Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise
Serious poisoning may occur following the consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) containing anticholinergics. The great majority of cases are probably related to the use of yangjinhua, the dried flower of Datura metel L, for treating bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pains and flu symptoms. In some cases the use of CHM contaminated by atropine-like substances or fake herbs were suspected. Some ginseng (Panax ginseng) preparations might have been adulterated with Mandragora officinarum (scopolamine) and other herbs. PMID:7631497
Chan, T Y
Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted.
Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.
Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun
Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications.
Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions.
Popular demand for and scientific interest in complementary or alternative medicine, particularly medicinal bo- tanicals, has increased considerably in recent years. The medicinal botanicals with the longest tradition, and for which extensive data are available, are Chinese herbal medicines and their Japanese counterparts-Kampo medicines. This review focuses on some representative examples of studies examining the effects of some traditional Chinese
Andrea T Borchers; Robert M Hackman; Carl L Keen; Judith S Stern; M Eric Gershwin
Taiwan has aimed to develop a local Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) industry targeting the global market. The main patent issues concern whether the inventions constitute patentable subject matter, and their patentability. Currently, it is difficult for CHM inventions to comply with patent standards developed in conjunction with the Western pharmaceutical industry. Despite its increasing prominence, thus far, Taiwan is the
Jerry I.-H. Hsiao
Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine\\u000a with type IV allergic reaction.Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis\\u000a were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear\\u000a swelling,
Xi-ran Lin; Cai-xia Tu; Xian-min Meng; Chun-mei Yang; Ming-yang Gao; Ling Gu
Our objective was to identify the association between maternal diet with Chinese herbal medicines and prolonged jaundice of breast-fed infants. Healthy infants at 25 to 45 days of age were eligible for enrollment into this prospective study. Jaundice was defined as a transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) value ? 5?mg/dL. A questionnaire survey asking feeding type, stool pattern, and maternal diet was conducted at the time of TcB measurement. A total of 1148 infants were enrolled, including 151 formula-fed, 436 combination-fed, and 561 breast-fed infants. The incidences of jaundice were 4.0% in formula-fed infants, 15.1% in combination-fed infants, and 39.8% in breast-fed infants (P < 0.001). In addition, jaundice was noted in 37.1% of preterm infants and 25.0% of term infants (P < 0.001). Furthermore, jaundice was more common in breast-fed infants whose mothers did not consume the traditional Chinese herbal medicines than in breast-fed infants whose mothers did consume such medicines (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this cohort study has identified late-preterm birth and breast feeding as the contributory factors for prolonged jaundice of apparently well infants. The data indicate that postpartum diet with Chinese herbal medicines is associated with breast milk jaundice. PMID:22811742
Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Cheng, Shao-Wen
ObjectivesOur study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible
Jing Hu; Junhua Zhang; Wei Zhao; Yongling Zhang; Li Zhang; Hongcai Shang
One of the important components in randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is blinding. The gold standard of clinical trials is to achieve a double blind design. However, only a small number of randomized controlled trials in traditional Chinese medicine have been reported, most of them are of poor quality in methodology including placebo preparation and verification. The purpose of the article is to review the validity of placebo used in blinded clinical trials for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in recent years and related patents. We searched the Wanfang Database (total of 827 Chinese journals of medicine and/or pharmacy, from 1999 to 2005) and 598 full-length articles related to placebo clinical trials were found. 77 placebo blinded clinical trials for Chinese medicine were extracted by manual search from the 598 articles. After reviewing the 77 full-length articles, we found that nearly half of the clinical trials did not pay attention to the physical quality of the testing drug and placebo and whether they were of comparable physical quality. The rest provided very limited placebo information so that blinding assurance could not be assumed. Only 2 articles (2.6%) specifically validated the comparability between the testing drug and the placebo. Researchers in Chinese medicine commonly ignored the quality of the placebo in comparison to the test drug. This may be causing bias in the clinical trials. Quality specifications and evaluation of the placebo should deserve special attention to reduce bias in randomized controlled trials in TCM study. PMID:19076001
Qi, Guan D; We, Ding A; Chung, Leung P; Fai, Cheng K
Objectives Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible for our study. Twenty-one of the included reviews had at least one Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner as its co-author. 7 reviews didn't include any primary study, the remaining reviews (n?=?51) included a median of 9 studies and 936 participants. 50% of reviews were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2008. The questions addressed by 39 reviews were broad in scope, in which 9 reviews combined studies with different herbal medicines. For OQAQ, the mean of overall quality score (item 10) was 5.05 (95% CI; 4.58-5.52). All reviews assessed the methodological quality of primary studies, 16% of included primary studies used adequate sequence generation and 7% used adequate allocation concealment. Of the 51 nonempty reviews, 23 reviews were reported as being inconclusive, while 27 concluded that there might be benefit of CHM, which was limited by the poor quality or inadequate quantity of included studies. 58 reviews reported searching a median of seven electronic databases, while 10 reviews did not search any Chinese database. Conclusions Now CDSR has included large numbers of CHM reviews, our study identified some areas which could be improved, such as almost half of included reviews did not have the participation of TCM practitioners and were not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria, some reviews pooled the results of different herbal medicines and ignored the searching of Chinese databases.
Hu, Jing; Zhang, Junhua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yongling; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hongcai
Yunnan Baiyao is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to treat wounds for over 100 years. Here, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to determine nano-scale structures of the Yunnan Baiyao. AFM images revealed uniform nanofibers present in relatively high abundance in a solution of this medicine. Fibers were typically 25.1 nm in diameter and ranged in length from 86-726 nm due to processing. Due to the unique adhesive and structural properties of nanofibers, we concluded that these fibers may play a role in platelet aggregation, leading to clotting, and the sealing of wounds. PMID:20201420
Lenaghan, Scott C; Xia, Lijin; Zhang, Mingjun
For the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a prescription for a patient often contains several herbs. Some herbs are often used together in prescriptions, and these herbs can be considered as a functional group. In this paper, we propose an approach for discovering herbal functional groups from a large set of prescriptions recorded in TCM books. These functional groups are allowed to overlap with each other. Our approach is validated with a simulation study and applied to a data set containing thousands of TCM prescriptions. PMID:21413055
He, Ping; Deng, Ke; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Delin; Liu, Jun S; Geng, Zhi
Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing.
Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (?? zh?ng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (?? d?n sh?n), Notoginseng Radix (?? s?n q?), Lycii Fructus (??? g?u q? z?), Cnidii Fructus (??? shé chuáng z?), Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n), Puerariae Radix (?? gé g?n), Puerariae Flos (?? gé hu?), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (?? hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (?? jié g?ng), and Trigonellae Semen (??? hú lú b?). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future.
Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan
Datura metel L. (Yangjinghua) is a toxic herb that contains anticholinergic compounds. Inappropriate consumption of this herb could result in anticholinergic poisoning. Clinical features of such poisoning have not been previously described. We report two such cases. Both patients had taken brews of Datura metel L., and developed poisoning soon afterwards. Prominent clinical features included confusion, dilated pupils, absence of sweating, and the absence of sluggish bowel sounds. No flushing of the face or skin was detected in either case. Both patients recovered fully within 12 hours with supportive measures, and no gastric elimination or antidote was used. The different names ascribed to Datura metel L. in chinese medicine can be confusing; this confusion resulted in the poisoning of one of our patients. The clinical features of Datura metel L. poisoning and concerns over inappropriate uses of herbal medicine are discussed. PMID:18465037
Phua, D H; Cham, G; Seow, E
Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either ?2-adrenergic agonists or opioid agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad’s scale (1–2 = low; 3–5 = high). Meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effect models in RevMan software; outcome measures assessed were withdrawal-symptoms score, anxiety, and adverse effects of treatment. Twenty-one studies (2,949 participants) were included. For withdrawal-symptoms score relieving during the 10-day observation, Chinese herbal medicine was superior to ?2-adrenergic agonists in relieving opioid-withdrawal symptoms during 4–10 days (except D8) and no difference was found within the first 3 days. Compared with opioid agonists, Chinese herbal medicine was inferior during the first 3 days, but the difference became non-significant during days 4–9. Chinese herbal medicine has better effect on anxiety relieving at late stage of intervention than ?2-adrenergic agonists, and no difference with opioid agonists. The incidence of some adverse effects (fatigue, dizziness) was significantly lower for Chinese herbal medicine than for ?2-adrenergic agonists (sufficient data for comparison with opioid agonists were not available). Findings were robust to file-drawer effects. Our meta-analysis suggests that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safety treatment for heroin detoxification. And more work is needed to determine the specific effects of specific forms of Chinese herbal medicine.
Liu, Ting-ting; Epstein, David H.; Bao, Yan-Ping
Concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils and herbal medicine samples from cultivated regions of Anguo City in Hebei Province were analyzed and assessed, and the bioconcentration factors of different herbal medicines were studied and discussed as well. The results showed that the average contents of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils from herbal medicine cultivated regions were 12.9, 0.036, 15.6, 0.118 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils were lower than class II of the soil environmental quality standard. When local soil background values of heavy metals were used as assessment standard, among the 16 cultivated regions the percentage of As, Hg, Ph, Cd belonging to lightly pollution class were 18.75%, 43.75%, 0%, 100%, respectively based on the single pollution index. And the Nemerow index results were between 1 and 2, which suggested the soils were at slight pollution level. However, when quality standard class II was used, both the single pollution index and Nemerow index did not exceed 0.7, which means that soils investigated were generally safe for cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines. The assessment of heavy metals in herbal medicines showed that the pollution indices of most herbal samples (< 95%) were lower then 1. Cd bioconcentration factors of Aster tataricus L. and Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Hg bioconcentration factors of Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. and Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq. were above 1. Therefore, the accumulation characteristic of heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicines should be fully concerned when GAP base soil quality assessment was taken. PMID:20698279
Chu, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Wen-Ju; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Duan, Yu-Hang
Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area.
Ruan, Wen-jing; Lai, Mao-de; Zhou, Jian-guang
Objective. We evaluated the efficiency of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (a compound herbal formula for invigorating spleen) as a complementary and alternative therapy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. Methods. Between 2001 and 2012, 93 gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis were enrolled in this study. The effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine on their long-term outcome was investigated. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the difference in survival time, and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. Result. First-line palliative chemotherapy plus traditional Chinese herbal medicine was performed in 47 patients and the other 46 patients received chemotherapy alone. The overall survival was different between patients with and without traditional Chinese herbal medicine (12.0 versus 10.5 months; P = 0.046). According to the Cox proportional hazard model, first-line chemotherapy cycle (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.527; 95% CI = 0.323~0.860) and TCHM (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.481~0.992) were selected as independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicine could improve the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis.
Zhao, Ai-Guang; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Ni-Da; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Jin-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua
Chinese herbal medicines as additives in cosmetic can both keep the properties of cosmetic and have maintaining, health protection and remedial effect. Some of the Chinese herbal medicines can absorb ultraviolet and cure sunburn. This article mainly studies the spectral properties of several kinds of Chinese herbal medicine additives in cosmetic by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer, and analyses the ultraviolet absorption of the Chinese herbal medicine additives. It was shown that gynostemma pentaphyllum can absorb ultraviolet very well. It can be a promising natural additive in the health protection cosmetic. Codonopsis pilosula, floss chrysanthemum indicum, radix scutellariae and radix glycyrrhizae can absorb ultraviolet. They can also be the additives, while ligusticum wallichii can't absorb ultraviolet, so it can not be used as the sunburn protection additive. PMID:15828351
Huang, Chong; Ouyang, Yan-dong; Fang, Yi-wen; Yu, Yun-peng; Lin, Shun-hui
AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori.
Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang
This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine.
Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan
Because tyrosinase catalyzes melanin synthesis, tyrosinase inhibitors are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health, which means antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. We examined 25 traditional Chinese herbal medicines that might be useful for skin-whitening and skin health. Extracts (100microg/mL) were tested for cytotoxicity on human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn); 12 exhibited low cytotoxicity. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging activities were further assessed. Phenolic contents were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Four herbs, Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, and Morus alba, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase (IC(50) values 24.9, 95.6, 83.9, and 78.3microg/mL, respectively). Melanin inhibition was not dose-dependent. Sophora japonica (IC(50): 14.46microg/mL, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 1.95microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) and Spatholobus suberectus (IC(50): 10.51microg/mL, DPPH; 4.36microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) showed good antioxidative activities and high phenolic contents (255 and 189mg of gallic acid/g extract, respectively). Among active anti-tyrosinase extracts, Sophora japonica and Spatholobus suberectus were especially potent in HEMn cells in terms of free radical scavenging effects and high phenolic contents, making them the strongest candidates for cosmetic application found in the current study. PMID:16497459
Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Dih; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Yen-Hua; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Huang, Ching-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsien
Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic
Peishan Xie; Sibao Chen; Yi-zeng Liang; Xianghong Wang; Runtao Tian; Roy Upton
Chinese medical syndrome efficacy, as a second efficacy indicator, has been widely used in clinical trials of treating dementia by Chinese herbal medicine. The syndrome assessment tool is a key point in assessing the efficacy of Chinese medical syndrome. The syndrome assessment tool for dementia used nowadays needs to be optimized in content, reliability, and validity. In this paper, the authors reviewed some problems correlated with the design of Chinese medical assessment questionnaire on the basis of Chinese medical theories by combining the common requirements for questionnaire development. PMID:23713260
Ni, Jing-nian; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-zhou; Liu, Bing-lin; Liu, Jian-ping; Liu, Tong-hua; Xu, Shi-qian; Cui, Gong-ping; Wang, Yong-yan
There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory. PMID:18479045
Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua
This study examined the effects of four-months of treatment using Chinese herbal Shu Di Shan Zha Formula on bone health. Fourteen Australian menopausal women participated in this paired study and completed all the tests at the commencement, 4th month (when the treatment group and control group cross over) and the 8th month (end) of the study. Data from bone structure and function tests (broadband ultrasonic attenuation--BUA and velocity of sound--VOS), biomarkers of bone turnover (osteocalcin--OSTN and urinary pyridum crosslinks--PYR and D-PYR) were collected from each subject. Results showed that Shu Di Shan Zha Formula was able to affect the level of BUA, and reduce the level of D-PYR in menopausal women. PMID:15510808
Xu, Hong; Lawson, David
In this open-ended multicultural lab activity, learners investigate the effectiveness of herbal remedies. Learners prepare extracts from plants that are used in a variety of herbal medicines; they test the antibiotic effects of the herbs on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and look for antifungal effects using common molds. The effectiveness of the herbal extracts is compared with traditional antibiotic and antifungal preparations. Each group is in charge of their experimental design; variables include types of herbs chosen, methods of preparing extracts, microbes tested, and type of exposure of microorganisms to the extract (applied to agar surface, on sensitivity disks, in agar itself, heated, cooled, etc.). Adult supervision recommended.
Analysis of the nature, tastes, channel distributions and effects of the frequently used herbal medicines in the prescriptions involved in the clinical literatures about treatment of gastric cancer published from 1988 to 2007 was made in the paper. The literatures were categorized into three types: 1) treatment of middle- and late-stage gastric cancer; 2) prevention and treatment of the recurrence and metastasis after operation; 3) Chinese herbal medicines combined with chemotherapy for enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity. The most frequently used herbal medicines in the three literature types were qi-invigorating herbs, such as Atractylodes, Astragalus, Codonopsis, Glycyrrhiza and Ginseng, etc. The herbal medicines for promoting urination to subside swelling such as tuckahoe and Semen Coicis, etc were used more frequently than the herbal medicines for regulating qi such as dried orange peel and putchuck, etc, as well as for clearing away heat to remove toxin such as spreading hedyotis herb, Herba Scutellariae Barbatae, yangtao actinidia root, and Rhizoma Paridis, etc. From another angle, the most frequently used herbal medicines for the treatment of gatric cancer were those cold, warm and neutral in nature, sweet, bitter and pungent in taste, and distributed to spleen and liver channels. PMID:19134451
Cao, Wen; Zhao, Ai-guang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) consists of up hundreds of chemical components, which have complex relationships with their bioactivities. Quantitatively modeling composition-activity relationships playing a crucial role in drug design from CHM. In this paper, principle component regression, partial least square regression and least square support vector machine were used to perform this task and exhibit high predictive precisions
Xuewei Wang; Yi Wang; Yiyu Cheng
Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine.
Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been commonly used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Syndrome differentiation is one of the important characteristics of TCM. To assess the application and basic characteristics of syndrome differentiation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS, we performed this paper. We conducted electronic searches in main Chinese and English databases till March 2012. A total of 735 RCTs involving 67,784 IBS participants were included. 224 (30.5%) studies applied syndrome differentiation. The major syndromes of IBS patients were the syndrome of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency (56.8%), spleen-stomach weakness (49.4%), spleen-kidney yang deficiency (48.1%), and cold and heat in complexity (29.6%). Herbal formulas were prescribed based on syndrome differentiation in 202 studies. Chinese patent medicine was more commonly used in studies that only enrolled patients with a specific syndrome. 15 studies compared the therapeutic effect among different syndromes, of which 6 studies showed that there were significant differences among different syndromes. The low use of TCM syndrome differentiation in randomized trials of Chinese herbal medicine for IBS results in the poor pertinence of treatment. TCM syndrome differentiation should be used in further studies at the stage of recruitment, treatment, and data analyses.
Li, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yan; Liu, Jian-Ping
Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The statins are a milestone in the primary and second prevention of cardiovascular diseases and significantly improved its prognosis. Along with the long-term treatment with statins in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs or alone, its safety has attracted a particular attention in clinic, such as the elevation of transaminase and rhabdomyolysis, which have raised an idea of developing the other types of lipid-lowering agents from botanic materials. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 2000 years in China and showed some beneficial effects for human health and many diseases. Recently, many studies demonstrated a favorable effect of TCM for treating dyslipidemia; however, its mechanism remains unclear or totally unknown. The progress and perspective of studies on dyslipidemia with single Chinese herb and its monomers or effective extracts during the past 10 years are discussed in the present review.
Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Shi, Da-zhuo
Chinese herbal medicine has developed new therapies for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on its unique theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this review, 21 traditional Chinese herbs were introduced for their potential benefit in the treatment of NAFLD. Majority of them are evaluated by experimental studies and few by multicenter clinical trials. Herbal monomers as berberine and resveratrol, extracts from Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi, and Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb., and formulae including Yinchenhao Decoction (, YCHD), Qushi Huayu Decoction (, QSHYD), and Danning Tablet () were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Most of these herbal medicines were proved to improve biochemical and histological changes of NAFLD both in vitro and in vivo. Also, their therapeutic activities were associated with inhibiting lipid accumulation through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation or upregulating low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression, alleviating lipid peroxidation, and reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Although the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines needed to be evaluated in multicenter large-scale clinical trials, Chinese medicine is promising and effective for preventing and treating NAFLD disease. PMID:22311412
Dong, Hui; Lu, Fu-Er; Zhao, Li
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comprises a range of traditional medical practices that originate in China, including herbal medicine as a major therapy. Through its 4 natures; namely, cold, hot, warm, and cool, herbal medicine may regulate sympathetic nerves and basal metabolic rate and affect the CNS and the endocrine system. Heat stroke is a severely life-threatening heat-related illness that is most commonly seen during summer heat waves and high environmental temperatures. The intake of medications or toxins is considered one of the risk factors leading to heat stroke, as they may affect body thermoregulation. We report a case of heat stroke that was associated with herbal therapy with TCM. This case highlights the importance of paying more attention to unidentified folk prescriptions in the use of TCM. PMID:24739411
Deng, Hui; Wu, Xiaokun; Wu, Limin; Zhang, Hongliang
Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.
Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schroder, Sven
The available databases that catalogue information on traditional Chinese medicines are reviewed in terms of their content and utility for in-silico research on Chinese herbal medicines, as too are the various protein database resources, and the software available for use in such studies. The software available for bioinformatics and 'omics studies of Chinese herbal medicines are summarised, and a critical evaluation given of the various in-silico methods applied in screening Chinese herbal medicines, including classification trees, neural networks, support vector machines, docking and inverse docking algorithms. Recommendations are made regarding any future in-silico studies of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:22326356
Barlow, D J; Buriani, A; Ehrman, T; Bosisio, E; Eberini, I; Hylands, P J
Chinese herbal medicine has been commonly used in the treatment of postinfectious cough. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for postinfectious cough. An extensive search for RCTs was performed using multiple electronic databases, supplemented with a manual search. All studies included were confirmed with specific inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of each study was examined according to the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Quality of evidence was evaluated using rating approach developed by GRADE working group. The literature search yielded 352 results, of which 12 RCTs satisfied the inclusion criteria, offering moderate-to-high levels of evidence. Methodological quality was considered high in three trials, while in the other nine studies the unclear risk of bias was in the majority. Findings suggested that, compared with western conventional medicine or placebo, Chinese herbal medicine could effectively improve core symptoms of postinfectious cough, act better and have earlier antitussive effect, and enhance patients' quality of life. No serious adverse event was reported.
Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hong-Li; Mao, Bing
We have surveyed, by means of a questionnaire, the preoperative use of traditional Chinese medicines in 259 adult Chinese patients admitted to a Hong Kong teaching hospital. The spectrum and use of herbal remedies differed from that reported by Western sources. Of those patients surveyed 90% used Chinese herbs on a regular daily basis in traditional soups and teas while 44% had consulted a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner in the last twelve months prior to admission, but mainly for health promotion (59%) and minor ailments (30%). Only 25% sought advice for their current illness and 13% were taking regular traditional Chinese medicines prior to admission. The ingredients were difficult to identify. Patients with cancer were more likely to use ling zhi (odds ratio 5.4). Female patients with reproductive problems were more likely to visit a traditional Chinese medical practitioner (odds ratio 2.6) and use ginseng (odds ratio 5.1). The anaesthetic implications of preoperative traditional Chinese medicine in keeping with Hong Kong practices need to be investigated, and appropriate anaesthetic guidelines should be developed. PMID:16119494
Critchley, L A H; Chen, D Q; Lee, A; Thomas, G N; Tomlinson, B
AIM: To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis. METHODS: The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM). Eight databases including MEDLINE, EMbase, Cochrane Central (CCTR), four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals, Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center, were searched. Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected, categorized according to study design, the strength of evidence, the first author’s hospital type, and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies. No article was of level?I?evidence, and 9.26% were of level II evidence. The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%, 0.68% and 7.29%, respectively. Typically, the articles featured in case reports of illness, examined from the perspective of EBM, were weak in both quality and evidence level, which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals, the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China. CONCLUSION: The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence, and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.
Dong, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Guan-Liang; Liu, Xing; Liu, Jia; Zhu, De-Zeng; Ling, Chang-Quan
Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.
Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.
The antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver, including Salivia miltiorrhiza, Hypericum japonicum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Callicarpa cathayana, Chrysanthemum indicum, Paeonia latiflora, Lysimachia christinae, Ligustrum lucidum (L1), Patrinia villosa (Pv) on hepatic homogenate of rat were tested. It was found that all tested medicines showed inhibition with dose-effect relationship, the inhibitory rate of L1 and Pv were lower than the other's. All results showed that these Chinese herbal medicines have strong antilipid peroxidation and are natural oxidation inhibitor. It was suggested that their function of protecting liver and others have relationship with the antioxidation. PMID:12572505
Jiang, H; Huang, X; Yang, Y; Zhang, Q
Calcineurin (CN) is a highly abundant phosphatase in the brain and it is the only Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase. There is considerable evidence to suggest that CN plays an essential role in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. It has been shown recently that inhibitors of CN, such as CsA or FK506, impair memory formation in day-old chicks. In our present study, extract of Fructus cannabis (EFC) with activation of CN, extracted from Chinese traditional medicine, was used to determine the effects on memory and immunity. In the step-down-type passive avoidance test, the plant extract (0.2 g/kg) significantly improved amnesia induced by chemical drugs in mice, and greatly enhanced the ability of cell-mediated type hypersensitivity and nonspecific immune responses in normal mice. The present study provided pharmacological evidence for Chinese herbal medicine screening from molecular model. PMID:12957215
Luo, Jing; Yin, Jiang-Hua; Wei, Qun
This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe. PMID:22393756
Zou, Wenjun; Qu, Liping; Ye, Zuguang; Ji, Jianxin; Li, Bogang
Huperzine A, alkaloid from the Chinese herbal medicine Qian Ceng Ta, which is prepared from the moss Huperzia serrata, has been used in China for centuries to treat fever and inflammation. Huperzine A is a strong inhibitor of cholinesterases with high selectivity to acetylcholinesterase and in China is developed as therapeutic against Alzheimer's disease. May be that huperzine A will be better than other centrally active anticholinesterases in treating this neurodegenerative disorder. Huperzine A appears to have additional pharmacological properties that make it an attractive candidate therapy for clinical trials. PMID:9951045
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16?134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29?801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female?:?male = 1.94?:?1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Background. There is no curative treatment for primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is widely used in the treatment of PSS in China. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM for PSS. Methods. PubMed, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Wanfang Data, and the Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM or CHM plus conventional medicine for PSS compared with placebo or conventional medicine. RevMan 5.0.17 was employed to conduct data analyses and assess homogeneity. Statistical models were chosen according to heterogeneity. Results. A total of 52 RCTs were included. The overall methodological quality of included trials was low. 49 trials reported response rates, of which 32 found significant improvements favoring CHM treatment against controls; 20 trials reported lacrimal function by Schirmer test scores, of which 16 trials reported a significant difference favoring CHM treatment. 21 trials reported salivary function by salivary flow rate, of which 10 reported significant favorable effects of CHM treatment. Other trials found no difference. The reported adverse effects of CHM included nausea, diarrhea, and other minor digestive symptoms, but more frequent adverse effects occurred in conventional medicine groups. Conclusions. Preliminary evidence from RCTs suggests the effect of CHM is promising for relieving symptoms, improving lacrimal and salivary function in PSS. However, the poor methodological quality of the included trials means that further well-designed, multicentered, larger trials are needed.
Luo, Hui; Li, Xinxue; Liu, Jianping; Andrew, Flower; George, Lewith
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji
This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji
Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.
Chen, Hsing-Yu; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Chen, Jiun-Liang
This review presents Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc., a fungus highly valued in China as a tonic food and herbal medicine. The extant records show the continued use of C. sinensis is now centuries old. The major chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies on C. sinensis and the various derived, cultured, fermented mycelial products currently in use are reviewed from the English and Chinese literature. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical blinded or open-label trials in to date over 2000 patients are reviewed. These studies show the main activities of the fungus in oxygen-free radical scavenging, antisenescence, endocrine, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, and sexual function-restorative activities. The safety of the fungus, its effects on the nervous system, glucose metabolism, the respiratory, hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune systems, immunologic disease, inflammatory conditions, cancer, and diseases of the kidney will be reviewed in the second part of this article to be published in the winter issue of this journal. PMID:9764768
Zhu, J S; Halpern, G M; Jones, K
Introduction Cancer patients often seek complementary or alternative medicines to supplement or replace treatments prescribed by licensed\\u000a medical practitioners. Traditional Chinese\\/herbal medicine (TCM) is a popular complementary intervention among cancer patients\\u000a of Asian ethnicity, many of whom take it during their conventional treatment. Few of these patients inform their doctors,\\u000a however, creating a risk of unexpected sequelae arising from either pharmacologic
Joanne Chiu; Thomas Yau; Richard J. Epstein
Objective: To evaluate the effect of combined therapy of Chinese herbal medicine and compound cyproterone acetate (CPA) in treating\\u000a non-obesity polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore its mechanism in improving withdrawal ovulation.Methods: Eighty-six patients of non-obesity PCOS, typed as Shen-deficiency with blood stasis Syndrome or Shen-deficiency with Phlegm-Dampness\\u000a Syndrome by Syndrome Differentiation in traditional Chines medicine, were randomly divided
Tao Li-li; Chen Xiao-ping; Gu Zheng-tian
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, due to aggressive growth, high metastatic rates during the early stage and the lack of an effective therapeutic approach. We previously showed that Qingyihuaji (QYHJ), a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, exhibited significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer, associated with modifications in the tumor microenvironment, particularly the inhibition of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) activation. In the present study, we generated CAF and paired normal fibroblast (NF) cultures from resected human pancreatic cancer tissues. We observed that CAFs exhibited an enhanced capacity for inducing pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion compared with NFs, while QYHJ-treated CAFs exhibited decreased migration and invasion-promoting capacities in vitro. The results of further analyses indicated that compared with NFs, CAFs exhibit increased CXCL1, 2 and 8 expression, contributing to the enhanced invasion-promoting capacities of these cells, while QYHJ treatment significantly suppressed CAF proliferation activities and the production of CAF-derived CXCL1, 2 and 8. These in vitro observations were confirmed in mice models of human pancreatic cancer. Taken together, these results suggested that suppressing the tumor-promoting capacity of CAFs through Chinese herbal medicine attenuates pancreatic cancer cell invasion.
Chen, Hao; Xu, Litao; Qi, Qi; Luo, Jianmin; Wang, Kun; Meng, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Liu, Luming
Multi-origin Chinese herbal medicines, with herbs originating from more than one species of plants, is a common phenomenon but an important issue in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). In the present study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based fatty acid profiling approach to rapidly discriminate multi-origin Chinese medicines in terms of species and medicinal parts was proposed and validated using tuberous roots (Curcumae Radix) and rhizomes (Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Longae Rhizoma) derived from four Curcuma species (e.g., C. wenyujin, C. kwangsiensis, C. phaeocaulis and C. longa) as models. Both type and content of fatty acids varied among different species of either tuberous roots or rhizomes, indicating each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) based on dataset of global fatty acid profiling showed that either tuberous roots or rhizomes samples could be clearly classified into four clusters according to their species. Furthermore, those tested samples could also be discriminated in terms of their medicinal parts (e.g., tuberous root and rhizome). Our findings suggest that the proposed GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling followed by multivariate statistical analysis provides a reliable platform to discriminate multi-origin Chinese herbal medicines according to species and medicinal parts, which will be helpful for ensuring their quality, safety and efficacy. PMID:24335614
Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Ying; Li, Peng; Yang, Feng-Qing; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo
Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 ?g/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective activity of some Chinese herbal medicines traditionally used to promote healthy ageing and longevity. Our results provide a justification for further study of these herbal extracts in neurodegenerative animal models to assess their safety and effectiveness as a basis for subsequent clinical trials. These herbal medicines might potentially offer a novel preemptive neuroprotective approach in neurodegenerative diseases and might be developed for use in persons at risk.
Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in the health maintenance of specific survival environment for neurons and glial cells, has been constructed and applied to CHM research for treating ND. In the present review, the concept and advantages of CSFP are briefly introduced. The approaches and key technologies of CSFP in CHM research are also collated and analyzed. Furthermore, the developing tendency of CSFP is summarized, and its framework in CHM research is also proposed. In summary, CSFP provides a new strategy not only to eliminate some barriers of CHM research for treating ND, but also to broaden the pharmacology research for bridging the gap between CHM and modern medicine. Moreover, the advancements in CSFP will bring about a conceptual move in active ingredients discovery of CHM and make a significant contribution to CHM modernization and globalization.
Wu, Yan-qing; Zhou, Ying-wu; Qin, Xiu-de; Hua, Sheng-yu; Zhang, Yu-lian; Kang, Li-yuan
Liu, W-C., Wang, S-C., Tsai, M-L., Chen, M-C., Wang, Y-C., Hong, J-H., McBride, W. H. and Chiang, C-S. Protec- tion against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine. Radiat. Res. 166, 900-907 (2006). Bone marrow and intestinal damage limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer and can result in death if the whole body
Wei-Chung Liu; Shu-Chi Wang; Min-Lung Tsai; Meng-Chi Chen; Ya-Chen Wang; Ji-Hong Hong; William H. McBride; Chi-Shiun Chiang
This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki
Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.
Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan
In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal\\/patent medicines (CHM\\/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine
Gretchen M. Miller; Richard Stripp
Gan-Cao, or licorice, is a popular Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata. The main bioactive constituents of licorice are triterpene saponins and various types of flavonoids. The contents of these compounds may vary in different licorice batches and thus affect the therapeutic effects. In order to ensure its efficacy and safety, sensitive and accurate methods for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of saponins and flavonoids are of significance for the comprehensive quality control of licorice. This review describes the progress in chemical analysis of licorice and its preparations since 2000. Newly established methods are summarized, including spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), capillary electrophoresis, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), electrochemistry, and immunoassay. The sensitivity, selectivity and powerful separation capability of HPLC and CE allows the simultaneous detection of multiple compounds in licorice. LC/MS provides characteristic fragmentations for the rapid structural identification of licorice saponins and flavonoids. The combination of HPLC and LC/MS is currently the most powerful technique for the quality control of licorice. PMID:18703197
Zhang, Qingying; Ye, Min
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that needs long-term levodopa administration and can result in progressive deterioration of body functions, daily activities and participation. The objective of this meta-analysis evaluates the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjunct therapy for PD patients. Methodological issues include a systematic literature search between 1950 and April 2011 to identify randomized trials involving CHM adjuvant therapy versus western conventional treatment. The outcome measures assessed were the reduction in scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and adverse effects. 19 trials involving 1371 participants were included in the meta-analysis. As compared to western conventional treatment, CHM adjuvant therapy resulted in greater improvement in UPDRS I, II, III, IV scores, and UPDRS I–IV total scores (P < 0.001). Adverse effects were reported in 9 studies. The side effects in CHM adjuvant therapy group were generally less than or lighter than the conventional treatment group. In conclusion, CHM adjuvant therapy may potentially alleviate symptoms of PD and generally appeared to be safe and well tolerated by PD patients. However, well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are still needed due to the generally low methodological quality of the included studies.
Wang, Yan; Xie, Cheng-Long; Lu, Lin; Fu, Deng-Lei; Zheng, Guo-Qing
Histology and the microscope have been used to identify Chinese herbal medicines for a long time. However, research on using the microscope for quantitative determination of identification characters is limited. A novel method which combines histological and microscopic analysis of laticifers by "blob" analysis is established to identify Wuzhimaotao, which is derived from species of Ficus (primarily F. hirta Vahl, but F. simplicissima Lour., F. hirta Vahl var. imberbis Gagnep., and F. esquiroliana Lévl. are also used). Results indicate that laticifers, which are stained orange-red by Sudan III, are mainly scattered in the phloem of Wuzhimaotao. The blob area of the laticifers is varied according to the species: F. hirta Vahl, F. simplicissima Lour., F. hirta Vahl var. imberbis Gagnep., and F. esquiroliana Lévl. showed 86,609 +/- 3,768 (mean +/- SD, n = 10), 48,582 +/- 2,603 (n = 10), 68,745 +/- 2,179 (n = 5), and 27,966 +/- 2,121 (n = 3) blob area, respectively. By directly measuring the blob area of laticifers in transverse sections, we could distinguish species of Wuzhimaotao in the same genus which were difficult to distinguish by microscopic examination of the dry roots, and we could provide objective data to describe and standardize the characters observed in microscopic images. This method is rapid, accurate, and inexpensive. PMID:18985697
Au, Dawn Tung; Chen, Hubiao; Jiang, Zhihong; Zhao, Zhongzhen
Objective. The aim of this overview was to summarize the outcome measures of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on available systematic reviews (SRs), so as to display the current situation and evaluate the potential benefits and advantages of CHM on CHD. Methods. An extensive search included the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and 4 databases in Chinese. SRs of CHM for CHD were included. Besides evaluating and summarizing the outcome measures, we also estimated the quality of the included reviews by PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. 46 articles were included. 20 kinds of CHM were reviewed. 7 SRs were concerned with myocardial infarction (MI), 38 SRs were related to angina pectoris. 11 SRs had primary endpoints, while others focused on secondary endpoints to evaluate CHM for CHD such as angina pectoris and electrocardiogram (ECG). One SR reported more adverse effects of CHM for CHD and of the SRs analyzed quality of life. Many CHM appeared to have significant effect on improving symptoms, ECG, biomarkers and so on. However, most SRs failed to make a definite conclusion for the effectiveness of CHM in CHD patients due specifically to the poor evidence. And according to PRISMA we found most of the trials in the SRs were of low quality. Conclusion. Primary endpoints were not used widely. The benefits of CHM for CHD need to be confirmed in the future with RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs.
Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao
Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors' conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey
Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in symptom improvement, normalisation of electrocardiogram results, CPK levels, and cardiac function. Shengmai injection also showed significant effects in symptom improvement. Shengmai decoction triggered significant improvement in quality of life measured by SF-36. No serious adverse effects were reported. Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may lead to improvement of symptoms, ventricular premature beat, electrocardiogram, level of myocardial enzymes, and cardiac function in viral myocarditis. However, interpretation of these findings should be taken with care due to the low methodological quality, small sample size, and limited number of trials on individual herbs. Further robust trials are needed to explore the use of herbal medicines in viral myocarditis.
Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey
Background Diabetes remains a major health problem worldwide. Low-risk low-cost alternatives to pharmaceutical interventions are needed where lifestyle modifications have failed. We conducted a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of a Chinese herbal formula, Jiangtang Xiaozhi, in treating impaired glucose control and insulin resistance in persons with prediabetes and controlled diabetes. Methods Seventy-one patients with prediabetes or ‘controlled’ diabetes were randomised to receive 3 capsules of Jiangtang Xiaozhi (n = 39) or placebo (n = 32) three times daily for 16 weeks with a follow up eight weeks later (week 24). The primary outcome was change in glycaemic control as evidenced by fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Other measures included change in fasting insulin, insulin resistance and sensitivity, lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), body mass index (BMI), waist girth, blood pressure (BP), health related quality of life (HRQoL) and safety. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to model outcomes at 16 weeks, by treatment group corrected for baseline level of the outcome variable. Results In patients receiving Jiangtang Xiaozhi, FBG was not significantly different (p = 0.73) compared to placebo after 16 weeks of treatment (6.3?±?1.1 mmol/L vs 6.7?±?1.3 mmol/L). There was a significant difference (p = 0.04) in the mean levels of fasting insulin between the treatment group (11.6?±?5.5 mmol/L) and the placebo group (22.1?±?25.9 mmol/L). Insulin resistance slightly decreased in the treatment group (1.58?±?0.74) compared to that of the placebo group (2.43?±?1.59) but this change did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). Patients taking Jiangtang Xiaozhi had a significant improvement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level compared to the placebo group at week 16 (p = 0.03). Mean levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, BMI, waist-girth, HRQoL, BP, CRP and insulin sensitivity were not significantly different between the two groups. The herbal medicine was well tolerated. Conclusions In the current study, the 16 week Jiangtang Xiaozhi treatment did not lower fasting blood glucose, but it improved serum insulin and HDL cholesterol in a Western population with prediabetes or controlled diabetes. Our trial may have been underpowered. Dosage needs to be considered before commencing a longer adequately powered trial. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000128897; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=362005
A method involving the simultaneous extraction and clean-up of 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and mass spectrometric confirmation. The pesticides in the study consisted of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 4,4'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene), dieldrin, endrin, 4,4'-DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), endosulfan II, 4,4'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)1,1,1-trichloroethane), endrin aldehyde, and endosulfan sulfate. A series of experiments was conducted to optimize the final extraction conditions [pure CO2, 250 atm extraction pressure (1 atm = 101,325 Pa), 50 degrees C extraction temperature, 5 min static extraction time, 20 min dynamic extraction time, 2.0-g Florisil sorbent on top of 0.1-g samples, 12-ml n-hexane eluting at 1 ml/min, and a 10-ml extraction vessel]. Florisil sorbent was placed with the sample in the SFE vessel to provide a facile and effective clean-up approach. Mean recoveries of 78-121% with reproducibilities of 5-31% were obtained for the pesticides except for endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate and endrin aldehyde. The simple and rapid method may be used to determine OCPs in CHMs routinely, and in fact, was used to analyze CHMs sold in Taiwan. PMID:10220920
Ling, Y C; Teng, H C; Cartwright, C
Complementary remedies represent a potential alternative treatment for chronic diseases, including HIV/AIDS cases not meeting criteria for using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of CKBM-A01, a Chinese herbal medicine, and patient quality of life (QoL). Asymptomatic HIV patients with CD4 counts of 250-350 cells/microl were recruited into this open-labeled trial. Liquid CKBM-A01 was prescribed for a 36-week period. Study participants recorded all symptoms themselves on diary cards. Study parameters, including CD4 cell counts, HIV viral loads, and blood chemistry, were periodically monitored and questionnaires were used to assess QoL and to help with risk reduction. Eighteen volunteers, mean age (+/- SD) 32.07 (+/- 6.88) years, had a median (interquartile range, IQR) baseline CD4 count of 292 (268.50-338.25) cells/microl. No serious drug-related adVerse events due to CKBM-A01 were detected during the study. Intermittent diarrhea was reported in 55.6%, weakness or skin rash/itching in 50%, and increased bowel movement in 33.7%. No significant changes in log viral load or CD4 cell counts were observed at the end of the study. Most of the volunteers (72.2%) expressed satisfaction with CKBM-A01 and had a positive perception. Common colds and nasal symptoms were significantly lower during treatment (p = 0.019). CKBM-A01 appeared to be safe but gave no significant improvement in QoL in asymptomatic HIV patients, and gave no significant improvement in the treatment of HIV based on CD4 cell counts and viral loads. PMID:19842434
Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Dhitavat, Jittima; Naksrisook, Supa; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee
Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues (especially chlorpyrifos) in raw CHMs are advised.
HARRIS, Eric S. J.; CAO, Shugeng; LITTLEFIELD, Bruce A.; CRAYCROFT, Jane A.; SCHOLTEN, Robert; KAPTCHUK, Ted; FU, Yanling; WANG, Wenquan; LIU, Yong; CHEN, Hubiao; ZHAO, Zhongzhen; CLARDY, Jon; WOOLF, Alan D.; EISENBERG, David M.
The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), which is a scientific approach to categorize active drug ingredient based on its solubility and intestinal permeability into one of the four classes, has been used to set the pharmaceutical quality standards for drug products in western society. However, it has received little attention in the area of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). This is likely, in part, due to the presence of multiple active components as well as lack of standardization of CHM. In this report, we apply BCS classification to CHMs provisionally as a basis for establishing improved in vitro quality standards. Based on a top-200 drugs selling list in China, a total of 31 CHM products comprising 50 official active marker compounds (AMCs) were provisionally classified according to BCS. Information on AMC content and doses of these CHM products were retrieved from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. BCS parameters including solubility and permeability of the AMCs were predicted in silico (ACD/Laboratories). A BCS classification of CHMs according to biopharmaceutical properties of their AMCs is demonstrated to be feasible in the current study and can be used to provide a minimum set of quality standards. Our provisional results showed that 44% of the included AMCs were classified as Class III (high solubility, low permeability), followed by Class II (26%), Class I (18%), and Class IV (12%). A similar trend was observed when CHMs were classified in accordance with the BCS class of AMCs. Most (45%) of the included CHMs were classified as Class III, followed by Class II (16%), Class I (10%), and Class IV (6%); whereas 23% of the CHMs were of mixed class due to the presence of multiple individual AMCs with different BCS classifications. Moreover, about 60% of the AMCs were classified as high-solubility compounds (Class I and Class III), suggesting an important role for an in vitro dissolution test in setting quality control standards ensuring consistent biopharmaceutical quality for the commercially available CHM products. That is, provisionally, more than half of the AMCs of the top-selling CHMs included in this study would be candidates for a bioequivalence (BE) biowaiver, based on WHO recommendations and EMEA guidelines. Thus a dissolution requirement on these AMCs would represent a significant advance in the pharmaceutical quality of CHM today. PMID:23473440
Fong, Sophia Y K; Liu, Mary; Wei, Hai; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore; Lee, Vincent H L; Amidon, Gordon L; Zuo, Zhong
Background The studies on the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating liver fibrosis (LF) were not consistent. This study aims to systematically review the effectiveness of CHM on treating LF patients. Methods Databases including MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, TCMOnline, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Chinese Medical Current Contents were searched up to March 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving LF patients receiving CHM, Western medicine, combined CHM and Western medicine compared with placebo, Western medicine or no intervention were included. LF markers including serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC-III), type IV collagen (IV-C), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) were measured as primary outcomes. Liver biochemistry, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartarte aminotransferase (AST), and improvement of related clinical symptoms were measured as secondary outcomes. Risk of bias of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, and other biases were assessed. Results Twenty-three RCTs with 2123 participants were analyzed in subgroups of types of comparison and study quality. Fifteen studies were graded as good quality. CHM alone and combined with Western medicine showed significant improvements in HA, LN, PC-III and IV-C compared with Western medicine alone. However, there were no significant differences observed between CHM and placebo treatments. Conclusion The current inconclusive results in determining the effectiveness of CHM treatment on LF, due to the poor methodological quality and high heterogeneity of the studies, suggests that large RCTs using standardized Chinese medicine syndrome diagnosis and CHM formulae with longer follow-up are required for further evaluation.
An HPLC undergraduate experiment on the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed. Two commonly used herbs ("glycyrrhizae radix" and "cinnamomi ramulus") are studied. Glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde are chosen as markers for the herbs. The dried herbs in their natural state and a TCM preparation in powder…
Chan, W. F.; Lin, C. W.
Background. Osteoporosis is a major health problem for the elderly population. Chinese herb may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its capability. Objectives. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese medicine treatment on the patients with osteoporosis. Search Methods. Randomized controlled trials were retrieved from different 9 databases. Results. This meta analysis included 12 RCTs involving 1816 patients to compare Chinese herbs with placebo or standard anti-osteoporotic therapy in the treatment of bone loss. The pooled data showed that the percent change of increased BMD in the spine is higher with Chinese herb compared to placebo (lumber spine: WMD?=?0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.04). In the femoral, Chinese herb showed significantly higher increments of BMD compared to placebo (femoral neck: WMD?=?0.06, 95% CI: -0.02-0.13). Compared to the other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs, Chinese herbs also show advantage in BMD change (lumber spine: WMD?=?0.03, 95% CI: -0.01-0.08; femoral: WMD?=?0.01, 95% CI: -0.01-0.02). Conclusions. Our results demonstrated that Chinese herb significantly increased lumbar spine BMD as compared to the placebo or other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs. PMID:23431336
Wang, Zhi-Qian; Li, Jin-Long; Sun, Yue-Li; Yao, Min; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhu; Shi, Qi; Cui, Xue-Jun; Wang, Yong-Jun
Background. Osteoporosis is a major health problem for the elderly population. Chinese herb may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its capability. Objectives. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese medicine treatment on the patients with osteoporosis. Search Methods. Randomized controlled trials were retrieved from different 9 databases. Results. This meta analysis included 12 RCTs involving 1816 patients to compare Chinese herbs with placebo or standard anti-osteoporotic therapy in the treatment of bone loss. The pooled data showed that the percent change of increased BMD in the spine is higher with Chinese herb compared to placebo (lumber spine: WMD?=?0.07, 95% CI: 0.01–0.04). In the femoral, Chinese herb showed significantly higher increments of BMD compared to placebo (femoral neck: WMD?=?0.06, 95% CI: ?0.02–0.13). Compared to the other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs, Chinese herbs also show advantage in BMD change (lumber spine: WMD?=?0.03, 95% CI: ?0.01–0.08; femoral: WMD?=?0.01, 95% CI: ?0.01–0.02). Conclusions. Our results demonstrated that Chinese herb significantly increased lumbar spine BMD as compared to the placebo or other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs.
Wang, Zhi-qian; Li, Jin-long; Sun, Yue-li; Yao, Min; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhu; Shi, Qi; Cui, Xue-jun; Wang, Yong-jun
'Bakumondo-to', a Chinese-Japanese herbal medicine, has been used for patients with xerostomia in Japan. Although the efficacy of this medicine for xerostomia has been reported, the pharmacological basis was only partially understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the direct effect of Bakumondo-to on salivary gland cells using isolated and cultured cells. In the physiological experiment using the fluorescent dye fura-2, Bakumondo-to showed no direct effect on isolated parotid gland cells. On the other hand, Bakumondo-to, when applied to cultured salivary gland cells, showed enhancement effects on cell proliferation. After inspection by transmission electron microscopy, we concluded that Bakumondo-to did not show an increase in the number of secretion granules but did increase the mean size of secretion granules in parotid gland cells. These mechanisms, together with other in vivo effecters, may contribute to clinical efficacy. PMID:8844463
Kagami, H; Horie, K; Nishiguchi, H; Shigetomi, T; Ueda, M
Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root?+?Tangshen?+?Indian Bread?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root?+?Chinese Angelica?+?Safflower?+?Red Peony Root?+?Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit?+?Longstamen Onion Bulb?+?Pinellia Tuber?+?Dried Tangerine peel?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome?+?Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine.
Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan
We have developed a bacterial cancer therapy strategy using the genetically-engineered strain Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). A1-R is auxotrophic for leu and arg which attenuates bacterial growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human and murine cancer cell lines in clinically-relevant nude-mouse models. However, A1-R treatment of tumors in immunocompetent mouse models with high doses is limited by toxicity. The current study evaluated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture in combination with A1-R therapy in a syngeneic metastatic immunocompetent mouse model of highly aggressive lung cancer. In a model of Lewis lung carcinoma, the combination of a TCM herbal mixture and S. typhimurium A1-R enabled bacteria to be safely administered at the large dose of 2 × 10(7) colony forming units once a week i.v. with increased treatment efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to monotherapy with A1-R. The herbal mixture prevented body weight loss, spleen weight gain and liver infection by A1-R, as well as hemorrhagic lesions on the skin, liver, and spleen, all observed with A1-R monotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that the combination of A1-R and TCM has important potential for therapy of highly aggressive types of cancer, including those which are resistant to standard therapy. PMID:23645728
Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Su, Shibing; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming
Background Chinese herbs are thought to be effective for type A H1N1 influenza. Series of Chinese herbs have been authorized recommended by the Chinese government, and until now a number of clinical trials of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza have been conducted. However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on potential benefits and harms of medicinal herbs for H1N1 influenza to justify their clinical use and their recommendation. Methods and Findings CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza till 31 August, 2011. A total of 26 RCTs were identified and reviewed. Most of the RCTs were of high risk of bias with flawed study design and poor methodological quality. The combination of several Chinese herbal medicines with or without oseltamivir demonstrated positive effect on fever resolution, relief of symptoms, and global effectiveness rate compared to oseltamivir alone. However, only one herbal medicine showed positive effect on viral shedding. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of herbal medicines is still uncertain. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines demonstrated potential positive effect for 2009 type A H1N1 influenza; however, due to the lack of placebo controlled trial and lack of repeated test of the intervention, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on the beneficial effect of Chinese herbs for H1N1 influenza. More rigorous trials are warranted to support their clinical use.
Chen, Wei; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn; Kang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Jianping
Pharmacovigilance is essential for developing reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines as used in Europe and the US. The existing systems were developed for synthetic medicines and require some modification to address the specific differences of medicinal herbs. Traditional medicine from many different cultures is used in Europe and the US which adds to the complexities and difficulties of even basic questions such as herb naming systems and chemical variability. Allied to this also is the perception that a 'natural' or herbal product must be safe simply because it is not synthetic which means that the safety element of monitoring for such medicines can be overlooked because of the tag associated with such products. Cooperation between orthodox physicians and traditional practitioners is needed to bring together the full case details. Independent scientific assistance on toxicological investigation, botanical verification can be invaluable for full evaluation of any case report. Systematic pharmacovigilance is essential to build up reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines for the development of appropriate guidelines for safe effective use. PMID:22342381
Shaw, Debbie; Graeme, Ladds; Pierre, Duez; Elizabeth, Williamson; Kelvin, Chan
Herbal medicines have been used for centuries to treat different illnesses. Among more than 20,000 herbal medicines available for humans, a limited number have sufficiently been studied and numerous remained to be investigated for their efficacy in treating human diseases. A number of herbal products are in use for their immunosuppressive effects. This capacity of herbs may have useful applications in immune-mediated disorders including autoimmune diseases and organ transplant rejection. Plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza and Tripterygium wilfordii has been shown to reduce inflammatory cytokines and mediators, indicating their value in the treatment of acute graft rejections and autoimmunity. Tanacetum parthenium inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from macrophages and lymphocytes and Curcuma longa down regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as the transcription factor NF-kappaB. There has been growing interest to investigate novel anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive activities from various sources particularly herbal medicines. This review focuses on the plants that have recently received more attention regarding their influence on the immune system, being reported as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents and promising protective effects for immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22761185
Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally fatal disease resulting from early invasion of adjacent structures and metastasis and the lack of an effective treatment modality. Our previous studies have shown that Qingyihuaji Formula (QYHJ), a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, had significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer. Here, we examined the effects of QYHJ on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis and the potential associated mechanism(s). We found that QYHJ inhibited both tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice with human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts. Further study indicated that QYHJ inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized by increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin, N-cadherin and Slug expression. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages, could promote cancer cell EMT and invasion. In contrast, treatment with QYHJ inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumors by decreasing infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and IL-6 production, thus preventing cell invasion and metastasis. These results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine QYHJ could inhibit pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis in part by reversing tumor-supporting inflammation.
Ouyang, Huaqiang; Yin, Jianhua; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Chunzheng; Liu, Luming
From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.
Herbal medicines are assuming large use in the primary healthcare of individuals and communities consistently with the growing interest in traditional and alternative systems of medicine in many developed countries. Consumer surveys show a positive public attitude to complementary medicine.The regulation of herbal medicines is characterized by large differences depending on the ethnological, medical, and historical background of each country.
GIANNI BENZI; ADRIANA CECI
Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when compared to a placebo control group. Methods A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with repeated-measures, three-parallel-groups design was conducted in a random sample of 249 participants recruited from one university in Hong Kong. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to CS, YS, or placebo groups (n?=?83 per group). The main outcomes, including symptom severity, quality of life, and body constitution, were measured with self-administered questionnaires at baseline and immediately, 1 and 3 months after the 4-week interventions. Results 240 participants completed the trial, with 9 (3.6%) drop-outs. The results of Generalised Estimating Equations test followed by pairwise contrasts tests indicated that the participants who received CS showed significantly greater reduction of symptoms (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?26.13–34.55, P <0.0005) and improvements in quality of life (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?12.81–16.76, P <0.001), and body constitution in ‘Qi-deficiency’, ‘Yang-deficiency’, and ‘Inherited Special’ (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?7.05–8.12, 7.56–8.92, and 4.48–8.10, P?=?0.01–?0.0005, 0.001–0.004, and 0.01–?0.0005, accordingly, at three post-tests). The participants who received YS also indicated significant greater improvements in symptom severity, quality of life, and a few patterns of body constitution when compared to the placebo group. However, its effects were lesser in strength (i.e., smaller effect sizes), varieties of symptoms, and body constitution and sustainability over the 3 months. Conclusions The herbal formula CS was found effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in young adults (nursing students) with allergic rhinitis in ‘Yang- and/or Qi-deficiency’ body constitution. Further controlled trials of its effects in Chinese and/or Asians with allergic rhinitis in terms of socio-demographic, ethnic and illness characteristics and a longer-term follow-up are recommended. Trial registration The trial has registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with an ID: NCT02027194 (3 January 2014).
Western herbal medicine is the most widely used form of herbal medicine in Australia although Ayurvedic and Chinese herbal medicines are becoming better known. The agricultural production and manufacture of locally grown herbs is, with some exceptions, relatively underdeveloped, as is the research and development of indigenous flora. However, the use of herbal medicine is increasingly becoming mainstream with retail
Hans Wohlmuth; Chris Oliver; Pradeep J Nathan
Are national quality standards for traditional Chinese herbal medicine sufficient? Current governmental regulations for traditional Chinese herbal medicine in certain Western countries and China as the Eastern origin country.
Traditional Chinese herbal Medicine (TCHM) has been gaining interest and acceptance world wide. TCHM provides on the one side promising perspective of scientific interest and on the other side possible health risks if TCHM drugs are not controlled with respect to quality standards or if practitioners for TCHM are not well trained. This paper outlines an introduction to the scientific aspects and potential risks of TCHM therapy followed by a brief, exploratory overview of the current status of TCHM regulations in certain Western countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and in China as the Eastern origin country of TCHM. Legal foundations to establish quality and safety standards for TCHM crude drugs and ready-made formulas exist in some countries on a local basis but in practice are poorly enforced, where this products have no drug status. In addition practitioners treating patients with TCHM should be well versed in the pharmacology, side effects, and interactions of these substances with Western medicines and should be certified on a regular basis. PMID:16150372
Dobos, G J; Tan, L; Cohen, M H; McIntyre, M; Bauer, R; Li, X; Bensoussan, A
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.
Background Chinese herbal medicine is one of the most popular Chinese medicine (CM) therapies for primary insomnia. One of the important characteristics of CM is that different Chinese clinicians give different prescriptions even for the same patient. However, there must be some fixed drug patterns in every clinician’s prescriptions. This study aims to screen the effective core drug patterns in primary insomnia treatment of three prestigious Chinese clinicians. Methods/design A triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial will be performed. Three clinicians will diagnose and treat every eligible patient individually and independently, producing three prescriptions from three clinicians for every patient. Patients will equally be randomized to one of four groups – medical group A, medical group B, medical group C, or placebo group – and observed for efficacy of treatment. The sample will include primary insomnia patients meeting DSM IV-TR criteria, Spiegel scale score >18, and age 18 to 65 years. A sequential design is employed. Interim analysis will be conducted when between 80 and 160 patients complete the study. The interim study could be stopped and treated as final if a statistically significant difference between treatment and placebo groups can be obtained and core effective drug patterns can be determined. Otherwise, the study continues until the maximum sample size reaches 300. Treatment of the CM group is one of three Chinese clinicians’ prescriptions, who provide independently prescriptions based on their own CM theory and the patient’s disease condition. Assessment will be by sleep diary and Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and CM symptoms and signs will be measured. Primary outcome is total sleep time. Assessment will be carried out at the washout period, weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 and 4th week after the end of treatment. Effectiveness analysis will be per intent to treat. A multi-dimension association rule and scale-free networks method will be used to explore the effective core drug patterns. Discussion The effective core drug patterns will be found through analyzing several prestigious CM clinicians’ treatment information. Screening the effective core drug patterns from prestigious clinicians can accelerate the development of new CM drugs. Trial registration NCT01613183
Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg(-1) and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg(-1), respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:24645695
Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose
BACKGROUND—Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to determine if there is any evidence for the clinical efficacy of herbal preparations for the treatment of asthma symptoms.?METHODS—Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. Only randomised clinical trials were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. The data were extracted in a standardised, predefined manner and assessed critically.?RESULTS—Seventeen randomised clinical trials were found, six of which concerned the use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine and eight described traditional Indian medicine, of which five investigated Tylophora indica. Three other randomised trials tested a Japanese Kampo medicine, marihuana, and dried ivy leaf extract. Nine of the 17 trials reported a clinically relevant improvement in lung function and/or symptom scores.?CONCLUSIONS—No definitive evidence for any of the herbal preparations emerged. Considering the popularity of herbal medicine with asthma patients, there is urgent need for stringently designed clinically relevant randomised clinical trials for herbal preparations in the treatment of asthma.??
Huntley, A; Ernst, E
In the present study, curcumin from Chinese herbal medicine turmeric was determined by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CE-AD) pretreated by a self-designed, simple, inexpensive solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge based on the material of tributyl phosphate resin. An average concentration factor of 9 with the recovery of > 80% was achieved when applied to the analysis of curcumin in extracts of tumeric. Under the optimized CE-AD conditions: a running buffer composed of 15 mM phosphate buffer at a pH 9.7, separation voltage at 16 kV, injection for 6 s at 9 kV and detection at 1.20 V, CE-AD with SPE exhibited low detection limit as 3 x 10(-8) mol/l (S/N = 3), high efficiency of 1.0 x 10(5) N, linear range of 7 x 10(-4) -3 x 10(-6) mol/l (r = 0.9986) for curcumin extracted from light petroleum. The method developed resulted in enhancement of the detection sensitivity and reduction of interference from sample matrix in complicated samples and exhibited the potential application for routine analysis, especially in food, because a relatively complete process of sample treatment and analysis was described. PMID:12198956
Sun, Xiuhua; Gao, Changlu; Cao, Weidong; Yang, Xiurong; Wang, Erkang
Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.
Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chang, Jung-Chen; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien
Psoriasis vulgaris is the most common form of psoriasis. Phototherapy has been proven effective for psoriasis, but side effects have become a concern. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) bath combined with phototherapy has been used in clinical settings, but the additional benefit requires evaluation. This review aims to evaluate the additional benefit and safety of adding CHM bath to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and CQVIP were searched from their inceptions to 6 August 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM bath plus phototherapy to phototherapy alone for psoriasis vulgaris were included. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.0. Thirteen RCTs were included in the review, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed higher efficacy of CHM bath plus phototherapy when compared with phototherapy alone in terms of PASI 60 (RR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18–1.32). Mild adverse events were reported in ten studies, but these could be alleviated by reducing UV dosage or applying emollient. In conclusion, CHM bath appears to be a beneficial and safe adjunctive therapy to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low methodological quality of the included studies.
Yu, Jason Jingjie; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian
The consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is increasing exponentially. Many patients utilize CHMs concomitantly with prescription drugs in great frequency. Herb-drug interaction has hence become an important focus of study. Transporter-mediated herb-drug interactions have the potential to seriously influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Since organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) is crucial in renal active secretion and drug-drug interactions, the possibility of modulation of OAT1-mediated drug transport should be seriously concerned. Sixty-three clinically used CHMs were evaluated in the study. An hOAT1-overexpressing cell line was used for the in vitro CHMs screening, and the effective candidates were administered to Wistar rats to access renal hemodynamics. The regulation of OAT1 mRNA expression was also examined for further evidence of CHMs affecting OAT1-mediated transport. Among all the 63?CHMs, formulae Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan (GZ) and Chia Wei Hsiao Yao San (CW) exhibited significant inhibitions on hOAT1-mediated [3H]-PAH uptake in vitro and PAH clearance and net secretion in vivo. Moreover, GZ showed concentration-dependent manners both in vitro and in vivo, and the decrease of rOAT1 mRNA expression indicated that GZ not only inhibited function of OAT1 but also suppressed expression of OAT1.
Lin, Chang-Ching; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Kuo, Chien-Wen; Pao, Li-Heng
Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs in women during their reproductive age with a quite negative impact on their daily lives. Women with PMS experience a wide range of physical or psychological symptoms and seek treatment for them. Chinese herb medicine (CHM) is commonly used for PMS and the goal of this study is to investigate the prescription patterns of CHM for PMS by using a nationwide database. Methods Prescriptions of CHM were obtained from two million beneficiaries randomly sampled from the National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide database in Taiwan. The ICD-9 code 625.4 was used to identify patients with PMS. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to explore both the combinations and the core treatments for PMS. Results During 1998-2011, a total of 14,312 CHM prescriptions for PMS were provided. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (JWXYS) was the CHM which had the highest prevalence (37.5% of all prescriptions) and also the core of prescription network for PMS. For combination of two CHM, JWXYS with Cyperus rotundus L. was prescribed most frequently, 7.7% of all prescriptions, followed by JWXYS with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.9%, and Cyperus rotundus L. with Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, 5.6%. Conclusions JWXYS-centered CHM combinations were most commonly prescribed for PMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pharmaco-epidemiological study to review CHM treatments for PMS. However, the efficacy and safety of these commonly used CHM were still lacking. The results of this study provide valuable references for further clinical trials and bench studies.
Background We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. Methods Compound 48/80-induced histamine release was studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Production of leukotriene B4 induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied in porcine neutrophils using an HPLC assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production was studied in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells by immune-enzyme assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined in Raw 264.7 cells, using western blotting techniques. Results RCM-101 (1–100 ?g/mL) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from Raw 264.7 cells. Over the range 1 – 10 ?g/mL, it inhibited A23187-induced leukotriene B4 production in porcine neutrophils. In addition, RCM-101 (100 ?g/mL) inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein but did not affect that of COX-1. Conclusion The findings indicate that RCM-101 inhibits the release and/or synthesis of histamine, leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in cultured cells. These interactions of RCM-101 with multiple inflammatory mediators are likely to be related to its ability to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
Lenon, George B; Xue, Charlie CL; Story, David F; Thien, Frank CK; McPhee, Sarah; Li, Chun G
This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome.
Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun
Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and conclusions later. If Qishe Pill can alleviate neck pain without adverse effects, it may be a unique strategy for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01274936
Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. OMICS and systems pharmacology approaches offer the promise of new therapeutic candidates for the treatment of patients with sepsis. Qin-Re-Jie-Du (QRJD) and Liang-Xue-Huo-Xue (LXHX) are two traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas with putative effects in sepsis treatment. The present study aimed to assess their efficacy in an experimental model of sepsis in rats (cecal ligation and punctures) and investigate their mechanism of action using a 1H-NMR metabolomics approach. Rats were randomly divided into four groups (i.e., model group, sham control group, and two CHM treatment groups). Water extracts of QRJD and LXHX were orally administered to the two CHM treatment groups at a dose of 24?g/kg of body weight, once daily for 3 consecutive days. The same volume of 0.9% saline solution was orally administered to the model and sham surgery groups. Plasma samples were collected and measured using 600?MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As a result, 18 potential metabolite biomarkers involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including increased energy metabolism, fat mobilization, and disrupted amino acid metabolism, were identified in septic rats. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant (PLS-DA) plots of the metabolic state correlated well with the mortality and clinical biochemistry results. An analysis of potential biomarkers verified the holistic effects of the two CHM formulas. The Cori cycle was positively regulated in the QRJD-treated formulas treatment group but also inhibited in the LXHX-treated group, which demonstrates the different efficacies of these solutions in septic rats. PMID:23594183
Li, Yunzhi; Liu, Hongbin; Wu, Xianzhong; Li, Donghua; Huang, Jing
While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis.
Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.
Huperzine A (HupA), a novel alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent, highly specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Compared with tacrine, donepezil, and rivastigmine, HupA has better penetration through the blood-brain barrier, higher oral bioavailability, and longer duration of AChE inhibitory action. HupA has been found to improve cognitive deficits in a broad range
Rui Wang; Han Yan; Xi-can Tang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer.
Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is the most common type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in Taiwan, is increasingly used to treat patients with breast cancer. However, large-scale studies on the patterns of TCM prescriptions for breast cancer are still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the core treatment of TCM prescriptions used for breast cancer recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. TCM visits made for breast cancer in 2008 were identified using ICD-9 codes. The prescriptions obtained at these TCM visits were evaluated using association rule mining to evaluate the combinations of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used to treat breast cancer patients. A total of 37,176 prescriptions were made for 4,436 outpatients with breast cancer. Association rule mining and network analysis identified Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common duplex medicinal (10.9%) used for the core treatment of breast cancer. Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (19.6%) and Hedyotis diffusa (41.9%) were the most commonly prescribed herbal formula (HF) and single herb (SH), respectively. Only 35% of the commonly used CHM had been studied for efficacy. More clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHM used to treat breast cancer. PMID:24734104
Yeh, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Sien-Hung; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jiun-Liang
The wireless sensor network, which refers to the combination of sensors, embedded system, MEMS, distributed information processing and wireless communication network has become a hot topic in the research field because of its wide application prospect. This paper propose the design of an environmental monitoring system for valuable medicinal herb growing based on wireless sensor network, which gives a real-time
Xiaomiao Zuo; Wanlin Gao; Qing Wang; Lina Yu; Zhen Li; Jianing Zhao; Jin Wang
Background\\/Aim: Nephropathy after ingestion of Chinese herbs is known as a rapidly progressive form of interstitial renal fibrosis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid that was identified first in Belgium. Intake of traditional Chinese herbal medicines is very popular in Taiwan. So we looked for similar cases in our hospital. Methods: From 1994 to 1998, we observed 20 Taiwanese
Chung-Hsin Chang; Yi-Ming Wang; An-Hang Yang; Shou-Shan Chiang
Age is the leading risk factor for many of the most prevalent and devastating diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. A number of herbal medicines have been used for centuries to ameliorate the deleterious effects of ageing-related diseases and increase longevity. Oxidative stress is believed to play a role in normal ageing as well as in neurodegenerative processes. Since many of the constituents of herbal extracts are known antioxidants, it is believed that restoring oxidative balance may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which medicinal herbs can protect against ageing and cognitive decline. Based on the premise that astrocytes are key modulators in the progression of oxidative stress associated neurodegenerative diseases, 13 herbal extracts purported to possess anti-ageing properties were tested for their ability to protect U373 human astrocytes from hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. To determine the contribution of antioxidant activity to the cytoprotective ability of extracts, total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were examined. Polygonum multiflorum, amongst others, was identified as possessing potent antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. Not surprisingly, total phenol content of extracts was strongly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, when total phenol content and radical scavenging capacities of extracts were compared to the cytoprotective properties of extracts, only moderately strong correlations were observed. This finding suggests the involvement of multiple protective mechanisms in the beneficial effects of these medicinal herbs. PMID:22982670
Steele, Megan L; Truong, John; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Ooi, Lezanne; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald
This article explores the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of herbal medicines and assesses the extent to which this approach has been applied so far to these products. There seems to be no compelling need for pharmacoeconomic analyses of herbal over-the-counter medicines, but such analyses are certainly warranted for herbal prescription medicines that have a high level of reimbursement. Such
Peter A. G. M. De Smet; Gouke Bonsel; Ary Van der Kuy; Yechiel A. Hekster; Marja H. Pronk; Mark J. A. Brorens; Jacques H. M. Lockefeer; Mark J. C. Nuijten
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085
Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan
A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.
Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah
Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a Chinese herbal formula Zi Shen Qing (ZSQ) in the treatment of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Chinese patients. Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted over 12 weeks in 84 Chinese patients who reported total scores of SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2000) was from 5 to 14. The primary outcome was the changes of the SLEDAI-2000. The secondary outcomes included score changes of Chinese Medicine Syndromes (CMS), the changes of steroid dosage, the incidence of disease flare-up and biologic markers. Results. ZSQ significantly reduced SLEDAI-2000, the total scores of CMS in the treatment group compared with the controlled group (P < 0.05). Superiority of ZSQ over controlled group was also observed with greater improvement in the withdrawal dosage of corticosteroids and the incidence of disease flare-up (P < 0.05). There were no serious adverse events, and safety indices of whole blood counts, renal and liver functions were normal, both before and after the treatment. Conclusion. ZSQ is safe and effective for decreasing SLE disease activity and withdrawal dosage of corticosteroids in the mild to moderate SLE patients with “Deficiency of Qi and Yin” Pattern.
Zhong, Linda L. D.; Bian, Zhao Xiang; Gu, Jun Hua; Zhou, Xin; Tian, Yu; Mao, Jian Chun; Chen, Xiang Jun
Herbal medicine is being increasingly used by women to prevent diseases, promote health and treat different diseases including a number of psychiatric disorders. The use of herbal drugs is increasing in the western world. The use of herbal drugs during pregnancy has been studied to various extents in different countries. However, more information is required regarding the impact of herbal
Objective To determine fourth-year Canadian pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine and whether that knowledge is associated with mandatory instruction in herbal medicine. Methods Standardized multiple-choice tests assessing students' herbal knowledge were distributed to all fourth-year BSc pharmacy students at 5 pharmacy schools in Canada. Results The Quebec response rate was too low to include in the analysis. Herbal knowledge test scores were positively associated with having previously taken an herbal medicine class and completion of a pharmacy practicum. However, postsecondary education, age, and gender were not associated with herbal knowledge test scores. Students at the University of British Columbia had the highest score, followed by Alberta, Nova Scotia, and Ontario. Conclusion Pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine varies depending on the school attended and higher herbal knowledge test scores appear to be most closely related to mandatory herbal instruction.
Johnson, Teela; Jurgens, Tannis; Austin, Zubin; Moineddin, Rahim; Eccott, Lynda; Heschuk, Shirley
Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer.
Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng
Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (?? sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (??? jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (??? s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (?? g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine
Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun
Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:24716104
Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun
Through history, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has adopted oriental philosophical practices of drug combination and interaction to address human diseases. To investigate this from a systems biology point of view, we analysed 28 TCM herbs for their anti-inflammatory function, using molecular docking and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network simulation. The inhibition potential of each herb toward five essential enzymes as well as their possible side effects were examined. Three commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory formulae were simulated to discover the combinatorial properties of each contained herb in regulating the whole metabolic network. We discovered that different ingredients of a formula tend to inhibit different targets, which almost covered all the targets in the whole network. We also found that herbal combinations could achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower doses compared with individual usage. New herbal combinations were also predicted based on the inhibition potentials and two types of synergistic drug combinations of TCM theory were discussed from the perspective of systems biology. Using this combined approach of molecular docking and network simulation, we were able to computationally elucidate the combinatorial effects of TCM to intervene disease networks. We expect novel TCM formulae or modern drug combinations to be developed based on this research. PMID:23612801
Gu, Shuo; Yin, Ning; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua
Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future.
Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy. One of the main underlying mechanisms of this resistance is the over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent transmembrane transporter protein encoded by the MDR1 gene. P-gp might transport anti-cancer drugs out of cancer cells and decrease effective intracellular drug concentrations. An effective approach to overcome MDR is to inhibit the function of P-gp or its expression on the surface of cancer cells. Thus, application of MDR reversal agents can be seen as a potentially important means by which to overcome the clinical drug resistance of tumour cells and improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. Recently, research efforts worldwide have focused on reversal mechanisms for MDR and on the identification of reversal agents. Chinese scholars have performed a great deal of exploratory work by screening for efficacy and low toxicity in drug resistance reversal compounds. These compounds may provide more lead compounds with greater activity, leading to the development of more effective therapies for MDR cancer cells. In this review, the function and efficiency of novel compounds derived from traditional Chinese medicines are described. PMID:24643703
Li, C; Sun, B-Q; Gai, X-D
Background Guizhi Fuling Formula is widely applied for uterine fibroids in China. Many clinical trials are reported. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of Guizhi Fuling Formula for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, and four Chinese databases were searched through May 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that tested Guizhi Fuling Formula for uterine fibroids, compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmaceutical medication, or other Chinese patent medicines approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Authors extracted data and assessed the quality independently. We applied RevMan 5.2.0 software to analyse data of included randomised trials. Results A total of 38 RCTs involving 3816 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that Guizhi Fuling Formula plus mifepristone were more effective than mifepristone alone in reducing the volume of fibroids (in total volume of multiple fibroids, MD ?19.41 cm3, 95% CI ?28.68 to ?10.14; in average volume of multiple fibroids, MD ?1.00 cm3, 95% CI ?1.23 to ?0.76; in average volume of maximum fibroids, MD ?3.35 cm3, 95% CI ?4.84 to ?1.87, I2?=?93%, random effects model). Guizhi Fuling Formula significantly improved symptoms of dysmenorrhea either when it was used alone (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.97) or in combination with mifepristone (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.82). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Guizhi Fuling Formula appears to have additional benefit based on mifepristone treatment in reducing volume of fibroids. However, due to high risk of bias of the trials, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on its benefit. Future clinical trials should be well-designed and avoid the issues that are identified in this study.
Background. Blood pressure variability (BPV) independent of average blood pressure is related to cardiovascular damage. Meanwhile, BPV is also associated with measures of endothelial injury. Decoction, a traditional used form of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is inconvenient to prepare, carry, and store. Dispensing granules is now developing as an alternative to decoction, but the evidence supporting its clinical efficacy the same as decoction remains unclear. Objective. To examine the therapeutic effects on mean blood pressure (MBP), blood pressure variability, and endothelial function by giving Bushen Qinggan Formula, a compound Chinese Herbal Medicine and also to evaluate the difference in efficacy between decoction and granule. Methods. A total of 150 patients with hypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive the placebo, Bushen Qinggan decoction, or Bushen Qinggan granule in addition to the standard medications (amlodipine-5?mg/d) for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). The outcome was the reduction in the MBP and BPV and also included changes in the endothelial markers including endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) after 8 weeks of treatment. Results. Compared with the control group, the Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule groups had significant improvement (P < 0.01) in BPV and endothelial founction. The level of BPV and endothelial function between decoction and granule group had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based on the standard treatment, Bushen Qinggan Formula further improved BPV and endothelial function. The efficacy of Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule is similar in improving BPV and endothelial function. However, no significant antihypertensive effects could be demonstrated.
Wu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jingchun; Zhao, Yingke; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yue
Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese “herbal-based” medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further investigation of the components of the preparation and eventual identification of three known anti-hypertensive drugs;
Julie Regitze Kesting; JingQi Huang; Dan Sørensen
A CE-electrochemiluminescence(CE-ECL) detection system, CE/tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)ECL with ionic liquid, was established for the determination of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids (aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA) and hypaconitine (HA)) in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Running buffer containing 25 mM borax-20 mM 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate at pH 9.15 was used, which resulted in significant changes in separation and obvious enhancement in ECL intensity for AC, MA and HA with similar structures. End-column detection was achieved in 50 mM phosphate buffer with 5 mM Ru(bpy)?²? (pH 9.15) at applied detection voltage of 1.20 V when the distance between the Pt working electrode and outlet of capillary (50 cm × 25 ?m id) was set at 150 ?m. One single quantitative analysis of three alkaloids was achieved at a separation voltage of 15 kV within 10 min. Moreover, two extraction processes (ethanol extraction and ethyl ether extraction after basification) were investigated. The result showed that ethanol extraction process has higher extraction efficiency than ethyl ether extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of AC, MA and HA were 5.62 × 10(-8) , 2.78 × 10(-8) and 3.50 × 10(-9) mol/L (S/N=3), respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine the amounts of AC, MA and HA in the aconitum herbal samples. PMID:21692082
Bao, Yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong
PHY906 is a novel Chinese herbal preparation that has been used in the Orient for over 1800 years to treat a wide range of gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and headache. Preclinical and clinical studies were conducted to further investigate the biologic and clinical activities of this herbal medicine. To ensure standardization and maintain interbatch reliability of PHY906, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to establish a "chemical fingerprint" of PHY906. In vivo preclinical studies using the murine Colon 39 tumor model showed that PHY906 protected against the weight loss associated with irinotecan treatment. In the presence of PHY906, mice were able to tolerate otherwise lethal doses of irinotecan. Significantly improved antitumor activity and overall survival were observed in animals treated with the combination of irinotecan and PHY906 versus irinotecan alone. The combination of PHY906 with irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and leucovorin (LV) also resulted in at least additive antitumor activity with no increased host toxicity. Based on these in vivo studies, a phase I multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose escalation, cross-over study of PHY906 as a modulator of the weekly, bolus regimen of irinotecan, 5-FU, and LV (IFL) in the first-line treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) was conducted. The specific objectives of this clinical trial were to determine the safety and tolerability of PHY906 when administered concomitantly with the bolus, weekly IFL regimen. Treatment with PHY906 did not alter the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, irinotecan, or the irinotecan metabolite SN-38. PMID:21859559
Kummar, Shivaani; Copur, M Sitki; Rose, Michal; Wadler, Scott; Stephenson, Joe; O'Rourke, Mark; Brenckman, Wayne; Tilton, Robert; Liu, Shwu-Huey; Jiang, Zaoli; Su, Tahmun; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chu, Edward
Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this study, we used a three-herb, berberine-containing TCM to treat male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TCM showed sustained glucose-lowering effects for 1 week after a single-dose treatment. Two-week treatment attenuated insulin resistance and fatty degeneration, with hepatocyte regeneration lasting for 1 month posttreatment. These beneficial effects persisted for 1 year after 1-month treatment. Two-week treatment with TCM was associated with activation of AMPK, Akt, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)1 pathways, with downregulation of miR29-b and expression of a gene network implicated in cell cycle, intermediary, and NADPH metabolism with normalization of CYP7a1 and IGFBP1 expression. These concerted changes in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins may explain the sustained effects of TCM in favor of cell survival, increased glucose uptake, and lipid oxidation/catabolism with improved insulin sensitivity and liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that multicomponent TCM may be a useful tool to unravel genome regulation and expression in complex diseases.
Zhao, Hai-Lu; Sui, Yi; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yip, Kevin Y.; Leung, Ross K.K.; Tsui, Stephen K.W.; Lee, Heung-Man; Wong, Harriet K.T.; Zhu, Xun; Siu, Jennifer J.; He, Lan; Guan, Jing; Liu, Li-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Peter C.Y.; Chan, Juliana C.N.
Purpose/Objectives Abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is limited by the radiosensitivity of the small and large intestine. PHY906, a state-of-the-art adaptation of a traditional Chinese medicine, decreased intestinal injury from chemotherapy in preclinical studies and is in clinical trials with chemotherapy. This project assessed whether PHY906 would also reduce intestinal injury from whole-abdomen irradiation in mice. Materials/Methods BALB/c mice received whole-abdomen irradiation (2 Gy/day) ± PHY906 by oral gavage twice daily for 4 days. Intestinal injury was assayed by physiological observations and histological studies. Effects of PHY906 on tumor radiation response were assayed in tumor growth studies. Results PHY906 decreased the toxicity of fractionated abdominal irradiation. Radiation alone produced marked blunting and loss of villi, crypt loss, crypt hyperplasia and irregular crypt morphology, which were reduced by PHY906. The radiation-induced reduction in viable crypt counts was also mitigated by PHY906. PHY906 did not alter radiation-induced weight loss, but resulted in more rapid recovery. PHY906 did not alter growth, local invasion or metastatic spread of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors or protect tumors from growth delays produced by single-dose and fractionated irradiation. Conclusion In this mouse model system, PHY906 decreased the toxicity of abdominal irradiation, without protecting tumors, thereby increasing the therapeutic ratio.
Rockwell, Sara; Grove, Tina A.; Liu, Yanfeng; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Higgins, Susan A; Booth, Carmen J
This is a systemic review of plants used traditionally for neuroendocrinological diseases related to hypothalamus-pitutary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamus-pitutary-gland (HPG) axis. By searching from PubMed literature search system (1950-2013), Medline (1950-2013) and CNKI (China Journals of Full-text database; 1989-2013), 105 papers met the inclusion criteria were displayed in this review. 96 herbal drugs were classified into two parts which include hormones mainly related to HPA and HPG axis. The full scientific name of each herbal medicine, dose ranges and routes, models or diseases, affect on hormones and pertinent references are presented via synoptic tables. Herbal remedies that have demonstrable the activities of hormones have provided a potential to various diseases related to neunoendocrine and deserve increased attention in future studies. This review provides a basis for herbs use in neuroendocrinological diseases. The data collected here will benefit to further research associated to herbal medicines and hormones. PMID:24816712
Wang, Di; Lu, Cheng-Yu; Teng, Le-Sheng; Guo, Zhi-Hua; Meng, Qing-Fan; Liu, Yan; Zhong, Linda Ld; Wang, Wei; Xie, Jing; Zhang, Zhang-Jin
Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis): an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae
This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae.
Gao, Qiutao; Li, Jun; Cheung, Jerry Ka Hei; Duan, Jinao; Ding, Anwei; Cheung, Anna Wing Han; Zhao, Kuijun; Li, Winnie Zhuoming; Dong, Tina Tingxia; Tsim, Karl Wah Keung
In China, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is widely used as an adjunct to biomedicine (BM) in treating myocardial infarction (MI). This meta-analysis of RCTs evaluated the efficacy of combined CHM-BM in the treatment of MI, compared to BM alone. Sixty-five RCTs (12,022 patients) of moderate quality were identified. 6,036 patients were given CHM plus BM, and 5,986 patients used BM only. Combined results showed clear additional effect of CHM-BM treatment in reducing all-cause mortality (relative risk reduction (RRR) = 37%, 95% CI = 28%–45%, I2 = 0.0%) and mortality of cardiac origin (RRR = 39%, 95% CI = 22%–52%, I2 = 22.8). Benefits remained after random-effect trim and fill adjustment for publication bias (adjusted RRR for all-cause mortality = 29%, 95% CI = 16%–40%; adjusted RRR for cardiac death = 32%, 95% CI = 15%–46%). CHM is also found to be efficacious in lowering the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial reinfarction, heart failure, angina, and occurrence of total heart events. In conclusion, addition of CHM is very likely to be able to improve survival of MI patients who are already receiving BM. Further confirmatory evaluation via large blinded randomized trials is warranted.
Chung, Vincent C. H.; Chen, Mao; Ying, Qin; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Wu, Xin Yin; Ma, Polly H. X.; Ziea, Eric T. C.; Wong, Vivian C. W.; Tang, Jin Ling
Abstract Purpose This study evaluates published clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that employ a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcome measure. Methods Searches were conducted in April 2011 on MEDLINE®, Embase, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL, Scopus, and Chinese databases (CNKI, CQVIP, WANFANG). Randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM formulae or single herb, with or without blinding, compared to placebo, no treatment, routine pharmacotherapy control, or CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy, with a HRQoL questionnaire as an outcome measure were identified. The methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Results A total of 27 studies involving 1966 patients were identified. St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) or Cai's QoLQ were used in 13 and 14 studies, respectively. Assessment of the Cochrane risk of bias revealed adequate sequence of generation in 10 studies and adequate allocation concealment in 1 study; double blinding was not described adequately in any studies. Seventeen (17) studies addressed incomplete outcome data, and 17 studies were free of selective reporting. The main results of meta-analysis showed improvement of total HRQoL scores (SGRQ and Cai's QoLQ) when CHM was compared to no treatment (?6.07 [?9.21, ?2.93] and ?0.20 [?32, ?0.07], respectively) and for CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy versus routine pharmacotherapy (?5.15 [?7.26, ?3.05]) and (?0.25 [?0.37, ?0.13]). Conclusions While the results of CHM on HRQoL for stable COPD sufferers were promising, they need to be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems, which should be addressed in future trials.
An, Xuedong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.; Lin, Lin; Xu, Yinji
Many published studies reflect the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) use in combination with conventional cancer therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with conventional chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Publications in 11 electronic databases were extensively searched, and 24 trials were included for analysis. A sum of 2,109 patients was enrolled in these studies, at which 1,064 patients participated in CT combined CHM and 1,039 in CT (six patients dropped out and were not reported the group enrolled). Compared to using CT alone, CHM combined with CT significantly increase one-year survival rate (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.15–1.60, p?=?0.0003). Besides, the combined therapy significantly increased immediate tumor response (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.19–1.56, p<1.0E?5) and improved Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (RR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.62–5.18, p?=?0.0003). Combined therapy remarkably reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.12–0.50, p?=?0.0001) and prevented the decline of hemoglobin and platelet in patients under CT at toxicity grade of I–IV (RR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.51–0.80, p<0.0001). Moreover, the herbs that are frequently used in NSCLC patients were identified. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjuvant therapy can reduce CT toxicity, prolong survival rate, enhance immediate tumor response, and improve KPS in advanced NSCLC patients. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials in the included studies, further larger scale trials are needed.
Ou-Yang, Chen Sheng; Wang, Xi-Xin; Yang, Zhen-Jiang; Tong, Yao; Cho, William C.S.
Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid has been identified as Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHNP). From 1995 to 1998, we observed 12 Chinese people from different areas of Taiwan who underwent renal biopsy for unexplained renal failure. Medical history gave no clue to the causes of impaired renal function except for the ingestion of traditional Chinese herbs. Although these patients ingested herbal drugs from various sources for different purposes, their renal biopsy samples showed amazingly similar histological findings, with extensive hypocellular interstitial fibrosis and atrophy and loss of tubules in all cases. Glomeruli were apparently intact. They also had similar clinical features, such as normal or mildly elevated blood pressure, early and severe anemia, low-grade proteinuria, glycosuria, and insignificant urinary sediments. Renal function deteriorated rapidly in most patients despite discontinuation of the herbal medicines. Seven patients underwent dialysis, and the remainder experienced slowly progressive renal failure. Bladder carcinoma was found in one patient. Morphologically and clinically, the nephropathy in our patients was similar to CHNP, reported in Belgium. Because of the complexity and unknown types of herbs used in different clinical situations, unidentified phytotoxins other than aristolochic acid might be responsible for this unique disease entity. We conclude that the relation of this nephropathy to the consumption of Chinese herbs is striking. Using uncontrolled herbal remedies carries a high risk for developing interstitial renal fibrosis and urothelial malignancy. PMID:10676733
Yang, C S; Lin, C H; Chang, S H; Hsu, H C
To evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on albuminuria levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), we performed comprehensive searches on Medline database, Cochrane Library, CNKI database, CBM database, Wanfang database, and VIP database up to December 2012. A total of 29 trials including 2440 participants with DN met the selection criteria. CHM was tested to be more effective in reducing urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) (MD -82.95? ? g/min, [-138.64, -27.26]) and proteinuria (MD -565.99?mg/24?h, [-892.41, -239.57]) compared with placebo. CHM had a greater beneficial effect on reduction of UAER (MD -13.41? ? g/min, [-20.63, -6.19]) and proteinuria (MD -87.48?mg/24?h, [-142.90, -32.06]) compared with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Combination therapy with CHM and ACEI/ARB showed significant improvement in UAER (MD -28.18? ? g/min, [-44.4, -11.97]), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (MD -347.00, [-410.61, -283.39]), protein-creatinine ratio (MD -2.49, [-4.02, -0.96]), and proteinuria (MD -26.60?mg/24?h, [-26.73, -26.47]) compared with ACEI/ARB alone. No serious adverse events were reported. CHM seems to be an effective and safe therapy option to treat proteinuric patients with DN, suggesting that further study of CHM in the treatment of DN is warranted in rigorously designed, multicentre, large-scale trials with higher quality worldwide. PMID:24062795
Xiao, Ya; Liu, Yanyan; Yu, Keqiang; Zhou, Lin; Bi, Jianlu; Cheng, Jingru; Li, Fei; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan
Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet ? cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn’t show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation “Qing Huo Yi Hao” (QHYH) improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet ? cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD) in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n?=?20) and chow diet feeding group (n?=?10). Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d) or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet ? cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet ? cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT) and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving ? cell function partly via its antioxidant effect.
Wu, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Hongguang; Xu, Ping; Gao, Xin
A double-blind comparative study of Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets in combination with conventional therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets (JET) are the recommended control measure for uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by the Ministry of Health of China. However, high-quality evidence to support this recommendation is limited. A total of 288 patients ranging in age from 1 to 13 years were randomly assigned to JET in combination with conventional therapy (mainly including the reduction of temperature by applying physical cooling paste or warm bathing), or conventional therapy with placebo group for 7 days. The objective was to test the hypothesis that JET combination therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for uncomplicated HFMD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed. Our study showed that, compared with conventional therapy, the median time to fever resolution was significantly shorter in the JET combination therapy (8 vs. 80 h; p?0.0001); the risk of fever resolution increased in the JET combination therapy [hazard ratio, 19.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 12.8 to 30.7]; the median healing time of rash or oral ulcer was significantly shorter in the JET combination therapy (14 vs. 74 h; p?0.0001); and the median symptom score for skin or oral mucosa lesions improved more rapidly in the JET combination therapy during the follow-up period. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days in the JET combination therapy and 7 days in the conventional therapy (p?0.0001). No significant adverse events and complications were found in both groups. The addition of JET to conventional therapy reduced fever clearance time, healing time of skin or oral mucosa lesions, and duration of hospital stay in children with uncomplicated HFMD. PMID:24643639
He, L-Y; Zhang, G-L; Yan, S-Y; Liu, Y; Zhao, C-S; Wang, X-L; Li, Y; Mi, Y-Q; Liu, Y-M; Li, C-P; Kou, Y-H; Li, Y; Chang, K; Meng, X-L; Sun, X-J; Zhao, T; Li, J; Wang, Y-Y; Liu, B-Y
Background Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions. Results There were 868 (80.0%) patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM prescriptions were prescribed concurrently. Among these coprescriptions, the most frequently used CHM was jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (21.2%), and the most frequently coprescribed WM was acetaminophen (38.9%), followed by tamoxifen (25.5%). There were 346 patients using systemic adjuvant therapy and CHM concurrently. The most commonly coprescribed CHM with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab was xiang-sha-liu-jun-zi-tang, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, and zhi-gan-cao-tang, respectively. Conclusion The combined use of CHM with WM is prevalent. The main purpose of combining CHM with systemic cancer treatment is to alleviate the treatment-related adverse effects. However, the combination may result in the potential risk of drug–herb interactions. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the CHM and WM coprescriptions for FBC patients.
Wang, Bih-Ru; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Jing Chong; Wu, Min-Shan; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching
The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis. PMID:21163602
Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G
In the present study, a stepwise causal adjacent relationship discovery (STEPCARD) method has been developed to identify active components of herbal medicine. The combination of two active components had been successfully recognized from a typical Chinese formulation. Animal experiments validated the computational result. It indicates current work might be helpful to accelerate the process of new drug discovery from herbal
Yi Wang; Xuewei Wang; Yiyu Cheng
The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy.
Background A large number of infertile couples are choosing Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant therapy to improve their success when undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). There is no systematic review to evaluate the impact of CHM on the IVF outcomes. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of CHM with concurrent IVF versus IVF alone on the outcomes of IVF and its safety. Methods The protocol of this study is registered at PROSPERO. Eligible RCTs searched from 8 databases which compared a combination of CHM and IVF with IVF alone were included. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Meta-analysis of RCTs was conducted if there was non-significant heterogeneity (evaluated by I2 test) among trials. All statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. Results Twenty trials involving 1721 women were included in the meta-analysis. Three trials were evaluated as having an unclear risk of bias. The remaining trials were evaluated as having a high risk of bias. Combination of CHM and IVF significantly increases clinical pregnancy rates (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.67 to 2.49, p<0.00001) and ongoing pregnancy rates (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.17 to 3.10, p?=?0.009). Use of CHM after embryo transfer had no better outcome in reducing the rate of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.14 to 1.11, p?=?0.08). Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that combination of IVF and CHM used in the included trials improve IVF success, however due to the high risk of bias observed with the trials, the significant differences found with the meta-analysis are unlikely to be accurate. No conclusion could be drawn with respect to the reproductive toxicity of CHM. Further large randomized placebo controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings before recommending women to take CHM to improve their IVF success.
Cao, Huijuan; Han, Mei; Ng, Ernest H. Y.; Wu, Xiaoke; Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping
Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas.
Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.
In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022
Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su
In this article, the therapeutic uses of five Chinese medicines that contain orchids are discussed, together with a brief report of some of the animal experimentation undertaken. The impression that these preparations have no therapeutic use may be incorrect. However, herbal preparations have not usually been subject to the rigorous characterization and standardization necessary for clinical study, and persuading practitioners that substances in use for many centuries still need to be tested in randomized controlled clinical trials is proving a significant challenge.
Bulpitt, Christopher J; Li, Yan; Bulpitt, Pauline F; Wang, Jiguang
Traditional Chinese Medicine (hereafter referred to as TCM) is made by Chinese herbal formulae and includes a ratio of pharmaceutical elements, which contain known health-enhancing functions. The trial process of the invention of TCM requires a lot of creative work and involves some risks. Winning patent protection for TCMs presents technical barriers on the patent examination. To address the problem
Xu Xuan; Zhang Xiaowei
BACKGROUNDAsthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and there is increasing evidence to suggest that its incidence and severity are increasing. There is a high prevalence of usage of complementary medicine for asthma. Herbal preparations have been cited as the third most popular complementary treatment modality by British asthma sufferers. This study was undertaken to
A Huntley; E Ernst
Background This article reports a survey conducted in Hong Kong on the cancer patients' attitudes towards Chinese medicine treatment. Methods Cancer patients from three Chinese medicine clinics and one oncology clinic were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results Of a total of 786 participants included in the study, 42.9% used Western medicine only; 57.1% used at least one form of Chinese medicine; 5 participants used Chinese medicine only; and 56.5% used Chinese medicine before/during/after Western medicine treatment. Commonly used Western medicine and Chinese medicine treatments included chemotherapy (63.7%), radiotherapy (62.0%), surgery (57.6%), Chinese herbal medicine (53.9%) and Chinese dietary therapy (9.5%). Participants receiving chemotherapy used Chinese medicine (63.3%) more than those receiving any other Western medicine treatments. Spearman correlation coefficients showed that the selection of Chinese medicine was associated with the cancer type (rs = -1.36; P < 0.001), stage (rs = 0.178; P < 0.001), duration (rs = -0.074; P = 0.037), whether receiving chemotherapy (rs = 0.165; P < 0.001) and palliative therapy (rs = 0.087; P = 0.015). Nearly two-thirds of the participants (N = 274) did not tell their physicians about using Chinese medicine. Over two-thirds of all participants (68.2%) believed that integrated Chinese and Western medicine was effective. Conclusion Chinese medicine is commonly used among Hong Kong cancer patients. The interviewed cancer patients in Hong Kong considered integrative Chinese and Western medicine is an effective cancer treatment.
Awareness - awakening -- is the single most important quality of life to healing and growth in all therapeutics, religion, and philosophy, since the beginning of recorded history. It is central to the changes we must contemplate in terms of healing for both patient and practitioner. Chinese medicine has a great deal to offer through its diagnostic and treatment modalities
Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted.
Ermiao wan, which is composed of phellodendri cortex and atractylodis rhizome, is described as eliminating heat, excreting dampness and anti-edema prescription in traditional Chinese medical literatures including Danxi’s Experiences in Medicine and State Pharmacopoeia of People’s Republic of China. So it is being used clinically in the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia in China. In the present study, the water
Ling Dong Kong; Chen Yang; Fei Ge; Hai Dong Wang; Yu Song Guo
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, of which the pathogenesis has remained unclear. At present, MG does not have any effective treatment with minor side effects. Jian Ji Ning (JJN), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of 11 medicinal plants, has been used in the treatment of MG for many years. The present study aims to determine if the Chinese herbal medicine JJN could lighten the clinical symptoms of patients with MG via the regulation of differential microRNAs (miRNAs) expression in serum. JJN should be orally administered twice a day for 6 months. In the efficacy evaluation adopting the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMG), we found that JJN could improve the clinical symptoms of patients with MG more effectively. Besides, we found that JJN could regulate differential miRNAs expression in serum of patients with MG. Accordingly, we speculate that the effects of JJN on improving clinical symptoms and blood test indicators of patients with MG may be due to its inhibition of apoptotic pathways of some immune cells and its connection with the regulation of serum miRNAs of some patients. In conclusion, we believe that JJN has a reliable curative effect on patients with MG-induced neuropathologic changes.
Jiang, Chao; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Jingsheng; Bao, Wenjing; Qiu, Shaobo; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Lin
Clinical Study of Effects of Jian Ji Ning, a Chinese Herbal Medicine Compound Preparation, in Treating Patients with Myasthenia Gravis via the Regulation of Differential MicroRNAs Expression in Serum.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, of which the pathogenesis has remained unclear. At present, MG does not have any effective treatment with minor side effects. Jian Ji Ning (JJN), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of 11 medicinal plants, has been used in the treatment of MG for many years. The present study aims to determine if the Chinese herbal medicine JJN could lighten the clinical symptoms of patients with MG via the regulation of differential microRNAs (miRNAs) expression in serum. JJN should be orally administered twice a day for 6 months. In the efficacy evaluation adopting the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMG), we found that JJN could improve the clinical symptoms of patients with MG more effectively. Besides, we found that JJN could regulate differential miRNAs expression in serum of patients with MG. Accordingly, we speculate that the effects of JJN on improving clinical symptoms and blood test indicators of patients with MG may be due to its inhibition of apoptotic pathways of some immune cells and its connection with the regulation of serum miRNAs of some patients. In conclusion, we believe that JJN has a reliable curative effect on patients with MG-induced neuropathologic changes. PMID:24734107
Jiang, Chao; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Jingsheng; Bao, Wenjing; Qiu, Shaobo; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Lin
Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved.
Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai
[The study of Chinese herbal medicinal prescription with enzyme inhibitory activity. V. The study of hange-shashin-to, kanzo-shashin-to, shokyo-shashin-to with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate phosphodiesterase].
Fifty-nine species of extracts of Chinese herbal medicinal prescription were tested for inhibitory activity of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE). Kanzo-shashin-to showed the highest activity in these prescriptions. Kanzo-shashin-to, Hange-shashin-to and Shokyo-shashin-to, whose contracting crude drugs were very similar, were especially studied among these prescriptions. Pinellia tuber acted as an ascent component for Scutellaria root and a mitigatory component for Giycyrrhiza. Jujube acted as a mitigatory component for Glycyrrhiza. Ginger acted as an additional component for Scutellaria root in cAMP PDE test. This additional effect of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol from Ginger and baicalin from Scutellaria root were investigated. PMID:1664464
Suzuki, M; Nikaido, T; Ohmoto, T
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important component of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The fast economic growth of mainland China in the past two decades has promoted the use of TCM beyond Chinese-speaking countries. Chinese researchers have published more TCM research studies in CAM-related professional journals, including the American Journal of Chinese Medicine (AJCM), the highest impact journal in Chinese medicine. The consistent increase of the impact factor of the AJCM suggests a growth in TCM popularity. This study analyzed articles published in the AJCM between 2004 and 2011. Our data show that while enthusiasm towards cardiovascular, nervous system and inflammation related research remained high, more herbal investigations and cancer studies were published. Furthermore, a reduction in TCM formulation studies was replaced by increasing botanical single constituent research. Examples of frequently cited studies, including those before 2004, are presented. These data are not only important to the scientific community for recognition of trends in TCM research, but also for providing information to TCM researchers who are targeting potentially highly cited studies. PMID:23227784
Wang, Chong-Zhi; He, Hui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Chun-Su
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal syndrome, uterine fibroids, chronic pelvic inflammation, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), cervicitis and vaginitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and acupuncture. The use of TCM in the field of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has also been included in the review. In addition, thirty-two commonly used Chinese medicinal formulas in treating gynaecological disorders have been introduced. PMID:20606770
Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan
Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinal plants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined
Pavel Drašar; Jitka Moravcova
Ligand- and protein-based modeling studies of the inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 2D6 and a virtual screening for potential inhibitors from the Chinese herbal medicine, Scutellaria baicalensis (Huangqin,Baikal Skullcap).
We have previously examined the binding patterns of various substrates to human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) using a series of molecular modeling methods. In this study, we further explored the binding modes of various types of inhibitors to CYP2D6 using a combination of ligand- and protein-based modeling approaches. Firstly, we developed and validated a pharmacophore model for CYP2D6 inhibitors, which consisted of two hydrophobic features and one hydrogen bond acceptor feature. Secondly, we constructed and validated a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for CYP2D6 inhibitors which gave a poor to moderate prediction accuracy. Thirdly, a panel of CYP2D6 inhibitors were subject to molecular docking into the active site of wild-type and mutated CYP2D6 enzyme. We demonstrated that 8 residues in the active site (Leu213, Glu216, Ser217, Gln244, Asp301, Ser304, Ala305, and Phe483) played an important role in the binding to the inhibitors via hydrogen bond formation and/or ?-? stacking interaction. Apparent changes in the binding modes of the inhibitors have been observed with Phe120Ile, Glu216Asp, Asp301Glu mutations in CYP2D6. Finally, we screened for potential binders/inhibitors from the Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis (Huangqin, Baikal Skullcap) using the established pharmacophore model for CYP2D6 inhibitors and molecular docking approach. Overall, 18 out of 40 compounds from S. baicalensis were mapped to the pharmacophore model of CYP2D6 inhibitors and most herbal compounds from S. baicalensis could be docked into the active site of CYP2D6. Our study has provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of interaction of synthetic and herbal compounds with human CYP2D6 and further benchmarking studies are needed to validate our modeling and virtual screening results. PMID:21846324
Mo, Sui-Lin; Liu, Wei-Feng; Chen, Yuling; Luo, Hai-Bin; Sun, Lai-Bao; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Sneed, Kevin B; Li, Chun Guang; Du, Yao-Min; Liang, Jun; Zhou, Shu-Feng
Metabolomics represent a global understanding of metabolite complement of integrated living systems and dynamic responses to the changes of both endogenous and exogenous factors and has many potential applications and advantages for the research of complex systems. As a systemic approach, metabolomics adopts a "top-down" strategy to reflect the function of organisms from the end products of the metabolic network and to understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in a holistic context. This property agrees with the holistic thinking of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complex medical science, suggesting that metabolomics has the potential to impact our understanding of the theory behind the evidence-based Chinese medicine. Consequently, the development of robust metabolomic platforms will greatly facilitate, for example, the understanding of the action mechanisms of TCM formulae and the analysis of Chinese herbal (CHM) and mineral medicine, acupuncture, and Chinese medicine syndromes. This review summarizes some of the applications of metabolomics in special TCM issues with an emphasis on metabolic biomarker discovery. PMID:21058239
Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Zhigang; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. PMID:21077027
Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula
Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines.
Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching
BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine.
Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan
The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions. PMID:18952343
Traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang (SFYCT), consisting of 13 medicinal plants, was used to treat patients with lung diseases. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT on intratracheal lipopolysaccharides- (LPS-) challenged acute lung injury (ALI) mice. SFYCT attenuated pulmonary edema, macrophages, and neutrophils infiltration in the airways. SFYCT decreased inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production but increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of LPS-challenged mice. TNF? and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LPS-challenged mice as well as LPS-stimulated lung epithelial cell and macrophage were decreased by SFYCT treatment. SFYCT treatment also decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the lung of mice and macrophage with LPS stimulation. SFYCT treatment dose dependently decreased the LPS-induced NO and reactive oxygen species generation in LPS-stimulated macrophage. In conclusion, SFYCT attenuated lung inflammation during LPS-induced ALI through decreasing inflammatory cytokines production while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines production. The immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT is related to inhibiting NF-?B phosphorylation.
Lin, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Wang, Jen-Shu; Kao, Shung-Te
Use of herbal medicines among patients under cardiovascular pharmacotherapy is widespread. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between herbal medicines and cardiovascular drugs. The Medline database was searched for clinical articles published between January 1996 and February 2003. Forty-three case reports and eight clinical trials were identified. Warfarin was the most common cardiovascular
Angelo A. Izzo; Giulia Di Carlo; Francesca Borrelli; Edzard Ernst
Herbal medicines include a range of pharmacologically active compounds: in some cases it is not well understood which ingredients are important for a therapeutic effect. The supporters of herbal medicine believe that isolated ingredients in the majority of cases have weaker clinical effects than whole plant extract, a claim that would obviously require proof in each case. Generalizations about the
Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki
Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single compounds with composite formulae or conventional medicines. Action mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis Chinese medicines, clinical application, herbal adverse events and quality control are also reviewed. Evidence indicates that some Chinese medicines are clinically effective on liver fibrosis. Strict quality control such as research to identify and monitor the manufacturing of Chinese medicines enables reliable pharmacological, clinical and in-depth mechanism studies. Further experiments and clinical trials should be carried out on the platforms that conform to international standards.
Sulfite was detected in 7 varieties of Oriental herbal medicines (Pueraria radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Platycodon radix, Adenophora radix, Pinellia tuber, Astragalus radix, and Paeonia radix) on the Korean market. Sulfiting of commercial Oriental herbal medicines by fumigation with burning bituminous coal was simulated, and the accumulation of sulfite was investigated by using fresh Platycodon radix roots obtained from a growing field. The sulfite level reached a plateau in 9 h, and the maximum sulfite level found by the Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC 990.28) was 1020 ppm. The sulfite content in the simulated Platycodon radix sample determined by alkali extraction followed by ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection (AOAC 990.31) was approximately 17% lower on average than the MW results. Free-sulfite levels determined by acid extraction and ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection were between 19 and 49% of the MW results. The advantages of different methods for sulfite determination and the significance of the results are discussed. PMID:11048856
Kim, Y K; Koh, E; Park, S Y; Chang, S Y; Park, S J; Na, W I; Kim, H J
Currently, a majority of the adverse events related to the use of herbal products and herbal medicines that are reported are attributable either to poor product quality or to improper use. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control systems, and largely uncontrolled distribution channels (including mail order and Internet sales) may have been contributing to the occurrence of such events. In order to expand the knowledge about genuine adverse reactions to herbal medicines, and to avoid wasting scarce resources for identifying and analyzing adverse events, events resulting from such situations will need to be reduced or eliminated. Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are therefore encouraged to strengthen national regulation, registration and quality assurance and control of herbal medicines. In addition, the national health authorities should give greater attention to consumer education and to qualified practice in the provision of herbal medicines. PMID:21472083
Shetti, Sandeep; Kumar, C Dinesh; Sriwastava, Neeraj Kumar; Sharma, Indra Prakash
Ermiao wan, which is composed of phellodendri cortex and atractylodis rhizome, is described as eliminating heat, excreting dampness and anti-edema prescription in traditional Chinese medical literatures including Danxi's Experiences in Medicine and State Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China. So it is being used clinically in the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia in China. In the present study, the water extracts of Ermiao wan and phellodendri cortex at 840 and 480 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days were demonstrated to possess in vivo potent hypouricemic effects both in hyperuricemic mice pretreated with oxonate and in normal mice, respectively. In the hyperuricemic animals, the effect of Ermiao wan was equal to that of the reference drug allopurinol (at 10 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days), but in the normal mice, the former was weaker than latter. In addition, both Ermiao wan and phellodendri cortex were found to have in vivo relatively inhibitory effects on mouse liver xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities at the same dose described above. These inhibitory effects were weaker than that observed for allopurinol. Atractylodis rhizome at 340 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days did not show any effects on the above experiments. These results suggested that atractylodis rhizomes assisted and enhanced the effect of phellodendri cortex on reduction of serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic mice, and hypouricemic effects of Ermiao wan and phellodendri cortex may be achieved by other mechanism partly instead of the XDH and XO inhibition. PMID:15234772
Kong, Ling Dong; Yang, Chen; Ge, Fei; Wang, Hai Dong; Guo, Yu Song
In traditional chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After\\u000a AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated\\u000a herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA
Martijn J. Martena; Jacqueline C. A. van der Wielen; Leo F. J. van de Laak; Erik J. M. Konings; Henk N. de Groot; Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens
Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go.
Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang
Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Treatment versus Conventional Treatment Alone in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (5C Trial): An Open-Label Randomized Controlled, Multicenter Study
Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) plus conventional treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results. Participants (n = 808) with ACS who underwent PCI from thirteen hospitals of mainland China were randomized into two groups: CHMs plus conventional treatment group (treatment group) or conventional treatment alone group (control group). All participants received conventional treatment, and participants in treatment group additionally received CHMs for six months. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent MI, and ischemia-driven revascularization. Secondary endpoint was the composite of readmission for ACS, stroke, or congestive heart failure. The safety endpoint involved occurrence of major bleeding events. The incidence of primary endpoint was 2.7% in treatment group versus 6.2% in control group (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.87; P = 0.015). The incidence of secondary endpoint was 3.5% in treatment group versus 8.7% in control group (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.72; P = 0.002). No major bleeding events were observed in any participant. Conclusion. Treatment with CHMs plus conventional treatment further reduced the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with ACS after PCI without increasing risk of major bleeding.
Wang, Shao-Li; Wang, Cheng-Long; Wang, Pei-Li; Xu, Hao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Du, Jian-Peng; Zhang, Da-Wu; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Chang-Geng; Lu, Shu-Zheng; You, Shi-Jie; Ge, Jun-Bo; Li, Tian-Chang; Wang, Xian; Yang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Hong-Xu; Mao, Jing-Yuan; Li, Rui-Jie; Chen, Li-Dian; Lu, Shu; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Chen, Ke-Ji
Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.
Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.
In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…
Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita
Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L.
Juan Hernández Cano; Gabriele Volpato
Research on herbal medicinal products is increasingly published in “Western” scientific journals dedicated primarily to conventional medicines. Publications are concerned mainly not only on the issues of safety and interactions, but also on efficacy. In reviews, a recurring complaint has been a lack of quality studies. In this opinion article, we present the case of Chinese herbal medicines as an example, as they have been extensively used in the global market and increasingly studied worldwide. We analyze the potential reasons for problems and propose some ways forward. As in the case of any drug, clinical trials for safety, efficacy, and/or effectiveness are the ultimate demonstration of therapeutic usefulness of herbal products. These will only make scientific sense when the tested herbal products are authentic, standardized, and quality controlled, if good practice guidelines of evidence-based medicine are followed, and if relevant controls and outcome measures are scientifically defined. Herbal products are complex mixtures, and for such complexity, an obvious approach for mechanistic studies is network pharmacology based on omic tools and approaches, which has already begun to revolutionize the study of conventional drugs, emphasizing networks, interactions, and polypharmacological features behind the action of many drugs.
Pelkonen, Olavi; Xu, Qihe; Fan, Tai-Ping
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Glycosides are the bioactive components of many famous Chinese medicines. Here reported are some bioactive glycosides we discovered from Chinese medicines in recent years. (1) Phenolic glycosides from Chinese medicines: Gastrodia elata, Aconitum austroyunanense and Helicia erratica, three bioactive phenolic glycosides were discovered and two of them have been developed into new drugs. (2) Terpenoidal glycosides: a) Monoterpenoid: the sweroside from Swertia moleensis has been developed into an anti-hepatitis drug; b) Diterpenoid: Phlomis betonicoides contains sweet glycosides; c) Triterpenoid: many biologically active triterpenoid glycosides were isolated from Panax plants and Siraitia grosvenorii. (3) Steroidal glycosides: a) C21-steroid: Cynanchum otophyllum and C. atratrum contain anti-epilepsy and anti-tumor glycosides; b) C27-steroid Hemostatic saponins were found in Paris polyphylla. PMID:1842007
In this study, we examined Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward and use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Survey questionnaires were distributed to 439 nursing students, 263 of whom (60%) returned them. Of the respondents, 92% had used TCM, while 48% had used TCM at least once during the previous year. Forty-five percent of respondents reported positive attitudes toward TCM use, 52% had neutral attitudes, and only 3% reported negative attitudes. The majority of respondents (76%) reported no change in their attitude toward TCM after studying nursing. Mean scores related to the adequacy of the current curriculum in TCM training and the state of respondents' TCM knowledge were generally low. Of the respondents who had used TCM during the past year, the most common use was for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common type of TCM used by respondents was herbal tea or soup. Final-year nursing students were more likely to have used TCM during the previous year, report they would like more courses on TCM, and consult Western medicine physicians before using TCM; they were also less likely to develop more negative attitudes toward TCM after studying nursing. PMID:16722501
Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Twinn, Sheila F; Leung, Ting F; Thompson, David R; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai F
Problem statement: Standardization of herbal drugs is a burning topic in herbal drug industry today. Standardization is difficult becaus e they are usually mixtures of many constituents an d the active principle in most cases is unknown. Howe ver it is possible to generate a physico-chemical fingerprint for the standardization of these drugs with reference to authentic drugs, for monitoring
Arun Sudha; V. S. Murty; T. S. Chandra
Background In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. Objectives In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. Methods We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. Results Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD):0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.67), C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: ?0.18 to 0.69), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: ?0.02 to 0.45) and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10). However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13). Conclusions Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions.
Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pinyi; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Wu, Yazhou; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Cheng, Dixiang; Yi, Dong
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is practiced in the Chinese health care system for more than 2,000 years. In recent years, herbal medicines, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China based on TCM or modern pharmacological theories have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we discuss etiology and pathogenesis of AD, TCM therapy, and herbal extracts for the treatment of AD. There is evidence to suggest that TCM therapy may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits for the treatment of AD. Chinese herb may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in view of TCM.
Liu, Ping; Kong, Mingwang; Yuan, Shihe; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Ping
Objectives To evaluate the relationship between the use of non-aristolochic acid (AA) prescribed Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and the risk of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design Nationwide population-based follow-up study. Setting Longitudinal health insurance database sampled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants A total of 47?876 patients with CKD were identified. Participants who had ever used AA-containing CHMs, had cancer or HIV prior to the diagnosis of CKD, died within the first month of CKD diagnosis and who were not Taiwanese citizens were excluded. A total of 13?864 participants were eligible for final analysis. Primary and secondary outcome measures All-cause mortality among patients with CKD between 2000 and 2008. Results After controlling for potential confounders, we found that participants who started to receive non-AA prescribed CHMs after the diagnosis of CKD had a lower risk of mortality as compared with non-users of non-AA prescribed CHMs (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7, p<0.001). Moreover, participants who had used non-AA prescribed CHMs prior to and after the diagnosis of CKD also had a lower risk of mortality than non-users (aHR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8, p<0.001). In subgroup analyses, we found that such an inverse association was present only among patients who were not eligible to receive erythropoietin therapy (ie, serum creatinine ?6?mg/dL and/or haematocrit value ?28%). Conclusions Patients who received non-AA prescribed CHMs after the diagnosis of CKD, yet before the start of erythropoietin therapy had a lower risk of mortality than those who did not.
Hsieh, Chuan Fa; Huang, Song Lih; Chen, Chien Lung; Chen, Wei Ta; Chang, Huan Cheng; Yang, Chen Chang
Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed. PMID:20939821
He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F
AIM: To explore the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines (HM) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A computer-based as well as manual literature search was performed. We reviewed randomized controlled trials on the treatment of IBS with and without HM. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies with 25 HMs met the inclusion criteria. Four of these studies were of good quality, while the remaining 18 studies involving 17 Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas were of poor quality. Eight of these reports using 9 HMs showed global improvement of IBS symptoms, 4 studies with 3 HMs were efficacious in diarrhea-predominant IBS, and 2 studies with 2 HMs showed improvement in constipation-predominant IBS. Out of a total of 1279 patients, 15 adverse events in 47 subjects were reported with HM. No serious adverse events or abnormal laboratory tests were observed. The incidence of the adverse events was low (2.97%; 95% CI: 2.04%-3.90%). CONCLUSION: Herbal medicines have therapeutic benefit in IBS, and adverse events are seldom reported in literature. Nevertheless, herbal medicines should be used with caution. It is necessary to conduct rigorous, well-designed clinical trials to evaluate their effectiveness and safety in the treatment of IBS.
Shi, Jun; Tong, Yao; Shen, Jian-Gang; Li, Hai-Xia
Problem of adulteration of herbal medicines with synthetic drugs is getting a common and dangerous phenomenon in Poland. The purpose of this study was the qualitative estimation of content of the Chinese herbal medicine for slimming "Meizitanc" as well as the estimation of hazard for human health and life. Twenty herbal packages which were secured by police in the 2006 year were investigated. The main ingredient of herbal medicine "Meizitanc" was sibutramine. The average mass of sibutramine hydrochloride in the "Meizitanc" capsule was about 10 mg. Additionally the trace amount of xylene and a starch were detected in the capsules. The presence of mentioned above substances were confirmed by different analytical methods like: gas chromatography with mass spectrometry GC/MS, thin layer chromatography TLC, high-pressure liquid chromatography HPLC/UV-DAD and infrared spectrometry IR. There were not determined any herbal-originated substances, which were mentioned on the packages. It was not found any pharmacologically active substance in one of the twenty examined packages. Conclusions: The medicine containing sibutramine should be used under the strict medical control. For safety of the patients all herbal products should be buy from authorized her PMID:17724884
Wiergowski, Marek; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak-Banasik, Livia; Rutkowska, Jolanta; Kucu?yma, Grazyna; Waldman, Wojciech; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Sein Anand, Jacek
Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC.
Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang
Objective: To observe the lipid and the pathological changes of carotid artery smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic rabbits, verification of Chinese herbal compound which has improve blood lipid and anti atherosclerosis effects, focus on ABCA1 as the key receptor which participated in reverse cholesterol transport, to study the mechanism of Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning). Materials and methods: 30 rabbits were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Chinese herbal compound (Xuemai Ning) group, The model group and the Xuemai Ning group with high fat diet and injection of vitamin D3, causing atherosclerosis model 4 weeks after the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine group, In the 4th week after Xuemai Ning group received the intervention of Chinese herbal compound. Blood lipid, the carotid artery pathological changes and expression of ABCA1 gene and protein in peritoneal macrophage surface were detected after 8 weeks. Results: The carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque formation of the model group was obvious, the carotid atherosclerotic changes of the Xuemai Ning group rabbit significantly lighter than the model group. The serum lipid of model group and Xuemai Ning group were higher than that of the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of macrophage ABCA1 in model group was significantly up regulated at protein level higher than the blank group; and the traditional Chinese medicine can up regulate the expression of ABCA1 protein, higher than those in the model group. Expression of ABCA1 mRNA was significantly up regulated in model group, ABCA1 mRNA of Xuemai Ning group raised more significantly. Conclusion: Xuemai Ning can reduce triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of hyperlipidemia model in rabbits serum, increase high density lipoprotein, remove foam cells in atherosclerotic cells, improve pathological of AS and up-regulate ABCA1 gene and protein so as to effectively inhibit atherosclerotic disease.
Objectives. To assess the efficacy and safety of Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi Tang (XSLJZT) for treating functional dyspepsia. Methods. Literature searches were carried out on Medline database, Cochrane Library, CNKI database, Chinese Biomedical Literature database, Wanfang database, and VIP database up to July 2012. Hand search for further references was conducted. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. Fifteen publications in total were suitable for inclusion. There was evidence that LJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.36). There was also evidence that XSLJZT compared with prokinetic drugs increased symptom improvement (odds ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.72 to 4.03). No adverse events were reported in LJZT or XSLJZT group in any of these randomized controlled trials. Conclusion. LJZT and XSLJZT might be more effective compared with prokinetic drugs in the treatment of functional dyspepsia, and no side effects are identified in the included trials. However, due to poor methodological quality in the majority of included studies, the potential benefit from LJZT and XSLJZT need to be confirmed in rigorously designed, multicentre, and large-scale trials.
Xiao, Ya; Liu, Yan-yan; Yu, Ke-qiang; Ouyang, Ming-zi; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-shan
Some protein pharmaceuticals from Chinese medicine have been developed to treat cardiovascular diseases, genetic diseases, and cancer. Bioactive proteins with various pharmacological properties have been successfully isolated from animals such as Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech), Eisenia fetida (earthworm), and Mesobuthus martensii (Chinese scorpion), and from herbal medicines derived from species such as Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma, Momordica cochinchinensis, Viscum album, Poria cocos, Senna obtusifolia, Panax notoginseng, Smilax glabra, Ginkgo biloba, Dioscorea batatas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. This article reviews the isolation methods, molecular characteristics, bioactivities, pharmacological properties, and potential uses of bioactive proteins originating from these Chinese medicines. PMID:25067942
Wong, Kam Lok; Wong, Ricky Ngok Shun; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Wing Keung; Ng, Tzi Bun; Shaw, Pang Chui; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Lai, Yau Ming; Zhang, Zhang Jin; Zhang, Yanbo; Tong, Yao; Cheung, Ho-Pan; Lu, Jia; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing
Some protein pharmaceuticals from Chinese medicine have been developed to treat cardiovascular diseases, genetic diseases, and cancer. Bioactive proteins with various pharmacological properties have been successfully isolated from animals such as Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech), Eisenia fetida (earthworm), and Mesobuthus martensii (Chinese scorpion), and from herbal medicines derived from species such as Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma, Momordica cochinchinensis, Viscum album, Poria cocos, Senna obtusifolia, Panax notoginseng, Smilax glabra, Ginkgo biloba, Dioscorea batatas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. This article reviews the isolation methods, molecular characteristics, bioactivities, pharmacological properties, and potential uses of bioactive proteins originating from these Chinese medicines.
Herbal medicinal products can cause toxic hepatitis. This case report presents a patient who developed severe toxic hepatitis with beginning liver failure following four weeks of consumption of the herbal medicinal product Cascara Sagrada. A similar case was reported from the United States. Cascara Sagrada is found in 30-40 herbal medicinal products in Denmark. We recommend that herbal medicinal products containing Cascara Sagrada be withdrawn from the market. PMID:19925744
Jacobsen, Claire; Semb, Synne; Kromann-Andersen, Hans
Nearly 80% of the global population still depends upon the herbal drugs for their health care. Plant based therapy are marked due to its low cast, easy availability, based on generation to generation knowledge. At present time, plant based industries are rising at international level but unfortunately due to uncontrolled growth of population and unplanned, excess use\\/misuses of plant species
SUMMARY. The prehistoric discovery that certain plants cause harm and others have curative powers is the origin of the healing professions and its practitioners (priest, physician, and apothecary), as well as professions devoted to plants (botany and horticulture). The descrip- tion of plants and their properties and virtues (termed herbals in the 16 th century) became an invaluable resource for
In traditional Chinese medicinal practices, herbs are classified as 'cold', 'neutral', or 'hot'. Fluorometric analysis of herbs with 'cold' properties revealed that these herbs produce large amounts of superoxide. In contrast, herbs with 'hot' properties have scavenging activities. We believe that this electron transfer to form superoxide and the scavenging of superoxide may elucidate the phenomena of the 'yin' (represented by 'cold') and 'yang' (represented by 'hot') respectively. PMID:8719977
Lin, W S; Chan, W C; Hew, C S
Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components
Songlin Li; Quanbin Han; Chunfeng Qiao; Jingzheng Song; Chuen Lung Cheng; Hongxi Xu
As a therapeutic class, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a high propensity to interact and many interactions with concomitant medications have been described. Increasingly, herbal medicines are often used by patients with epilepsy and the risk that these may interact with their AED medication is now being realised. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interactions that have been
Cecilie JOHANNESSEN LANDMARK; Philip N. PATSALOS
Abstract Background Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) can present with coexistent subfertility caused by diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Recent texts suggest that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) may improve pregnancy outcomes for women with RPL. Objective This article reports the outcome of the treatment of a female of advanced maternal age. She had diagnoses of DOR and RPL. Design, Setting, and Patient This 42-year-old patient with DOR and RPL presented in a private acupuncture practice, located in Bellevue, WA. Intervention The patient received TCM treatment that involved weekly acupuncture and Chinese herbal therapy from June 2006 to May 2007. Main Outcome Measures The outcome sought was a live birth after 24 weeks of gestation. Results After another miscarriage in September 2006, this patient conceived a viable pregnancy in December 2006, after 6 months of treatment. She continued treatment through 20 weeks and delivered a healthy son at 39.5 weeks of gestation. Conclusions Subfertile women with RPL may benefit from TCM treatment. More research is needed to examine the safety and effectiveness of TCM as a treatment for RPL.
Cantor, Dara; Marx, Benjamin L.
Using the example of the Wõthïhã of the Manapiare River Valley, Amazonas State, Venezuela, I challenge the image of the indigenous Amazonian as an expert in herbalism. I argue that the observed absence of medicinal plant use in early Wõthïhã ethnography, rather than reflecting researcher oversight, reflects the centrality of shamanism. According to Wõthïhã shamanic cosmology, herbal medicines, while useful to relieve symptoms and treat minor injuries, fail to address the underlying cause of illness. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, I find that as the role and influence of shamanism have dramatically decreased, the Wõthïhã have turned elsewhere for medical treatment. Biomedical remedies have shown to be effective, thereby encouraging an acceptance of symptom-specific treatments. Biomedicine's patchy availability, however, has encouraged the Wõthïhã to look beyond biomedicine. Several folk healing traditions are being incorporated by the Wõthïhã, each with its own herbal tradition. PMID:17405697
Heckler, S L
Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222
Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese herbal products (CHPs), acupuncture, and traumatology manipulative therapies. TCM physicians often prescribe CHP to treat patients with osteoporosis; however, the drugs used and their patterns of prescriptions have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the CHP used for the treatment of osteoporosis in Taiwan and their prescription patterns. Methods. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was analyzed to evaluate the frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for osteoporosis. Association rules were then applied to evaluate the CHP coprescription patterns and the prevalence of osteoporosis. Results. The osteoporosis cohort included 16?544 patients, of whom more than 70% had used TCM on one or more occasion. Of these patients, 4?292 (25.9%) had been hospitalized at least once because of fracture. Du-Huo-Ji-Sheng-Tang and Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for the treatment of osteoporosis. Conclusion. This study identified patterns of CHP use for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, further research is required to fully elucidate the efficacy and safety of these CHP.
Shih, Wei-Tai; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung
Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating osteoarthritis in Asia for centuries. This study aimed to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM used in treating osteoarthritis in Taiwan. Methods A complete database (total 22,520,776 beneficiaries) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims offered by the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan for the year 2002 was employed for this research. Patients with osteoarthritis were identified according to the diagnostic code of the International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM for treating osteoarthritis. Results There were 20,059 subjects who visited TCM clinics for osteoarthritis and received a total of 32,050 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (19.2%), followed by 50-59 years (18.8%) and 60-69 years group (18.2%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for osteoarthritis more frequently than male subjects (female: male?=?1.89: l). There was an average of 5.2 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for osteoarthritis. Du-zhong (Eucommia bark) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese single herb, while Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula for osteoarthritis. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed formula was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang plus Shen-tong-zhu-yu-tang, and the most commonly prescribed triple-drug combination was Du-huo-ji-sheng-tang, Gu-sui-pu (Drynaria fortune (Kunze) J. Sm.), and Xu-Duan (Himalaya teasel). Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating osteoarthritis. Conclusions This study conducted a large scale pharmaco-epidemiology survey of Chinese herbal medicine use in OA patients by analyzing the NHIRD in Taiwan in year 2002.
Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504
Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S
Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations, underscoring the importance and appropriateness of further research. These preliminary findings should be considered tentative and need to be confirmed with rigorous randomized controlled trials.
Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.
Abstract English: Over the last few decades, people have increasingly used herbal medicine as an alternative or adjunct to modern drugs. Few of the herbs available to the public have undergone testing for safety, efficacy, or potential interaction with other drugs taken for an ailment. Alt hough herbs are generally safe when used properly, they can be harmful and even
Behjat A. Sharif
Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...
The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed.
Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.
To meet community demands with optimal Chinese and conventional medical treatment, the University of Hong Kong is promoting integrative medicine by developing Chinese medicine programmes that train students of both Western and Chinese medicine. The programmes emphasize multi-disciplinary training and interaction between the two therapeutic approaches, enabling students to establish reliable, consistent, and respectful mutual cooperation in their future careers. PMID:24861838
Chen, Hai-Yong; Feng, Yibin; Lao, Lixing
Hypertensive renal damage is based on the extent and duration of hypertension, renal damage caused by varying severity. Hypertensive renal damage due to various causes imbalance of vascular active substances, renal arteriosclerosis, so that the abnormal renal hemodynamic, renal ischemia, low specific gravity of urine, low osmotic pressure and urine. The rapidly increasing incidence of hypertensive renal damage has become one of the most important reasons of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Effective treatment of hypertension is limited by poor compliance and significant adverse reaction of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, some patients have turned to Chinese medicine (CM), hoping that such treatments might improve the efficiency. The author reviews relevant theory and the latest researches, on the basis of combining diseases and syndrome, discusses state and achievement of hypertensive renal damage with Chinese herbal medicines from fundamental and clinical research and action mechanism from standpoints of Chinese herbal compound and herbal effective chemical composition to take future research for important reference. PMID:24754161
Liu, Wei; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie
Background The common randomized controlled trial design has distinct limitations when applied to Chinese medicine, because Chinese medicine identifies and treats 'Chinese medicine patterns' rather than diagnosed diseases. Chinese medicine patterns are a group of associated symptoms, tongue appearances and pulse characteristics. These limitations could be overcome by developing new strategies to evaluate the effect of Chinese medicine. The idea behind pattern-based efficacy evaluations may optimize clinical trial design by identifying the responsiveness-related Chinese medicine patterns. Methods/Design This is a two-stage multi-center trial of Chinese herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. The stage one trial is an open-label trial and aims to explore what groups of Chinese medicine information (such as symptoms) correlates with better efficacy, and the stage two trial is a randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial that incorporates the efficacy-related information identified in the stage-one trial into the inclusion criteria. Discussion The indication of a Chinese herbal formula is a specific Chinese medicine pattern and not a single disease and stratifying a disease into several patterns with a group of symptoms is a feasible procedure in clinical trials. This study is the first to investigate whether this approach in the design of Chinese herbal medicine trials can improve responses. Trial registration ChiCTR-TRC-10000989
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese
Jie Shi; Yan-li Liu; Yu-xia Fang; Guo-zhu Xu; Hai-fen Zhai; Lin Lu
Ten diterpenoid alkaloids, including eight aconitine-type C??-diterpenoid alkaloids and two hetisine-type C??-diterpenoid alkaloids, were isolated from the secondary roots of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., known as "Fuzi" in Chinese traditional herbal medicine. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with those of the literature. Among these alkaloids, chasmanine, oxonitine and 15-acetylsongoramine were isolated for the first time from this medicinal plant. The cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids were tested against several cell lines by the MTT method in which aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitne and oxonitine were found to strongly inhibit the growth of the HePG2 cell line, which showed that the existence and quantity of the ester groups have a significant influence on the cytotoxicity of the diterpenoid alkaloids. PMID:22628040
Gao, Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Dan; Huang, Xing; Liu, Qian
Dietary supplements are prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in the treatment of human disease. In the United States, allopathic physicians are at the early stage of learning how to treat patients with natural remedies and other forms of alternative medicine. Elsewhere, however, alternative remedies have been embraced more fully. In Germany, for example, the German Federal Health Agency created Commission E, which has allowed for a more sophisticated approach to assessing the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Health insurance in Germany frequently covers costs for doctor-prescribed herbal remedies. While there is strong evidence that many herbal products have therapeutic effects, there are also a large number of cases of severe adverse reactions due to some of the many thousands of herbal products. One of the first signs of potential toxicity is in the visual system, as in many cases patients notice loss of vision more than systemic side effects. In addition, ophthalmologists are able to detect objective findings through external eye exams and dilated fundus exams. Presented here are some of the more common ocular side effects from frequently prescribed dietary supplements. In most instances, stopping the treatment or decreasing the dose allows for full resolution of symptoms. In addition, comment is made on the regulatory confusion that exists for this industry, especially in the United States. PMID:16234877
Fraunfelder, Frederick W
The use of herbal medicines in the developed world is widespread, and increasing. Herbal medicines, which include a wide spectrum of substances ranging from home-made teas to the national regulatory bodies-approved medicinal substances, are defined as plant-derived products that are used for medicinal and\\/or nutritional purposes. The use of herbal self-therapy is common in pregnancy, with many parturients consuming more
Krzysztof M. Kuczkowski
In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed. PMID:19204891
Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra
Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task.
Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun
Twenty-eight herbal medicinal products from Thailand were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing a specific HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 80% (v\\/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with iodine
Wongwiwat Tassaneeyakul; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Supatra Porasuphatana; Josef Bohm
Anorectic drugs containing fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine have been classified as 'off-label' drugs in Hong Kong for several years. In this study, we report a case of valvular heart disease found in a teenager who had been taking Chinese proprietary medicine as a weight reducing agent for six months. Fenfluramine was identified in the diet pills. Two other herbal proprietary slimming
K CHANG; TWL MAK; L KWONG; KT SO
Use of herbal medicines among patients under cardiovascular pharmacotherapy is widespread. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between herbal medicines and cardiovascular drugs. The Medline database was searched for clinical articles published between January 1996 and February 2003. Forty-three case reports and eight clinical trials were identified. Warfarin was the most common cardiovascular drug involved. It was found to interact with boldo, curbicin, fenugreek, garlic, danshen, devil's claw, don quai, ginkgo, papaya, lycium, mango, PC-SPES (resulting in over-anticoagulation) and with ginseng, green tea, soy and St. John's wort (causing decreased anticoagulant effect). Gum guar, St. John's wort, Siberian ginseng and wheat bran were found to decrease plasma digoxin concentration; aspirin interactions include spontaneous hyphema when associated with ginkgo and increased bioavailability if combined with tamarind. Decreased plasma concentration of simvastatin or lovastatin was observed after co-administration with St. John's wort and wheat bran, respectively. Other adverse events include hypertension after co-administration of ginkgo and a diuretic thiazide, hypokalemia after liquorice and antihypertensives and anticoagulation after phenprocoumon and St. John's wort. Interaction between herbal medicine and cardiovascular drugs is a potentially important safety issue. Patients taking anticoagulants are at the highest risk. PMID:15676159
Izzo, Angelo A; Di Carlo, Giulia; Borrelli, Francesca; Ernst, Edzard
Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy.
Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang
Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHMs) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHMs in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHMs is limited to small, nonrandomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHMs and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHMs. Several TCHMs are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHMs has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHMs in CKD, we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHMs and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014
Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; Cijiang He, John
Scutellaria baicalensis (S.B.) is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine. We initially investigated its in vitro anti-tumor activities. S.B inhibited the growth of ALL, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at clinically achievable concentrations. The anti-proliferative effect was associated with mitochondrial damage, modulation of the Bcl family of genes, increased level of the CDK
Takashi Kumagai; Claudia I. Müller; Julian C. Desmond; Yasufumi Imai; David Heber; H. Phillip Koeffler
As a characteristic tumor therapy in China, Chinese medicine (CM) plays an important position in comprehensive treatment of tumor. It's a critical issue of objective realization, analysis and evaluation of CM safety for scientific decision-making in tumor safe medication and it also is a pivotal issue which affects the international communication. The safety evaluation of CM includes three phases: pre-clinical safety evaluation, clinical trials (micro-dose studies and traditional clinical trials) and post-marketing CM safety assessment. The key point of evaluation should be distinguished among different stages and various types of CM (such as classic formulas, Chinese herbal extracts, etc). Emphasis should be given to chronic toxicity when evaluating oral Chinese herbal , microdose studies and quality control must be underlined while injection is evaluated and more attention should be pay to the dose-effect relationship and time-effect relationship when turned to toxic Chinese medicine , and so as for the toxicity grading study. Moreover, we should constantly improve CM safety assessment method in various stages of tumor treatment, such as introducing the concept of syndrome classification theory, bringing in metabonomics and real-world research method which are similar to the CM therapeutic concept. Most importantly, we must keep its own feature of CM theory when we learn the concept of safety evaluation from abroad. Actively exploring the anti-tumor medicine safety evaluation methods and strategies is of great significance for clinical and experimental research, and it can provide supportability platform to CM's international communication. PMID:24791513
Liu, Rui; Hua, Bao-Jin; Li, Jie
Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function.
Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease affecting people worldwide. Increasing numbers of RA patients in the west are resorting to various complementary and alternative medicine modalities for relief of symptoms and well-being. Herbal products and acupuncture representing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are two of the most commonly used forms of complementary and alternative medicine. Frequently, their efficacy against RA and safety have been inferred from anecdotal experience or pilot testing on a relatively small number of patients following inadequate study designs. Accordingly, significant efforts need to be invested in objectively testing TCM in clinical trials that are sufficiently powered, randomized, blinded, possess appropriate controls and follow standard criteria for assessment of the outcomes. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory and other antiarthritic activities of TCM modalities need to be better defined. These efforts would help validate the scientific rationale for the use of TCM for the management of RA. PMID:24820012
Moudgil, Kamal D; Berman, Brian M
Background Use of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important category of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has increased substantially in Western countries during the past decade. Use of TCM is also widespread in the Chinese population. However, few informative data have been obtained to date by large-scale investigations of TCM use in the Chinese population. This study was aimed at elucidating the demographics and patterns of TCM use in Taiwan. Methods We employed the complete datasets of TCM outpatient reimbursement claims from 1996 to 2001, including the use of Chinese herbal remedies, acupuncture and traumatology manipulative therapy, to analyse use frequencies, the characteristics of TCM users, and the disease categories that were treated by TCM in Taiwan. Results At the end of 2001, 6,142,829 (28.4%) among the 21,653,555 valid beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan had used TCM during the year. However, 13,536,266 subjects (62.5%) had used TCM at least once during the whole 6-year period from 1996 to 2001, with a total of 156,224,266 visits (mean 11.5 visits per user). The mean number of TCM users per annum was 5,733,602, with a mean increment of 1,671,476 (29.2%) of new users yearly. Among TCM users, female was higher than male (female:male = 1.13:1), and the age distribution displayed a peak at around the 30s, followed by the 20s and 40s. Chinese herbal remedies (85.9%) were the most common TCM modality used by this population, followed by acupuncture (11.0%) and traumatology manipulative therapies (3.1%). Private TCM clinics provided most of the TCM care (82.6%), followed by private TCM hospitals (12.0%). The top ten major disease categories for TCM visits were diseases of the respiratory system, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue; symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions; injury and poisoning; diseases of the digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and endocrine system; nutritional and metabolic diseases; and immunological disorders. Conclusion TCM was popular among the Chinese population in Taiwan during the period studied. More than 60% of all subjects had used TCM during the 6-year interval. TCM was widely used by the Chinese population to treat problems and diseases of major human organ systems recognised by western medicine. This study provides information about the use frequencies of TCM and the disease categories treated by TCM, which should be useful for health policy makers and for those considering the integration of TCM and Western medicine.
Chen, Fang-Pey; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chou, Li-Fang; Chen, Fan-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of specific herbal medicinal products, potential effects of long term use as well as possible interactions of herbal medicinal products with concomitantly used conventional medicines.
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative\\/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have
Jean-San Chia; Jia-Ling Du; Wei-Bin Hsu; Andy Sun; Chun-Pin Chiang; Won-Bo Wang
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-cancer herbal drugs is of importance. Herbal medication is now being used for treatment of various diseases, including cancer in many countries. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of traditional herbal medicines (Aloe vera, Ginger, Ziziphora and Saffron extracts)
Tooba Ghazanfari; Roya Yaraee; Jalaleddin Shams; Batool Rahmati; Tayebeh Radjabian; Hoda Hakimzadeh
Studies on stability of active ingredients are fundamental and critical for the rational development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in view of its modernization and worldwide use. The stability of both active and marker constituents of plants used in TCM is reviewed for the first time. More than 100 papers, mostly written in Chinese, have been reviewed. Studies concerning plant constituents were analyzed according to their chemical classification of active ingredients. In addition, several crude drugs of animal origin are also reported. Stability of active ingredients is summarized during extraction and/or storage of the herbal drug preparations, and under stress conditions (pH, temperature, solvents, light, and humidity) and in the presence of preservatives, antioxidants, and metals. PMID:20120121
Meng, Wang; Xiaoliang, Ren; Xiumei, Gao; Vincieri, Franco Francesco; Bilia, Anna Rita
Systems biology is an emerging science of the 21st century and has developed in recent years from a technology-driven enterprise to a new strategic tool in life sciences as well as its method and design resemble those of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a holistic approach to health that attempts to bring the body, mind and spirit into harmony. The technology platforms of systems biology, especially metabolomics could provide useful tools for facilitating drug discovery and development of TCM. Metabolomes of medicinal herbal medicine are particularly a valuable natural resource for the evidence-based TCM. Metabolomics adopts a 'top-down' strategy to reflect the function of organisms from terminal symptoms of metabolic network and understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in holistic context. Its property consists with the holistic thinking of TCM, may beneficially provide an opportunity to scientifically express the meaning of evidence-based Chinese medicine, will greatly benefit both drug discovery and development for TCM research. Some successful metabolomic applications in important TCM field related to drug discovery and development from natural sources aims at raising the potential of metabolomics in reducing the gap between TCM and modern drug discovery demand, highlight the key role of biomarkers for drug discovery and development of traditional oriental medicine. PMID:22957430
Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun
\\u000a During the past decades, studies have suggested that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be effective for the prevention\\u000a of cancer and cancer-related health problems. For primary prevention one systematic review demonstrated a potential benefit\\u000a of green tea consumption for cancer prevention especially for gastrointestinal cancers. A meta-analysis involving 4,654 patients\\u000a with high-grade esophageal epithelial cells hyperplasia found herbal medicines more
Jianping Liu; Xun Li; Huijuan Cao; Torkel Snellingen
Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is a time-honored tonic food and herbal medicine in China, where recent research has shown that many of its traditional uses may be viewed from the basis of pharmacological activities. The ongoing exploration of C. sinensis in its wild form and cultured, fermented mycelial products derived from it, are reviewed from English and Chinese literature. Part II concludes the series with a review of C. sinensis in preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, and open-label and double-blinded clinical trials on the respiratory, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, immunologic, and nervous systems, and its effects on cancer, glucose metabolism, inflammatory conditions, and toxicological studies. In Part I, which appeared in the Fall 1998 issue of this journal (4(3):289-303), we discussed the effects of C. sinensis on antisenescence, endocrine and sexual functions, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and free radicals. PMID:9884180
Zhu, J S; Halpern, G M; Jones, K
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119
Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health.
Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay
Background. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among women aged 55 to 79 years who had also been prescribed hormonal therapies (HT) and its association with breast cancer risk. Methods. The use, frequency of service, and CHP prescribed among 17,583 HT users were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and HT. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer between the TCM nonusers and women who had undergone coadministration of HT and a CHP or CHPs. Results. More than one out of every five study subjects used a CHP concurrently with HT (CHTCHP patients). Shu-Jing-Huo-Xie-Tang was the most commonly used CHP coadministered with HT. In comparison to HT-alone users, the HRs for invasive breast cancer among CHTCHP patients were not significantly increased either in E-alone group or in mixed regimen group. Conclusions. The coadministration of hormone regimen and CHPs did not increase the risk of breast cancer.
Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Lin, Shun-Ku
The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374
Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna
A HPLC method was developed for the determination and identification of the berberine content in Coptidis Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and a related commercially prepared traditional Chinese medicine, Huang-Lian-Jiee-Dwu-Tang. Berberine was separated by a phenyl-bound column with two kinds of mobile phases of acetonitrile : methanol : 20 mM phosphate (35 : 20 : 45, v\\/v\\/v) and acetonitrile : 20 mM phosphate (30 : 70, v\\/v) for single herb and herbal preparation, respectively. Both mobile
Pi-Lo Tsai; Tung-Hu Tsai
In the last decades, cases of poisoning due to herbal medicines have occurred in many countries; Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are occasionally involved. The experience gained from traditional use is efficient to detect immediate or near-immediate relationship between administration and toxic effects but is quite unlikely to detect medium- to long-term toxicities; thorough investigations of herbal medicines (toxicity assessments, active pharmacovigilance) appear then essential for their safe use. Genotoxicity is an especially insidious toxicity that may result in carcinoma development years after exposure; it can arise from multiple compounds, with or without metabolic activation. The present work reviews traditional CHMs and phytochemicals that have been shown to present a genotoxic hazard. PMID:23420770
Zhou, Jue; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Qu, Fan; Duez, Pierre
Results. The response rate was 77%. Over two-thirds of the older Chinese immigrants reported using TCM in combination with WHS. About half (50.3%) of the older Chinese immigrants used Chinese herbs, 48.7% used Chinese herbal formulas, and 23.8% consulted a Chinese herbalist. Although separate analysis was conducted, similar predictors were identified. Country of origin, Chinese health beliefs, social support, city
The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50?mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases.
Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a fast and nondestructive analytical method. Associated with chemometrics, it is a powerful tool for the pharmaceutical industry. It is becoming a suitable technique for analysis of herbal medicine. This review focuses on the recent developments and updates for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbal medicine using FTIR. Moreover, it can be implemented
Andrei A. Bunaciu; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein; Serban Fleschin
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a
Della A Forster; Angela Denning; Gemma Wills; Melissa Bolger; Elizabeth McCarthy
An ethnobotanical survey of tribal area of southern Rajasthan was carried out during the year 2001–2002 for ethnosexicological herbal medicines. The information on ethnosexicological herbs is based on the exhaustive interview with local medicine-men and -women, birth attendants and other knowledgeable persons who prescribe their own herbal preparation to check birth control, including abortion at initial stages, preventing conception or
Anita Jain; S. S. Katewa; B. L. Chaudhary; Praveen Galav
Herbal medicine is widely applied for clinical use in East Asia and other countries. However, unclear correlation between its complex chemical composition and bioactivity prevents its application in the West. In the present study, a stepwise causal adjacent relationship discovery algorithm has been developed to study correlation between composition and bioactivity of herbal medicine and identify active components from the
Yiyu Cheng; Yi Wang; Xuewei Wang
Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents
Xiao-Hui Fan; Yi-Yu Cheng; Zheng-Liang Ye; Rui-Chao Lin; Zhong-Zhi Qian
Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care.
Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.
Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants.
An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157
Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R
Current Western medical treatment lays its main emphasis on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and cure is assessed by quantifying the effects of treatment statistically. In contrast, in Chinese medicine, cure is generally assessed by evaluating the patient's “pattern” (Zheng) [cf. Glossary] and medicines are prescribed according to this. We believe that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cannot be evaluated precisely according to Western principles, in which a constant amount of the same medicine is given to a group of patients to be evaluated. When assessing cure using TCM, Zheng is more important than the determination of medical effects. This means that quantitative evaluation of TCM treatment can be very difficult. In this paper, we focused on the Yin-Yang [cf. Glossary] balance to determine Zheng, and at the same time attempted to determine the treatment effects by applying the concept of regulation of Yin-Yang according to chronotherapeutic principles. According to Zheng, advanced cancer patients generally lack both Yin and Yang. Chinese medical treatment therefore seeks to supplement both Yin and Yang. However, we divided patients into two groups and compared them with respect to survival. One group was administered a predominantly Yang (Qi) [cf. Glossary] tonic herbal treatment during the daytime, while the other group was administered Yin (Blood) [cf. Glossary] tonics during night time. A comparison of the results of treatment showed that the patients in the group receiving Yang (Qi) replenishment during the daytime lived longer than patients receiving Yin (Blood) nourishment during the night. Moreover, the patients in the daytime Yang (Qi) replenishment group also fared significantly better than patients treated solely by Western methods.
Seki, K.; Chisaka, M.; Eriguchi, M.; Yanagie, H.; Hisa, T.; Osada, I.; Sairenji, T.; Otsuka, K.; Halberg, F.
With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.
Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming
ZHENG is the key theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and it is very important to find the molecular pharmacology of traditional Chinese herbal formulae. One ZHENG is related to many diseases and the herbal formulae are aiming to ZHENG. Therefore, many herbal formulae whose effects on a certain disease have been confirmed might also treat other diseases with the same ZHENG. In this study, the microarrays collected from patients with QiXuXueYu ZHENG (Qi-deficiency and Blood-stasis syndrome) before treatment and after being treated with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule were analyzed by a high-throughput gene microarrays-based drug similarity comparison method, which could find the small molecules which had similar effects with Fuzheng Huayu Capsule. Besides getting the results of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis drugs which embody the known effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule, many other small molecules were screened out and could reflect other types of effects of this formula in treating QiXuXueYu ZHENG, including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, hyposenstive effect. Then we integrated this information to display the effect of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule and its potential multiple-target molecular pharmacology. Moreover, through using clinical blood-tested data to verify our prediction, Fuzheng Huayu Capsule was proved to have effects on diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:22666299
Yu, Shuhao; Guo, Zhizhong; Guan, Yan; Lu, Yi-Yu; Hao, Pei; Li, Yixue; Su, Shi-Bing
This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted. PMID:25048473
Kim, Hyunah; Hughes, Peter J; Hawes, Emily M
Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs) given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N = 2, 236) of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder) was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix), which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix) or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix) are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers. PMID:22685488
Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Wang, Jung-Der
Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692
Zhang, Wendy L; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhan, Janis Y X; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Dong, Tina T X; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K
Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction.
Zhang, Wendy L.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Zhan, Janis Y. X.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.
Multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology, integrating solvent extraction, repercolation with dynamic and countercurrent extraction, is a novel extraction technology for the traditional Chinese medicine. This solvent-saving, energy-saving and high-extraction-efficiency technology can at the most drive active compounds to diffuse from the herbal materials into the solvent stage by stage by creating concentration differences between the herbal materials and the solvents. This paper reviewed the basic principle, the influence factors and the research progress and trends of the equipments and the application of the multi-stage countercurrent extraction. PMID:17655136
Xie, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xue-Song; Chen, Yong; Cai, Ming; Qu, Hai-Bin; Cheng, Yi-Yu
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
The United States government established Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) to meet the public needs. In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) approved the first acupuncture clinic for their patients. The National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was founded at NIH in 1998 to sponsor and develop CAM research. In 2001, the budget for NCCAM had grown to 130 million USD. Of the 3 300 papers on CAM published in the past ten years, 520 were funded by NIH. NCCAM goals are to focus on "mind and body medicine" and "herbals" for future research. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the major components in CAM. From 1998 to 2012, NCCAM funded 248 research subjects on TCM, with a total budget of 236 million USD. The subjects were as follows: 160 for acupuncture, 36 for Chinese medicine, 33 for Tai Chi, and 19 for Qigong. The American public is increasingly supportive of CAM, including TCM. According to the national survey in 2008, nearly 40% of American used CAM, 11% of them were children, self-spending 33.9 billion USD in 2007. In the same year, 3.7 million people received acupuncture in the United States. The data also indicate that women, higher income and higher educated people used CAM more frequently. An increasing number of allopathic medical professionals are open to CAM, and recommend their patients to use acupuncture and other modalities. TCM, as an important part of CAM, has become a new option for patients in improving their healthcare services in conjunction with allopathic medicine. TCM will have more potential to be utilized in the United States. PMID:23073580
Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mouse spleen cells using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Target specificity for these mitogens was investigated by using isolated T cells and lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. Among 20 plants investigated, potent mitogenic activities for both human and mouse lymphocytes were found in 7 plants: Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Uvaria lucida (Annonaceae), Maytenus buchananii (Celastraceae), Lonchocarpus bussei (Leguminosae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae), Phytolacca octandra (Phytolaccaceae), and Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae). The U. lucida stem demonstrated the highest activity among all and induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. PMID:23194771
Tachibana, Y; Kato, A; Nishiyama, Y; Ikemi, M; Ohoka, K; Kawanishi, K; Juma, F D; Ngángá, J N; Mathenge, S G
Herbal medicine (HM) is one of the most widely used Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies throughout the world. The WHO has recognized HM as an essential component of primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore patients' attitudes towards using HM, their sources of information and the role of costs. Within a qualitative research approach, semi-standardized interviews with 18 patients using HM were conducted and analyzed according to Mayring's content analysis. Patients highlighted their active role and perceived autonomy choosing HM. Most interviewees experienced HM as better, with more sustainable effects and fewer side effects compared to conventional medicine. All media, family, friends, and healthcare professionals were reported as sources of information. Some patients complained that doctors and pharmacists have insufficient knowledge of HM. Most patients expressed their regret that HM is not reimbursed by statutory health insurances but also their general willingness to pay extra for HM. The main challenge for German primary care, besides the reintroduction of reimbursement, is the promotion of knowledge and skill development in HM. This is to ensure patient safety and work in partnership with patients. Appropriate strategies for education must be tailored to the specific needs of health professional groups.
Joos, Stefanie; Glassen, Katharina; Musselmann, Berthold
Background The use of herbal medicines is on the increase globally and they are usually supplied in pharmacies as non-prescription medicines. Pharmacists are, therefore, responsible for educating and informing the consumers about rational use of herbal medicines. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria with regards to the herbal medicines they supplied by their pharmacies. Methods Pharmacists in charge of randomly selected 140 community pharmacies from 20 Local Government Areas in Lagos were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. We gathered information on their knowledge of the indications, adverse effects, potential drug-herb interactions and contraindications of the herbal medicines they supply in their pharmacies. Results Of the 140 questionnaires distributed, 103 (72.9%) participants completed the questionnaire appropriately. The majority (74; 71.8%) of the participants were males and 36-50 years (56; 54.4%). The pharmacies supplied mostly Yoyo cleanser bitters® (101; 98.5%), ginseng (97; 98.5%), Jobelyn® (91; 88.3%), Ciklavit® (68; 66.6%), gingko (66; 64.1%), herbal tea (66; 64.1%), and Aloe vera (57; 55.3%). The pharmacists self-rated their knowledge of herbal medicines mostly as fair (39%) and good (42%), but they exhibited poor knowledge with regards to the indications, contraindications and safety profiles. Seventy participants consulted reference materials such as leaflet insert in the herbal medicines (56%) and internet (20%) before supplying herbal medicines. The information most frequently sought was herb-drug interactions (85%), contraindications (75%) and adverse effects (70%). Conclusions Community pharmacists need to be informed about the indications and safety profiles of herbal medicines.
Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Oreagba, Ibrahim A.; Ogunleye, Olayinka O.; Oluwa, Rashidat; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Olayemi, Sunday O.
We studied the attitudes and personal experiences with traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) use in Chinese medical students. Medical students at the Chinese University of Hong Kong were asked 13 questions according to an anonymous survey. Six hundred and eleven of 780 medical students (47% males, 52% females) returned the questionnaire; 199 (33%) of the participants used TCM at least once in the past year, and 85% had ever tried various TCM. The attitude was positive in 41%, neutral in 52% and negative in only 6%. The majority (70%) reported no change in attitudes towards TCM after studying Western medicine (WM). Of the 199 participants who had used TCM in the past year, upper respiratory infections were the most common circumstance leading to TCM usage, with 31% immediately using TCM without any TCM practitioner consultation. The most common modality of TCM used by 85% of participants was herbal decoction, and nearly one-quarter had used over-the-counter Chinese medicine. Although 78% reported they knew of the TCM practitioner or treatment from family members or friends, 14% stated they randomly selected the practitioner. "Effectiveness of TCM," "fewer side effects than WM," "illness not completely treated by WM" and "recommendation from family/friends" were common beliefs held by participants for TCM usage. Forty-five percent reported that they had not been told of any side effects of TCM. Pre-clinical students had more positive attitudes towards TCM and consulted TCM practitioners more often in the past 12 months (OR 9.1, CI 3.16-28.18; p < 0.001) compared to students in clinical years, who tended to become more negative towards TCM after studying WM. TCM usage is common among medical students in Hong Kong. It is important to note that nearly half of the students were not aware of any possible side effects from TCM. Students appear to become more negative towards TCM after studying WM. PMID:15974486
Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Leung, Ting-Fan; Tse, Hio-Meng; Lam, Lai-Na; Tam, Kwok-Cheong; Chu, Ka-Man; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai-Fai
Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databases from their inception to November 2011. We bibliometrically analyzed the included studies and assessed the reporting quality. Results A total of 2964 reports (involving 253,434 cancer patients) including 2385 randomized controlled trials and 579 non-randomized controlled studies were included. The top seven cancer types treated were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer by both study numbers and case numbers. The majority of studies (72%) applied TCM therapy combined with conventional treatment, whilst fewer (28%) applied only TCM therapy in the experimental groups. Herbal medicine was the most frequently applied TCM therapy (2677 studies, 90.32%). The most frequently reported outcome was clinical symptom improvement (1667 studies, 56.24%) followed by biomarker indices (1270 studies, 42.85%), quality of life (1129 studies, 38.09%), chemo/radiotherapy induced side effects (1094 studies, 36.91%), tumor size (869 studies, 29.32%) and safety (547 studies, 18.45%). Completeness and adequacy of reporting appeared to improve with time. Conclusions Data from controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies in cancer treatment is substantial, and different therapies are applied either as monotherapy or in combination with conventional medicine. Reporting of controlled clinical studies should be improved based on the CONSORT and TREND Statements in future. Further studies should address the most frequently used TCM therapy for common cancers and outcome measures should address survival, relapse/metastasis and quality of life.
Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan
The metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, but currently there is a lack of effective therapies for this multifactorial endocrine disease. TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) has been utilized to treat a wide variety of diseases for centuries in the People's Republic of China, subsequently becoming a promising source for the development of new therapeutic agents. Chinese medicinal herbs Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Coptis chinensis and Salvia miltiorrhiza have been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic and antidiabetic properties. In this study, we have investigated the metabolic effects of a mixture of these three herbal extracts (SK0506) in a rodent model of the metabolic syndrome induced by an HFD (high-fat diet). SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats that were fed on an HFD for 4 weeks gained 33% more weight compared with chow-fed rats (P<0.05). Four weeks treatment with SK0506 prevented weight gain with decreased visceral fat (P<0.01 compared with vehicle treatment). SK0506 also significantly reduced plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides), NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) and cholesterol. SK0506 exerted similar effects to RSG (rosiglitazone) on impaired glucose intolerance. SK0506 also significantly enhanced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in adipose tissue during hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Western blotting analysis revealed that SK0506 enhanced GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) expression in adipose tissue, and RSG markedly up-regulated GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle. Overall, the present study has discovered that SK0506 can reverse several components of the metabolic syndrome primarily through acting on hyperlipidaemia and visceral obesity. The results from the present study suggest that it is worthwhile to conduct a randomized clinical trial to confirm the potential that SK0506 may be a new oral agent for treating the metabolic syndrome and preventing Type 2 diabetes. PMID:20950275
Tan, Yi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Wang, Zheng-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Seale, John P; Qu, Xianqin
Ulcerative colitis (UC) has been treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for literally thousands of years. This paper gives an overview of TCM in the management of UC, provides an account of the state of the evidence, identifies gaps in the research base, and makes recommendations for future research. TCM is based on patterns and this influences the selection of the type of herbal medication or manipulation technique used for treatment. The majority of clinical studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture in the treatment of UC have methodological shortcomings. The extent of heterogeneity in many of these clinical trials, poor design quality of past studies prevent meaningful systematic reviews (SRs) or meta-analysis, although there are positive signs that TCM may be useful in relieving abdominal pain and reducing inflammation. Many unknowns still exist, including the active ingredients within Chinese herbal medicine and the potential for interaction with other drugs or western medications. While there may be a potential role for utilizing TCM in the treatment of UC patients relying on both traditional concepts and modern developments, it should be recognized that there are no studies that irrefutably support the use of TCM in the treatment of UC. Further basic or translational research must be done to elucidate mechanisms of action of these agents, and well-designed and well-conducted clinical studies must also be done to determine efficacy and safety of these agents. PMID:22669756
Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping
A number of herbal medicines are increasingly used by cancer patients worldwide, despite the fact that the clinical evidence that supports their use to fight cancer is weak or lacking. Pharmacokinetic studies have been integrated into modern drug development, but they are generally not needed for herbal remedies. To update our knowledge in this field, this paper highlights the pharmacokinetic properties of anticancer herbal medicines and the clinical relevance. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase ((all from inception to May 2011). An extensive literature search indicatesthat there are limited data on the pharmacokinetic properties of anticancer herbal medicines in humans. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of anticancer herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal medicines including curcumin, ginseng, ginkgo, ginger and milk thistle. For an anticancer herbal medicine, the pharmacological activity is gained when the active agents or the active metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and pharmacokinetic processes of active herbal components in the body determine their target-site concentrations and thus the anticancer effect. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of anticancer herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of anticancer herbal remedies, further studies to explore their pharmacokinetic properties and the relevance to pharmacodynamics and toxicity in humans are certainly warranted. PMID:21671861
Chen, X-W; Sneed, K B; Zhou, S-F
To assess the effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) [Chinese herbal medicine ointment (CHMO), acupuncture and moxibustion] on pressure ulcer. In this study, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTER, CBM, CNKI, WAN FANG and VIP for articles published from database inception up to 4 April 2011. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the effects of TCM with other interventions. We assessed the methodological quality of these trials using Cochrane risk of bias criteria. Ten of 565 potentially relevant trails that enrolled a total of 893 patients met our inclusion criteria. All the included RCTs only used CHMO intervention, because acupuncture and moxibustion trials failed to meet the inclusive criteria. A meta-analysis showed beneficial effects of CHMO for pressure ulcer compared with other treatments on the total effective rate [risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·20-1·36; P = 0·53; I(2) = 0%), curative ratio (RR: 2·02; 95% CI: 1·73-2·35; P = 0·11; I(2) = 37%) and inefficiency rate (RR: 0·16; 95% CI: 0·02-0·80; P = 0·84; I(2) = 0%). However, the funnel plot indicated that there was publication bias in this study. The evidence that CHMO is effective for pressure ulcer is encouraging, but due to several caveats, not conclusive. Therefore, more rigorous studies seem warranted. PMID:22512889
Zhang, Qin-Hong; Sun, Zhong-Ren; Yue, Jin-Huan; Ren, Xue; Qiu, Li-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Lin; Du, Wei
Treatment of cardiovascular disease, albeit under the auspices of other clinical descriptors to those described in western biomedicine, has a long history in China. Chinese Medicine (CM) is guided by unique philosophical underpinnings and theories. There are differences in how the heart is conceptualised traditionally in CM compared to biomedicine. This paper focusses on how hypercholesterolemia is understood from within the Chinese medical paradigm, including its aetiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. A brief overview of the key characteristics and theories of CM is given to provide context. Modern science has demonstrated that many Chinese herbs have cholesterol-lowering properties. Examples of research into individual herbs and medicinal formulae, combinations of herbs are presented. At a more sophisticated level, some researchers are challenging some of the very assumptions upon which CM is based, including applicability of CM theory to modern clinical entities such as hypercholesterolemia, and are seeking intersections of knowledge between CM and biomedicine that may extend CM theory.
O'Brien, Kylie A.
Factors influencing women who seek folk healers for care and who use herbal medicine are not well understood. The influence of social capital and cultural factors on utilisation behaviour of three ethnic groups â Kazakhs, Russians and Koreans â in Almaty, Kazakhstan, was investigated. It was postulated that seeing a folk healer was positively associated with the use of herbal
Thomas T. H. Wan; Askar Chukmaitov
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of topical instillation of traditional herbal medicines, herbal extracts, and their components on the elevation of aqueous flare induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in pigmented rabbits.Methods: Transcorneal diffusion of 25 ?g\\/mL of PGE2 was carried out through a glass cylinder placed on the cornea to induce aqueous flare elevation in pigmented rabbits. Traditional herbal medicines,
Yasunori Nagaki; Seiji Hayasaka; Xue-Yun Zhang; Yoriko Hayasaka; Nobuo Nakamura; Katsutoshi Terasawa
Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612.
Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo
The sea urchin is an ancient, common, seafloor-dwelling marine invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Echinodermata. There are multiple species of sea urchin with resources that are widely distributed in China, where they were used in ancient times as Traditional Chinese Medicine for treating a variety of diseases. At present, it is known that the shell, spine and gonad of the sea urchin have many medicinal values determined through modern research. In this paper, we summarized the major chemical constituents and medicinal value of the sea urchin. PMID:24873818
Shang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Jian-Peng; Gao, Yun; Jiao, Bing-Hua; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiao-Ling
Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM.
A literature survey was conducted on herbs, their preparations and ingredients with reported liver protection activities, in which a total of 274 different species and hundreds of active ingredients have been examined. These ingredients can be roughly classified into two categories according to their activities: (1) the main ingredients, such as silybin, osthole, coumarin, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin A, schisandrin A, flavonoids; and (2) supporting substances, such as sugars, amino acids, resins, tannins and volatile oil. Among them, some active ingredients have hepatoprotective activities (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulating and liver cirrhosis-regulating effects). Calculation of physicochemical parameters indicates that the main ingredients with negative and positive Elumo values possibly display their hepatoprotective effects through different mechanisms, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. As the combination of herbs may achieve some treatment effects synergistically and/or additively, it is common in Chinese medicine to use mixtures of various medicinal herbs with pharmacologically active compounds to have synergistic and/or additive effects, or to reduce harmful effects of some pharmacologically active compounds. In particular, the active compounds with Clog P around 2 are suitable for passive transport across membranes and accessible to the target sites. Thus, Elumo and Clog P values are good indicators among the calculated parameters. Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, ?, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf) and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating) are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs.
Wang, Rubin; Kong, John; Wang, Dali; Lien, Linda Lin-min; Lien, Eric Jung-chi
Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components have not been fully elucidated or easily monitored. Bioactive, characteristic, main, synergistic, correlative, toxic and general components may be selected. This article reviews the effective use of chemical markers in the quality control of herbal medicines including the selection criteria considering the roles and physicochemical factors which may affect the effective use of chemical markers.
Li, Songlin; Han, Quanbin; Qiao, Chunfeng; Song, Jingzheng; Lung Cheng, Chuen; Xu, Hongxi
Herein, we test the hypothesis that a member of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction cannot be replaced by another herb. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is being used as an example for illustration: this is a traditional decoction containing Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS) in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. Rhizoma Chuanxiong (RC) and RAS are two chemically very similar herbs but with a distinct function. Following the preparation method of DBT, a herbal decoction, namely Chuanxiong Buxue Tang (CBT), was created, which contained RA and RC in a weight ratio of 5 to 1. The two decoctions, DBT and CBT, were compared in parallel regarding their chemical and biological properties. In all the tested parameters, DBT showed superior properties, both chemically and biologically, to that of CBT. The current results reveal the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoctions that require a well-defined formulation, which is indispensable for its specific composition. PMID:19204892
Li, Winnie Z M; Li, Jun; Bi, Cathy W C; Cheung, Anna W H; Huang, Wen; Duan, Ran; Choi, Roy C Y; Chen, Ivy S Y; Zhao, Kui J; Dong, Tina T X; Duan, Jin A; Tsim, Karl W K
Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.
Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo
In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.
Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo
Herbal medicines in treatment of cancer as complementary and alternative therapy are accepted increasingly with growing scientific evidences of biomedical research and clinical trials. Anticancer drugs discovered from herbal medicines have a long history and some of them have been used in clinical setting as the conventional anticancer drugs. Actually, herbal medicines are a source for anticancer drug discovery and drug development. Recently, research continuously focuses on clues from traditional use of herbal medicines to develop new anticancer drugs in single pure compounds. On the other hand, standardized various extracts or fractions with anticancer effects or with adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment coming from single or mixed herbs are also accepted forms as dietary supplements and botanical drug products in the US for current statutory regulations. In the present paper, we analyzed the patented agents in the US from herbal medicines in recent ten years, both as potential anticancer extracts/fractions (containing multi-components) and single pure compound(s) that act as new anticancer substances. This review also highlighted the advances in knowledge about quality control, safety, efficacy and recent progress in anticancer candidates in patents of botanical drug products from herbal medicines. PMID:21114469
Feng, Yibin; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Meifen; Feng, Yigang; Li, Hongyun; Tsao, Saiwah
Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in cancer in China. Case series report a series of cases exposed to a certain intervention. To understand the current situation of case series of TCM for cancer, we performed this review. We included case series of cancer patients treated with TCM therapy. Electronic searches were conducted in four main Chinese databases until February 2011. A total of 1,217 reports of case series (92,945 patients) were included. The top five types of cancer were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, leukemia, and esophageal cancer. Leukopenia and hiccup treated by TCM were the most common adverse reactions after surgery or induced by chemo/radiotherapy. More than half of the patients were treated with TCM therapies alone. The application of herbal medicines especially formula based on syndrome differentiation was highly prevalent, and the typical administration route was oral usage. 1,182 reports were published in a structured format. The quantity of TCM case series for cancer treatment is substantial. Further studies should focus on the most common types of cancer and the most frequently applied TCM therapies. We presented a recommendation from the methodological point of view for the format of reporting.
Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xun; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia; Song, Xue; Chen, Jizhong; Guo, Yu; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Shana; Zhang, Zhiqi; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Liu, Jianping
A look at the available clinical evidence of herbal preparations from hawthorn (leaves, flowers, fruits), Padma 28 (Swiss-Tibetan\\u000a herbal preparation with 20 herbal drugs) and ginkgo (leaves) in terms of circulatory disorders shows the following: in chronic\\u000a heart failure New York Heart Association (NYHA) II a meta-analysis showed that hydroethanolic extracts from hawthorn leaves\\u000a and flowers, given at a daily
Jörg Melzer; Reinhard Saller
The curative effects of traditional Chinese medicines are principally based on the synergic effect of their multi-targeting, multi-ingredient preparations, in contrast to modern pharmacology and drug development that often focus on a single chemical entity. Therefore, the method employing a few markers or pharmacologically active constituents to assess the quality and authenticity of the complex preparations has a number of severe challenges. Metabonomics can provide an effective platform for complex sample analysis. It is also reported to be applied to the quality analysis of the traditional Chinese medicine. Metabonomics enables comprehensive assessment of complex traditional Chinese medicines or herbal remedies and sample classification of diverse biological statuses, origins, or qualities in samples, by means of chemometrics. Identification, processing, and pharmaceutical preparation are the main procedures in the large-scale production of Chinese medicinal preparations. Through complete scans, plants metabonomics addresses some of the shortfalls of single analyses and presents a considerable potential to become a sharp tool for traditional Chinese medicine quality assessment. PMID:23807813
Ning, Zhangchi; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhao, Siyu; Liu, Baoqin; Xu, Xuegong; Liu, Yuanyan
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder and the etiology is not well understood. Currently there is no cure for IBS and no existing medication induces symptom relief in all patients. IBS-20 is a 20-herb Chinese medicinal formula that offers beneficial effects in patients with IBS; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study showed that IBS-20 potently inhibited LPS- or IFN?-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as classically activated macrophage marker nitric oxide synthase 2. Similarly, IBS-20 or the component herb Coptis chinensis decreased LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from JAWS II dendritic cells. IBS-20 or the component herbs also blocked or attenuated the IFN?-induced drop in transepithelial electric resistance, an index of permeability, in fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the up-regulation of key inflammatory cytokines in inflamed colon from TNBS-treated mice was suppressed significantly by orally administrated IBS-20, including IFN? and IL-12p40. These data indicate that the anti-inflammatory activities of IBS-20 may contribute to the beneficial effects of the herbal extract in patients with IBS, providing a potential mechanism of action for IBS-20. In addition, IBS-20 may be a potential therapeutic agent against other Th1-dominant gut pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease.
Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Ip, Siu Po; Che, Chun-Tao; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Wu, Justin C.; Sung, Joseph J.; Berman, Brian; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping
Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been used in cancer therapy. The JIN formula is an ancient herbal formula recorded in the classic TCM book Jin Kui Yao Lue (Golden Chamber). The JIN formula significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous human H460 xenografted tumors in vivo compared with the growth of mock controls. Gene array analysis of signal transduction in cancer showed that the JIN formula acted on multiple targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways. The coformula treatment of JIN and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) affected the stress/heat shock pathway. Proteomic analysis showed 36 and 84 differentially expressed proteins between the mock and DDP groups and between the mock and JIN groups, respectively. GoMiner analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins between the JIN and mock groups were enriched during cellular metabolic processes, and so forth. The ones between the DDP and mock groups were enriched during protein-DNA complex assembly, and so forth. Most downregulated proteins in the JIN group were heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP90AA1 and HSPA1B, which could be used as markers to monitor responses to the JIN formula therapy. The mechanism of action of the JIN formula on HSP proteins warrants further investigation.
Zheng, Luyu; Zhang, Weiyi; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Huarong; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Yang; Chen, Meijuan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Mingyan; Cheng, Ge; Duan, Jinao; Yu, Wei; Lin, Biaoyang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu
The increased use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) worldwide has raised the concern of herb-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and utilization patterns of concurrent use of conventional drugs and CHPs in Taiwan. The usage and frequency of services in the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug were evaluated. Subjects were recruited from a simple random sample of 1,000,000 subjects from over 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in 2007. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug (CH + D) and a conventional drug alone (D-alone). The prevalence of the CH + D was 14.1%. Females, regular salary earners, and elderly (65 years and above) were more likely to consume a CHP and a conventional drug concurrently. Painkillers, especially acetaminophen, and anti-cough medicines were the top two conventional drugs that were most frequently co-prescribed with a CHP. Anti-cough medication is the most common conventional drug co-prescribed with CHP, after painkillers. We recommend that safety issues be investigated in future research and integrating both healthcare technologies may be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of patients. PMID:24716186
Chen, Ming-Chen; Lai, Jung-Nien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder and the etiology is not well understood. Currently there is no cure for IBS and no existing medication induces symptom relief in all patients. IBS-20 is a 20-herb Chinese medicinal formula that offers beneficial effects in patients with IBS; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study showed that IBS-20 potently inhibited LPS- or IFN?-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as classically activated macrophage marker nitric oxide synthase 2. Similarly, IBS-20 or the component herb Coptis chinensis decreased LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from JAWS II dendritic cells. IBS-20 or the component herbs also blocked or attenuated the IFN?-induced drop in transepithelial electric resistance, an index of permeability, in fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the up-regulation of key inflammatory cytokines in inflamed colon from TNBS-treated mice was suppressed significantly by orally administrated IBS-20, including IFN? and IL-12p40. These data indicate that the anti-inflammatory activities of IBS-20 may contribute to the beneficial effects of the herbal extract in patients with IBS, providing a potential mechanism of action for IBS-20. In addition, IBS-20 may be a potential therapeutic agent against other Th1-dominant gut pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:22461841
Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Ip, Siu Po; Che, Chun-Tao; Fong, Harry H S; Lao, Lixing; Wu, Justin C; Sung, Joseph J; Berman, Brian; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping
A prospective multicenter clinical trial was conducted to compare the beneficial effects of a Chinese herbal medicine formula Jiangzhuoqinggan (JZQG) and western antihypertension drug irbesartan. JZQG is mainly composed of rhubarb, coptis, cassia, and uncaria. A total of 240 patients with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled in the trial. Patients were assigned into two groups after screening: JZQG group and the irbesartan group. After four weeks of treatment, we compared the changes in routine blood pressure, 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, and waist circumference. There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in the JZQG group (both p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the two treatment groups. From the 24 h ambulatory blood pressure measurement, the JZQG group showed a greater reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (in both daytime and nighttime) than the irbesartan group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in waist circumference in the JZQG group (1.51 cm reduction; P < 0.05) but not the irbesartan group (0.42 cm). Thus, the JZQG formula may have therapeutic value in patients with both hypertension and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23336505
Tong, Xiao-Lin; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhou, Qiang; Xu, Li-Peng; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Gui-Cheng; Hu, Yuan-Hui; Zhao, Lin-Hua; Xia, Le; Wang, Jia; Chen, Xin-Yan; Chan, Man-Hon; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Gao, Wen; Zhen, Zhong; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Chang, Bai
The increased use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) worldwide has raised the concern of herb–drug interactions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and utilization patterns of concurrent use of conventional drugs and CHPs in Taiwan. The usage and frequency of services in the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug were evaluated. Subjects were recruited from a simple random sample of 1,000,000 subjects from over 22 million beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance in 2007. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the co-prescription of a CHP and a conventional drug (CH + D) and a conventional drug alone (D-alone). The prevalence of the CH + D was 14.1%. Females, regular salary earners, and elderly (65 years and above) were more likely to consume a CHP and a conventional drug concurrently. Painkillers, especially acetaminophen, and anti-cough medicines were the top two conventional drugs that were most frequently co-prescribed with a CHP. Anti-cough medication is the most common conventional drug co-prescribed with CHP, after painkillers. We recommend that safety issues be investigated in future research and integrating both healthcare technologies may be beneficial for the overall health and quality of life of patients.
Chen, Ming-Chen; Lai, Jung-Nien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der
\\u000a The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually attributed to its up- or downregulation of immune\\u000a responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a central role in the initiation and\\u000a regulation of immune responses. A number of TCM herbal medicines or their components have in vitro and in vivo activity in promoting major functions of
This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485
Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard
Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not.
Traditional medicine has made use of many different plant extracts for treatment of fungal infections and some of these have been tested for in vitro antifungal activity. This systematic review evaluates antifungal herbal preparations that have been tested in controlled clinical trials. Four electronic databases were searched for controlled clinical trials of antifungal herbal medicines. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent reviewers and are reviewed narratively. Seven clinical trials met our inclusion criteria. Tea tree oil preparations were tested in four randomized clinical trials and some positive outcomes were attributed to the intervention in all trials. Solanum species (two trials) and oil of bitter orange preparations (one trial) were compared with conventional treatments. In all cases encouraging results were reported. There are few controlled clinical trials of herbal antifungal medicines. The most thoroughly clinically tested is tea tree oil, which holds some promise. All herbal remedies require further investigation in rigorous clinical trials. PMID:15078424
Martin, Karen W; Ernst, E
BACKGROUND: Use of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important category of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has increased substantially in Western countries during the past decade. Use of TCM is also widespread in the Chinese population. However, few informative data have been obtained to date by large-scale investigations of TCM use in the Chinese population. This study was aimed at
Fang-Pey Chen; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Yen-Ying Kung; Yu-Chun Chen; Li-Fang Chou; Fan-Jou Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang
Herbal medicine (HM) as an adjunct therapy has been shown to be promising for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of herbs in COPD remains largely unexplored. In this present study, we conducted the systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of herbs in COPD. 176 clinical studies with reporting pulmonary function were retrieved from English and Chinese database. Commonly used herbs for acute exacerbations stage (AECOPD) and stable COPD stage (SCOPD) were identified. A meta-analysis conducted from 15 high quality studies (18 publications) showed that HM as an adjunct therapy had no significant improvement in pulmonary function (FEV1, FEV%, FVC, and FEV1/FVC) compared to conventional medicine. The efficacy of the adjunct HM on improving the arterial blood gas (PaCO2 and PaO2) for AECOPD and SCOPD remains inconclusive due to the heterogeneity among the studies. However, HM as an adjunct therapy improved clinical symptoms and quality of life (total score, activity score, and impact score of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Studies with large-scale and double-blind randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the role of the adjunct HM in the management of COPD.
Chen, Hai Yong; Ma, Chun Ho; Cao, Ke-Jian; Chung-Man Ho, James; Ziea, Eric; Wong, Vivian Taam; Zhang, Zhang-Jin
Obstructive jaundice (OJ) is classified as extrahepatic OJ or intrahepatic OJ. Extrahepatic OJ is attributed to a variety of intricate etiological factors. Research has begun with Chinese medicine (CM), which can be used as an adjunctive therapy for extrahepatic OJ. Particular attention has been paid to the therapeutic effects and their mechanisms of single CM herb and relevant extracts. The roles of single CM or their extracts during adjunctive therapy for extrahepatic OJ have been described briefly. This review focuses on the effects and their mechanisms of relevant herbal medicines. PMID:24474675
Zhang, Xi-Ping; Qiu, Feng-Mei; Wang, Xia
In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect ? cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines.
Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping
In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 25 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect beta cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696
Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping
Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart), typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology. PMID:21941592
Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Kim, Chungmi; Lee, Junhee; Lixing, Lao
Background and purpose: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely practised and is viewed as an attractive alternative to conventional medicine. Quantitative information about TCM prescriptions, constituent herbs and herbal ingredients is necessary for studying and exploring TCM. Experimental approach: We manually collected information on TCM in books and other printed sources in Medline. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Database TCM-ID, at http://tcm.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/tcm-id/tcmid.asp, was introduced for providing comprehensive information about all aspects of TCM including prescriptions, constituent herbs, herbal ingredients, molecular structure and functional properties of active ingredients, therapeutic and side effects, clinical indication and application and related matters. Results: TCM-ID currently contains information for 1,588 prescriptions, 1,313 herbs, 5,669 herbal ingredients, and the 3D structure of 3,725 herbal ingredients. The value of the data in TCM-ID was illustrated by using some of the data for an in-silico study of molecular mechanism of the therapeutic effects of herbal ingredients and for developing a computer program to validate TCM multi-herb preparations. Conclusions and Implications: The development of systems biology has led to a new design principle for therapeutic intervention strategy, the concept of ‘magic shrapnel' (rather than the ‘magic bullet'), involving many drugs against multiple targets, administered in a single treatment. TCM offers an extensive source of examples of this concept in which several active ingredients in one prescription are aimed at numerous targets and work together to provide therapeutic benefit. The database and its mining applications described here represent early efforts toward exploring TCM for new theories in drug discovery.
Chen, X; Zhou, H; Liu, Y B; Wang, J F; Li, H; Ung, C Y; Han, L Y; Cao, Z W; Chen, Y Z
Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis after a slimming regimen containing aristolochic acid has been identified as Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHNP). From 1995 to 1998, we observed 12 Chinese people from different areas of Taiwan who underwent renal biopsy for unexplained renal failure. Medical history gave no clue to the causes of impaired renal function except for the ingestion of traditional
Chwei-Shiun Yang; Ching-Hao Lin; Shu-Horng Chang
Elemental profiles of the total analyte content of major, minor and trace el- ements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Ba and B) in 8 herbal drugs, originating from medicinal plants of the family Lamiacae, were determined. Flame atomic ab- sorption\\/emission spectroscopy (FAAS\\/FAES), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) were applied,
LATINKA SLAVKOVI; ALEKSANDAR POPOVI
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed.
The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs.
Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Background. »Lost illusions« about conventional medicine, together with the orientation towards the »natural« way of life, lead into ever increasing use of alternative or com- plementary ways of treatment. Herbal medicines are entering into psychiatric practice with the intention of treatment (mostly self-treatment) psychiatric symptoms. Side effects may include changes of mood, thinking processes or behaviour, and inter- actions with
Blanka Kores-Plesni?ar; Barbara Razinger-Mihovec
Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims. PMID:22955367
Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmaceutical and microbial qualities of 21 different (of various dosage forms) Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPs) sourced from some traditional medicine sales outlets and retail pharmacy outlets in south western Nigeria. Method: The pharmaceutical qualities evaluated include tablet crushing strength, friability, disintegration time; density of the solutions and suspensions; particle
Adenike Okunlola; Babatunde A. Adewoyin
As adulterated and substituted Chinese medicinal materials are common in the market, therapeutic effectiveness of such materials cannot be guaranteed. Identification at species-, strain- and locality-levels, therefore, is required for quality assurance/control of Chinese medicine. This review provides an informative introduction to DNA methods for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials. Technical features and examples of the methods based on sequencing, hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are described and their suitability for different identification objectives is discussed.
Yip, Pui Ying; Chau, Chi Fai; Mak, Chun Yin; Kwan, Hoi Shan
The resource authentication is required for quality assurance and control of Chinese medicine. This review provides an informative introduction to molecular methods used for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials. The technical features of the methods based on sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization are described, merits and demerits and development of the molecular methods in identification of Chinese medicinal materials are discussed. PMID:21585017
Wang, Chuanyi; Guo, Baolin; Xiao, Peigen
This paper reviewed the emergence process of the subject and methodology of Chinese Medicines' Authentication. Based on the research progress and major achievements acquired in research of each methodology including identification of origin, description, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Chinese medicines, it is expounded that the development process of each methodology combined modem digital technology, information science and its own characteristics. And the development direction is further described for methodology of Chinese Medicines' Authentication towards systematization and informationization. PMID:25011254
Chen, Ke-Li; Huang, Lin-Fang; Liu, Yi-Mei
Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety. PMID:18422382
Routledge, Philip A
We wished to determine the short-term safety and efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb preparation in treating symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in a University-affiliated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic at a public general hospital. Thirty adults with symptomatic HIV infection, no previous AIDS-defining diagnosis, and CD4+ counts of 0.200-0.499 x 10(9)/L (200-499/mm3) received 28 tablets each day of either a standardized oral preparation of 31 Chinese herbs or a cellulose placebo. Primary outcome measures were changes in life satisfaction, perceived health, and number and severity of symptoms. Other outcomes included adherence, and changes in weight, CD4+ count, depression, anxiety, physical and social function, and mental health. Two placebo- and no herb-treated subjects had mild adverse events (AE). Subjects on both arms reported taking 94% of prescribed tablets. No differences between treatment groups reached the p < 0.05 level. Life satisfaction improved in herb-treated [+0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.29, +1.43] but not in placebo-treated subjects (+0.20, 95% CI -0.35, + 0.75). Number of symptoms was reduced in subjects receiving herbs (-2.2, 95% CI -4.1, -0.3) but not in those receiving placebo (-0.3, 95% CI -3.2, +2.7). There were trends toward greater improvements among herb-treated subjects on all symptom subscales except dermatologic. Believing that one was receiving herbs was strongly associated with reporting that the treatment had helped (p < 0.005), but not with changes in life satisfaction or symptoms. There were improvements in life satisfaction and symptoms among subjects receiving the herbal therapy. Whether Chinese herbs are effective in the management of symptomatic HIV infection can be adequately addressed only by larger trials of longer duration. PMID:8673548
Burack, J H; Cohen, M R; Hahn, J A; Abrams, D I
Summary Herbal medicinal products have to meet comparable standards concerning the assessment of efficacy, safety and (bio)pharmaceutical\\u000a quality as chemically defined synthetic drugs. However, these requirements are not fulfilled for many herbal products so far,\\u000a particularly regarding in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The necessity of in vivo studies for a biopharmaceutical characterisation of the products depends on the solubility\\/permeability
H. H. Blume; B. S. Schug
Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM) has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug.
Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Niu, Xuyan; Guo, Hongtao; Li, Li; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lin, Na; Lu, Aiping
Cancer-related cachexia, a condition in which the body is consumed by deranged carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism that is induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cachexia is associated with poor treatment outcome, fatigue and poor quality of life. Pharmacological intervention in the treatment and/or prevention of cachexia has been mainly aimed at the use of appetite enhancers to increase oral nutritional intake so far. Herbal remedies are part of traditional and folk healing methods with long histories of use. In this report, we have assessed which herbal approaches have had associated cancer cachexia case reports. Commonly used herbal medicines in western countries include essiac, iscador, pau d'arco tea, cannabinoids and so on. Some Kampo herbs and formulations are commonly used by cancer patients reduce the side effects and complications during the antitumor therapy. The relevant herbal medicines include ginseng, C. rhizome and radix astragali, and the related herbal remedies, such as TJ-48, TJ-41, PHY906 and Rikkunshito. However, there still have some adverse effects caused or amplified by herb and drug interactions that are difficult to separate. However, randomized effectiveness of herbal medicines shall be further identified in controlled clinical trials involving cancer patients with cachexia. PMID:22632862
Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Juei-Tang
Background Infertility is a public health problem associated with devastating psychosocial consequences. In countries where infertility care is difficult to access, women turn to herbal medicines to achieve parenthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use by women attending the infertility clinic. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 260 women attending the infertility clinic at Mulago hospital. The interviewer administered questionnaire comprised socio-demographic characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on herbal medicine use. The main outcome measure was herbal medicines use for infertility treatment. Determinants of herbal medicine use were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results The majority (76.2%) of respondents had used herbal medicines for infertility treatment. The mean age of the participants was 28.3 years?±?5.5. Over 80% were married, 59.6% had secondary infertility and 2/3 of the married participants were in monogamous unions. In a multivariable model, the variables that were independently associated with increased use of herbal medicine among infertile patients were being married (OR 2.55, CI 1.24-5.24), never conceived (OR 4.08 CI 1.86-8.96) and infertility for less than 3 years (OR 3.52 CI 1.51-8.821). Factors that were associated with less use of herbal medicine among infertile women were being aged 30 years or less (OR 0.18 CI 0.07-0.46), primary and no education (OR 0.12 CI 0.05-0.46) and living with partner for less than three years (OR 0.39 CI 0.16-0.93). Conclusions The prevalence of herbal medicine use among women attending the infertility clinic was 76.2%. Herbal medicine use was associated with the participants’ age, level of education, marital status, infertility duration, nulliparity, and duration of marriage. Medical care was often delayed and the majority of the participants did not disclose use of herbal medicines to the attending physician. Health professionals should enquire about use of herbal medicines. This may help in educating the patients about the health risks of using herbal medicine and may reduce delays in seeking appropriate care. Collaboration of health professionals with herbal medicine practitioners would help identify the common herbal medicines used for infertility treatment, their potential benefits and harm.
Two trials were conducted to study the effects of two Chinese herbal polysaccharides (achyran- than (ACH), a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide, and astragalan (APS), a high-molecular-weight polysaccaride) on the immunity and growth performance of young broil- ers. Trial 1 was a 28-d growth assay, in which 7-d-old broilers (n = 240) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments, with eight
H. L. Chen; D. F. Li; B. Y. Chang; L. M. Gong; J. G. Dai; G. F. Yi
Abstract Background Reconciling medication use and performing drug utilization review on admission of a patient into hospice care are essential in order to safely prescribe medications and to prevent possible adverse drug events and drug–drug interactions. As part of this process, fully assessing herbal medicine and supplement use in hospice patients is crucial, as patients in hospice may be likely to use these medications and may be more vulnerable to their potential adverse effects. Objective Our purpose was to identify herbals, vitamins, and supplements that should be routinely assessed on every hospice admission because of their higher likelihood of use or higher risk of adverse effects or drug interactions. Methods Experts in the fields of palliative medicine, pharmacy, and alternative medicine were asked to complete a Web-based survey on 37 herbals, vitamins, supplements, and natural products, rating likelihood of use, potential for harm, and recommendation to include it on the final list on a scale of 1 to 5 (least to most likely to agree). Results Twenty experts participated in the survey. Using a cutoff of 3.75 for inclusion of a medication on the final list, 12 herbal medicines were identified that should be routinely and specifically assessed on hospice admission. Conclusions Although assessing all herbal medicine use is ideal, thorough detection of herbals may be challenging. The list of herbals and supplements identified by this survey could be a useful tool for medication reconciliation in hospice and could aid in identifying potentially harmful medication use at the end of life.
Kaiser, Karen; Jackson, Steve; McPherson, Mary Lynn
Background While corticosteroids and ?-2 agonists are effective in managing asthma symptoms, a curative therapy for asthma is lacking. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. Objective This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Methods We first reviewed five clinical studies of “anti-asthma” TCM herbal remedies published between 2005–2007. We then summarized possible mechanisms underlying their effects based on data in the original articles, published abstracts, and available data bases. Possible mechanisms include anti-inflammation, inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction, and immunomodulation. Research on TCM herbal therapy for food allergy is rare, and we therefore focused on the effect and mechanism of action of Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) on a murine model of peanut allergy and preliminary clinical study results. Conclusion Evidence from clinical studies supports beneficial effects of TCM herbal therapy on asthma. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for efficacy of these agents. Strong preclinical study data suggest potential efficacy of FAHF-2 for food allergy.
Li, Xiu-Min; Brown, Laverne
Background It was reported that 64% of tic disorder patients used complementary and alternative medicine. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicines in treating tic disorders. Methods We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and CINAHL from their respective inceptions up to September 2013. The search terms were related to the concept of “herbal medicine” AND “tic disorder OR Tourette’s syndrome”. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of herbal medicines. We assessed the methodological quality of the trials according to the Cochrane risk of bias criteria. Results Sixty one studies were identified, and four RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Two types of herbal medicines, Qufeng Zhidong Recipe (QZR) decoction and Ningdong (ND) granules, were used in the included RCTs. All four RCTs had a high risk of bias. Two RCTs tested the effects of QZR on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score and response rate compared with conventional medicine. The meta-analysis showed significant effects of QZR on the YGTSS score with high statistical heterogeneity (n?=?142; weighted mean difference: ?18.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?23.07 to ?13.60; I2?=?97%) and the response rate (n?=?142; risk ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.39 to 2.06; I2?=?0%). One RCT compared ND granules with placebo and showed significant effects on the YGTSS score and response rate. The other RCT show significant effects of ND granules plus conventional medicine on the response rate compared with conventional medicine only. Conclusion This systematic review provided first piece of limited meta-analytic evidence for the effectiveness of herbal medicines in improving the symptoms of tic disorders.
Sho-saiko-to (SST), a Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal medicine, has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis in Japan, and the immunomodulatory properties of SST are likely to mediate its beneficial effect. In the present study, we examined the effects of SST and its various ingredients on the count and proliferation of T-cell subsets in cultured splenocytes and hepatic mononuclear cells. SST, wogonin-7-O-glucuronoside (a major SST ingredient), and wogonin (an intestinal metabolite of wogonin-7-O-glucuronoside) increased CD4/CD8 ratio via a decrease of CD8+ T-cell counts with no effect on CD4+ T-cell counts. Flow cytometric analyses of viability, proliferation, and cell cycle revealed that wogonin suppressed CD8+ T-cell proliferation without inducing cell death. SST and wogonin administered to mice increased the CD4/CD8 ratio in hepatic mononuclear cells but not in splenocytes. These findings suggest that SST may modulate the CD4/CD8 ratio via the selective inhibition of CD8+ T-cell proliferation by the SST ingredient wogonin-7-O-glucuronoside or its metabolite wogonin. PMID:15659321
Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takeda, Shuichi; Aburada, Masaki; Ishige, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Inoue, Makoto
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of traditional Oriental herbal medicines (TOHM) for children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods. Randomized clinical trials published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2010, in English, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean language which evaluated the use of TOHM on ADHD subjects of 18 years old or below, diagnosed based on DSM-IV, were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Cochrane Library, and 10 other databases. Results. Twelve studies involving 1189 subjects met the inclusion criteria. In general, the included studies claimed that TOHM has similar efficacy to methylphenidate and at the same time has fewer side effects compared to methylphenidate. Some studies also suggested that the effect of TOHM sustained better than methylphenidate. However, solid conclusions could not be drawn because the included studies were not of high quality. Risk of bias issues such as randomization, allocation, concealment and blinding were not addressed in most of the studies, and the risk of publication bias could not be ruled out. Conclusion. Currently, there is not strong evidence to say that TOHM is effective in treating the core symptoms of ADHD.
Wong, Yuk Wo; Kim, Deog-gon; Lee, Jin-yong
The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex whose activity is required for the growth of normal or tumor cells. It has been shown that human cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition than normal cells, indicating that the proteasome could be a target of chemotherapy. Studies suggest that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an effective approach for cancer treatment. Here we reviewed several TCMs for their potential in treatment of cancer. This short review focuses mainly on the TCMs that potentially target the tumor cellular proteasome and NF-?B pathway whose activation is dependent on the proteasome activity.
Yang, Huanjie; Liu, Jinbao; Dou, Q. Ping
Chinese herbal medicines are often referred to as Chinese materia medica (CMM). Composite formulae containing mixtures of CMM are prescribed for treatment and prevention of diseases in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Some of the well-known CMM formulae (Fufang in Chinese) are manufactured and marketed as proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM). Quality assessment and assurance of these products are difficult; they are a challenging task. Mid-infrared spectroscopy, a classic molecular structure analysis method, has been innovatively applied in the quality control of TCM, and has gained significant impact and advancement in analytical fields. Infrared fingerprinting features appear particularly suitable for the identification of multicomponent matrices in samples whose chemical integrity has not been altered or destroyed because no extraction procedure is needed. This review summarizes and gives an overall view on the application of mid-infrared and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy as well as chemometric techniques in the identification of CMM, investigation of TCM processing procedures, and analysis of herb extracts and preparations. PMID:21049394
Sun, Suqin; Chen, Jianbo; Zhou, Qun; Lu, Guanghua; Chan, Kelvin
Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547
May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L
Many institutionalized patients and their healthcare providers are dissatisfied with current laxative therapy. This study compared therapeutic efficacy, safety, and laxative cost of an herbal formula (CCH1) and lactulose for long stay patients with constipation. In this double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 93 residents with chronic constipation from two long-term care facilities in Taiwan to receive either CCH1 with lactulose placebo or CCH1 placebo with lactulose for 8 weeks, then followed up for 4 weeks without study medication. Both treatments were effective and well tolerated for patients, but CCH1 produced more spontaneous bowel movements, less rectal treatments, less amount of rescue laxative, and lower laxative cost than lactulose during treatment. No significant differences were found in stool consistency, stool amount, global assessment, and safety concerns. In conclusion, our results suggest that CCH1 may have better efficacy and could be used as an alternative option to lactulose in the treatment of constipation in long-term care.
Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lin, Jui-Shan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lee, Shih-Chang; Wang, Hsiu Po; Lue, Hung-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang
Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm.
Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth
Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as ‘Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.’ By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.
Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as 'Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.' By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed. PMID:15480438
Yi, Yeong-Deug; Chang, Il-Moo
Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of herbal medicines; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pre-tested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 79 potentially relevant reviews pre-selected in the screening process 58 met the inclusion criteria. Thirty of the reports reviewed ginkgo (for dementia, intermittent claudication, tinnitus, and macular degeneration), hypericum (for depression) or garlic preparations (for cardiovascular risk factors and lower limb atherosclerosis). The quality of primary studies was criticized in the majority of the reviews. Most reviews judged the available evidence as promising but definitive conclusions were rarely possible. Conclusions Systematic reviews are available on a broad range of herbal preparations prescribed for defined conditions. There is very little evidence on the effectiveness of herbalism as practised by specialist herbalists who combine herbs and use unconventional diagnosis.
Linde, Klaus; ter Riet, Gerben; Hondras, Maria; Vickers, Andrew; Saller, Reinhard; Melchart, Dieter
1. The use of herbal products to treat a wide range of conditions is rising rapidly, leading to increased intake of phytochemicals. Recent studies revealed potentially fatal interactions between herbal remedies and traditional drugs. 2. In transplant patients, self-medication with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has led to a drop in plasma levels of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine, causing tissue rejection. 3. Intake of St John's wort increases the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein and the expression of CYP3A4 in the liver and intestine. The combined up-regulation in intestinal P-glycoprotein and hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4 impairs the absorption and stimulates the metabolism of cyclosporine, leading to subtherapeutic plasma levels. The St John's wort component, hyperforin, contributes to the induction of CYP3A4. 4. St John's wort also enhances the metabolism of other CYP3A4 substrates including the protease inhibitors indinavir and nevirapine, oral contraceptives, and tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. 5. Other herbal remedies with the potential to modulate cytochrome P450 activity and thus participate in interactions with conventional drugs include Milk thistle, Angelica dahurica, ginseng, garlic preparations, Danshen and liquorice. 6. Herbal products are currently not subject to the rigorous testing indispensable for conventional drugs. However, if potential drug interactions are to be predicted, it is essential that the ability of herbal products to interfere with drug-metabolizing enzyme systems is fully established. PMID:12160480
Background Between 7% and 48% of cancer patients report taking herbal medicines after diagnosis. Because of the possibility of unwanted side effects or interactions with conventional treatments, people with cancer are generally advised to tell the professionals treating them if they are taking any form of medication, including herbal medicines and supplements. Studies suggest that only about half do so and that the professionals themselves have at best very limited knowledge and feel unable to give informed advice. This study is intended to inform the future development of information resources for cancer patients, survivors and healthcare professionals including tools for use before or during consultation to make it easier for patients to mention, and for healthcare professionals to ask about, use of herbal medications. Methods/design This is a three-phase study. In phase 1, a systematic review of the literature on self-medication with herbal medicines among UK populations living with cancer will establish the current evidence base on use of herbal medicine, sources of information, characteristics and motivations. This will allow us to better understand what aspects need further investigation and inform the topic guide for a qualitative study (phase 2). Six focus groups of six to eight cancer patients who have used at least one herbal preparation since diagnosis will explore behaviour, beliefs, knowledge, information sources and needs in an informal conversational setting. Informed by the findings of the systematic review and qualitative study, in phase 3 we will construct and pilot a questionnaire for a future large-scale survey to quantify and prioritise people's beliefs, needs and information preferences. Discussion Despite known interactions with conventional cancer treatments and contraindications for some herbal remedies with specific cancers, reliable information resources for patients are very limited. Identifying cancer patients' information needs and preferences is the first step in creating a suitable resource for both the public and the professionals advising them.
Gratus, Christine; Wilson, Sue; Greenfield, Sheila M; Damery, Sarah L; Warmington, Sally A; Grieve, Robert; Steven, Neil M; Routledge, Philip
A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.
Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.
Counterfeit and/or illegally manufactured drugs and herbal medicines are becoming an increasing problem throughout the world. Internet sales simplify distribution and payment of these falsified drugs. Here we report on a Vietnamese herbal medicine, which was advertised for treatment of rheumatic disease from a religious Vietnamese healer. By means of NMR and LC/MS we found 863mg acetaminophen, 262mg sulfamethoxazole, 42mg indomethacin and less than 1% trimethoprim in a sachet of 2.617g powder content, in addition to some cinnamon bark and phosphate. PMID:24793595
Wiest, Johannes; Schollmayer, Curd; Gresser, Gabriele; Holzgrabe, Ulrike
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are transcription factors that control the expression of a broad array of genes involved not only in transcellular transport and biotransformation of many drugs, other xenochemicals, and endogenous substances, such as bile acid, bilirubin, and certain vitamins, but also in various physiological/pathophysiological processes such as lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. Ligands of PXR and CAR are chemicals of diverse structures, including naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines. The overall aim of this article is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the role of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR.
Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027
Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B
This study adopts the concept of the three levels of prevention from traditional Chinese medicine to discuss Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) prevention and nursing. The emphasis in traditional Chinese medicine is on primary and tertiary prevention. The study presents nursing interventions based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including daily care, diets, massage care, exercise, and Chinese psychosocial care. This course of interventions is designed for the consideration of nurses caring for SARS patients and to bolster their ability to fight the disease. PMID:15137183
Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Chouh-Jiaun; Chang, Man-Ling; Lin, Jun-Dai
In Singapore, there has been a growing public interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which plays an important role in the healthcare system. With effect from 1 September 1999, the control on Chinese Proprietary Medicines (CPM) was implemented in three phases over a span of 3 years. Under the CPM regulatory framework, CPM importers, wholesalers, manufacturers and re-packers must be
Shen-Kuan Yee; Swee-Seng Chu; Yi-Min Xu; Peck-Lin Choo
Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.
High blood pressure is among the most prevalent chronic disease in adults that impacts on the quality of life of patients, which are often subjected to physical rehabilitation. Chinese medicine intervention in patients with hypertension presents promising albeit inconclusive results, mostly due to methodological issues. This paper discusses asserted and neglected issues linking evidence-based and Chinese medicines as related to systemic arterial hypertension, as well as their impact on the physical rehabilitation of those patients. On the one hand, natural history of hypertension, pulse palpation, and herbal therapy are among the asserted issues because of the scientific evidence collected about them, either in favor or against its integration to the current medical practice. On the other hand, anatomical variations of vessels and comparative physiology are among the most commonly neglected issues because previous researches on integrative medicine ignored the possible effects of these issues as related to the study’s outcome. The asserted issues highlighted in this paper stimulate the increasing use of Chinese medicine for health care and the continuity of research on integrative medicine in the cardiovascular field for rehabilitation. The neglected issues poses additional challenges that must not be overlooked in future research on this topic so that the integration of both traditional and current knowledge may be of benefit to the population with cardiovascular disease.
Ferreira, Arthur de Sa; de Moura, Nathalia Gomes Ribeiro
Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy.
Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu
The complex chemical composition of herbal medicine leads to the lack of appropriate method for identifying active compounds and optimizing the formulation of herbal medicine. One of the most commonly used method is bioassay-guided fractionation. However, if the herbal medicine was divided into many fractions, it would cost much money and time in carrying out such a full bioassay. So,
Chao Chen; Shu-xian Li; Shu-mei Wang; Sheng-wang Liang
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by the source of these ingredients.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment. It is the most common type of dementia in the ageing population due to a severe loss of cholinergic neurons in selected brain area. At present, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) are the first group of drugs approved by the FDA to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Most of these drugs such as huperzine and galanthamine are originally isolated from plants. In this study, the AChE inhibitory activities from extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs that have traditionally been prescribed to treat insomnia and brain function disorders were examined in a 96-well plate assay based on Ellman's method. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of 26 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were tested. Inhibitory effects were expressed as the percentage of inhibition. For the herbal extracts that were shown to exert a significant inhibition, dose-dependent inhibitory assays were also performed. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of six herbs were found to have high AChE inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner. The IC(50) of these herbal extracts on inhibition of AChE are at around 5-85 microm/ml. The results of this study indicate that there is a great potential to search for novel usage of these medicinal herbs for the treatment of AD. PMID:18573242
Lin, H Q; Ho, Michelle T; Lau, Lesley S; Wong, Kelvin K; Shaw, P C; Wan, David C C
Because it is well known that endothelin (ET) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, antagonists of ET for clinical use are very important. Because ET and some snake toxins have a homologous structure and similar biologic actions the effect of Chinese anti-snake venom herbal medicines on ET bioactivity was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Hong Bei Si Chou [Cissus assamica (Laws.) Craib] is a herbal medicine used to treat snake bite in Guangxi province. It was found that all the different fractions of EtOH extraction, the EtOAc part of the EtOH extraction, and resverotrol (3,4'5-trihydroxytransstilbene) isolated from the EtOAc part could antagonize ET both in vivo and in vitro. These three fractions transiently relaxed ET-contracted isolated rat aortic ring in a dose-dependent manner. They also antagonized the lethal effects of ET-1 in mice and inhibited blood pressure elevation induced by ET-1. The results have shown that it is possible to find ET antagonists in Chinese anti-snake venom medicinal herbs. In the future, our work should shed new light on the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in which ET is involved. PMID:9595451
Yang, L C; Wang, F; Liu, M
Molecular-targeted therapy has been developed for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer cells have different metabolic properties from normal cells. Normal cells mostly rely upon the process of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce energy whereas cancer cells have developed an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates. Cancer cells could predominantly produce energy by glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. This alternative metabolic characteristic is known as the “Warburg Effect.” Although the exact mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect are unclear, recent progress indicates that glycolytic pathway of cancer cells could be a critical target for drug discovery. With a long history in cancer treatment, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is recognized as a valuable source for seeking bioactive anticancer compounds. A great progress has been made to identify active compounds from herbal medicine targeting on glycolysis for cancer treatment. Herein, we provide an overall picture of the current understanding of the molecular targets in the cancer glycolytic pathway and reviewed active compounds from Chinese herbal medicine with the potentials to inhibit the metabolic targets for cancer treatment. Combination of TCM with conventional therapies will provide an attractive strategy for improving clinical outcome in cancer treatment.
Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping; Shen, Jiangang
Hypertension is a major public-health issue. Much consensus has been reached in the treatment, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. However, the standard-reaching rate of blood pressure is far from satisfaction. Considering these data and the seriousness of the effects of hypertension on the individual and society as a whole, both economically and socially, physicians must look for more effective and alternative ways to achieve the target blood pressure. Could treatment of hypertension be improved by insights from traditional Chinese medicine? As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, TCM is regularly advocated for lowering elevated blood pressure. Due to the different understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension between ancient and modern times, new understanding and treatment of hypertension need to be reexplored. Aiming to improve the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating hypertension, the basis of treatment is explored through systematically analyzing the literature available in both English and Chinese search engines. This paper systematically reviews the trends in emerging therapeutic strategies for hypertension from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine.
Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Chu, Fuyong; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie
An accidental case of aconite intoxication occurred after a patient took a therapeutic dose of Kampo herbal medicine containing Aconiti tuber, Uzu but had used the wrong decoction procedure. The poisoning was likely caused by an increased level of Aconitum alkaloids in the decoction; the patient developed aconite intoxication due to incomplete decoction. Aconitum alkaloid levels in the leftover solution
Takiyoshi Ono; Makiko Hayashida; Kyoko Uekusa; Cui Fan Lai; Hideyuki Hayakawa; Makoto Nihira; Youkichi Ohno
Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.
Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)
The world market for natural products such as Herbal, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (HAMP) is expanding rapidly due to their phytomedicinal, neutraceutical and phytocosmetic benefits. Morocco, as a country with a rich biodiversity, can capture a huge demand for its HAMP due to its increasing world demand. However, the survival of the HAMP sector depends primarily on the sustainable development
Ramu Govindasamy; Amal Britel; Anoma Ariyawardana; Mohammed El Mourid; Ibrahim Shaqir
Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance.
Csupor, Dezso; Boros, Klara; Hohmann, Judit
Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of patients had used TCM. Use was greatest for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM; 55.8%). Only 1.3% of patients used acupuncture and 6.8% Qi Gong or Tai Qi. Sixty-three percent of patients notified their oncologist about TCM use. The most common reason for use was to improve immune function. CHM was often used with a goal of treating cancer (66.4%), a use that 57% of physicians agreed with. Physicians were most concerned with interference with treatment, lack of evidence, and safety. Ninety percent of physicians have prescribed herbs and 87.5% have used TCM themselves. Conclusion. The use of TCM by Chinese cancer patients is exceptionally high, and physicians are generally well informed and supportive of patients' use. Botanical agents are much more commonly used than acupuncture or movement-based therapies.
McQuade, Jennifer L.; Meng, ZhiQiang; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Bei, WenYing; Palmer, J. Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo
Background. In China, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very popular, but little is known about how it is integrated with conventional cancer care. We conducted parallel surveys of patients and physicians on TCM utilization. Methods. Two hundred forty-five patients and 72 allopathic physicians at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center completed questions on their use of and attitude towards TCM. Results. Patient mean age was 51, with 60% female. Eighty-three percent of patients had used TCM. Use was greatest for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM; 55.8%). Only 1.3% of patients used acupuncture and 6.8% Qi Gong or Tai Qi. Sixty-three percent of patients notified their oncologist about TCM use. The most common reason for use was to improve immune function. CHM was often used with a goal of treating cancer (66.4%), a use that 57% of physicians agreed with. Physicians were most concerned with interference with treatment, lack of evidence, and safety. Ninety percent of physicians have prescribed herbs and 87.5% have used TCM themselves. Conclusion. The use of TCM by Chinese cancer patients is exceptionally high, and physicians are generally well informed and supportive of patients' use. Botanical agents are much more commonly used than acupuncture or movement-based therapies. PMID:23093982
McQuade, Jennifer L; Meng, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Bei, Wenying; Palmer, J Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo
Chinese medicinal formulae( CMF) were often used in the clinics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which were critical for modernization of Chinese medicine to shed light on the interaction between CMF and biological organisms. In current studies, correlation between system and part, macroscopic actions and microcosmic mechanism, ADME process and pharmacologic actions were often neglected. Thus, we put forward integrative pharmacology, which could integrate the correlation between CMF and biological organisms from multi-levels and multi-dimensional views. Integrative pharmacology would reveal the molecular mechanism of CMF for ailments treatment and screen out effective material systematically, which would be the new paradigm of TCM research. PMID:24946531
Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun
More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design.
Chen, Rui; Moriya, Junji; Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Takashi
Because of potential adverse events and lack of effectiveness of standard therapies, the use of complementary and alternative\\u000a medicines (CAM), particularly of herbal therapies, for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. Results from the use\\u000a of herbal therapies for managing IBD are promising, and no serious adverse events have been reported from them. Herbal therapies\\u000a show their benefit in managing
Roja Rahimi; Shilan Mozaffari; Mohammad Abdollahi
Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines.
Bonifacio, Bruna Vidal; da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Tais Maria; Chorilli, Marlus
Objective: In this study, the current literatures on the use of herbs and herbal preparations of Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicine for the treatment of opioid addiction were reviewed. Matherials and Methods: Search was done in databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and Google Scholar. Results: Among 18 retrieved studies, 3 studies were about asafetida extract, an approved preparation for ameliorating drug abstinence in China. Chinese preparations including Composite Dong Yuan Gao, Qingjunyin and TJ-97 (a water extract of dai-bofu-to) as well as Indian ones, Mentate and Shilajit, were reported to have positive effects against opioid withdrawal, dependence, and tolerance. Moreover, Levo-tetrahydropalmatine and L-Stepholidine, in addition to extracts of Caulis Sinomenii and Sinomenium acutum showed similar effects. Banxia Houpu Decoction, Fu-Yuan pellet, Jinniu capsules, Qingjunyin, Tai-Kang-Ning capsule, and Xuan Xia Qudu Jiaonang (WeiniCom) from Chinese preparations, showed anti-addiction effects in randomized, double-blind and, in some studies, multicenter clinical trials. Conclusion : Traditional herbal preparations of China and India have anti-addiction effects with less adverse effects than alpha2-adrenergic or opioid agonists.
Doosti, Fatemeh; Dashti, Saeedeh; Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
This research is an effort to create an awareness of the potential hazards of some Chinese patent medicines which contain mercurial ingredients. This should be of consideration when screening symptomatic patients who are of Asian ethnic background or other users of these medicines. This research discusses reported cases of mercury poisoning related to the use of Chinese patent medicines and the potential toxicity of cinnabar (red mercuric sulfide) and calomel (mercurous chloride), 2 mercurials commonly used in these medicines. A list of mercurial-containing Chinese patent medicines available on the open market in North America has been compiled, together with their traditional uses and mercurial contents and is presented as a quick reference for Specialists in Poison Information. This class of medicine may not pose a problem when used appropriately; however, its misuse, abuse, overdosage and improper storage can lead to serious mercury poisoning. PMID:1609495
Kang-Yum, E; Oransky, S H
Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:24380323
Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Ethnopharmacological relevance The herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) and its modifications have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about one hundred years to alleviate pain and inflammation. Aim To investigate the effects of HLXL on complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced multiple-joint arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods Male Lewis rats, 190–210g, were immunized subcutaneously at the base of the tail with 200 µl of heat-killed M. tuberculosis in mineral oil (5 mg/ml). HLXL (2.30g/kg and 4.60g/kg) or vehicle control (n=8 per group) was administered orally (i.g.) once a day between days 16–25 post-CFA injection. The rats were observed for signs of arthritis with arthritic changes (erythema, edema, induration) being scored on a scale of 0 to 4 of increasing severity using a standard scoring system. The maximum arthritis score per rat was 16. A plethysmometer was used to measure edema volume in each paw. Adverse effects of HLXL were monitored by closely observing the animals for unusual behavioral changes. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) in local tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 25 post-CFA. Results HLXL significantly decreased arthritis scores between days 23–25 in the 2.30g/kg group and 21–25 in the 4.60g/kg group (p<0.05). It reduced paw edema on days 22 and 24 in the 2.30g/kg group and on days 20, 22 and 24 in the 4.60g/kg group compared to control (p<0.05). Local tissue TNF-? and IL-1? levels on day 25 post-CFA injection were significantly (p<0.05) lower in rats treated with HLXL than in control rats. No observable adverse effects were found. Conclusion The data suggest that HLXL produces significant anti-arthritic effects that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it appears to be safe.
Zhang, Rui-Xin; Fan, Arthur Yin; Zhou, An-Nan; Moudgil, Kamal D.; Ma, Zhong-Ze; Lee, David Yue-Wei; Fong, Harry HS; Berman, Brian M.; Lao, Lixing
A floristic survey of ethnomedicinal plants occurring in the tribal area of Rajasthan was conducted to assess the potentiality of plant resources for modern treatments. The information on medicinal uses of plants is based on the exhaustive interviews with local physicians practising indigenous system of medicine, village headmen, priests and tribal folks. The Aravalli hills of Mewar region of Rajasthan
S. S. Katewa; B. L. Chaudhary; Anita Jain
Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of six herbal medicines (Paeonia lactiflora, Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Poria cocos, Atractylodis macrocephalae and Rhizoma Alismatis), has been used as a classical gynecological remedy in China for centuries. However, its active substances have remained unknown. In this paper, an HPLC\\/DAD\\/ESI-MS\\/MS method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of
Linlin Chen; Jin Qi; Yan-xu Chang; Danni Zhu; Boyang Yu
To administer Chinese medicines against forest encephalitis, preliminary tests of the study showed that 0.1% and 0.5% Rotenone, Veratri nigri Rhizoma, Strychnos, capsicum plus Nicotiana tabacum L., and Artemisiae vulgaris Folia worked satisfactorily. The ...
T. M. Chen
The problems in changing preparation of traditional Chinese medicine were analyzed. We explained what the researcher should pay attention to, such as item of purpose and gist, and clinical trail technology requirement, combined with the current regulations. PMID:23270251
Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdal