a psoriasis area severe index (PASI) of more than 10 or body surface area (BSA) of more than 10%, but PASI of less than 30 and BSA of less than 30%, are aged between 18 and 65-years-old, and provide signed informed consent. The primary outcome, relapse rate, is based on PASI assessed blindly during the treatment. Secondary outcomes include: (i) relapse time interval, (ii) time to onset, (iii) rebound rate, (iv) PASI score, (v) cumulative consumption of medicine, (vi) the dermatology quality life index (DLQI), and (vii) the medical outcomes study (MOS) item short form health survey (SF-36). Analysis will be on intention-to-treat and per-protocol subject analysis principles. Discussion To address the effectual remission of the YXBCM01 granule for PV, this trial may provide a novel regimen for PV patients if the granule can decrease relapse rate without more adverse effects. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://cwww.chictr.org): ChiCTR-TRC-13003233, registered 26 May 2013. PMID:25052161

  3. Towards Semantic e-Science for Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huajun; Mao, Yuxin; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Cui, Meng; Feng, Yi; Deng, Shuiguang; Yin, Aining; Zhou, Chunying; Tang, Jinming; Jiang, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent advances in Web and information technologies with the increasing decentralization of organizational structures have resulted in massive amounts of information resources and domain-specific services in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The massive volume and diversity of information and services available have made it difficult to achieve seamless and interoperable e-Science for knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM. Therefore, information integration and service coordination are two major challenges in e-Science for TCM. We still lack sophisticated approaches to integrate scientific data and services for TCM e-Science. Results We present a comprehensive approach to build dynamic and extendable e-Science applications for knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM based on semantic and knowledge-based techniques. The semantic e-Science infrastructure for TCM supports large-scale database integration and service coordination in a virtual organization. We use domain ontologies to integrate TCM database resources and services in a semantic cyberspace and deliver a semantically superior experience including browsing, searching, querying and knowledge discovering to users. We have developed a collection of semantic-based toolkits to facilitate TCM scientists and researchers in information sharing and collaborative research. Conclusion Semantic and knowledge-based techniques are suitable to knowledge-intensive disciplines like TCM. It's possible to build on-demand e-Science system for TCM based on existing semantic and knowledge-based techniques. The presented approach in the paper integrates heterogeneous distributed TCM databases and services, and provides scientists with semantically superior experience to support collaborative research in TCM discipline. PMID:17493289

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine application in HIV: an in silico study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hung-Jin; Jian, Yi-Ru; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Viral infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires integration of viral DNA with host DNA which involves the binding of HIV integrase (IN) with its co-factor lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75). Since disrupted binding of IN with LEDGF/p75 inhibits proliferation of HIV, inhibition or denaturation of IN is a possible method for inhibiting HIV replication. D77 is a known drug with demonstrated inhibition against HIV by binding to IN. Herein, we utilized D77 as a control to screen for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds that exhibit similar atomic-level characteristics. 9-Hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid and Beauveriolide I were found to have higher Dock Scores to IN than D77 through virtual screening. Multiple linear regression (R2?=?0.9790) and support vector machine (R2?=?0.9114) models consistently predicted potential bioactivity of the TCM candidates against IN. The 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation showed that the TCM compounds fulfilled the drug-like criteria of forming stable complexes with IN. Atomic-level investigations revealed that 9-hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid bound to an important residue A:Lys173, and Beauveriolide I formed stable interactions with the core LEDGF binding site and with Asn256 of the IN binding site on LEDGF. The TCM candidates also initiated loss of ?-helices that could affect the functionality of IN. Taken together, the ability of 9-hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid and Beauveriolide I to (1) form stable interactions affecting IN-LEDGF binding and (2) have predicted bioactivity against IN suggests that the TCM candidates might be potential starting structures for developing compounds that may disrupt IN-LEDGF binding. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:40. PMID:23252879

  5. Individually integrated traditional chinese medicine approach in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cao Yuelong; Zhan Hongsheng; Pang Jian; Li Feiyue; Xu Shaojian; Gao Jinghua; Xu Zhanwang; Li Gang; Liu Ting; Guo Chaoqing; Shi Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    Background  Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a major public health issue causing chronic disability worldwide with the increasing\\u000a number of aging people. In China and increasingly worldwide, many sufferers with knee OA are using complementary and alternative\\u000a medicine including herbal drug, herbal patch, acupuncture and Tuina etc., to alleviate their symptoms. However, evidence gathered\\u000a from systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials

  6. Psychometric properties of the Chinese quality of life instrument (HK version) in Chinese and Western medicine primary care settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Wong; Cindy Lo Kuen Lam; Kwok Fai Leung; Li Zhao

    Background  The Chinese Quality of Life Measure (ChQOL) had only been validated on a small number of selected subjects in Hong Kong and\\u000a had never been tested in the Western medicine (WM) primary care setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims and objectives  To test the psychometrics properties of ChQOL(HK version) in both TCM and WM general outpatient clinics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Three samples of Chinese adult patients [(1) 569

  7. Nephrokeli, a Chinese herbal formula, may improve IgA nephropathy through regulation of the sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yifei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xianwen; Cai, Xiaofan; Chen, Yiping; Deng, Yueyi

    2015-01-01

    Nephrokeli (NPKL) is a Chinese herbal formula that has been used to treat patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) for improvement of proteinuria and kidney injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors S1PR2 and S1PR3 are known to play an important role in kidney disease. Here, we tested whether NPKL is able to regulate the S1P pathway in the kidney of IgAN rats. Four groups of rats were included in the study: Control, IgAN, IgAN treated with losartan, and IgAN treated with NPKL. The IgAN model was generated by injection of bovine serum albumin and staphylococcus enterotoxin B. We found that IgAN rats had increased staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the mesangial area and increased mRNA and protein levels of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in the kidney compared to control rats. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream growth factor in the S1P pathway, was also elevated in the kidney of IgAN rats. Treatment with either NPKL or losartan was able to reduce PCNA staining and the expression of both S1PR2 and S1PR3 in the kidney of IgAN rats. However, NPKL (but not losartan treatment) reduced the expression of CTGF in the kidney of IgAN rats. In addition, we treated rat mesangial cells with sera collected from either NPKL-treated rats or control rats and found that NPKL-serum was able to reduce S1P-induced mesangial cell proliferation and the expression of S1PR2/S1PR3 and CTGF. NPKL also attenuates expression of fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers in the kidney of IgAN rats. Our studies provide the mechanism by which NPKL attenuates kidney injury in IgAN rats. PMID:25633986

  8. Nephrokeli, a Chinese Herbal Formula, May Improve IgA Nephropathy through Regulation of the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xianwen; Cai, Xiaofan; Chen, Yiping; Deng, Yueyi

    2015-01-01

    Nephrokeli (NPKL) is a Chinese herbal formula that has been used to treat patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) for improvement of proteinuria and kidney injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors S1PR2 and S1PR3 are known to play an important role in kidney disease. Here, we tested whether NPKL is able to regulate the S1P pathway in the kidney of IgAN rats. Four groups of rats were included in the study: Control, IgAN, IgAN treated with losartan, and IgAN treated with NPKL. The IgAN model was generated by injection of bovine serum albumin and staphylococcus enterotoxin B. We found that IgAN rats had increased staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the mesangial area and increased mRNA and protein levels of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in the kidney compared to control rats. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream growth factor in the S1P pathway, was also elevated in the kidney of IgAN rats. Treatment with either NPKL or losartan was able to reduce PCNA staining and the expression of both S1PR2 and S1PR3 in the kidney of IgAN rats. However, NPKL (but not losartan treatment) reduced the expression of CTGF in the kidney of IgAN rats. In addition, we treated rat mesangial cells with sera collected from either NPKL-treated rats or control rats and found that NPKL-serum was able to reduce S1P-induced mesangial cell proliferation and the expression of S1PR2/S1PR3 and CTGF. NPKL also attenuates expression of fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers in the kidney of IgAN rats. Our studies provide the mechanism by which NPKL attenuates kidney injury in IgAN rats. PMID:25633986

  9. Dissecting active ingredients of Chinese medicine by content-weighted ingredient-target network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linli; Li, Zheng; Shao, Qing; Li, Xiang; Ai, Ni; Zhao, Xiaoping; Fan, Xiaohui

    2014-07-01

    Chinese medicine has been widely used in clinical practice, but its mode of action often remains obscure. This has seriously hindered further development and better clinical applications of Chinese medicine. Among the most critical questions to be addressed, the identification of active ingredients is an important one requiring more research. Existing methods are only concerned the potential pharmacological effects of the individual purified chemical ingredients without consideration of the contents of these ingredients, which is critical to the comprehensive effect of Chinese medicine. A novel approach was proposed here to integrate network pharmacology analysis and ingredient content in Chinese medicine to identify active ingredients. The therapeutic action of Xuesaitong (XST) injection on myocardial infarction was analyzed as an example in this study. Firstly, we built a cardiovascular disease (CVD) related protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Secondly, the potential targets of the ingredients of XST were identified by integrating microarray data, text mining and pharmacophore model-based prediction. The target-ingredient relationships were then mapped to the network. Topological attributes related to the targets of these ingredients, together with the ingredients' contents, were combined to calculate a composition-weighted index for integrative evaluation of ingredient efficacy. Our results indicated that major active ingredients in XST were notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rd and Re, which was further validated on myocardial infarction rat models. In conclusion, this study presented a novel approach to identify active ingredients in Chinese medicine. PMID:24781185

  10. [Some issues regarding the Hungarian regulation of traditional Chinese medicine and possible solutions based on examples from the United Kingdom].

    PubMed

    Oravecz, Márk; Mészáros, Judit; Yu, Funian; Horváth, Ildikó

    2014-04-13

    This paper aims to present factual information and to suggest possible solutions regarding some of the recent questions which have arisen regarding the regulation of traditional Chinese medicine in Hungary. According to current legislation "traditional Chinese doctors", who are the most highly trained professionals in this field, are not allowed to practice Chinese medicine and acupuncture in Hungary. This situation cannot be explained by their educational background, as they receive thorough training in both Chinese medicine and modern medical sciences. Furthermore, this legislation is not supported by any EU standard: Traditional Chinese medicine professionals can practice Chinese medicine and acupuncture in a number of European countries within a legal and regulated framework. Different kinds of healthcare professionals may practice Chinese medicine and acupuncture in the UK - this could be a good example for Hungarian regulation. The five-year bachelor level traditional Chinese medicine training at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University and the increasing number of locally trained traditional Chinese medicine professionals could be a good basis for laying the groundwork of the new system. PMID:24704769

  11. Comparative antioxidant activity of individual herbal components used in Ayurvedic medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Naik; K. I. Priyadarsini; J. G. Satav; M. M. Banavalikar; D. P. Sohoni; M. K. Biyani; H. Mohan

    2003-01-01

    Four aqueous extracts from different parts of medicinal plants used in Ayurveda (an ancient Indian Medicine) viz., Momardica charantia Linn (AP1), Glycyrrhiza glabra (AP2), Acacia catechu (AP3), and Terminalia chebula (AP4) were examined for their potential as antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was tested by studying the inhibition of radiation induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes at

  12. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when plant reference databases become better established. PMID:22511890

  13. Combination of acupuncture and chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Jie; Zhou, Jue; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Yang, Dan-Hong; Qu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effects of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore whether acupuncture has positive effects on the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of a Chinese medicine formula when treating the model rats. 60 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Groups A, B, C, D, E and F, with ten rats in each group. Except Group F, all of the other rats were induced to PCOS with oral administration of letrozole. The rats in Group F served as normal controls. Group A was treated with acupuncture. Group B was treated with oral administration of the extracts of the Chinese medicine formula. Group C was treated with a combination of oral administration of the extracts of Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Group D received western medicine as positive controls. After treatment, the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH) and testosterone (T) in each group were detected with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) and the serum concentration of salvianolic acid B were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The serum levels of T and the ratio of LH/FSH in Group A, B. C, D, and F were significantly lower than those of Group E, indicating the model rats with PCOS were successfully established. Compared with Groups A, B, D and E, the serum levels of T and the ratio of LH/FSH in Group C were significantly lower respectively, indicating combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs can significantly enhance curative effects in treating model rats with PCOS. The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly enhance curative effects in treating model rats with PCOS and acupuncture has positive effects in improving the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of the Chinese medicine formula when treating the model rats with PCOS. PMID:22654211

  14. [The development of the cognition and treatment of apoplexy in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhi-fang; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jun-long; Zhang, Xin; Li, Ming-kui; Huang, Xiu-yun

    2007-10-01

    Surveying the developmental history of the cognition and treatment of apoplexy in traditional Chinese medicine, it could be divided into 3 phases, viz. the phase of "exogenous wind" before the Tang and Song dynasties, the phase of contention of "endogenous wind" during the Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties, and the phase of compromising of traditional Chinese and consulting of western medicine of "equal importance of exogenous and endogenous wind" after the Qing dynasty. Through the development of these three phases, the cognition of cause of disease and pathogenesis of apoplexy was deepened continuously, and the method of treatment, prescription and materia medica were enriched further. Especially, with the introduction and usage of modern scientific technology, the diagnosis and treatment of apoplexy were more standardized, and the effect was improved constantly, reflecting the characteristic and superiority of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:19127844

  15. [Research on Chinese medicine pairs (I)--Their formation and development].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu-Ping; Shu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Wei-Xia; Zhu, Min; Su, Shu-Lan; Qian, Da-Wei; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-12-01

    Chinese medicine pair (CMP) was frequently applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinic, and its significance was shown in long-term clinical practices and many accumulated experiences. It is the unique combination of two relatively fixed Chinese medicines in TCM clinic with the basic feature and principle of TCM compatibility, is the most fundamental and the simplest form of TCM formulae with certain theory basis and combinatory reason, which is proven effective. And the unique combination is frequently used for achieving mutual reinforcement or detoxication. CMP is an intermediate point between single herb and many TCM formulae, reflecting the regularity of TCM formulae compatibility and connotation of differential treatment. This paper analyzed and summarized the basic characteristics, development process and research significance of CMP, which aims to lead the modern basic and applied research on compatibility theory of CMP. PMID:24791514

  16. Determination of steroids adulterated in liquid herbal medicines using QuEChERS sample preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Klinsunthorn, Nantana; Petsom, Amorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2011-07-15

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized using solvent extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive-solid phase extraction with primary and secondary amine sorbents, and validated for high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of nine steroids commonly used to adulterate herbal medicines: such as triamcinolone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, beclomethasone, fludrocortsone acetate and cortisone acetate. Satisfactory extraction recoveries of 91-113% for all nine steroids were obtained, along with an acceptable precision in extraction recoveries shown by R.S.D. of ?4.6 and 3.2% for intraday and interday, respectively. The QuEChERS sample preparation developed here allows the reliable detection of adulterated steroids with the limits of detection in the range of 0.06-0.17ppm. Adulterated steroids in three out of six real commercial liquid herbal medicines were found, such as 1.6 and 8.8ppm dexamethasone and 0.43ppm prednisolone. PMID:21531110

  17. Determination by GC-IT/MS of Phytosterols in Herbal Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Food Products Marketed in Europe.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christoph; Bracher, Franz

    2015-05-01

    A method for the determination of phytosterols in herbal medicinal products for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and food products is described here. Using a convenient sample preparation protocol and sensitive gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry analysis, ten different sterols, among them five ?(7)-phytosterols as typical constituents of pumpkin seed preparations, could be identified and quantified. This protocol was applied to the analysis of 31 marketed products, from which seven were raw materials. PMID:25905593

  18. The Herbal Medicine Sho-saiko-to Inhibits Proliferation of Cancer Cell Lines by Inducing Apoptosis and Arrest at the Go\\/G1 Phase I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohisa Yano; Atsushi Mizoguchi; Kazunori Fukuda; Makoto Haramaki; Sachiko Ogasawara; Seiya Momosaki; Masamichi Kojiro

    1994-01-01

    Water-soluble ingredients of the herbal medicine sho-saiko-to dose- dependently inhibited the proliferation of a human hepatocellular carci- noma cell line (KIM-1) and a cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KMC-1). Fifty % effective doses on day 3 of exposure to sho-saiko-to were 353.5 _+ 32.4 \\/~g\\/ml for KIM.1 and 236.3 _+ 26.5\\/~g\\/ml for KMC-1. However, almost no suppressive effects were detected in normal

  19. Therapeutic uses of animal biles in traditional Chinese medicine: An ethnopharmacological, biophysical chemical and medicinal review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David Q-H; Carey, Martin C

    2014-01-01

    Forty-four different animal biles obtained from both invertebrates and vertebrates (including human bile) have been used for centuries for a host of maladies in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) beginning with dog, ox and common carp biles approximately in the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046-256 BCE). Overall, different animal biles were prescribed principally for the treatment of liver, biliary, skin (including burns), gynecological and heart diseases, as well as diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and throat. We present an informed opinion of the clinical efficacy of the medicinal uses of the different animal biles based on their presently known principal chemical components which are mostly steroidal detergent-like molecules and the membrane lipids such as unesterified cholesterol and mixed phosphatidylcholines and sometimes sphingomyelin, as well as containing lipopigments derived from heme principally bilirubin glucuronides. All of the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses of biles in TCM were collated from the rich collection of ancient Chinese books on materia medica held in libraries in China and United States and the composition of various animal biles was based on rigorous separatory and advanced chemical identification techniques published since the mid-20th century collected via library (Harvard’s Countway Library) and electronic searches (PubMed and Google Scholar). Our analysis of ethnomedical data and information on biliary chemistry shows that specific bile salts, as well as the common bile pigment bilirubin and its glucuronides plus the minor components of bile such as vitamins A, D, E, K, as well as melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) are salutary in improving liver function, dissolving gallstones, inhibiting bacterial and viral multiplication, promoting cardiac chronotropsim, as well as exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant, sedative, anti-convulsive, anti-allergic, anti-congestive, anti-diabetic and anti-spasmodic effects. Pig, wild boar and human biles diluted with alcohol were shown to form an artificial skin for burns and wounds one thousand years ago in the Tang dynasty (618-907 CE). Although various animal biles exhibit several generic effects in common, a number of biles appear to be advantageous for specific therapeutic indications. We attempt to understand these effects based on the pharmacology of individual components of bile as well as attempting to identify a variety of future research needs. PMID:25110425

  20. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chen; Chung, Vincent C. H.; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Yu, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zu-Yao; Wu, Xin-Yin; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.78), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72), heart failure (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91), and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.71) than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.32–0.66), myocardial infarction (RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.26–0.54), and angina (RR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.26–0.51). Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.17–0.68) and angina (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.70) in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine. PMID:24416066

  1. Pharmacokinetic Alteration of Baclofen by Multiple Oral Administration of Herbal Medicines in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Park, Gi-Young; Shin, Soyoung; Seo, Won Sik; Shin, Jeong Cheol; Choi, Jin Ho; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Min, Byung Sun; Upadhyay, Mahesh; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Kwon, So Hee

    2014-01-01

    The potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction of conventional western drug, baclofen, and oriental medications Oyaksungisan (OY) and Achyranthes bidentata radix (AB) extract for the treatment of spasticity has been evaluated. Rats were pretreated with distilled water (DW), OY, or AB extract by oral administration every day for 7 days. After 10?min of the final dose of DW or each herbal medication, baclofen (1?mg/kg) was given by oral administration and plasma concentrations of baclofen were determined by LC/MS/MS. The plasma baclofen concentration-time profiles were then analyzed by noncompartmental analysis and a population PK model was developed. Baclofen was rapidly absorbed, showed biexponential decline with elimination half-life of 3.42–4.10?hr, and mostly excreted into urine. The PK of baclofen was not affected by AB extract pretreatment. However, significantly lower maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and longer time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were observed in OY pretreated rats without changes in the area under the curve (AUC) and the fraction excreted into urine (Furine). The absorption rate (Ka) of baclofen was significantly decreased in OY pretreated rats. These data suggested that repeated doses of OY might delay the absorption of baclofen without changes in extent of absorption, which needs further evaluation for clinical significance. PMID:25530781

  2. Oral Administration of SSC201, a Medicinal Herbal Formula, Suppresses Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-Kyung; Park, Yang-Chun; Jung, In Chul; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Choi, Jung-Eun; Park, Sunyoung; Choi, Jeong June

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which requires safe and effective treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SSC201, a herbal formulation consisting of Stemonae Radix, Spirodelae Herba, and Cnidii Fructus, on the development of AD induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in the NC/Nga murine model. Oral administration of SSC201 significantly reduced the severity of dermatitis and the tendency of mice to scratch their lesions. SSC201 significantly reduced the thickening of the epidermis/dermis and the infiltration of T cells, eosinophils, and mast cells into the dermis. These results were supported by findings of reduced numbers of CD4+, CCR3+, and CD117+Fc?RI?+ cells in the skin. Furthermore, SSC201 significantly decreased the number of CD4+, CD8+, and CD3+CD69+ T cells in lymph nodes. SSC201 not only decreased the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the numbers of IgE-producing B cells (B220+CD23+), but also reduced the number of eosinophils and the levels of eotaxin as well as concentrations of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in the periphery. Splenic levels of Th2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, were reduced, whereas the levels of IL-12, a Th1 cytokine, were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that SSC201 may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:24476223

  3. Pharmacokinetic alteration of baclofen by multiple oral administration of herbal medicines in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Park, Gi-Young; Shin, Soyoung; Kwon, Dong Rak; Seo, Won Sik; Shin, Jeong Cheol; Choi, Jin Ho; Joo, Sang Hoon; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Min, Byung Sun; Baek, Kyung Min; Upadhyay, Mahesh; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Kwon, So Hee; Shin, Beom Soo

    2014-01-01

    The potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction of conventional western drug, baclofen, and oriental medications Oyaksungisan (OY) and Achyranthes bidentata radix (AB) extract for the treatment of spasticity has been evaluated. Rats were pretreated with distilled water (DW), OY, or AB extract by oral administration every day for 7 days. After 10?min of the final dose of DW or each herbal medication, baclofen (1?mg/kg) was given by oral administration and plasma concentrations of baclofen were determined by LC/MS/MS. The plasma baclofen concentration-time profiles were then analyzed by noncompartmental analysis and a population PK model was developed. Baclofen was rapidly absorbed, showed biexponential decline with elimination half-life of 3.42-4.10?hr, and mostly excreted into urine. The PK of baclofen was not affected by AB extract pretreatment. However, significantly lower maximum plasma concentration (C max) and longer time to reach C max (T max) were observed in OY pretreated rats without changes in the area under the curve (AUC) and the fraction excreted into urine (F urine). The absorption rate (K a ) of baclofen was significantly decreased in OY pretreated rats. These data suggested that repeated doses of OY might delay the absorption of baclofen without changes in extent of absorption, which needs further evaluation for clinical significance. PMID:25530781

  4. Systematic chemical profiling of a multicomponent Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupoletime-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenrong; Ai, Yu; Wu, Yun; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2015-03-01

    Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan, a Chinese herbal formula consisting of 11 different herbs, has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the chemical compositions of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan are not completely characterized. In the present study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method in positive and negative ion modes was employed to identify biochemical constitutes in Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan. As a result, a total of 76 compounds including alkaloids, monoterpene glycosides, iridoids, phenolic acids, and tanshinones, coumarins, lactones, flavones, and their glycosides, triterpenes, and triterpene saponins were characterized by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with reference standards within 5 ppm error or by reference to the reference literature. These results would provide the basis for a further in vivo study of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan and information for potential new drug candidates for treating arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25641883

  5. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  6. Interaction between Pirenzepine and Ninjinto, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on the Plasma Gut-Regulated Peptide Levels in Humans.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuhki; Hiroki, Itoh; Suzuki, Yosuke; Tatsuta, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo) Ninjinto has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, esogastritis, gastric atony, gastrectasis, vomiting, and anorexia. The pharmacological effects of Ninjinto on the gastrointestine are due to changes in the levels of gut-regulated peptide, such as motilin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The release of these peptides is controlled by acetylcholine (ACh) from the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nerve. Thus, we examined the effects of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Ninjinto-induced plasma the area under the plasma gut-regulated peptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240?min (AUC0?240?min) in humans. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine significantly reduced the Ninjinto-induced elevation of plasma motilin and substance P release (AUC0?240?min). Combined treatment with Ninjinto and pirenzepine significantly increased the release of plasma somatostatin (AUC0?240?min) compared with administration of Ninjinto alone or placebo. Ninjinto appeared to induce the release of substance P and motilin into plasma mainly through the activation of M1 muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Ninjinto by the elevation of plasma substance P, motilin, and somatostatin. PMID:23606863

  7. Chemometrics-based approach to feature selection of chromatographic profiles and its application to search active fraction of herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xiao-Jie; Shen, Zhi-Bin; Yu, Dao-Hai; Zhu, Jun-Fang; Zeng, Fan-Lin

    2013-06-01

    In our previous report (J Pharmaceut Biomed 56 (2011) 443-447), a support vector machine (SVM)-based pharmacodynamic model was established for predicting active fractions of herbal medicines (HMs), where information contents embedded in the chromatograms of the fractions were represented with the peak areas. However, in this representation the global characteristics of the chromatograms were completely missed, which is definitely contrary to the global and holistic views in theories of HMs and undoubtedly reduce the success rate of this model. To deal with the challenge, two chemometrics methods, that is, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) and particle swarm optimizer (PSO), were applied in this article for feature selection of the whole chromatograms, and the PSO was also used to tune the SVM parameters. As a case, a sample HM, that is, Xiangdan injection, was investigated. The predictive accuracy was fully evaluated and compared with those by other popular and reported methods. Furthermore, the confirmation on the independent predicting set exhibited that the predicted bioactivities were well consistent with the experimental values. The important potential application of the present model is to be extended to help search active fractions of other HMs. PMID:23375004

  8. Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, protects against sarcopenia in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Yuki; Kagawa, Syota; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Nakanishi, Miho; Sakashita, Noriko; Otsuka, Shizue; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Hagihara, Keisuke

    2015-01-15

    Sarcopenia is characterized by age-associated skeletal muscle atrophy and reduced muscle strength; currently, no pharmaceutical treatment is available. Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that is used to alleviate various age-related symptoms, especially motor disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of GJG on aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy by using senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8). Immunohistochemical and western blotting analyses clearly showed that GJG significantly reduced the loss of skeletal muscle mass and ameliorated the increase in slow skeletal muscle fibers in SAMP8 mice compared to control mice. The expression levels of Akt and GSK-3?, the phosphorylation of FoxO4, and the phosphorylations of AMPK and mitochondrial-related transcription factors such as PGC-1? were suppressed, while the expression of MuRF1 increased in SAMP8 mice, but approximated that in senescence-accelerated aging-resistant (SAMR1) mice after GJG treatment. We demonstrate for the first time that GJG has a therapeutic effect against sarcopenia. PMID:25636865

  9. Biotransformation and in vitro metabolic profile of bioactive extracts from a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, Polygonum capitatum.

    PubMed

    He, Chi-Yu; Fu, Jie; Ma, Jing-Yi; Feng, Ru; Tan, Xiang-Shan; Huang, Min; Shou, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Chen, Yangchao; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don, a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of various urologic disorders. Recent pharmacological studies demonstrated that a pure compound, FR429, isolated from the ethanol extracts of P. capitatum could selectively inhibit the growth of four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, P. capitatum probably exhibits potential antitumor activity. However, there is very little information on the metabolism of substances present in P. capitatum extracts. In this study, gallic acid, quercetrin, ethanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of ethnolic extract (EtOAc fraction) of P. capitatum were cultured anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria. A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of fight mass spectrometry (LC/MSn-IT-TOF) technique was employed to identify and characterize the resulting metabolites. A total of 22 metabolites (M1-M22), including tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were detected and characterized. The overall results demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria played an important role in the metabolism of P. capitatum, and the main metabolic pathways were hydrolysis, reduction and oxidation reactions. Our results provided a basis for the estimation of the metabolic transformation of P. capitatum in vivo. PMID:25033057

  10. Herbal therapy in migraine.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, G; Cevoli, S; Cologno, D

    2014-05-01

    The use of herbal therapies is ancient and increasing worldwide. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the efficacy of various "complementary" and alternative medicine approaches in the management of headache disorders. Promising tools to treat migraine patients are herbal products. In particular constituents of Petasites hybridus, Tanacetum Parthenium and Ginkgo Biloba have shown antimigraine action in clinical studies. A miscellaneous of recreational drugs and other herbal remedies have been supposed to have a role in headache treatment but quality of clinical studies in this field is low and inconclusive. Further research is warranted in this area. PMID:24867850

  11. Quantitative Profiling of Polar Metabolites in Herbal Medicine Injections for Multivariate Statistical Evaluation Based on Independence Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Xu, Lei; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Pan, Hao; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2014-01-01

    Botanical primary metabolites extensively exist in herbal medicine injections (HMIs), but often were ignored to control. With the limitation of bias towards hydrophilic substances, the primary metabolites with strong polarity, such as saccharides, amino acids and organic acids, are usually difficult to detect by the routinely applied reversed-phase chromatographic fingerprint technology. In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) profiling method was developed for efficient identification and quantification of small polar molecules, mostly primary metabolites in HMIs. A commonly used medicine, Danhong injection (DHI), was employed as a model. With the developed method, 23 primary metabolites together with 7 polyphenolic acids were simultaneously identified, of which 13 metabolites with fully separated proton signals were quantified and employed for further multivariate quality control assay. The quantitative 1H NMR method was validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy. Based on independence principal component analysis (IPCA), the contents of 13 metabolites were characterized and dimensionally reduced into the first two independence principal components (IPCs). IPC1 and IPC2 were then used to calculate the upper control limits (with 99% confidence ellipsoids) of ?2 and Hotelling T2 control charts. Through the constructed upper control limits, the proposed method was successfully applied to 36 batches of DHI to examine the out-of control sample with the perturbed levels of succinate, malonate, glucose, fructose, salvianic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde. The integrated strategy has provided a reliable approach to identify and quantify multiple polar metabolites of DHI in one fingerprinting spectrum, and it has also assisted in the establishment of IPCA models for the multivariate statistical evaluation of HMIs. PMID:25157567

  12. Safety of Herbal Medicinal Products: Echinacea and Selected Alkylamides Do Not Induce CYP3A4 mRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Modarai, Maryam; Silva, Elisabete; Suter, Andy; Heinrich, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A major safety concern with the use of herbal medicinal products (HMP) is their interactions with conventional medicines, which are often mediated via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Echinacea is a widely used over-the-counter HMP, with proven immunomodulatory properties. Its increasing use makes research into its safety an urgent concern. Previously, we showed that Echinacea extracts and its alkylamides (thought to be important for Echinacea's immunomodulatory activity) mildly inhibit the enzymatic activity of the main drug metabolising CYP isoforms, but to this date, there is insufficient work on its ability to alter CYP expression levels. We now report for the first time the effect of a commercial Echinacea extract (Echinaforce) and four Echinacea alkylamides on the transcription of the major drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. HepG2 cells were exposed for 96 h to clinically relevant concentrations of Echinaforce (22, 11.6 and 1.16??g mL?1) or the alkylamides (1.62 and 44 nM). CYP3A4 mRNA levels were quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Neither Echinaforce nor the alkylamides produced any significant changes in the steady-state CYP3A4 mRNA levels, under these conditions. In contrast, treatment with 50??M rifampicin resulted in a 3.8-fold up-regulation over the vehicle control. We conclude that Echinaforce is unlikely to affect CYP3A4 transcriptional levels, even at concentrations which can inhibit the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4. Overall, our data provides further evidence for the lack of interactions between Echinacea and conventional drugs. PMID:19906827

  13. Yu Ping Feng San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix, Regulates the Release of Cytokines in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction, is composed of Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu) and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng) in a weight ratio of 1?2?1. Clinically, YPFS has been widely used to regulate immune functions; however, the action mechanism of it is not known. Here, we addressed this issue by providing detail analyses of chemical and biological properties of YPFS. By using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, fifteen chemicals deriving from different herbs of YPFS were determined, and which served as a control for the standardization of the herbal extract of YPFS. In general, the amounts of chosen chemical markers were higher in a preparation of YPFS as compared to that of single herb or two-herb compositions. In order to reveal the immune functions of YPFS, the standardized extract was applied onto cultured murine macrophages. The treatment of YPFS stimulated the mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines via activation of NF-?B by enhancing I?B? degradation. In contrast, the application of YPFS suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic inflammation model. In addition, YPFS could up regulate the phagocytic activity in cultured macrophages. These results therefore supported the bi-directional immune-modulatory roles of YPFS in regulating the releases of cytokines from macrophages. PMID:24244327

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-106) for atopic dermatitis: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C; Chen, Dacan; Da Costa, Cliff; Lenon, George B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin rash that greatly affects quality of life. The current therapies are inadequate in managing atopic dermatitis and often have associated adverse effects or drug tolerance development. Chinese medicine is expected to have promising prospects in the management of atopic dermatitis and recent studies have shown encouraging results. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a newly formulated Chinese herbal formula, RMIT Chinese Medicine-106 (RCM-106), in the management of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in children aged 6–18?years. Methods The study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-armed clinical trial. Participant, investigator and assessors will remain blinded to the treatment assignment until after the study has been completed. After a 2-week run-in period, 90 participants will be randomised, using block randomised sequences generated by computer, to receive either RCM-106 or matching placebo capsules, twice daily, for a treatment period of 8?weeks and followed up for 4?weeks. Primary outcome measures include the evaluation of disease severity and extent using two validated scoring instruments—Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Patient-Oriented Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD). Secondary outcome measures include the evaluation of quality of life using the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI); occurrence of adverse events and total usage of other therapies as recorded in the participants’ daily diary and laboratory studies which include eosinophil count, total IgE, full blood count and liver and kidney function tests. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied to all data analyses. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received human ethics approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) of RMIT University (Project number 15/12). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at the national and international conferences. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612001181897. TGA CTN Scheme: Trial number 2012/0713; Protocol number 15/12. PMID:24381256

  15. Evaluation of ??Co-gamma radiosterilization on Chinese medicines with HPLC/FTIR.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Hua; Lee, Shih-Chang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiosterilization on 30 Chinese medicines using ?-rays from the isotope ??Co. Two groups of Chinese medicines, non-treated and dry samples, were treated using a ??Co irradiation source at the doses 0, 3, 6 and 9 ?kGy. After storage for 3 months, characterizations of chemical compounds and functional groups were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results of radiosterlization showed that nearly all of the medicines were decontaminated under the dose of 9? kGy. In most samples, chemical compounds and functional groups were not altered by the irradiation treatment. However, minor changes were found in the molecular structures of 14 medicines under the reported 'safety dose' (10 ?kGy). The drying process before irradiation could decrease the chemical changes caused by ?-rays to 50%. The HPLC analysis of nine medicines revealed minor changes at a dose of 3 ?kGy. The findings in this study provide important information that may suggest the need for a re-evaluation of the reported safety dose. Therefore, further investigation may be warranted to insure the safety of ?-radiosterlization of Chinese medicines. PMID:20954208

  16. Colorimetric Grading Scale Can Promote the Standardization of Experiential and Sensory Evaluation in Quality Control of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qian-feng; Li, Bao-cai; Zhang, Xue-ru; Chu, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Yan-ling; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Experiential and sensory evaluation is an ancient method that remains important in the current quality control system of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). The process is rapid and convenient when evaluating the quality of crude materials in TCM markets. However, sensory evaluation has been met with skepticism because it is mainly based on experience and lacks a scientific basis. In this study, rhubarb was selected to demonstrate how color-based sensory evaluation could differentiate the quality of herbal medicines objectively. The colors of the rhubarb samples, expressed as RGB values, were obtained from different parts and forms of the plant, including the plant’s surface, fracture surface color, and a powdered form with or without treatment with a color-developing reagent. We first divided the rhubarb samples into three grades based on the total content of five hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives, the major pharmacological components in rhubarb. Then, a three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), calibrated with selected training samples, was used to correlate the quality of the rhubarb with its color. The color of the rhubarb powder after coloration attained the highest accuracy (92.3%) in predicting the quality grade of the test samples with the established artificial neural networks. Finally, a standardized colorimetric grading scale was created based on the spatial distribution of the rhubarb samples in a two-dimensional chromaticity diagram according to the colors of the powdered rhubarb after color enhancement. By comparing the color between the scale and the tested samples, similar to performing a pH test with indicator paper, subjects without sensory evaluation experience could quickly determine the quality grade of rhubarb. This work illustrates the technical feasibility of the color-based grading of rhubarb quality and offers references for quantifying and standardizing the sensory evaluation of TCMs, foods and other products. PMID:23145012

  17. TCMGeneDIT: a database for associated traditional Chinese medicine, gene and disease information using text mining

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complementary and alternative medical system in Western countries, has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in East Asian countries. In recent years, many herbal medicines were found to exhibit a variety of effects through regulating a wide range of gene expressions or protein activities. As available TCM data continue to accumulate rapidly, an urgent need for exploring these resources systematically is imperative, so as to effectively utilize the large volume of literature. Methods TCM, gene, disease, biological pathway and protein-protein interaction information were collected from public databases. For association discovery, the TCM names, gene names, disease names, TCM ingredients and effects were used to annotate the literature corpus obtained from PubMed. The concept to mine entity associations was based on hypothesis testing and collocation analysis. The annotated corpus was processed with natural language processing tools and rule-based approaches were applied to the sentences for extracting the relations between TCM effecters and effects. Results We developed a database, TCMGeneDIT, to provide association information about TCMs, genes, diseases, TCM effects and TCM ingredients mined from vast amount of biomedical literature. Integrated protein-protein interaction and biological pathways information are also available for exploring the regulations of genes associated with TCM curative effects. In addition, the transitive relationships among genes, TCMs and diseases could be inferred through the shared intermediates. Furthermore, TCMGeneDIT is useful in understanding the possible therapeutic mechanisms of TCMs via gene regulations and deducing synergistic or antagonistic contributions of the prescription components to the overall therapeutic effects. The database is now available at . Conclusion TCMGeneDIT is a unique database that offers diverse association information on TCMs. This database integrates TCMs with biomedical studies that would facilitate clinical research and elucidate the possible therapeutic mechanisms of TCMs and gene regulations. PMID:18854039

  18. Herbal therapy: a new pathway for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It has been a clinical challenge to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present commentary we discuss whether herbal therapy could be a novel treatment method for AD on the basis of results from clinical trials, and discuss the implications for potential therapy for AD pathophysiology. There is evidence to suggest that single herbs or herbal formulations may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits to the approved drugs. The current evidence supporting their use alone, however, is inconclusive or inadequate owing to many methodological limitations. Herbal mixtures may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in the view of traditional Chinese medicine. Several clinical trials using herbal mixtures are being conducted in China and will hopefully show promising results for treating AD in the near future. PMID:21067555

  19. [A brief history of Chinese royal court medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Sheng

    2010-09-01

    With the establishment of an emperor and a royal court, the court physician came into being and the royal court medicines gradually began to evolve. In the first year of Kai Huang of the Sui dynasty (581), King Wendi of the Sui dynasty established the imperial medical bureau. Since then the royal court medicines entered a period of development and prosperity. In the Yuan dynasty, the scope of official duty of the imperial hospital narrowed, the development of royal court medicines lacked new growth. To the Ming and Qing dynasties, the royal court medicine began to decline and eventually ended with the demise of the Qing dynasty. PMID:21163077

  20. The Chinese herbal formula Liuwei dihuang protects dopaminergic neurons against Parkinson's toxin through enhancing antioxidative defense and preventing apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2014-04-15

    Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been employed as an anti-aging prescription to improve declined function. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons with complex pathological mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Increasing evidence indicate that TCM has the potential to be neuroprotective drugs because of their antioxidant characteristics. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of LWDH-mediated protection in Parkinson's toxin-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration by evaluating water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-treated primary mesencephalic neurons and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6 mice. In the present study, chemical profiling and quantitative analysis of LWDH-WE were revealed using 3D-HPLC technique, and were confirmed by the data of three batches of LWDH-WE. In primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures, LWDH-WE decreased MPP(+)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and increase of Annexin V-positive neurons. LWDH-WE reduced MPP(+)-induced oxidative damage via increasing antioxidant defense (SOD, GSH), decreasing ROS production, and down-regulating NADPH oxidases (Nox2 and Nox4). Also, LWDH-WE inhibited neuronal apoptosis by improving mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression, and down-regulating apoptotic signaling (Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3) in MPP(+)-treated neurons. In MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice, LWDH-WE attenuated TH-positive neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and improved locomotor activity of mice. In conclusion, the present results reveal that LWDH-WE possesses protection on dopaminergic neurons through enhancing antioxidant defense and decreasing apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of LWDH-WE for PD treatment. PMID:24411708

  1. In vivo Studies on Antidiabetic Plants Used in South African Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    J. Afolayan, Anthony; O. Sunmonu, Taofik

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. It is a major health problem with its frequency increasing every day in most countries. The disease is generally believed to be incurable; and the few orthodox drugs available to manage the disease are not readily affordable to the poor. Based on the historical success of natural products as antidiabetic agents and the ever increasing need for new antidiabetics, a number of South African medicinal plants have been evaluated for their antidiabetic properties. In this article, we review the major studies conducted based on ethnobotanical surveys carried out between 2005 and 2008 in South Africa on plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Overall, the results of the studies conducted confirmed the potential of South African medicinal plants in antidiabetic drug discovery and identified a number of promising taxa for further in vivo investigation as plant-based antidiabetic agents. PMID:20838564

  2. Recent advances in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of traditional chinese medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities in liquid chromatography. This paper reviews recen...

  3. Shikonin extracted from medicinal Chinese herbs exerts anti-inflammatory effect via proteasome inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Lu; Aiping Qin; Hongbiao Huang; Ping Zhou; Chuanyin Zhang; Ningning Liu; Shujue Li; Guanmei Wen; Change Zhang; Weihua Dong; Xuejun Wang; Q. Ping Dou; Jinbao Liu

    2011-01-01

    Shikonin, extracted from medicinal Chinese herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizo), was reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have found that proteasome was a molecular target of shikonin in tumor cells, but whether shikonin targets macrophage proteasome needs to be investigated. In the current study, we report that shikonin inhibited inflammation in mouse models as

  4. [Some engineering problems on developing production industry of modern traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Qu, Hai-bin; Cheng, Yi-yu; Wang, Yue-sheng

    2003-10-01

    Based on the review of some engineering problems on developing modern production industry of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the differences of TCM production industry between China and abroad were pointed out. Accelerating the application and extension of high-tech and computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS) were suggested to promote the technology advancement of TCM industry. PMID:15620174

  5. [Advance in studies on TRPV1 and analgesic effect of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Lv, Cui; Zhang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective positive ion channel that is mainly expressed in sensory neurons and a member of transient receptor potential (TRP) family. The receptor could be activated by mechanical irritation, chemical irritation or endogenous ligand to mediate pains and cause injury to body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that the mechanism of pain is that "stagnation leads to pain". Specifically, both of the contracture and tautness caused by cold and the blood stasis could result in blood impassability and pain. Most of traditional Chinese medicines for clearing heat and removing toxicity have the anti-inflammatory effect, while those for warming interior, and promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have the effect in smoothening blood vessels. Therefore, either with the anti-inflammatory effect or the effect in smoothening blood vessels, traditional Chinese medicines for clearing heat and removing toxicity, warming interior, and promoting blood circulation have the analgesic effect In this paper, the authors summarize the analgesic effect of the above three traditional Chinese medicines, with TRPV1 as the target. PMID:25282877

  6. Application of morbid animal model in drug safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine