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1

Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

2011-01-01

2

Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

2011-01-01

3

Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological

Jun-ling Sun; Yuan-liang Hu; De-yun Wang; Bao-kang Zhang; Jia-guo Liu

2006-01-01

4

Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies  

PubMed Central

Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24716122

Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

2012-01-01

5

Chinese herbal medicine, sibship, and blood lead in children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for increased blood lead concentration (BPb) has been investigated. However, the effect of sibship and Chinese herbal medicine on BPb has not been systematically studied. In this study BPb data from voluntary testing was used to determine if Chinese herbal medicine and sibship were associated with BPb. METHODS: 319 children aged 1-7 were tested for BPb. Meanwhile, parents were interviewed to obtain information including consumption of Chinese herbal medicine, living environment, lifestyle, and sibship of the children tested. RESULTS: The mean (SD) BPb of 319 preschool children was 4.4 (2.4) micrograms/dl. The consumption of Ba-baw-san (a Chinese herbal medicine) was significantly associated with increased BPb in children (p = 0.038). Further multivariate regression analysis of BPb in 50 pairs of siblings showed the factors of being brothers explained 75% of variation for BPb, and being sisters and brother-sister explained 51% and 41% of variation respectively. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine and children's play patterns within the family expressed in different types of sibship are the main determinants of low concentrations of BPb in preschool children of Taiwan.   PMID:9849547

Cheng, T. J.; Wong, R. H.; Lin, Y. P.; Hwang, Y. H.; Horng, J. J.; Wang, J. D.

1998-01-01

6

Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

2010-01-01

7

Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

Cheng, Richard

1984-01-01

8

Treatment of musculoskeletal pain with traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) uses naturally occurring plant, animal, and mineral substances to treat or assist in the treatment of the full spectrum of human disease. With the rise in popularity of alternative or complementary medicine, all physicians will encounter patients using TCHMs. TCHM should be taken under the supervision of a provider whose herbal training and competence is commensurate with the intensity of the herbal regimen and the severity of the clinical condition. TCHM can be valuable in the treatment of all kinds of pain: either as primary or adjunctive therapy depending on the clinical situation. TCHM therapies are prescribed in the framework of a unique diagnostic approach, and are highly specific with regard to type of pain and location of pain. PMID:10516984

Arnold, M D; Thornbrough, L M

1999-08-01

9

Comparative study on adjuvanticity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) and filtrate best prescription and dose, two initial screened cCHMIs were prepared and mixed with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine respectively at three doses to vaccinate 17-day-old chickens, taking the non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant vaccines as controls. On day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after

Deyun Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Junling Sun; Xiangfeng Kong; Baokang Zhang; Jiaguo Liu

2005-01-01

10

Immunologic enhancement of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients and their efficacy comparison with compound Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Two compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCIs) were prepared respectively with epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) plus propolis flavone (PF) and astragalus polysaccharide (APS) plus ginsenoside (GS). Also, two compound Chinese herbal medicines (cCMs) with the same ingredient content as corresponding cCIs were made with the extracts of epimedium plus propolis and astragalus plus ginseng. In rabbit immune trial, two cCIs, physiological saline in the control, were respectively injected to the rabbits vaccinated with inactivated rabbit hemorrhagic disease vaccine. On Days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of serum antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In chicken immune trial, all of cCIs and cCMs were mixed respectively with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine virus to vaccinate chickens, taking oil-adjuvant and non-adjuvant vaccine as controls. On Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers were tested respectively by MTT method and HI test method. The results showed that both cCIs could significantly raise antibody titer in rabbits, which the effect of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 1 (cCIs 1) was better than that of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients 2 (cCIs 2). All of cCIs and cCMs could markedly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance antibody titer in chickens, which was similar to oil adjuvant, the immunologic enhancement of cCIs were slightly superior to that of the cCMs. PMID:16378665

Sun, Jun-Ling; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Wang, De-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Kang; Liu, Jia-Guo

2006-03-20

11

Systematic review of Chinese herbal medicine for functional constipation  

PubMed Central

Constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint in clinical practice, affecting an estimated 27% of the population. Many patients are disappointed by current conventional treatments and, therefore, seek help from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Traditional Chinese medicine, is the most important part of CAM and has been practiced for treating diseases and promoting the health of humans for thousands of years, and has become a popular alternative choice. Although there are many Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions available, and some have been verified by clinical trials, their efficacy and safety are still questioned by both patients and health care providers worldwide. The purposes of this review are, first, to appraise the qualities of individual study designs in the new Cochrane approach. Second, the benefits of individual CHM interventions or individual types of CHM intervention for the treatment of functional constipation are analyzed. Finally, valid and comprehensive conclusions are drawn, if applicable, in order to make clinical recommendations. PMID:19842218

Cheng, Chung-Wah; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Wu, Tai-Xiang

2009-01-01

12

Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science  

PubMed Central

Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

2013-01-01

13

Therapeutic Potential of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Alcoholic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex chronic disease and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis and steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Since effective therapies for ALD are still limited, Chinese herbal medicine is thought to be an important and alternative approach. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence of ALD by ten Chinese Materia Medica (?? zh?ng yào), including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (?? d?n sh?n), Notoginseng Radix (?? s?n q?), Lycii Fructus (??? g?u q? z?), Cnidii Fructus (??? shé chuáng z?), Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n), Puerariae Radix (?? gé g?n), Puerariae Flos (?? gé hu?), Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex (?? hòu pò), Platycodonis Radix (?? jié g?ng), and Trigonellae Semen (??? hú lú b?). Potential mechanisms of these herbal medicines in ALD are involved in amelioration of enhanced inflammation, reduction of hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, and enhancement of intestinal permeability in alcohol-induced liver injury models in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the evidenced therapeutic potential suggests that these herbs are promising candidates for prevention and development of new drugs for ALD in the future. PMID:24716123

Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Sheen, Lee-Yan

2012-01-01

14

A Meta-Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Managed Withdrawal from Heroin  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either ?2-adrenergic agonists or opioid agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad’s scale (1–2 = low; 3–5 = high). Meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effect models in RevMan software; outcome measures assessed were withdrawal-symptoms score, anxiety, and adverse effects of treatment. Twenty-one studies (2,949 participants) were included. For withdrawal-symptoms score relieving during the 10-day observation, Chinese herbal medicine was superior to ?2-adrenergic agonists in relieving opioid-withdrawal symptoms during 4–10 days (except D8) and no difference was found within the first 3 days. Compared with opioid agonists, Chinese herbal medicine was inferior during the first 3 days, but the difference became non-significant during days 4–9. Chinese herbal medicine has better effect on anxiety relieving at late stage of intervention than ?2-adrenergic agonists, and no difference with opioid agonists. The incidence of some adverse effects (fatigue, dizziness) was significantly lower for Chinese herbal medicine than for ?2-adrenergic agonists (sufficient data for comparison with opioid agonists were not available). Findings were robust to file-drawer effects. Our meta-analysis suggests that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safety treatment for heroin detoxification. And more work is needed to determine the specific effects of specific forms of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:18584321

Liu, Ting-ting; Epstein, David H.; Bao, Yan-Ping

2013-01-01

15

Anticancer effects of Chinese herbal medicine, science or myth?*  

PubMed Central

Currently there is considerable interest among oncologists to find anticancer drugs in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). In the past, clinical data showed that some herbs possessed anticancer properties, but western scientists have doubted the scientific validity of CHM due to the lack of scientific evidence from their perspective. Recently there have been encouraging results, from a western perspective, in the cancer research field regarding the anticancer effects of CHM. Experiments showed that CHM played its anticancer role by inducing apoptosis and differentiation, enhancing the immune system, inhibiting angiogenesis, reversing multidrug resistance (MDR), etc. Clinical trials demonstrated that CHM could improve survival, increase tumor response, improve quality of life, or reduce chemotherapy toxicity, although much remained to be determined regarding the objective effects of CHM in human in the context of clinical trials. Interestingly, both laboratory experiments and clinical trials have demonstrated that when combined with chemotherapy, CHM could raise the efficacy level and lower toxic reactions. These facts raised the feasibility of the combination of herbal medicines and chemotherapy, although much remained to be investigated in this area. PMID:17111471

Ruan, Wen-jing; Lai, Mao-de; Zhou, Jian-guang

2006-01-01

16

Survival Benefit of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (A Herbal Formula for Invigorating Spleen) in Gastric Cancer Patients with Peritoneal Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Objective. We evaluated the efficiency of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (a compound herbal formula for invigorating spleen) as a complementary and alternative therapy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. Methods. Between 2001 and 2012, 93 gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis were enrolled in this study. The effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine on their long-term outcome was investigated. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the difference in survival time, and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. Result. First-line palliative chemotherapy plus traditional Chinese herbal medicine was performed in 47 patients and the other 46 patients received chemotherapy alone. The overall survival was different between patients with and without traditional Chinese herbal medicine (12.0 versus 10.5 months; P = 0.046). According to the Cox proportional hazard model, first-line chemotherapy cycle (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.527; 95% CI = 0.323~0.860) and TCHM (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.481~0.992) were selected as independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicine could improve the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. PMID:24723961

Zhao, Ai-Guang; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Ni-Da; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Jin-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua

2014-01-01

17

Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

2010-01-01

18

Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Prehypertension  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the current clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for prehypertension. Search Strategy. Electronic databases were searched until May, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized clinical trials testing CHM against life style intervention and no treatment, or combined with life style intervention against life style intervention. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. Five trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. Only 1 trial reported allocation sequence. No trial reported the allocation concealment, double blinding, placebo control, presample size estimation, intention to treat analysis, and drop-out. All the included trials were not multicenter and large scale. Although meta-analysis showed that CHM is superior to either life style intervention group or no treatment group in decreasing blood pressure, we are unable to draw a definite conclusion on the effect of CHM due to the poor research methods used in the reviewed trials. The safety of CHM is still uncertain. Conclusions. There is no evidence to show that CHM is effective and safe for prehypertension due to serious methodological flaw of the reviewed trials. Rigorously designed trials are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23878599

Wang, Jie; Feng, Bo; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

19

Comparative study on adjuvanticity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients.  

PubMed

In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs) and filtrate best prescription and dose, two initial screened cCHMIs were prepared and mixed with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine respectively at three doses to vaccinate 17-day-old chickens, taking the non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant vaccines as controls. On day 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers in the chickens were determined by means of MTT method and hemagglutination inhibition test. The results showed that two cCHMIs could promote peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer, of which adjuvant activity was similar to and even stronger than oil adjuvant in promoting lymphocyte proliferation at some time points, and there was a certain dose-effect relationship. The best adjuvant activity of cCHMIs 2 in promoting cellular immunity occurred at middle dose, and cCHMIs 1 in enhancing humoral immunity, at high dose. Based on good synergistic effects of their components, two cCHMIs would be expected as new-type immunologic adjuvants to substitute for oil adjuvant. PMID:15882531

Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Sun, Junling; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Baokang; Liu, Jiaguo

2005-05-25

20

Chinese herbal medicine for resistant hypertension: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to summarise the current evidence from randomised control trials (RCTs) concerning treatment of patients with resistant hypertension with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Design Seven databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP, CBM and Wanfang, were systematically searched from their inception to March 2014 for RCTs investigating treatment of resistant hypertension in which CHM was used either as a monotherapy or in combination with conventional medicine versus placebo, no intervention or conventional medicine. Results Five trials containing 446 hypertensive patients were identified. The methodological quality of most trials was evaluated as generally low. All included trials compared CHM plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs alone for resistant hypertension. Formulations of CHM included tablet, decoction and injection. It was found that, compared with antihypertensive drugs alone, CHM (tablet) plus antihypertensive drugs resulted in clinically, but not statistically, significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP; weighted mean difference (WMD)=?10.32?mm?Hg; 95% CI ?21.10 to 0.46; p=0.06) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; WMD=?3.30?mm?Hg; 95% CI ?7.66 to 1.06; p=0.14). CHM (decoction) plus antihypertensive drugs also produced a clinically meaningful, but not statistically significant, reduction in SBP (WMD=?12.56?mm?Hg; 95% CI ?26.83 to 1.71; p=0.08), and did significantly decrease DBP (WMD=?7.89?mm?Hg; 95% CI ?11.74 to ?4.04; p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in SBP (WMD=?3.50?mm?Hg; 95% CI ?8.95 to 1.95; p=0.21) and DBP (WMD=1.00?mm?Hg; 95% CI ?1.39 to 3.39; p=0.41) between CHM (injection) plus the antihypertensive drugs group and antihypertensive drugs alone. The safety of CHM remained uncertain. Conclusions No definite conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of CHM for resistant hypertension could be drawn. More rigorously designed trials are warranted. PMID:25636788

Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Jie

2015-01-01

21

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis—a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic

Peishan Xie; Sibao Chen; Yi-zeng Liang; Xianghong Wang; Runtao Tian; Roy Upton

2006-01-01

22

Herbal Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended multicultural lab activity, learners investigate the effectiveness of herbal remedies. Learners prepare extracts from plants that are used in a variety of herbal medicines; they test the antibiotic effects of the herbs on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and look for antifungal effects using common molds. The effectiveness of the herbal extracts is compared with traditional antibiotic and antifungal preparations. Each group is in charge of their experimental design; variables include types of herbs chosen, methods of preparing extracts, microbes tested, and type of exposure of microorganisms to the extract (applied to agar surface, on sensitivity disks, in agar itself, heated, cooled, etc.). Adult supervision recommended.

Powers, Cheryl

2009-01-01

23

Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose  

PubMed Central

Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the trial (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.58). However, all trials had a considerable risk of bias and none of the specific herbal medicines comparison data was available from more than one study. Moreover, results could have been confounded by rates of natural reversion to normal glucose levels. Authors’ conclusions The positive evidence in favour of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of IGT or IFG is constrained by the following factors: lack of trials that tested the same herbal medicine, lack of details on co-interventions, unclear methods of randomisation, poor reporting and other risks of bias. PMID:19821382

Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

2011-01-01

24

Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2013-01-01

25

Stimulation of tetanus toxoid-specific immune responses by a traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunomodulatory properties of botanical medicinals are well-documented. In this study, the capacity for the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Rehmannia Six Formula (R6F), to stimulate anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity following oral administration to mice was examined. A significant rise in serum anti-TT antibody levels were observed in R6F-treated mice immunized with a minimum immunogenic dose of 10?g TT suggesting an

John R. Underwood; Mark Chivers; Thi Thuong Dang; Paul V. Licciardi

2009-01-01

26

Chinese Herbal Medicine on Dyslipidemia: Progress and Perspective  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The statins are a milestone in the primary and second prevention of cardiovascular diseases and significantly improved its prognosis. Along with the long-term treatment with statins in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs or alone, its safety has attracted a particular attention in clinic, such as the elevation of transaminase and rhabdomyolysis, which have raised an idea of developing the other types of lipid-lowering agents from botanic materials. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 2000 years in China and showed some beneficial effects for human health and many diseases. Recently, many studies demonstrated a favorable effect of TCM for treating dyslipidemia; however, its mechanism remains unclear or totally unknown. The progress and perspective of studies on dyslipidemia with single Chinese herb and its monomers or effective extracts during the past 10 years are discussed in the present review. PMID:24688589

Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Shi, Da-zhuo

2014-01-01

27

A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

2013-01-01

28

A survey of chinese medicinal herbal treatment for chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

2013-01-01

29

Chinese Herbal Medicine and Interferon in the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine (either alone or with interferon alfa) in treating chronic hepatitis B. Methods. We searched the TCMLARS, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Collaboration databases and then hand-searched the articles’ bibliographies. Results. Chinese herbal medicine significantly increased seroreversion of HBsAg and was equivalent to interferon alfa in seroreversion of HBeAg and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA; Chinese herbal medicine combined with interferon alfa significantly increased seroreversion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA. The Chinese herbal medicine active component bufotoxin combined with interferon alfa significantly increased HBeAg and HBV DNA seroreversion. The Chinese herbal medicine active component kurorinone was equivalent to interferon alfa in seroreversion of HBeAg and HBV DNA. Conclusions. Although the quality of existing studies was poor, these data suggest that further trials of Chinese Herbal Medicine and interferon in chronic hepatitis B infection are justified. PMID:12356611

McCulloch, Michael; Broffman, Michael; Gao, Jin; Colford, John M.

2002-01-01

30

Compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients can enhance immune response and efficacy of RHD vaccine in rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to validate the immune-enhancement efficacy of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs), made with astragalus polysaccharide (APS), epimedium polysaccharide (EPS), propolis flavone (PF) and ginsenosides (GS), as immune potentiator or vaccine adjuvants for rabbits, the effects of two cCHMIs on rabbit lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-? and IL-10 mRNA expression of T lymphocyte in vitro were determined. At the

Longsheng Yang; Yuanliang Hu; Jiabin Xue; Fang Wang; Deyun Wang; Xiangfeng Kong; Peng Li; Weizhong Xu

2008-01-01

31

Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for the treatment of recurrent miscarriage in China and other Asian countries for long time. We conducted this review to systematically summarize the evidences of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for the prevention and treatment of recurrent miscarriage in randomized trials, and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM compared with placebo or conventional medicine. Methods We searched studies in PubMed, ClinicalTrials, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, SinoMed and VIP databases until December, 2012. Randomized trials on CHM alone or in combination with conventional medicine for recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo or conventional medicine were included. We evaluated the methodological quality of each included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results A total of 41 RCTs (3660 participants) were included. The majority of trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. CHM used alone or plus progesterone-based treatment showed superior effect over progesterone-based treatment in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state (measured by B ultrasound). However, there is substantial heterogeneity within each subgroup analysis (I2 ranging from 35% to 71%). CHM plus progesterone and hCG-based treatment was superior to progesterone and hCG-based treatment in improving the embryonic developmental state, but not live birth rate. No severe adverse events were reported in relation to CHM. Conclusions Some Chinese herbal medicines or in combination with progesterone-based treatment demonstrated potentially beneficial effect in improving live birth rate and embryonic developmental state for women with recurrent miscarriage. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity among the herbal interventions and limitations of methodological quality of the included trials, it is not possible to recommend any specific CHMs for recurrent miscarriage. Further rigorous clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM. PMID:24245671

2013-01-01

32

TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and safety of FAHF-2 for treating food allergy in a murine model. A clinical study demonstrated that FAHF-2 is safe, well tolerated, and exhibited beneficial immunomodulatory effects. A clinical report showed that TCM treatment reduced eczema scores and improved quality of life. Herbal interventions, ASHMI and FAHF-2 may be further developed as botanical drugs for treating asthma and food allergy. TCM may also be of benefit for comorbid conditions such as anxiety and recalcitrant eczema. More controlled studies are warranted. In conclusion, novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions such as anxiety and eczema are urgently needed. This article discusses promising interventions for such conditions from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and explores their possible mechanisms of action. PMID:21913200

Li, Xiu-Min

2014-01-01

33

[Studies on the antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver].  

PubMed

The antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver, including Salivia miltiorrhiza, Hypericum japonicum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Callicarpa cathayana, Chrysanthemum indicum, Paeonia latiflora, Lysimachia christinae, Ligustrum lucidum (L1), Patrinia villosa (Pv) on hepatic homogenate of rat were tested. It was found that all tested medicines showed inhibition with dose-effect relationship, the inhibitory rate of L1 and Pv were lower than the other's. All results showed that these Chinese herbal medicines have strong antilipid peroxidation and are natural oxidation inhibitor. It was suggested that their function of protecting liver and others have relationship with the antioxidation. PMID:12572505

Jiang, H; Huang, X; Yang, Y; Zhang, Q

1997-12-01

34

Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P?=?0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P?=?0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P?=?0.05) and acetate was higher (P?=?0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P?=?0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P?=?0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive for sheep. PMID:24344643

2013-01-01

35

Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16?134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29?801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female?:?male = 1.94?:?1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

2011-01-01

36

Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treating Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials  

PubMed Central

Background. There is no curative treatment for primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is widely used in the treatment of PSS in China. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM for PSS. Methods. PubMed, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Wanfang Data, and the Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM or CHM plus conventional medicine for PSS compared with placebo or conventional medicine. RevMan 5.0.17 was employed to conduct data analyses and assess homogeneity. Statistical models were chosen according to heterogeneity. Results. A total of 52 RCTs were included. The overall methodological quality of included trials was low. 49 trials reported response rates, of which 32 found significant improvements favoring CHM treatment against controls; 20 trials reported lacrimal function by Schirmer test scores, of which 16 trials reported a significant difference favoring CHM treatment. 21 trials reported salivary function by salivary flow rate, of which 10 reported significant favorable effects of CHM treatment. Other trials found no difference. The reported adverse effects of CHM included nausea, diarrhea, and other minor digestive symptoms, but more frequent adverse effects occurred in conventional medicine groups. Conclusions. Preliminary evidence from RCTs suggests the effect of CHM is promising for relieving symptoms, improving lacrimal and salivary function in PSS. However, the poor methodological quality of the included trials means that further well-designed, multicentered, larger trials are needed. PMID:22969828

Luo, Hui; Li, Xinxue; Liu, Jianping; Andrew, Flower; George, Lewith

2012-01-01

37

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

38

The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

2011-11-01

39

The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

2012-03-01

40

New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development  

PubMed Central

Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

2011-01-01

41

Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Obesity-Related Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for obesity-related hypertension. Search Strategy. Electronic databases were searched until January, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) testing CHM against nondrug therapy and conventional western medicine, or combined with conventional western medicine against conventional western medicine. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. 11 trials were included. Methodological quality was evaluated as low. 1 trial investigated the efficacy of CHM plus nondrug therapy versus nondrug therapy. Positive results in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD: ?5.40 [?5.88, ?4.92]; P < 0.00001) were found in combination group. 1 trial investigated the efficacy of CHM versus conventional western medicine. Positive results in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD: ?1.39 [?2.11, ?0.67]; P = 0.0002) were found in CHM. 9 trials investigated the efficacy of CHM plus conventional western medicine versus conventional western medicine. Positive results in SBP (WMD: -6.71 [?11.08, ?1.25]; P = 0.02) were found in combination group. The safety of CHM is unknown. Conclusions. No definite conclusion could be got due to poor methodological quality. Rigorously designed trials are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23853663

Wang, Jie; Feng, Bo; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

42

A Review of Potential Harmful Interactions between Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents and Chinese Herbal Medicines  

PubMed Central

Background The risks attributed to drug-herb interactions, even when known, are often ignored or underestimated, especially for those involving anti-clotting drugs and Chinese medicines. The aim of this study was to structurally search and evaluate the existing evidence-based data associated with potential drug interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs and Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and evaluate the documented mechanisms, consequences, and/or severity of interactions. Methodology and Findings Information related to anticoagulant/antiplatelet drug-CHM interactions was retrieved from eight interaction-based textbooks, four web resources and available primary biomedical literature. The primary literature searches were conducted in English and/or Chinese from January 2000 through December 2011 using the secondary databases (e.g., PubMed, Airiti Library, China Journal full-text database). The search terms included the corresponding medical subject headings and key words. Herbs or natural products not used as a single entity CHM or in Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions were excluded from further review. The corresponding mechanisms and severity ratings of interactions were retrieved using MicroMedex®, Lexicomp® and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database®. Finally, we found 90 single entity CHMs contributed to 306 documented drug-CHM interactions. A total of 194 (63.4%) interactions were verified for its evidence describing possible mechanisms and severity. Of them, 155 interactions (79.9%) were attributable to pharmacodynamic interactions, and almost all were rated as moderate to severe interactions. The major consequences of these interactions were increased bleeding risks due to the additive anticoagulant or antiplatelet effects of the CHMs, specifically danshen, dong quai, ginger, ginkgo, licorice, and turmeric. Conclusions/Significance Conventional anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs were documented to have harmful interactions with some commonly used single entity CHMs. For those patients who are taking conventional anti-clotting medications with CHMs for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, the potential risks of increased bleeding due to drug-CHM interactions should not be ignored. PMID:23671711

Tsai, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Lu, Ying-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Mahady, Gail B.

2013-01-01

43

Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these experiments is to study the effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer in chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. Nine CHMIs were chosen for the experiments. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Epimedium flavone (EF), Propolis flavone (PF), Astragalosides (AS) and Ginsenosides (GS) could promote lymphocyte

Xiangfeng Kong; Yuanliang Hu; Rong Rui; Deyun Wang; Xiangrui Li

2004-01-01

44

Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.  

PubMed

The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant potential in the clinic. PMID:24831605

Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

2014-10-01

45

Identifying Chinese Herbal Medicine Network for Eczema: Implications from a Nationwide Prescription Database  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies.

Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-hung; Chen, Jiun-liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

2015-01-01

46

Identifying chinese herbal medicine network for eczema: implications from a nationwide prescription database.  

PubMed

Eczema is a highly prevalent dermatological disease that can severely affect the patient's quality of life. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used in combination for eczema due to the complicated pathogenesis. This study aimed to identify a CHM network for the treatment of eczema by using a nationwide database. During 2011, 381,282 CHM prescriptions made for eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.x) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan and analyzed by using association rule mining and social network analysis. Among 661 available CHMs, 44 important combinations were identified. Among the CHM networks, seven clusters with the predominant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern were recognized. The largest CHM cluster was used to treat the wind-dampness-heat pattern, and Xiao-Feng-San (24.1% of all prescriptions) was the core of this cluster with anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiallergic effects. Lonicera japonica (11.0% of all prescriptions) with Forsythia suspense (17.0% of all prescriptions) was the most commonly used CHM combination and was also the core treatment for treating the heat pattern, in which an antimicrobial effect is found. CHM network analysis is helpful for TCM doctors or researchers to choose candidates for clinical practice or further studies. PMID:25685167

Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Sindy; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Yu-Chun

2015-01-01

47

Chinese Herbal Medicine Suppresses Invasion-Promoting Capacity of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, due to aggressive growth, high metastatic rates during the early stage and the lack of an effective therapeutic approach. We previously showed that Qingyihuaji (QYHJ), a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, exhibited significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer, associated with modifications in the tumor microenvironment, particularly the inhibition of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) activation. In the present study, we generated CAF and paired normal fibroblast (NF) cultures from resected human pancreatic cancer tissues. We observed that CAFs exhibited an enhanced capacity for inducing pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion compared with NFs, while QYHJ-treated CAFs exhibited decreased migration and invasion-promoting capacities in vitro. The results of further analyses indicated that compared with NFs, CAFs exhibit increased CXCL1, 2 and 8 expression, contributing to the enhanced invasion-promoting capacities of these cells, while QYHJ treatment significantly suppressed CAF proliferation activities and the production of CAF-derived CXCL1, 2 and 8. These in vitro observations were confirmed in mice models of human pancreatic cancer. Taken together, these results suggested that suppressing the tumor-promoting capacity of CAFs through Chinese herbal medicine attenuates pancreatic cancer cell invasion. PMID:24781445

Chen, Hao; Xu, Litao; Qi, Qi; Luo, Jianmin; Wang, Kun; Meng, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Liu, Luming

2014-01-01

48

An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity  

PubMed Central

Background Age is the leading risk factor for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the oldest known compendium of Chinese materia media, lists herbal medicines that were believed to exert neither fast acting pharmacological effects nor discernible toxicity, but to promote general health and longevity. In modern terms, these herbal medicines could be considered as complementary health care products for prevention rather than treatment of diseases. In the present study, we examined whether a selection of 13 such herbal medicines exhibited neuroprotective activity. Methods The antioxidant capacity of the herbal extracts was determined using three non-cellular assays measuring the total phenol content (FCR assay), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were assayed in cultured mouse cortical neurons and their neuroprotective activities were studied using staurosporine-induced apoptosis of the cultured neurons. Results Most of the herbal extracts showed negligible toxic effects at 100 ?g/ml. However, Polygonum multiflorum and Rhodiola rosea exhibited some neurotoxicity at this concentration. Extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Schizandra chinensis, and Polygonum cuspidatum inhibited staurosporine-induced apoptosis by 30 – 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum cuspidatum were predominantly due to its major ingredient, resveratrol. The effective herbal extracts showed various levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, which was significantly correlated with their neuro- protective activity. However, P. multiflorum and R. rosea extracts proved to be the exception as they exhibited a high level of antioxidant capacity, but did not exhibit neuroprotective effects in cell-based assay. Conclusions This in vitro study provides evidence for neuroprotective activity of some Chinese herbal medicines traditionally used to promote healthy ageing and longevity. Our results provide a justification for further study of these herbal extracts in neurodegenerative animal models to assess their safety and effectiveness as a basis for subsequent clinical trials. These herbal medicines might potentially offer a novel preemptive neuroprotective approach in neurodegenerative diseases and might be developed for use in persons at risk. PMID:24373151

2013-01-01

49

Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Chinese Herbal Medicine by Microwave Digestion and RP-HPLC with UV-Vis Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in Chinese herbal medicine by microwave digestion and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been developed. The Chinese herbal medicine samples were digested by microwave digestion. Lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel, copper, zinc, and tin ions in the digested samples were pre-column derivatized with tetra-(4-chlorophenyl)-porphyrin (T 4-CPP) to form the

Yaling Yang; Yan Guangyu; Qiang Lin

2004-01-01

50

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis--a rational approach for quality assessment of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds, including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several examples of applying chromatographic fingerprint analysis for determining the identity, stability, and consistency of TCHM as well as the identification of adulterants as follows: (1) species authentication of various species of ginseng (Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax noto-ginseng) and stability of ginseng preparations using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis; (2) batch-to-batch consistency of extracts of Total Glycosides of Peony (TGP), to be used as a raw material and in finished products (TGP powdered extract products), using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis with a pattern recognition software interface (CASE); (3) documenting the representative HPLC fingerprints of Immature Fruits of Terminalia chebula (IFTC) through the assessment of raw material, in-process assay of the extracts, and the analysis of the finished product (tablets); (4) HPLC fingerprint study demonstrating the consistent quality of total flavonoids of commercial extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaves (EGb) along with detection of adulterations. The experimental conditions as well as general comments on the application of chromatographic fingerprint analysis are discussed. PMID:16472540

Xie, Peishan; Chen, Sibao; Liang, Yi-zeng; Wang, Xianghong; Tian, Runtao; Upton, Roy

2006-04-21

51

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: a Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) by performing a meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing CHM vs no treatment, placebo, conventional western medicine (CWM), or general non-specific surgical treatment for DUB were identified by electronic and manual searches. Trials of CHM treatments with CWM treatments were compared with CWM treatments alone. Jadad scale and allocation concealment were used to assess the quality of included studies. Four RCTs or quasi-RCTs involving 525 patients were included. The methodological quality was poor in all trials except one trial. No serious adverse events were reported in the included studies. With the lack of trials comparing CHM with no treatment or placebo, it is impossible to accurately evaluate the efficacy of CHM. However, CHM in these studies seem to show an encouraging comparative effectiveness with CWM. More RCTs with a higher quality are required. PMID:18955223

Huang, Gaomin; Tan, Shengkui

2009-01-01

52

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

53

Protection against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liu, W-C., Wang, S-C., Tsai, M-L., Chen, M-C., Wang, Y-C., Hong, J-H., McBride, W. H. and Chiang, C-S. Protec- tion against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine. Radiat. Res. 166, 900-907 (2006). Bone marrow and intestinal damage limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer and can result in death if the whole body

Wei-Chung Liu; Shu-Chi Wang; Min-Lung Tsai; Meng-Chi Chen; Ya-Chen Wang; Ji-Hong Hong; William H. McBride; Chi-Shiun Chiang

2006-01-01

54

Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan

1993-03-01

55

Compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients can enhance immune response and efficacy of RHD vaccine in rabbit.  

PubMed

In order to validate the immune-enhancement efficacy of compound Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (cCHMIs), made with astragalus polysaccharide (APS), epimedium polysaccharide (EPS), propolis flavone (PF) and ginsenosides (GS), as immune potentiator or vaccine adjuvants for rabbits, the effects of two cCHMIs on rabbit lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA expression of T lymphocyte in vitro were determined. At the same time, two cCHMIs were injected into 35-day-old rabbits after mixed with rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) vaccine taking aluminum adjuvant and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as controls. On days 7, 14, 21, 35 and 49 after the vaccination, the dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titers of the rabbits were analyzed. On day 63, all rabbits were challenged with RHD virus. The results showed that the two cCHMIs could significantly promote rabbit lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA expression of T lymphocyte in vitro. In vivo, two cCHMIs could significantly enhance serum antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation. Their adjuvanticity was slightly superior to aluminum adjuvant. All the rabbits vaccinated with the cCHMIs adjuvant vaccine were protected. These findings confirmed that two cCHMIs possessed better immune-enhancement efficacy and would be used as effective immune adjuvant of RHD vaccine. PMID:18602959

Yang, Longsheng; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Jiabin; Wang, Fang; Wang, Deyun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Peng; Xu, Weizhong

2008-08-18

56

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Obesity: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Multicenter, Prospective Trial.  

PubMed

Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide. As a holistic therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have a potential in obesity management. In this controlled trial, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of Xin-Ju-Xiao-Gao-Fang (XJXGF), a TCM herbal formulation, in 140 obese subjects over a 24-week period. The XJXGF formula mainly consists of rhubarb, coptis, semen cassia, and citrus aurantium. Subjects with body mass index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m(2) were recruited at 5 centers in China. We assessed the changes in subjects' body weight, its related parameters, and the reduction of insulin resistance (IR) after administration of XJXGF formula or low-dose XJXGF (10% of the XJXGF formula, as control). After 24-week treatment, among participants in the XJXGF formula group and low-dose XJXGF group, the mean ± SE changes in the body weight were -3.58±0.48 and -1.91±0.38 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The changes in the IR-index of two groups were -2.65±1.04 and -1.58±1.3, respectively (p < 0.05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the 24-week trial. Participants reported 7 minor adverse events, 4 in the XJXGF formula group and 3 in the low-dose XJXGF group (p = 0.578). Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical utility of this TCM formulation in the treatment of obese subjects. PMID:25406653

Zhou, Qiang; Chang, Bai; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Zhen, Zhong; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Sun, Xin; Zhou, Yuan; Xie, Wan-Qing; Liu, Hong-Fang; Xu, Yuan; Kong, Yi; Zhou, Li-Bo; Lian, Feng-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Lin

2014-11-19

57

Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM. PMID:23730837

Chen, Y; Zhu, J

2013-07-01

58

Traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Chinese pharmacopoeia describes a large number of herbal formulations that are used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This therapeutic approach is ignored by many and considered to be an alternative to conventional medicine by others. The scientific proof and clinical validation of these herbal formulations require a rigorous approach that includes chemical standardization, biological

Robert Yuan; Yuan Lin

2000-01-01

59

Heavy Metal and Pesticide Content in Commonly Prescribed Individual Raw Chinese Herbal Medicines  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues (especially chlorpyrifos) in raw CHMs are advised. PMID:21824641

HARRIS, Eric S. J.; CAO, Shugeng; LITTLEFIELD, Bruce A.; CRAYCROFT, Jane A.; SCHOLTEN, Robert; KAPTCHUK, Ted; FU, Yanling; WANG, Wenquan; LIU, Yong; CHEN, Hubiao; ZHAO, Zhongzhen; CLARDY, Jon; WOOLF, Alan D.; EISENBERG, David M.

2011-01-01

60

Acute adverse events from over-the-counter Chinese herbal medicines: a population-based survey of Hong Kong Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Although over-the-counter traditional Chinese herbal medicine (COTC) is commonly used to treat everyday illness in many parts of the world, no population-based study has been done to examine the prevalence and factors associated with COTC-related adverse events. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese adults in 2011 (n?=?1100) with informed verbal consent. Stepwise logistic regression of demographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables was used to determine factors associated with past-year adverse events. Results Of study respondents, 71.7% (789/1100) reported past-year COTC use and 2.3% (25/1100) reported at least one COTC-related adverse event in the past year. Of the 27 adverse events cases reported among COTC users, the most common were allergic reactions (n?=?11) dizziness (n?=?5), and gastro-intestinal problems (n?=?4). Pills/capsules were the dosage form that caused the highest proportion of adverse events (n?=?10), followed by plasters (n?=?7), creams/ointments (n?=?5), and ingestible powders (n?=?2). Although COTC users reporting adverse events were more likely to report greater practices to avoid adverse events (OR?=?6.47; 95% CI: 1.38-30.3); they were also more likely to possess lower education levels (OR?=?9.64, 95% CI: 2.20-42.3) and to have received COTC information from non-reliable, mass-media information sources such as magazines (OR?=?3.32; 95% CI: 1.01-8.50) or television (OR?=?2.93; 95% CI: 1.03-10.7). Package labels were also felt to be unclear by 42.9% of COTC users. A large proportion of COTC users demonstrated low levels of COTC-related knowledge, while the main impediment to greater information-seeking was the belief that reliable COTC information is not obtainable from Western health professionals. Conclusions Despite global movements toward more stringent complementary medicine regulation, the limited accessibility of reliable information and widespread misperceptions among consumers present major challenges for the safe use of complementary medicine. PMID:24279604

2013-01-01

61

A study of western pharmaceuticals contained within samples of Chinese herbal/patent medicines collected from New York City's Chinatown.  

PubMed

In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal/patent medicines (CHM/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine the presence of undeclared pharmaceuticals and therapeutic substances within CHM/CPM sold in New York City's Chinatown. Ninety representative samples randomly purchased in the form of pills, tablets, creams and teas were screened by appropriate analytical techniques including TLC, GC/MS and HPLC. Five samples contained nine different western pharmaceuticals. Two of these samples contained undeclared or mislabeled substances. One sample contained two pharmaceuticals contraindicated in people for whom the product was intended. Drugs identified include promethazine, chlormethiazole, chlorpheniramine, diclofenac, chlordiazepoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, diphenhydramine and sildenafil citrate (Viagra). PMID:17652006

Miller, Gretchen M; Stripp, Richard

2007-09-01

62

Will the Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) be against traditional Chinese medicine in EU market?  

PubMed

As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM. PMID:23829802

Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie

2013-05-01

63

Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken.  

PubMed

The purpose of these experiments is to study the effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients (CHMIs) on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer in chicken vaccinated with Newcastle disease. Nine CHMIs were chosen for the experiments. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Epimedium flavone (EF), Propolis flavone (PF), Astragalosides (AS) and Ginsenosides (GS) could promote lymphocyte proliferation and antibody titer, while Epimedium polysaccharide (EPS) mainly stimulated cellular immune responses. Chinese angelica polysaccharide (CAPS) and Propolis polysaccharide (PPS) exerted weaker effects on promoting immune responses. APS, IRPS, PPS and PF in promoting lymphocyte proliferation, and IRPS, PPS, EF and PF in promoting humoral immunity in higher dose were significantly stronger than in lower dose. Our results indicated that almost all of the nine CHMIs could promote both humoral and cellular immune responses and would be expected as the component drug of a new-type immunopotentiator. PMID:15233143

Kong, Xiangfeng; Hu, Yuanliang; Rui, Rong; Wang, Deyun; Li, Xiangrui

2004-07-01

64

Chinese herbal medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) for functional constipation: study protocol for a prospective, double-blinded, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Functional constipation is a common clinical complaint. Although the effectiveness of Ma Zi Ren Wan for alleviating functional constipation symptoms has been proven in a previous randomized placebo-controlled study, further evidence is needed to make clinical recommendations about Chinese herbal medicine. In particular, a comparison with conventional western medicine for functional constipation patients is needed. Methods/Design This is a prospective, double-blinded, double dummy, randomized, controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, eligible patients (Rome III) with excessive traditional Chinese medicine syndrome will randomly be assigned to the Chinese medicine arm (Ma Zi Ren Wan and western medicine placebo), western medicine arm (senna and Chinese medicine placebo) or placebo arm (Chinese medicine placebo and western medicine placebo). Patients will undergo an 8-week treatment and an 8-week follow-up. The primary outcome is the responder rate for complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) during treatment. Patients with a mean increase of CSBM ?1/week in comparison with their baselines are defined as responders. The secondary outcomes include responder rate during follow-up, changes of colonic transit as measured with radio-opaque markers, individual and global symptom assessments, and reported adverse effects. Discussion This study is the first study to compare a Chinese Herbal Medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) with a laxative that is commonly used in the clinical practice of western medicine, and with a placebo. This study will complete the investigation of Ma Zi Ren Wan for functional constipation, and should, therefore, suggest recommendations for clinical practice. Furthermore, the process of first conducting a systematic review, then implementing a dose determination study followed by a placebo-control trial, and finally, comparing traditional Chinese medicine with an active conventional medicine in a controlled trial can be a reference to other researches on Chinese medicine interventions in the future. Trial registration NCT01695850 PMID:24180235

2013-01-01

65

[Case of atopic dermatitis in infant treated with Chinese herbal medicines and nsaids ointment, which induced weight loss, electrolyte disturbance and hypoproteinemia].  

PubMed

We report here a 4-month-old girl with atopic dermatitis accompanied by weight loss, electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. She has suffered from eczema since one-month of age. Although she was treated with Chinese herbal medicines, including Syosaikotokakikyosekko, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto and Jumihaidokuto and ibuprofen ointment since three-month of age, she was referred to our hospital due to deteriorated eczema, severe diarrhea and failure to thrive. Laboratory examination revealed hyponatremia, hyperpotassemia, hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated levels of serum IL-18, TARC and fecal EDN. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests were positive for the prescribed Chinese herbal medicines. Discontinuation of these medicines and application of steroid ointments improved loose bowels and skin lesions as well as laboratory data. It is suggested that the application of inadequate ointment and Chinese herbal medicines exaggerated inflammation in the skin and the intestinal mucosa leading to electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Chinese herbal medicines are depicted as an additional therapy in Japanese guideline for atopic dermatitis, whereas their indication to infants with atopic dermatitis should be carefully assessed. PMID:24129659

Yasutomi, Motoko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Murai, Hiroki; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Wada, Taizo; Ohshima, Yusei

2013-07-01

66

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trails  

PubMed Central

Background. Osteoporosis is a major health problem for the elderly population. Chinese herb may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its capability. Objectives. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese medicine treatment on the patients with osteoporosis. Search Methods. Randomized controlled trials were retrieved from different 9 databases. Results. This meta analysis included 12 RCTs involving 1816 patients to compare Chinese herbs with placebo or standard anti-osteoporotic therapy in the treatment of bone loss. The pooled data showed that the percent change of increased BMD in the spine is higher with Chinese herb compared to placebo (lumber spine: WMD?=?0.07, 95% CI: 0.01–0.04). In the femoral, Chinese herb showed significantly higher increments of BMD compared to placebo (femoral neck: WMD?=?0.06, 95% CI: ?0.02–0.13). Compared to the other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs, Chinese herbs also show advantage in BMD change (lumber spine: WMD?=?0.03, 95% CI: ?0.01–0.08; femoral: WMD?=?0.01, 95% CI: ?0.01–0.02). Conclusions. Our results demonstrated that Chinese herb significantly increased lumbar spine BMD as compared to the placebo or other standard anti-osteoporotic drugs. PMID:23431336

Wang, Zhi-qian; Li, Jin-long; Sun, Yue-li; Yao, Min; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhu; Shi, Qi; Cui, Xue-jun; Wang, Yong-jun

2013-01-01

67

Optimizing Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Unstable Angina Based on Partially Observable Markov Decision Process  

PubMed Central

Objective. Initial optimized prescription of Chinese herb medicine for unstable angina (UA). Methods. Based on partially observable Markov decision process model (POMDP), we choose hospitalized patients of 3 syndrome elements, such as qi deficiency, blood stasis, and turbid phlegm for the data mining, analysis, and objective evaluation of the diagnosis and treatment of UA at a deep level in order to optimize the prescription of Chinese herb medicine for UA. Results. The recommended treatment options of UA for qi deficiency, blood stasis, and phlegm syndrome patients were as follows: Milkvetch Root?+?Tangshen?+?Indian Bread?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome (ADR = 0.96630); Danshen Root?+?Chinese Angelica?+?Safflower?+?Red Peony Root?+?Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Orange Fruit (ADR = 0.76); Snakegourd Fruit?+?Longstamen Onion Bulb?+?Pinellia Tuber?+?Dried Tangerine peel?+?Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome?+?Platycodon Root (ADR = 0.658568). Conclusion. This study initially optimized prescriptions for UA based on POMDP, which can be used as a reference for further development of UA prescription in Chinese herb medicine. PMID:24078826

Feng, Yan; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yixin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Baoyan

2013-01-01

68

Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

2015-01-01

69

Chinese Proprietary Herbal Medicine Listed in ‘China National Essential Drug List’ for Common Cold: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Objective Chinese proprietary herbal medicines (CPHMs) have long history in China for the treatment of common cold, and lots of them have been listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ by the Chinese Ministry of Health. The aim of this review is to provide a well-round clinical evidence assessment on the potential benefits and harms of CPHMs for common cold based on a systematic literature search to justify their clinical use and recommendation. Methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites from their inception to 31 March 2013 for clinical studies of CPHMs listed in the ‘China national essential drug list’ for common cold. There was no restriction on study design. Results A total of 33 CPHMs were listed in ‘China national essential drug list 2012’ for the treatment of common cold but only 7 had supportive clinical evidences. A total of 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 case series (CSs) were included; no other study design was identified. All studies were conducted in China and published in Chinese between 1995 and 2012. All included studies had poor study design and methodological quality, and were graded as very low quality. Conclusions The use of CPHMs for common cold is not supported by robust evidence. Further rigorous well designed placebo-controlled, randomized trials are needed to substantiate the clinical claims made for CPHMs. PMID:25329481

Chen, Wei; Lewith, George; Wang, Li-qiong; Ren, Jun; Xiong, Wen-jing; Lu, Fang; Liu, Jian-ping

2014-01-01

70

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

71

Prevention and repair of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by Chinese herbal medicine, shengmai san, in rats.  

PubMed

The protective activity of Shengmai San, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was studied in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Shengmai San consists of three herbal components, Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus and Schisandra Chinensis and is routinely being used for treating coronary heart disease. When Shengmai San was injected directly into rat duodenum 2h before cerebral ischemia by bilateral carotid artery occlusion, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation during reperfusion following ischemia was almost completely suppressed in the brain. The loss of glutathione peroxidase activity after the ischemia-reperfusion was also effectively prevented by the Shengmai San pre-administration whereas the activity was considerably decreased in the damaged brain. It was found that Shengmai San also effectively suppressed the TBARS formation even when it was administered after 45 min reperfusion following ischemia, indicating that Shengmai San improves the oxidative damage already established in the brain. Likewise, the decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity was minimized in the damaged brain by the post-administration of Shengmai San. On the other hand, none of the Shengmai San components were active in protecting the ischemia-reperfusion brain damage when they were independently administered. These experiments suggest the potential of Shengmai San in both preventive and therapeutic usages for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:10547189

Xuejiang, W; Magara, T; Konishi, T

1999-11-01

72

The effects of two Chinese herbal medicinal formulae vs. placebo controls for treatment of allergic rhinitis: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when compared to a placebo control group. Methods A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with repeated-measures, three-parallel-groups design was conducted in a random sample of 249 participants recruited from one university in Hong Kong. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to CS, YS, or placebo groups (n?=?83 per group). The main outcomes, including symptom severity, quality of life, and body constitution, were measured with self-administered questionnaires at baseline and immediately, 1 and 3 months after the 4-week interventions. Results 240 participants completed the trial, with 9 (3.6%) drop-outs. The results of Generalised Estimating Equations test followed by pairwise contrasts tests indicated that the participants who received CS showed significantly greater reduction of symptoms (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?26.13–34.55, P <0.0005) and improvements in quality of life (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?12.81–16.76, P <0.001), and body constitution in ‘Qi-deficiency’, ‘Yang-deficiency’, and ‘Inherited Special’ (mean difference of CS vs. placebo?=?7.05–8.12, 7.56–8.92, and 4.48–8.10, P?=?0.01–?herbal formula CS was found effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in young adults (nursing students) with allergic rhinitis in ‘Yang- and/or Qi-deficiency’ body constitution. Further controlled trials of its effects in Chinese and/or Asians with allergic rhinitis in terms of socio-demographic, ethnic and illness characteristics and a longer-term follow-up are recommended. Trial registration The trial has registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with an ID: NCT02027194 (3 January 2014). PMID:24986270

2014-01-01

73

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

. In addition, the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine and Herb uses, systems and methods for Chinese;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D

74

Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents. PMID:20653978

2010-01-01

75

Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.  

PubMed

Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of homemade non-validated rating scales create uncertainty as to the meaning of these results. High-quality randomized and double blinded clinical trials of Chinese herbs in treating RLS will be required in the future. This review highlights aspects of Chinese herbal treatment important to guide future research and clinical practice. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic English review of the role of Chinese herbs in the treatment of RLS. PMID:22459934

Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

2012-12-01

76

Capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection of curcumin in Chinese herbal medicine pretreated by solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

In the present study, curcumin from Chinese herbal medicine turmeric was determined by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CE-AD) pretreated by a self-designed, simple, inexpensive solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge based on the material of tributyl phosphate resin. An average concentration factor of 9 with the recovery of > 80% was achieved when applied to the analysis of curcumin in extracts of tumeric. Under the optimized CE-AD conditions: a running buffer composed of 15 mM phosphate buffer at a pH 9.7, separation voltage at 16 kV, injection for 6 s at 9 kV and detection at 1.20 V, CE-AD with SPE exhibited low detection limit as 3 x 10(-8) mol/l (S/N = 3), high efficiency of 1.0 x 10(5) N, linear range of 7 x 10(-4) -3 x 10(-6) mol/l (r = 0.9986) for curcumin extracted from light petroleum. The method developed resulted in enhancement of the detection sensitivity and reduction of interference from sample matrix in complicated samples and exhibited the potential application for routine analysis, especially in food, because a relatively complete process of sample treatment and analysis was described. PMID:12198956

Sun, Xiuhua; Gao, Changlu; Cao, Weidong; Yang, Xiurong; Wang, Erkang

2002-07-12

77

Evaluation of Chinese-Herbal-Medicine-Induced Herb-Drug Interactions: Focusing on Organic Anion Transporter 1  

PubMed Central

The consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is increasing exponentially. Many patients utilize CHMs concomitantly with prescription drugs in great frequency. Herb-drug interaction has hence become an important focus of study. Transporter-mediated herb-drug interactions have the potential to seriously influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Since organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) is crucial in renal active secretion and drug-drug interactions, the possibility of modulation of OAT1-mediated drug transport should be seriously concerned. Sixty-three clinically used CHMs were evaluated in the study. An hOAT1-overexpressing cell line was used for the in vitro CHMs screening, and the effective candidates were administered to Wistar rats to access renal hemodynamics. The regulation of OAT1 mRNA expression was also examined for further evidence of CHMs affecting OAT1-mediated transport. Among all the 63?CHMs, formulae Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan (GZ) and Chia Wei Hsiao Yao San (CW) exhibited significant inhibitions on hOAT1-mediated [3H]-PAH uptake in vitro and PAH clearance and net secretion in vivo. Moreover, GZ showed concentration-dependent manners both in vitro and in vivo, and the decrease of rOAT1 mRNA expression indicated that GZ not only inhibited function of OAT1 but also suppressed expression of OAT1. PMID:22988478

Lin, Chang-Ching; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Kuo, Chien-Wen; Pao, Li-Heng

2012-01-01

78

Evaluation of humic substances during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues.  

PubMed

Humification during co-composting of food waste, sawdust and Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) was investigated to reveal its correlation with compost maturity. Food waste, sawdust and CMHRs were mixed at 5:5:1 and 1:1:1 (dry weight basis) while food waste:sawdust at 1:1 (dry wt. basis) served as control. Lime at 2.25% was added to all the treatments to alleviate low pH, and composted for 56 days. Humic acid/fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio increased to 0.5, 2.0 and 3.6 in the control and treatment at 5:5:1, and 1:1:1 mixing ratio, respectively at the end of composting. The decrease in aliphatic organics in HA demonstrated the degradation of the readily available organics, while an increase in aromatic functional groups indicated the maturity of compost. Disappearance of hemicellulose and weak intensity of lignin in the CMHRs treatments indicated that the lignin provided the nucleus for HA formation; and the CMHRs accelerated the compost maturity. PMID:24951275

Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

2014-09-01

79

A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Prevents Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:24995353

Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chang, Jung-Chen; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien

2014-01-01

80

Multimodality Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer with Liver Metastases using Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and/or Chinese Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the utility of multidisciplinary approaches in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer with liver metastases (PCLM). Methods From 2002 to 2007, a total of 164 consecutive patients with PCLM treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) were included in this study. Clinical parameters, treatments received and survival time from initial diagnosis were analyzed. Results Of the 164 patients, 113 (69%) were men and 51 (31%) were women, with median age of 58 years. One hundred and thirty-two patients (80%) had synchronous liver metastases, and 57 patients (35%) had extrahepatic metastases. Overall median survival time of the 164 patients was 4.7 months, 23 (14%) were alive at least 12 months after initial diagnosis of liver metastases. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) <80, weight loss (>10% within 6 months), ascites, and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 ?1000 U/mL were the most relevant predictors of poor survival. Multivariate analysis showed that chemotherapy and CHM were protective factors. Conclusions Multimodality treatment is well tolerated by patients with PCLM and may be effective in prolonging their survival. Awareness of the implications of these prognostic factors may assist in evaluating the survival potential of patients and selecting the most appropriate treatments. PMID:20683216

Ouyang, Huaqiang; Wang, Peng; Meng, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Yu, Er’xin; Jin, Huan; Chang, David Z.; Liao, Zhongxing; Cohen, Lorenzo; Liu, Luming

2010-01-01

81

A gene expression signature-based approach reveals the mechanisms of action of the Chinese herbal medicine berberine.  

PubMed

Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was shown to display anticancer activity. In this study, we attempted to provide a global view of the molecular pathways associated with its anticancer effect through a gene expression-based chemical approach. BBR-induced differentially expressed genes obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were analyzed using the Connectivity Map (CMAP) database to compare similarities of gene expression profiles between BBR and CMAP compounds. Candidate compounds were further analyzed using the Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals (STITCH) database to explore chemical-protein interactions. Results showed that BBR may inhibit protein synthesis, histone deacetylase (HDAC), or AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Further analyses demonstrated that BBR inhibited global protein synthesis and basal AKT activity, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy, which was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, BBR did not alter mTOR or HDAC activities. Interestingly, BBR induced the acetylation of ?-tubulin, a substrate of HDAC6. In addition, the combination of BBR and SAHA, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of BBR in cancer therapy. PMID:25227736

Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lo, Hsiang-Ling; Tang, Wan-Chun; Hsiao, Heidi Hao-yun; Yang, Pei-Ming

2014-01-01

82

Inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators in primary and cultured cells by a Chinese herbal medicine formula for allergic rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Background We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. Methods Compound 48/80-induced histamine release was studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Production of leukotriene B4 induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied in porcine neutrophils using an HPLC assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production was studied in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells by immune-enzyme assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined in Raw 264.7 cells, using western blotting techniques. Results RCM-101 (1–100 ?g/mL) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from Raw 264.7 cells. Over the range 1 – 10 ?g/mL, it inhibited A23187-induced leukotriene B4 production in porcine neutrophils. In addition, RCM-101 (100 ?g/mL) inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein but did not affect that of COX-1. Conclusion The findings indicate that RCM-101 inhibits the release and/or synthesis of histamine, leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in cultured cells. These interactions of RCM-101 with multiple inflammatory mediators are likely to be related to its ability to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis. PMID:17302969

Lenon, George B; Xue, Charlie CL; Story, David F; Thien, Frank CK; McPhee, Sarah; Li, Chun G

2007-01-01

83

Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and conclusions later. If Qishe Pill can alleviate neck pain without adverse effects, it may be a unique strategy for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01274936 PMID:24099350

2013-01-01

84

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 10 High-Quality Randomized Controlled Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is very common in people with diabetes. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) therapy has been developed for DPN empirically over the years. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of CHMs for patients suffering from DPN. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of CHM on DPN. Six databases were searched up to November 2012. The primary outcome measures were the absolute values or changing of motor or sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and the secondary outcome measurements were clinical symptoms improvements and adverse events. The methodological quality was assessed by Jadad scale and the twelve criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. Results One hundred and sixty-three studies claimed RCTs. Ten studies with 653 individuals were further identified based on the Jadad score ?3. These 10 studies were all of high methodological quality with a low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed the effects of NCV favoring CHMs when compared with western conventional medicines (WCM) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There is a significant difference in the total efficacy rate between the two groups (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in all of the ten included studies, and well tolerated in all patients with DPN. Conclusion Despite of the apparently positive findings and low risk of bias, it is premature to conclude the efficacy of CHMs for the treatment of DPN because of the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample sizes of the included studies. However, CHM therapy was safe for DPN. Further standardized preparation, large sample-size and rigorously designed RCTs are required. PMID:24146822

Hao, Chi-zi; Wu, Fan; Lu, Lin; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yi; Liu, Ai-ju; Liao, Wei-jing; Zheng, Guo-qing

2013-01-01

85

Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

Tillotson, Alan Keith

2008-01-01

86

Shikonin, a Component of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Inhibits Chemokine Receptor Function and Suppresses Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

Shikonin is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities, including inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1). G protein-coupled chemokine receptors are used by HIV-1 as coreceptors to enter the host cells. In this study, we assessed the effects of shikonin on chemokine receptor function and HIV-1 replication. The results showed that, at nanomolar concentrations, shikonin inhibited monocyte chemotaxis and calcium flux in response to a variety of CC chemokines (CCL2 [monocyte chemoattractant protein 1], CCL3 [macrophage inflammatory protein 1?], and CCL5 [regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein]), the CXC chemokine (CXCL12 [stromal cell-derived factor 1?]), and classic chemoattractants (formylmethionyl-leucine-phenylalanine and complement fraction C5a). Shikonin down-regulated surface expression of CCR5, a primary HIV-1 coreceptor, on macrophages to a greater degree than the other receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CXCR4, and the formyl peptide receptor) did. CCR5 mRNA expression was also down-regulated by the compound. Additionally, shikonin inhibited the replication of a multidrug-resistant strain and pediatric clinical isolates of HIV in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 96 to 366 nM. Shikonin also effectively inhibited the replication of the HIV Ba-L isolate in monocytes/macrophages, with an IC50 of 470 nM. Our results suggest that the anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities of shikonin may be related to its interference with chemokine receptor expression and function. Therefore, shikonin, as a naturally occurring, low-molecular-weight pan-chemokine receptor inhibitor, constitutes a basis for the development of novel anti-HIV therapeutic agents. PMID:12936978

Chen, Xin; Yang, Lu; Zhang, Ning; Turpin, Jim A.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Osterling, Clay; Oppenheim, Joost J.; Howard, O. M. Zack

2003-01-01

87

Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis activity of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts of 24 herbs traditionally used as curing ischemic heart disease in clinic in China were screened for their in vitro angiogenic activity, another twenty-four traditionally used as anti-tumor or anti-inflammatory remedies in China were screened for their in vitro anti-angiogenic activity. The activity of angiogenesis was determined by quantitation of vessels on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and cell proliferation of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). Among the herbal extracts examined, the aqueous extracts of Epimedium sagittatum, Trichosanthes kirilowii and Dalbergia odorifera showed the strong angiogenetic activity both in CAM and BAECs models; and the aqueous extracts of Berberis paraspecta, Catharanthus roseus, Coptis chinensis, Taxus chinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Polygonum cuspidatum and Scrophularia ningpoensis elicited significant inhibition at a concentration of 1g dry herb /ml. PMID:15010258

Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Zhengui; Weng, Yinqi; Yu, Yijun; Zhang, Daifu; Fan, Weihu; Dai, Ruihong; Hu, Zhibi

2004-04-01

88

Application of two-dimensional near-infrared correlation spectroscopy to the discrimination of Chinese herbal medicine of different geographic regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fructus Lycii is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. The objective of this paper was to apply two-dimensional (2D) near-infrared (NIR) correlation spectroscopy to the discrimination of Fructus Lycii of four different geographic regions. Generalized 2D-NIR correlation spectroscopy was able to enhance spectral resolution, simplify the spectrum with overlapped bands, and provide information about temperature-induced spectral intensity variations that was hard to obtain from one-dimensional NIR spectroscopy. The 2D synchronous and asynchronous spectra showed remarkable differences within the range of 4950-5700 cm -1 between samples of different geographic regions. Using NIR instead of IR made the 2D approach more convenient and fast, and it can be applied to more area like process control. This approach can also be applied analogously to the discrimination of other Chinese herbal medicine of different geographic regions.

Lu, Jun; Xiang, Bingren; Liu, Hao; Xiang, Suyun; Xie, Shaofei; Deng, Haishan

2008-02-01

89

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the total alkaloid from traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treating Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative neurologic disorder resulting in impaired memory and behavior. A promising\\u000a treatment strategy for AD has been the use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Several potent AChE inhibitors such\\u000a as huperzine and galanthamine were originally isolated from plants, indicating that herbal medicines are a good source for\\u000a the search of potential AChE inhibitors. In our

Zhongduo YangDongbo; Dongbo Zhang; Jin Ren; Mingjun Yang; Shuo Li

90

Effects of Gushukang, a Chinese herbal medicine, on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in laying hens.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the effects of the herb medicine formula Gushukang (GSK) on bone characteristics and osteoporosis in end-of-lay hens. One thousand 55-wk-old ISA caged layers were allotted randomly to 2 groups. The control group was given the basal diet, and the GSK group was given the basal diet supplemented with additional GSK (1 g/kg) for 10 wk. Egg production, shell quality, bone radiographic density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were determined. The results showed that GSK significantly increased the egg laying rate and decreased the percentage of cracked eggs (P < 0.05).The serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the GSK-treated group compared with the control group, whereas bone characteristics were significantly improved (P < 0.05). The results suggested that GSK can improve egg production and prevent bone loss by inhibiting bone turnover. PMID:19834084

Zhou, Z-L; Deng, Y-F; Tao, Q-S; Hu, Y-F; Hou, J-F

2009-11-01

91

Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It

Krishna Kaphle; Leang-Shin Wu; Nai-Yen Jack Yang; Jen-Hsou Lin

2006-01-01

92

Role of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Xianhuayin on the Reversal of Premalignant Mucosal Lesions in the Golden Hamster Buccal Pouch  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters. Methodology The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin. Results In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in NS-treated group and those in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Significant therapeutic efficacy was observed in the group receiving Xianhuayin. Conclusion Xianhuayin is effective in the reversal of DMBA-induced premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of golden hamsters. PMID:20690419

Xu, Yan-zhi; Qiu, Yong-le; An, Zhi-guang; Yang, Feng-ying

2010-01-01

93

Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

2012-01-01

94

A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS)  

PubMed Central

A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se) using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a). The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium. PMID:23377017

Rasdi, Fairuz Liyana Mohd; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Mohamad, Sharifah

2013-01-01

95

Herbal Medicine and Women's Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine is being increasingly used by women to prevent diseases, promote health and treat different diseases including a number of psychiatric disorders. The use of herbal drugs is increasing in the western world. The use of herbal drugs during pregnancy has been studied to various extents in different countries. However, more information is required regarding the impact of herbal

Akhondzadeh Sh

96

Canadian Pharmacy Students' Knowledge of Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine fourth-year Canadian pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine and whether that knowledge is associated with mandatory instruction in herbal medicine. Methods Standardized multiple-choice tests assessing students' herbal knowledge were distributed to all fourth-year BSc pharmacy students at 5 pharmacy schools in Canada. Results The Quebec response rate was too low to include in the analysis. Herbal knowledge test scores were positively associated with having previously taken an herbal medicine class and completion of a pharmacy practicum. However, postsecondary education, age, and gender were not associated with herbal knowledge test scores. Students at the University of British Columbia had the highest score, followed by Alberta, Nova Scotia, and Ontario. Conclusion Pharmacy students' knowledge of herbal medicine varies depending on the school attended and higher herbal knowledge test scores appear to be most closely related to mandatory herbal instruction. PMID:19002275

Johnson, Teela; Jurgens, Tannis; Austin, Zubin; Moineddin, Rahim; Eccott, Lynda; Heschuk, Shirley

2008-01-01

97

Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

2013-01-01

98

Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.  

PubMed

The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. PMID:12472966

Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

2002-12-01

99

Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD) is traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of phase II enzymes and is known as the major mechanism of cellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of THSWD on the Nrf2 signaling pathway and the consequent effect during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that THSWD reduced infarct volume and improved neurological function in a rat stroke model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Additionally, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a key endogenous antioxidant enzyme regulated by Nrf2, was significantly further induced by THSWD in this in vivo model. In neuronal-like PC12 cells, THSWD remarkably up-regulated HO-1 expression and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase was found to be involved in the upstream of Nrf2 regulation. In an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD-Rep) model, THSWD treatment significantly reduced cell death induced by OGD-Rep insult. Importantly, the protective action was attenuated while PI3K activity was inhibited by a specific inhibitor, LY294002, and the Nrf2 signaling pathway was blocked by antioxidant response element (ARE) decoy oligonucleotides. Collectively, these results demonstrated that THSWD exhibited notable neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo and activation of PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway may be, at least in part, responsible for the protection. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of the Chinese herbal medicine formula THSWD. PMID:25149059

Li, Li; Yang, Na; Nin, Ling; Zhao, Zhilong; Chen, Lu; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Zhuyun; Zhong, Zhendong; Zeng, Daiwen; Qi, Hongyi; Xu, Xiaoyu

2015-01-01

100

Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication  

PubMed Central

Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (?? lóng d?n; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (?? sh?n yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (??? jué míng z?; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (??? s?ng jì sh?ng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (?? g?u j?; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 ?g/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 ?g/ml and 44 ?g/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

2011-01-01

101

Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.  

PubMed

In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

2014-02-01

102

Chinese Herbal Medicine Qi Ju Di Huang Wan for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background. Chinese herbs are potentially effective for hypertension. Qi Ju Di Huang Wan (QJDHW) is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine as a monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of QJDHW for EH. Methods and Findings. CENTRAL, PubMed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of QJDHW for essential hypertension up to January 2013 with no language restrictions. A total of 10 randomized trials involving 1024 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in lowering blood pressure and improving TCM syndrome for the treatment of essential hypertension than antihypertensive drugs used alone. No trials reported severe adverse events related to QJDHW. Conclusions. Our review suggests that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs might be an effective treatment for lowering blood pressure and improving symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the finding should be interpreted with caution because of the poor methodological quality of included trials. There is an urgent need for well-designed, long-term studies to assess the effectiveness of QJDHW in the treatment of essential hypertension. PMID:23878593

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Guoyan; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaochen

2013-01-01

103

A Study of the Effect of Shiunko, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine, on Fibroblasts and Its Implication on Wound Healing Processes  

PubMed Central

Significance In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years for various acute and chronic wound care. Thus, there is a growing need to explore the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing. Recent Advances Nowadays, in China and some Asian countries including Korea, Japan, and Singapore, Chinese herbal therapy is used as an alternative treatment in wound care. Therefore, exploration of the possible benefits of TCM on wound healing is necessary. Critical Issues Development of TCM is based on the concept of Yin (negative phenomenon of nature) and Yang (positive phenomenon of nature). These opposing and complementary natural phenomena of the universe restore the normal physiological functions, consequently curing diseases and restoring health of a patient. Future Directions Due to lack of evidence-based research, TCM treatments are not widely accepted in the western world. Using state-of-the-art technology such as proteomics, bioinformatics, and biomolecular techniques, research studies may lead to more effective remedies for wound care in the future. PMID:24688831

Chak, Kin-Fu; Hsiao, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ting-Yu

2013-01-01

104

Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction) Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15) studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1), arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2), clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-? and IL-8) when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled), and mucolytics. PMID:25165477

Yu, Xuhua; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli

2014-01-01

105

Chinese Herbal Medicine Bushen Qinggan Formula for Blood Pressure Variability and Endothelial Injury in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Blood pressure variability (BPV) independent of average blood pressure is related to cardiovascular damage. Meanwhile, BPV is also associated with measures of endothelial injury. Decoction, a traditional used form of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is inconvenient to prepare, carry, and store. Dispensing granules is now developing as an alternative to decoction, but the evidence supporting its clinical efficacy the same as decoction remains unclear. Objective. To examine the therapeutic effects on mean blood pressure (MBP), blood pressure variability, and endothelial function by giving Bushen Qinggan Formula, a compound Chinese Herbal Medicine and also to evaluate the difference in efficacy between decoction and granule. Methods. A total of 150 patients with hypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive the placebo, Bushen Qinggan decoction, or Bushen Qinggan granule in addition to the standard medications (amlodipine-5?mg/d) for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). The outcome was the reduction in the MBP and BPV and also included changes in the endothelial markers including endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) after 8 weeks of treatment. Results. Compared with the control group, the Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule groups had significant improvement (P < 0.01) in BPV and endothelial founction. The level of BPV and endothelial function between decoction and granule group had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based on the standard treatment, Bushen Qinggan Formula further improved BPV and endothelial function. The efficacy of Bushen Qinggan decoction and granule is similar in improving BPV and endothelial function. However, no significant antihypertensive effects could be demonstrated. PMID:25028590

Wu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jingchun; Zhao, Yingke; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yue

2014-01-01

106

Chinese herbal medicine Guizhi Fuling Formula for treatment of uterine fibroids: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Guizhi Fuling Formula is widely applied for uterine fibroids in China. Many clinical trials are reported. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of Guizhi Fuling Formula for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, and four Chinese databases were searched through May 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that tested Guizhi Fuling Formula for uterine fibroids, compared with no intervention, placebo, pharmaceutical medication, or other Chinese patent medicines approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Authors extracted data and assessed the quality independently. We applied RevMan 5.2.0 software to analyse data of included randomised trials. Results A total of 38 RCTs involving 3816 participants were identified. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Meta-analyses demonstrated that Guizhi Fuling Formula plus mifepristone were more effective than mifepristone alone in reducing the volume of fibroids (in total volume of multiple fibroids, MD ?19.41 cm3, 95% CI ?28.68 to ?10.14; in average volume of multiple fibroids, MD ?1.00 cm3, 95% CI ?1.23 to ?0.76; in average volume of maximum fibroids, MD ?3.35 cm3, 95% CI ?4.84 to ?1.87, I2?=?93%, random effects model). Guizhi Fuling Formula significantly improved symptoms of dysmenorrhea either when it was used alone (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.97) or in combination with mifepristone (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.82). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Guizhi Fuling Formula appears to have additional benefit based on mifepristone treatment in reducing volume of fibroids. However, due to high risk of bias of the trials, we could not draw confirmative conclusions on its benefit. Future clinical trials should be well-designed and avoid the issues that are identified in this study. PMID:24383676

2014-01-01

107

Preclinical Studies of the Chinese Herbal Medicine formulation PHY906 as a Potential Adjunct to Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives Abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is limited by the radiosensitivity of the small and large intestine. PHY906, a state-of-the-art adaptation of a traditional Chinese medicine, decreased intestinal injury from chemotherapy in preclinical studies and is in clinical trials with chemotherapy. This project assessed whether PHY906 would also reduce intestinal injury from whole-abdomen irradiation in mice. Materials/Methods BALB/c mice received whole-abdomen irradiation (2 Gy/day) ± PHY906 by oral gavage twice daily for 4 days. Intestinal injury was assayed by physiological observations and histological studies. Effects of PHY906 on tumor radiation response were assayed in tumor growth studies. Results PHY906 decreased the toxicity of fractionated abdominal irradiation. Radiation alone produced marked blunting and loss of villi, crypt loss, crypt hyperplasia and irregular crypt morphology, which were reduced by PHY906. The radiation-induced reduction in viable crypt counts was also mitigated by PHY906. PHY906 did not alter radiation-induced weight loss, but resulted in more rapid recovery. PHY906 did not alter growth, local invasion or metastatic spread of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors or protect tumors from growth delays produced by single-dose and fractionated irradiation. Conclusion In this mouse model system, PHY906 decreased the toxicity of abdominal irradiation, without protecting tumors, thereby increasing the therapeutic ratio. PMID:22856538

Rockwell, Sara; Grove, Tina A.; Liu, Yanfeng; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Higgins, Susan A; Booth, Carmen J

2013-01-01

108

Sustained antidiabetic effects of a berberine-containing Chinese herbal medicine through regulation of hepatic gene expression.  

PubMed

Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this study, we used a three-herb, berberine-containing TCM to treat male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. TCM showed sustained glucose-lowering effects for 1 week after a single-dose treatment. Two-week treatment attenuated insulin resistance and fatty degeneration, with hepatocyte regeneration lasting for 1 month posttreatment. These beneficial effects persisted for 1 year after 1-month treatment. Two-week treatment with TCM was associated with activation of AMPK, Akt, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)1 pathways, with downregulation of miR29-b and expression of a gene network implicated in cell cycle, intermediary, and NADPH metabolism with normalization of CYP7a1 and IGFBP1 expression. These concerted changes in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins may explain the sustained effects of TCM in favor of cell survival, increased glucose uptake, and lipid oxidation/catabolism with improved insulin sensitivity and liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that multicomponent TCM may be a useful tool to unravel genome regulation and expression in complex diseases. PMID:22396199

Zhao, Hai-Lu; Sui, Yi; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Yip, Kevin Y; Leung, Ross K K; Tsui, Stephen K W; Lee, Heung-Man; Wong, Harriet K T; Zhu, Xun; Siu, Jennifer J; He, Lan; Guan, Jing; Liu, Li-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Tong, Peter C Y; Chan, Juliana C N

2012-04-01

109

Identification of Chinese Herbal Medicines from Zingiberaceae Family Using Feature Extraction and Cascade Classifier Based on Response Signals from E-Nose  

PubMed Central

Identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) by human experience is often inaccurate because individual ability and external factors may influence the outcome. However, it might be promising to employ an electronic nose (E-nose) to identify them. This paper presents a rapid and reliable method for identification of ten different species of CHMs from Zingiberaceae family based on their response signals from E-nose. Ten Zingiberaceae CHMs were measured and their maximum response values were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Result shows that E Zhu (Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.) and Yi Zhi (Alpinia oxyphylla Miq.) could not be distinguished completely by PCA. Two solutions were proposed: (i) using BestFirst+CfsSubsetEval (BC) method to extract more discriminative features to select sensors with higher contribution rate and remove the redundant signals; (ii) employing a novel cascade classifier with two stages to enhance the distinguishing-positive rate (DPR). Based on these strategies, six features were extracted and used in different stages of the cascade classifier with higher DPRs. PMID:25114708

Peng, Lian; Zou, Hui-Qin; Bauer, Rudolf; Liu, Yong; Tao, Ou; Yan, Su-Rong; Han, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Yong-Hong

2014-01-01

110

Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Pharmacotherapy for Stable COPD: A Systematic Review of Effect on BODE Index and Six Minute Walk Test  

PubMed Central

This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP) on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP) from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as ‘low’ risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] ?0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.94, ?0.47) and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92) in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials. PMID:24622390

Chen, Xiankun; May, Brian; Di, Yuan Ming; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lin, Lin

2014-01-01

111

The efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine as an adjunctive therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Many published studies reflect the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) use in combination with conventional cancer therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with conventional chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Publications in 11 electronic databases were extensively searched, and 24 trials were included for analysis. A sum of 2,109 patients was enrolled in these studies, at which 1,064 patients participated in CT combined CHM and 1,039 in CT (six patients dropped out and were not reported the group enrolled). Compared to using CT alone, CHM combined with CT significantly increase one-year survival rate (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.15-1.60, p?=?0.0003). Besides, the combined therapy significantly increased immediate tumor response (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.19-1.56, p<1.0E-5) and improved Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (RR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.62-5.18, p?=?0.0003). Combined therapy remarkably reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III-IV (RR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.12-0.50, p?=?0.0001) and prevented the decline of hemoglobin and platelet in patients under CT at toxicity grade of I-IV (RR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.51-0.80, p<0.0001). Moreover, the herbs that are frequently used in NSCLC patients were identified. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjuvant therapy can reduce CT toxicity, prolong survival rate, enhance immediate tumor response, and improve KPS in advanced NSCLC patients. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials in the included studies, further larger scale trials are needed. PMID:23469033

Li, Shi Guang; Chen, Hai Yong; Ou-Yang, Chen Sheng; Wang, Xi-Xin; Yang, Zhen-Jiang; Tong, Yao; Cho, William C S

2013-01-01

112

The Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjunctive Therapy for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Many published studies reflect the growing application of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) use in combination with conventional cancer therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its efficacy remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of CHM combined with conventional chemotherapy (CT) in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Publications in 11 electronic databases were extensively searched, and 24 trials were included for analysis. A sum of 2,109 patients was enrolled in these studies, at which 1,064 patients participated in CT combined CHM and 1,039 in CT (six patients dropped out and were not reported the group enrolled). Compared to using CT alone, CHM combined with CT significantly increase one-year survival rate (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.15–1.60, p?=?0.0003). Besides, the combined therapy significantly increased immediate tumor response (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.19–1.56, p<1.0E?5) and improved Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (RR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.62–5.18, p?=?0.0003). Combined therapy remarkably reduced the nausea and vomiting at toxicity grade of III–IV (RR?=?0.24, 95% CI?=?0.12–0.50, p?=?0.0001) and prevented the decline of hemoglobin and platelet in patients under CT at toxicity grade of I–IV (RR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.51–0.80, p<0.0001). Moreover, the herbs that are frequently used in NSCLC patients were identified. This systematic review suggests that CHM as an adjuvant therapy can reduce CT toxicity, prolong survival rate, enhance immediate tumor response, and improve KPS in advanced NSCLC patients. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials in the included studies, further larger scale trials are needed. PMID:23469033

Ou-Yang, Chen Sheng; Wang, Xi-Xin; Yang, Zhen-Jiang; Tong, Yao; Cho, William C.S.

2013-01-01

113

Use of complementary and alternative medicine by Chinese women with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been rapidly increasing among cancer patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of CAM use, particularly patients' intentions and their perceived effectiveness of using Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as well as the relations between the herbal medicine use and demographic and clinical factors among Chinese

Yong Cui; Xiao-Ou Shu; Yutang Gao; Wanqing Wen; Zhi-Xian Ruan; Fan Jin; Wei Zheng

2004-01-01

114

Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been suc- cessful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive

Bhushan Patwardhan; Dnyaneshwar Warude; P. Pushpangadan; Narendra Bhatt

2005-01-01

115

The effect of Chinese herbal medicine Jian Ling Decoction for the treatment of essential hypertension: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives Jian Ling Decoction (JLD) is often prescribed to improve hypertension-related symptoms in China. However, this treatment has not been systematically reviewed for its efficacy against essential hypertension (EH). This review aims to assess the current clinical evidence of JLD in the treatment of EH. Design Seven electronic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and the Wanfang Database, were searched up to March 2014. Randomised control trials (RCTs) comparing JLD or combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included. We assessed the methodological quality, extracted the valid data and conducted the meta-analysis according to criteria from the Cochrane group. The primary outcome was categorical or continuous blood pressure (BP), and the secondary outcome was quality of life (QOL). Results Ten trials (655 patients) with unclear-to-high risk of bias were identified. Meta-analysis showed that JLD used alone showed no BP reduction effect; however, improvement on QOL was found in the JLD group compared to antihypertensive drugs. A significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP was observed for JLD plus antihypertensive drugs when compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Owing to insufficient clinical data, it is difficult to draw a definite conclusion regarding the effectiveness and safety of JLD for EH, and better trials are needed. PMID:25652798

Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing

2015-01-01

116

Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy  

PubMed Central

The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

Li, Xiu-Min

2009-01-01

117

Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary\\/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary\\/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador)

Michael Smith; Heather S. Boon

1999-01-01

118

Can Chinese Herbal Medicine Improve Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of infertile couples are choosing Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant therapy to improve their success when undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). There is no systematic review to evaluate the impact of CHM on the IVF outcomes. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of CHM with concurrent IVF versus IVF alone on the outcomes of IVF and its safety. Methods The protocol of this study is registered at PROSPERO. Eligible RCTs searched from 8 databases which compared a combination of CHM and IVF with IVF alone were included. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Meta-analysis of RCTs was conducted if there was non-significant heterogeneity (evaluated by I2 test) among trials. All statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. Results Twenty trials involving 1721 women were included in the meta-analysis. Three trials were evaluated as having an unclear risk of bias. The remaining trials were evaluated as having a high risk of bias. Combination of CHM and IVF significantly increases clinical pregnancy rates (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.67 to 2.49, p<0.00001) and ongoing pregnancy rates (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.17 to 3.10, p?=?0.009). Use of CHM after embryo transfer had no better outcome in reducing the rate of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.14 to 1.11, p?=?0.08). Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that combination of IVF and CHM used in the included trials improve IVF success, however due to the high risk of bias observed with the trials, the significant differences found with the meta-analysis are unlikely to be accurate. No conclusion could be drawn with respect to the reproductive toxicity of CHM. Further large randomized placebo controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings before recommending women to take CHM to improve their IVF success. PMID:24339951

Cao, Huijuan; Han, Mei; Ng, Ernest H. Y.; Wu, Xiaoke; Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

2013-01-01

119

[Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].  

PubMed

Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with response surface analysis method was considered to be well used for optimization of the cloud point extraction. PMID:25474972

Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

2014-08-01

120

[Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].  

PubMed

Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with response surface analysis method was considered to be well used for optimization of the cloud point extraction. PMID:25508751

Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

2014-08-01

121

Effect of Chinese herbal medicine extracts on cell-mediated immunity in a rat model of tuberculosis induced by multiple drug-resistant bacilli.  

PubMed

Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a major threat to public health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. extracts on cell?mediated immunity in a rat model of tuberculosis (TB) induced by multiple drug-resistant bacilli. The bacterium was isolated from patients infected with pulmonary tuberculosis. The immunological response in humans following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis involves a number of cytokines, including IFN-? and IFN-?, which are important for killing intracellular micro-organisms. T helper type 2 (Th2) cells express numerous cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, which mainly participate in humoral immunity and induce the phagocytosis of extracellular bacteria and parasites. In the present study, rats were infected with multiple drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in order to establish an MDR-TB model. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultivated, and the serum levels of IFN-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 were examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression levels of certain cytokines in PBMCs were additionally detected using RT-PCR. The serum levels of IFN-? in the Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. groups were 2.01±0.73, 1.92±0.56, 1.98±0.67 and 1.94±0.59 pg/ml; IL-4 levels were 6.01±1.46, 6.12±1.35, 6.47±1.46 and 6.15±1.44 pg/ml; IL-10 levels were 12.09±3.07, 12.45±4.01, 12.13±3.43 and 12.54±3.78 pg/ml; and IL-12 levels were 2.99±0.89, 2.75±0.84, 3.02±0.86 and 2.89±0.75 pg/ml, respectively. These differences were significant compared with the model group (P<0.05). RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and a significant decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.05). These results indicated that the extracts of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. are capable of enhancing cell?mediated immunity in rats by upregulating the levels of genetic transcription. This may explain the observed therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:23716296

Lu, Jun; Ye, Song; Qin, Rui; Deng, Yun; Li, Chao-Pin

2013-07-01

122

Review Article Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges  

E-print Network

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. 1.

Yan Li; Robert C. G. Martin Ii

2010-01-01

123

Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

2011-01-01

124

Effect of a Herbal Formula Consisting of Leech, Dahuang and Chinese Cassia Bark on Diet-induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Atherosclerosis is a common condition with slow build-up of plaque on the inside wall of arteries. This study was undertaken to investigate whether a herbal formula consisting of three traditional Chinese medicines, including leech (Shuizhi, Whitmania pigra Whitman), Dahuang (medicinal rhubarb, Rheum palmatum L., Polygonaceae), and Chinese cassia bark ( Guipi, Cinnamomum

Heqing Huang; Peiqin Liu; Weihua Liu; Sha Tao; Zhi-Wei Zhou; Ziqing Hei; Chun Guang Li; Charlie Changli Xue; Min Huang; Shu-Feng Zhou

125

Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

2006-01-01

126

Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

2012-01-01

127

Risks associated with the practice of traditional Chinese medicine: an Australian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the nature and frequency of adverse events that occur as a result of the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine) in Australia. Methods: Data on adverse events were obtained as part of a comprehensive survey of all occupational health groups, government-registered and unregistered, who practiced traditional Chinese medicine or 1 of its main

Alan Bensoussan; Stephen P Myers; Anne L Carlton

2000-01-01

128

Introduction to the pharmacoeconomics of herbal medicines.  

PubMed

This article explores the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of herbal medicines and assesses the extent to which this approach has been applied so far to these products. There seems to be no compelling need for pharmacoeconomic analyses of herbal over-the-counter medicines, but such analyses are certainly warranted for herbal prescription medicines that have a high level of reimbursement. Such preparations are used in Germany, in particular, where physicians prescribed ginkgo, hawthorn, St John's wort, horse-chestnut and saw palmetto to a value of more than DM50 million each in 1996. In our survey, only a single pharmacoeconomic study, of uncertain quality, was found on these 5 herbs, whereas several pharmacoeconomic reports on synthetic competitors were retrieved. The time has come to submit highly reimbursed herbal prescription medicines to the same rigorous pharmacoeconomic evaluations as their synthetic competitors. At present, such studies are particularly important for Germany, but in the future they may also become relevant for other countries, inside as well as outside Europe. PMID:11010600

De Smet, P A; Bonsel, G; Van der Kuy, A; Hekster, Y A; Pronk, M H; Brorens, M J; Lockefeer, J H; Nuijten, M J

2000-07-01

129

HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)  

PubMed Central

Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

2001-01-01

130

Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

2011-01-01

131

Comments on serious anaphylaxis caused by nine Chinese herbal injections used to treat common colds and upper respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Reports describing severe allergic shock and fatality following treatment of a common cold or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with a Chinese herbal injection were collected. Our analysis of the risks associated with this treatment suggested that the potential risk of serious, or even lethal, anaphylaxis should preclude its use in treating common colds and URTIs. In light of our findings herein, we propose the following five suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections as medical treatments. First, Chinese herbal injections should not be delivered in the clinic to treat patients in accordance with Bian zheng lun zhi (broad-spectrum application based on holistic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and methodology), but rather they should be administered to target specific indicated disease processes. Second, Chinese herbal injection indications should be based on the results of double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials. Third, Chinese herbal injections should be used only in cases involving severe disease or to rescue patients in critical condition; they should not be used to treat mild, relatively innocuous diseases, such as common colds and upper respiratory tract infections, given the risk of doing harm. Fourth, Chinese herbal injection formulas should include materials from only a single or a small number of plant sources in known quantities. Fifth, more studies examining the toxicology and allergenic potential of Chinese herbal injections are needed. PMID:19559066

Ji, Kunmei; Chen, Jiajie; Li, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wang, Chunbo; Zhan, Zhengke; Wu, Xuli

2009-11-01

132

Clinical Study of Effects of Jian Ji Ning, a Chinese Herbal Medicine Compound Preparation, in Treating Patients with Myasthenia Gravis via the Regulation of Differential MicroRNAs Expression in Serum  

PubMed Central

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, of which the pathogenesis has remained unclear. At present, MG does not have any effective treatment with minor side effects. Jian Ji Ning (JJN), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of 11 medicinal plants, has been used in the treatment of MG for many years. The present study aims to determine if the Chinese herbal medicine JJN could lighten the clinical symptoms of patients with MG via the regulation of differential microRNAs (miRNAs) expression in serum. JJN should be orally administered twice a day for 6 months. In the efficacy evaluation adopting the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMG), we found that JJN could improve the clinical symptoms of patients with MG more effectively. Besides, we found that JJN could regulate differential miRNAs expression in serum of patients with MG. Accordingly, we speculate that the effects of JJN on improving clinical symptoms and blood test indicators of patients with MG may be due to its inhibition of apoptotic pathways of some immune cells and its connection with the regulation of serum miRNAs of some patients. In conclusion, we believe that JJN has a reliable curative effect on patients with MG-induced neuropathologic changes. PMID:24734107

Jiang, Chao; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Jingsheng; Bao, Wenjing; Qiu, Shaobo; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Lin

2014-01-01

133

Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

2014-01-01

134

TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. Description The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski’s rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. Conclusions The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php. PMID:24735618

2014-01-01

135

Health in China. Traditional Chinese medicine: one country, two systems.  

PubMed Central

China is the only country in the world where Western medicine and traditional medicine are practised alongside each other at every level of the healthcare system. Traditional Chinese medicine has a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of disease, which has developed over thousands of years. Traditional treatments include herbal remedies, acupuncture, acupressure and massage, and moxibustion. They account for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. The current government policy of expansion of traditional facilities and manpower is being questioned because many hospitals using traditional Chinese medicine are already underutilized and depend on government subsidies for survival. Research priorities include randomised controlled trials of common treatments and analysis of the active agents in herbal remedies. As more studies show the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, an integrated approach to disease using a combination of Western medicine and traditional approaches becomes a possibility for the future. PMID:9240055

Hesketh, T.; Zhu, W. X.

1997-01-01

136

Inhibition of Release of Vasoactive and Inflammatory Mediators in Airway and Vascular Tissues and Macrophages By a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula for Allergic Rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Herbal therapies are being used increasingly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pharmacological actions and cellular targets of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101), which was previously shown to be effective in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rat and guinea pig isolated tissues (trachea and aorta) were used to study the effects of RCM-101 on responses to various mediators. Production of leukotriene B4 in porcine neutrophils and of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO) in Raw 264.7 cells were also measured. In rat and guinea pig tracheal preparations, RCM-101 inhibited contractile responses to compound 48/80 but not those to histamine (guinea pig preparations) or serotonin (rat preparations). Contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal preparations to carbachol and leukotriene C4, and relaxant responses to substance P and prostaglandin E2 were not affected by RCM-101. In rat aortic preparations, precontracted with phenylephrine, endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were not affected by RCM-101. However, RCM-101 inhibited relaxations to l-arginine in endothelium-denuded rat aortic preparations, which had been pre-incubated with lipopolysaccharide. RCM-101 did not affect leukotriene B4 formation in isolated porcine neutrophils, induced by the calcium ionophore A23187; however, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells).The findings indicate that RCM-101 may have multiple inhibitory actions on the release and/or synthesis of inflammatory mediators involved in allergic rhinitis. PMID:17549238

Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie Changli; Thien, Francis Chung Kong; Story, David Frederick

2007-01-01

137

Chinese Herbal Therapy for the Treatment of Food Allergy  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China to treat various diseases for thousands of years. Given its reputed effectiveness, low cost, and favorable safety profile, TCM is attracting great interest in Western societies as a source of therapy for an array of illnesses, including allergies and asthma. Although food allergy has not been described in the TCM literature, a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), was developed using TCM principles. Using a well-characterized murine model of peanut allergy, FAHF-2 has been shown to be highly effective in providing long-term protection against peanut-induced anaphylaxis, with a high safety margin. Phase 1 human trials have demonstrated the safety of FAHF-2 in food allergic individuals. Currently, a phase 2 trial examining efficacy of FAHF-2 is on-going. Other TCMs also show a potential for treating food allergies in preclinical studies. PMID:22581122

Li, Xiu-Min

2014-01-01

138

Effects of four Chinese herbal extracts on drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We examined the pharmacology, cell biology and molecular biology of small-cell lung carcinoma cells treated with four extracts of Chinese herbal medicines. Many cancer patients take these medicines, but their effects at the cellular level are largely unknown. We were especially interested in the effects on drug-resistant cells, as resistance is a significant clinical problem in lung cancer. Methods:

David Sadava; Julie Ahn; Mei Zhan; Mei-Lin Pang; Jane Ding; Susan E. Kane

2002-01-01

139

Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

140

Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine.  

PubMed

The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions. PMID:18952343

Evans, Sue

2008-12-01

141

Herbal and complementary medicine in dermatology.  

PubMed

This article is a description of how I have integrated Complementary Medicine into the practice of dermatology over the past 2 decades. It emphasizes observing the principles of the system being used, such as the herbal concept of the synergy of the entire plant extract. Examples discussed include the use of flavonoids to protect the liver and capillaries. Herbs and techniques for reducing the inflammatory response, as well as for enhancing immunity, are given. The concept of homeopathy and a few remedies to use in office practice are discussed. Finally, a few methods to complement the treatment of melanoma are presented. PMID:15207314

Dattner, Alan M

2004-07-01

142

Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

2013-01-01

143

Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicines include a range of pharmacologically active compounds: in some cases it is not well understood which ingredients are important for a therapeutic effect. The supporters of herbal medicine believe that isolated ingredients in the majority of cases have weaker clinical effects than whole plant extract, a claim that would obviously require proof in each case. Generalizations about the

Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki

144

Indian Herbal Medicines: Possible Potent Therapeutic Agents for Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and is mainly characterized by the progressive erosion of cartilage leading to chronic polyarthritis and joint distortion. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease has yet not been elucidated, however, studies suggest that cellular proliferation of synoviocytes result in pannus formation which damages the cartilage and bone. Recent reports also support the role of free radicals in its pathogenesis. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Alternative medicine provides another approach for treatment of RA and currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a novel drug. There is a dire need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential and adverse effects, if any, of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. In this review we have tried to explore various Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi, as also some Chinese and Korean, herbals for their potential to treat RA. PMID:18392103

Rathore, Brijesh; Ali Mahdi, Abbas; Nath Paul, Bhola; Narayan Saxena, Prabhu; Kumar Das, Siddharth

2007-01-01

145

The use of orchids in Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

In this article, the therapeutic uses of five Chinese medicines that contain orchids are discussed, together with a brief report of some of the animal experimentation undertaken. The impression that these preparations have no therapeutic use may be incorrect. However, herbal preparations have not usually been subject to the rigorous characterization and standardization necessary for clinical study, and persuading practitioners that substances in use for many centuries still need to be tested in randomized controlled clinical trials is proving a significant challenge. PMID:18065708

Bulpitt, Christopher J; Li, Yan; Bulpitt, Pauline F; Wang, Jiguang

2007-01-01

146

Chinese medicines as a resource for liver fibrosis treatment  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single compounds with composite formulae or conventional medicines. Action mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis Chinese medicines, clinical application, herbal adverse events and quality control are also reviewed. Evidence indicates that some Chinese medicines are clinically effective on liver fibrosis. Strict quality control such as research to identify and monitor the manufacturing of Chinese medicines enables reliable pharmacological, clinical and in-depth mechanism studies. Further experiments and clinical trials should be carried out on the platforms that conform to international standards. PMID:19695098

2009-01-01

147

Herbal medicine development: a plea for a rigorous scientific foundation.  

PubMed

Science, including rigorous basic scientific research and rigorous clinical research, must underlie both the development and the clinical use of herbal medicines. Yet almost none of the hundreds or thousands of articles that are published each year on some aspect of herbal medicines, adheres to 3 simple but profound scientific principles must underlie all of herbal drug development or clinical use. Three fundamental principles that should underlie everyone's thinking about the development and/or clinical use of any herbal medicine. (1) There must be standardization and regulation (rigorously enforced) of the product being studied or being used clinically. (2) There must be scientific proof of a beneficial clinical effect for something of value to the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. (3) There must be scientific proof of safety (acceptable toxicity) for the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. These fundamental principles of science have ramifications for both the scientist and the clinician. It is critically important that both the investigator and the prescriber know exactly what is in the studied or recommended product and how effective and toxic it is. We will find new and useful drugs from natural sources. However, we will have to learn how to study herbal medicines rigorously, and we will have to try to convince the believers in herbal medicines of the wisdom and even the necessity of a rigorous scientific approach to herbal medicine development. Both biomedical science and practicing physicians must enthusiastically accept the responsibility for searching for truth in the discovery and development of new herbal medicines, in the truthful teaching about herbal medicines from a scientific perspective, and in the scientifically proven clinical use of herbal medicines. PMID:22964559

Lietman, Paul S

2012-09-01

148

Immunostimulatory lipid nanoparticles from herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Reproducibility is an important issue in biological characterization of drug candidates and natural products. It is not uncommon to encounter cases in which supposedly the same sample exhibits very different biological activities. During our characterization of macrophage-stimulatory lipids from herbal medicine, it was found that the potency of these lipids could vary substantially from experiment to experiment. Further analysis of this reproducibility issue led to the discovery of solvent-dependent nanoparticle formation by these lipids. While larger nanoparticles (approximately 100 nm) of these lipids showed modest macrophage-stimulatory activity, smaller nanoparticles (<10 nm) of the same lipids exhibited substantially higher potency. Thus, the study revealed an unexpected link between nanoparticle formation and macrophage-stimulatory activity of plant lipids. Although nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the context of vehicles for drug delivery, our finding indicates that drugs themselves can form nanoassemblies, and their biological properties may be altered by the way they assemble. PMID:24495243

Hasson, Tal H; Takaoka, Anna; de la Rica, Roberto; Matsui, Hiroshi; Smeureanu, Gabriela; Drain, Charles M; Kawamura, Akira

2014-04-01

149

Retinopathy induced by drugs and herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Retina is the part of the eye suffering most damage from drugs. It is made up of a thin nervous membrane that covers the eye-ball internally, within the thickness of which three types of cells are ordered. In this paper we describe the drugs that are responsible for retinal side effects. Most commonly recognized drugs-induced retinopathy have a particular affinity for the retinal pigmented epithelium: antimalarials (quinine, hydroxychloroquine, mefloquine), phenothiazines, indomethacin, ethambutol, and desferrioxamine. Attention is especially focused on drugs more recently suspected of adverse reactions in the retina: vigabatrin, gabapentin, sildenafil, tamoxifen, isotretinoin, interferon, and omeprazole. Moreover, we referred some reports of retinopathy by herbal medicines and nutritional supplements (canthaxanthine, Gingko biloba L. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) This review is based on data published in scientific journals indexed by the PubMed and Medline databases. The last search of the literature was conducted in April 2008. PMID:19024212

Nencini, C; Barberi, L; Runci, F M; Micheli, L

2008-01-01

150

Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review  

PubMed Central

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in ‘modern’ CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region. PMID:16322804

2005-01-01

151

Chinese traditional medicine as an effective pharmacological treatment for heroin addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese herbal medicine is effective in treating some addictions using, for example, aural acupuncture. Its application outside of China is limited due to a lack of clinical trials and ‘scientific’ evidence. U'finer™ is one of the first herbal remedies to undergo clinical trials, and is so far demonstrating a remarkable ability to improve brain function, restore physical health and enhance

Wei Wang

2006-01-01

152

Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

2006-01-01

153

Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

Torres, Eliseo

154

The Chinese herbal medicine FTZ attenuates insulin resistance via IRS1 and PI3K in vitro and in rats with metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Fu Fang Zhen Zhu Tiao Zhi formula (FTZ), a Chinese medicinal decoction, has been used to relieve hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and other symptoms associated with metabolic disorders in the clinic. Methods To evaluate the effect of FTZ on insulin resistance, HepG2 cells were induced with high insulin as a model of insulin resistance and treated with FTZ at one of three dosages. Next, the levels of glucose content, insulin receptor substrate1 (IRS1) protein expression and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) subunit p85 mRNA expression were measured. Alternatively, MS was induced in rats via gavage feeding of a high-fat diet for four consecutive weeks followed by administration of FTZ for eight consecutive weeks. Body weight and the plasma levels of lipids, insulin and glucose were evaluated. Finally, the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in adipose tissue of rats was measured. Results Our results revealed that FTZ attenuated glucose content and up-regulated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells in vitro. Moreover, FTZ reduced body weight and the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in insulin resistant MS rats. FTZ also elevated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in the adipose tissues of MS rats. Conclusion FTZ attenuated MS symptoms by decreasing the plasma levels of glucose and lipids. The underlying mechanism was attenuation of the reduced expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in both insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and MS rats. PMID:24555840

2014-01-01

155

Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

156

Evidence-based chinese medicine for hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2013-01-01

157

Why is Research on Herbal Medicinal Products Important and How Can We Improve Its Quality?  

PubMed Central

Research on herbal medicinal products is increasingly published in “Western” scientific journals dedicated primarily to conventional medicines. Publications are concerned mainly not only on the issues of safety and interactions, but also on efficacy. In reviews, a recurring complaint has been a lack of quality studies. In this opinion article, we present the case of Chinese herbal medicines as an example, as they have been extensively used in the global market and increasingly studied worldwide. We analyze the potential reasons for problems and propose some ways forward. As in the case of any drug, clinical trials for safety, efficacy, and/or effectiveness are the ultimate demonstration of therapeutic usefulness of herbal products. These will only make scientific sense when the tested herbal products are authentic, standardized, and quality controlled, if good practice guidelines of evidence-based medicine are followed, and if relevant controls and outcome measures are scientifically defined. Herbal products are complex mixtures, and for such complexity, an obvious approach for mechanistic studies is network pharmacology based on omic tools and approaches, which has already begun to revolutionize the study of conventional drugs, emphasizing networks, interactions, and polypharmacological features behind the action of many drugs. PMID:24872927

Pelkonen, Olavi; Xu, Qihe; Fan, Tai-Ping

2014-01-01

158

POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY  

PubMed Central

The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

Said, Hakim Mohammed

1984-01-01

159

Misuse of herbal remedies: the case of an outbreak of terminal renal failure in Belgium (Chinese herbs nephropathy)  

PubMed

At least 100 cases of extensive interstitial fibrosis of the kidneys were observed in Belgium in women who had followed a weight-loss regimen that included the use of Chinese herbs. The possible relation between the renal disease and these Chinese herbs was investigated. It was shown that the prescribed Chinese herb called Stephania tetrandra was, in fact, inadvertently replaced by another Chinese herb, namely Aristolochia fangchi in the powdered extracts delivered in Belgium and in France. The development of renal disease in about 100 patients exposed to the so-called Stephania tetrandra stresses the need for more stringent control of herbal medicine. PMID:9553830

Vanherweghem, L J

1998-01-01

160

Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México  

PubMed Central

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

2008-01-01

161

Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico)], E-mail: mlrodrig1@yahoo.com.mx; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Burchiel, Scott W. [University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy Toxicology Program, Albuquerque, NM (United States)], E-mail: sburchiel@salud.unm.du; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Torres, Eliseo [University of New Mexico, Department of Language, Literacy and Sociocultural Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-02-15

162

Herbal hepatoxicity from Chinese skullcap: A case report  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal supplements has increased considerably over the last decade. We report a case of an elderly woman who began taking Move Free Advanced for arthritis, which in addition to glucosamine and chondroitin, contained two herbal ingredients, Chinese skullcap and Black Catechu. Our patient presented with significant cholestasis and hepatitis which significantly improved after discontinuation of the supplement. Since neither the patient nor the treating physician recognized this supplement as a potential hepatotoxin, she resumed taking the supplement and again suffered from considerable hepatotoxicity. Liver biopsy at that time was consistent with acute drug induced liver injury. She, once again, recovered after discontinuation of the supplement. Review of the literature confirms that Chinese skullcap has been implicated as a possible hepatotoxic agent which was demonstrated in this case. PMID:22855699

Yang, Leslie; Aronsohn, Andrew; Hart, John; Jensen, Donald

2012-01-01

163

A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.  

PubMed

Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines. PMID:25087935

Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

2014-11-15

164

[Study on reference extracts for quality assessment on traditional Chinese medicines based on akebiae saponin].  

PubMed

On the basis of analysis and summary of current application of reference extracts of traditional Chinese medicine, reference extracts for quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicines are divided into three classes by purpose: 1. herbal or volatile oil reference extracts for TLC identification of original herbal medicines or patent traditional Chinese medicines containing original herbal medicines. 2. component reference extracts for identification of certain components or positioning of chromatographic peaks. 3. reference extracts marked with component content to be determined for quantitative analysis on samples. For the third kind of reference extracts, akebiae saponin was taken as an example for preparation thought and methods in such aspects as preparation process, component identification and content analysis. PMID:23234140

Yuan, Xianda; Gao, Huimin; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

2012-08-01

165

[A study of association rules in three-dimensional property-taste-effect data of Chinese herbal medicines based on Apriori algorithm].  

PubMed

The theory of four properties (Qi) and five tastes (Wei) is the core of the property theory of Chinese materia medica. It is known that Qi and Wei are associated with the pharmacological effects (Xiao) of herbs. This study took records of all 365 Chinese herbs in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica (Shennong Ben Cao Jing) as the data resource and established a three-dimensional data cube, in the purpose of finding out and analyzing the frequent patterns and valued association rules of Qi, Wei and Xiao based on Apriori algorithm. The results of this study may give rise to innovative ideas and methods in research of traditional Chinese materia medica. PMID:21749832

Jin, Rui; Lin, Qian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xin; Liu, Sen-Mao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Xiu-Lan

2011-07-01

166

Standardization of Metal-Based Herbal Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Standardization of herbal drugs is a burning topic in herbal drug industry today. Standardization is difficult becaus e they are usually mixtures of many constituents an d the active principle in most cases is unknown. Howe ver it is possible to generate a physico-chemical fingerprint for the standardization of these drugs with reference to authentic drugs, for monitoring

Arun Sudha; V. S. Murty; T. S. Chandra

2009-01-01

167

Non-aristolochic acid prescribed Chinese herbal medicines and the risk of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from a population-based follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the relationship between the use of non-aristolochic acid (AA) prescribed Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and the risk of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design Nationwide population-based follow-up study. Setting Longitudinal health insurance database sampled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants A total of 47?876 patients with CKD were identified. Participants who had ever used AA-containing CHMs, had cancer or HIV prior to the diagnosis of CKD, died within the first month of CKD diagnosis and who were not Taiwanese citizens were excluded. A total of 13?864 participants were eligible for final analysis. Primary and secondary outcome measures All-cause mortality among patients with CKD between 2000 and 2008. Results After controlling for potential confounders, we found that participants who started to receive non-AA prescribed CHMs after the diagnosis of CKD had a lower risk of mortality as compared with non-users of non-AA prescribed CHMs (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.6; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7, p<0.001). Moreover, participants who had used non-AA prescribed CHMs prior to and after the diagnosis of CKD also had a lower risk of mortality than non-users (aHR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8, p<0.001). In subgroup analyses, we found that such an inverse association was present only among patients who were not eligible to receive erythropoietin therapy (ie, serum creatinine ?6?mg/dL and/or haematocrit value ?28%). Conclusions Patients who received non-AA prescribed CHMs after the diagnosis of CKD, yet before the start of erythropoietin therapy had a lower risk of mortality than those who did not. PMID:24561496

Hsieh, Chuan Fa; Huang, Song Lih; Chen, Chien Lung; Chen, Wei Ta; Chang, Huan Cheng; Yang, Chen Chang

2014-01-01

168

Effectiveness and safety of herbal medicines in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines (HM) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A computer-based as well as manual literature search was performed. We reviewed randomized controlled trials on the treatment of IBS with and without HM. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies with 25 HMs met the inclusion criteria. Four of these studies were of good quality, while the remaining 18 studies involving 17 Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas were of poor quality. Eight of these reports using 9 HMs showed global improvement of IBS symptoms, 4 studies with 3 HMs were efficacious in diarrhea-predominant IBS, and 2 studies with 2 HMs showed improvement in constipation-predominant IBS. Out of a total of 1279 patients, 15 adverse events in 47 subjects were reported with HM. No serious adverse events or abnormal laboratory tests were observed. The incidence of the adverse events was low (2.97%; 95% CI: 2.04%-3.90%). CONCLUSION: Herbal medicines have therapeutic benefit in IBS, and adverse events are seldom reported in literature. Nevertheless, herbal medicines should be used with caution. It is necessary to conduct rigorous, well-designed clinical trials to evaluate their effectiveness and safety in the treatment of IBS. PMID:18200670

Shi, Jun; Tong, Yao; Shen, Jian-Gang; Li, Hai-Xia

2008-01-01

169

Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward and use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Survey questionnaires were distributed to 439 nursing students, 263 of whom (60%) returned them. Of the respondents, 92% had used TCM, while 48% had used TCM at least once during the previous year. Forty-five percent of respondents reported positive attitudes toward TCM use, 52% had neutral attitudes, and only 3% reported negative attitudes. The majority of respondents (76%) reported no change in their attitude toward TCM after studying nursing. Mean scores related to the adequacy of the current curriculum in TCM training and the state of respondents' TCM knowledge were generally low. Of the respondents who had used TCM during the past year, the most common use was for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common type of TCM used by respondents was herbal tea or soup. Final-year nursing students were more likely to have used TCM during the previous year, report they would like more courses on TCM, and consult Western medicine physicians before using TCM; they were also less likely to develop more negative attitudes toward TCM after studying nursing. PMID:16722501

Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Twinn, Sheila F; Leung, Ting F; Thompson, David R; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai F

2006-05-01

170

[Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].  

PubMed

Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years. PMID:25665435

Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

2014-12-01

171

IN PURSUIT OF NEW HERBAL SOURCES FOR INDIAN MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

Due to destruction of forest wealth and natural flora the sources of herbal medicine are becoming increasingly rare. So, it is high time to discover alternative sources of such drugs among plant species that are already available in large numbers. As a first installment of the series the medicinal properties of a few members of the family Phytolaccaceae are discussed here. PMID:22557586

Sivarajan, V. V.; Balachandran, Indu

1987-01-01

172

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. METHODS: Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies

Titilayo O Fakeye; Rasaq Adisa; Ismail E Musa

2009-01-01

173

Traditional Herbal Medicine: A Review of Potential of Inhibitory Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Basic Research and Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC. PMID:23956767

Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang

2013-01-01

174

Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

Wang, Julie

2014-01-01

175

Progress in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) natural products have been used to produce impressive responses in atopic eczema and related dermatological disorders that have proved resistant to orthodox treatments. The increasing popularity of TCM natural products has also produced fear about their toxicity and uncertainty about their ingredients. In the western world, very little is known of the efficacy and safety

K. Chan

1995-01-01

176

Superoxide and traditional Chinese medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional Chinese medicinal practices, herbs are classified as ‘cold’, ‘neutral’, or ‘hot’. Fluorometric analysis of herbs with ‘cold’ properties revealed that these herbs produce large amounts of superoxide. In contrast, herbs with ‘hot’ properties have scavenging activities. We believe that this electron transfer to form superoxide and the scavenging of superoxide may elucidate the phenomena of the ‘yin’ (represented

W. S. Lin; W. C. L. Chan; C. S. Hew

1995-01-01

177

Impact of African herbal medicines on antiretroviral metabolism.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of two African herbal medicines recommended for HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral metabolism. Extracts from Hypoxis and Sutherlandia showed significant effects on cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism and activated the pregnane X receptor approximately twofold. P-glycoprotein expression was inhibited, with Hypoxis showing 42-51% and Sutherlandia showing 19-31% of activity compared with verapamil. Initiating policies to provide herbal medicines with antiretroviral agents may put patients at risk of treatment failure, viral resistance or drug toxicity. PMID:15627040

Mills, Edward; Foster, Brian C; van Heeswijk, Rolf; Phillips, Elizabeth; Wilson, Kumanan; Leonard, Blair; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Kanfer, Isadore

2005-01-01

178

Bioactive proteins and peptides isolated from Chinese medicines with pharmaceutical potential.  

PubMed

Some protein pharmaceuticals from Chinese medicine have been developed to treat cardiovascular diseases, genetic diseases, and cancer. Bioactive proteins with various pharmacological properties have been successfully isolated from animals such as Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech), Eisenia fetida (earthworm), and Mesobuthus martensii (Chinese scorpion), and from herbal medicines derived from species such as Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma, Momordica cochinchinensis, Viscum album, Poria cocos, Senna obtusifolia, Panax notoginseng, Smilax glabra, Ginkgo biloba, Dioscorea batatas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. This article reviews the isolation methods, molecular characteristics, bioactivities, pharmacological properties, and potential uses of bioactive proteins originating from these Chinese medicines. PMID:25067942

Wong, Kam Lok; Wong, Ricky Ngok Shun; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Wing Keung; Ng, Tzi Bun; Shaw, Pang Chui; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Lai, Yau Ming; Zhang, Zhang Jin; Zhang, Yanbo; Tong, Yao; Cheung, Ho-Pan; Lu, Jia; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing

2014-01-01

179

Bioactive proteins and peptides isolated from Chinese medicines with pharmaceutical potential  

PubMed Central

Some protein pharmaceuticals from Chinese medicine have been developed to treat cardiovascular diseases, genetic diseases, and cancer. Bioactive proteins with various pharmacological properties have been successfully isolated from animals such as Hirudo medicinalis (medicinal leech), Eisenia fetida (earthworm), and Mesobuthus martensii (Chinese scorpion), and from herbal medicines derived from species such as Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma, Momordica cochinchinensis, Viscum album, Poria cocos, Senna obtusifolia, Panax notoginseng, Smilax glabra, Ginkgo biloba, Dioscorea batatas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. This article reviews the isolation methods, molecular characteristics, bioactivities, pharmacological properties, and potential uses of bioactive proteins originating from these Chinese medicines. PMID:25067942

2014-01-01

180

Medicinal Herb REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING  

E-print Network

2011. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Chinese Medicinal Herb Garden of the UC Botanical Garden is supportedChinese Medicinal Herb Garden The REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Gamble. Eastland Press: Seattle, WA 2003. The Chinese Medicinal Herbal Farm: A Cultivator's Guide

Doudna, Jennifer A.

181

Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

2011-12-01

182

Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

2014-01-01

183

Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review.  

PubMed

Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

2014-12-01

184

Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review  

PubMed Central

Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

2014-01-01

185

Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

2012-01-01

186

Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

2014-01-01

187

Principles of diet therapy in ancient Chinese medicine: 'Huang Di Nei Jing'.  

PubMed

Huang Di Nei Jing, the first systematic Chinese medical book, was compiled from the observations of imperial herbal doctors in the Qin and Han periods (221 BC - 220 AD). From this classic traditional source may be derived the concept of a balanced and complete diet and probably the world's first dietary guidelines. Basic to the tradition are han, re, wen and bu foods, respectively 'cold', 'hot', 'neutral', 'strengthening'. Basic to Chinese cuisine are jan and tsai- 'cereal' (the rice staple and main meal) and 'dishes' to accompany the rice. Chinese traditional medicine, as in Huang Di Nei Jing, considers the nourishment of body and mind. It also emphasises that herbal medicine and food have the same origin. Diet was essential to the prevention of disease which a glossary of Chinese terms is given at the end of the paper in the Chinese tradition, was superior to treatment. PMID:24352105

Ho, Z C

1993-06-01

188

Understanding the traditional aspect of Chinese medicine in order to achieve meaningful quality control of Chinese materia medica.  

PubMed

Although sophisticated and technologically advanced, current quality control methods for Chinese medicines (syn. Chinese materia medica or CMM) lack comprehensiveness and practicability. They are more suited for analyzing single-chemical drugs or specific, known chemical components that have already been isolated. While these methods can fully satisfy the modern scientific requirements for identity, purity and quality in the assessment of chemical drugs, they are not suitable for handling the complex chemical nature of traditional CMM whose multifunctional components along with their inherent holistic activities are frequently unknown and thus are not adequately analyzed by these methods. In order to assess properly and meaningfully the identity and quality of complex CMM (also known as Chinese herbs and Chinese herbal medicines), additional measures that can retain the traditional aspect of CMM need to be included. This requires a basic understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:18757061

Xie, Pei-Shan; Leung, Albert Y

2009-03-13

189

Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results More than two-third of respondents [67.5%] had used herbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [p < 0.05)] while only geopolitical zones and educational qualifications seemed to have influence on respondents' opinion on the harmful effects of herbal medicines to the fetus [p < 0.05]. Conclusion The study emphasized the wide spread use of herbal medicines by pregnant women in Nigeria highlighting an urgent need for health care practitioners and other health care givers to be aware of this practice and make efforts in obtaining information about herb use during ante-natal care. This will help forestall possible interaction between herbal and conventional medicines. PMID:20043858

2009-01-01

190

Herbal medicine: women's views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed\\/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. METHODS: Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which

Kathryn A Vickers; Kate B Jolly; Sheila M Greenfield

2006-01-01

191

Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

2013-01-01

192

Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential. PMID:17486320

Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

2007-09-01

193

Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task. PMID:23840246

Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2013-01-01

194

Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): Lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural\\/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from

K. M. Wu; J. G. Farrelly; R. Upton; J. Chen

2007-01-01

195

Nutrient and metal analyses of Chinese herbal products marketed for veterinary use.  

PubMed

Many Chinese herbs and herbal mixtures are fed to domestic animals for their reputed medicinal properties. These herbs could contribute to the intake of essential nutrients and toxic metals, but their composition is mostly unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure major nutrient (crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrate, fibre) and mineral (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, S, Al, Cd, Ni, Pb) concentrations in samples of fourteen combination formulas labelled for veterinary use and commonly administered to horses and dogs. Three single herbs, Bupleurum chinense, Curcuma zedoaria and Astragalus membranaceus, each obtained from several sources, and Yunnan Baiyao, a proprietary hemostatic mixture, were also analysed. Proximate analyses and some mineral concentrations differed (p?herbal combinations. Those containing the highest concentrations [g/kg dry matter (DM)] of calcium (92.4), iron (2.6) and manganese (0.28) could provide >38%, 142% and 96%, respectively, of recommended allowances in adult dogs, and >13%, 122% and 2%, respectively, of maintenance requirements in horses, at the maximum labelled dose assuming complete availability. Concentrations of cadmium, nickel and lead were below published oral tolerance levels. Aluminium concentrations (median 380, maximum 920?mg/kg DM) were higher than has been previously reported in Chinese herbs. These nutrient analyses suggest that herbal combinations marketed to veterinarians, when fed at the maximal labelled dose, are unlikely to produce clinically relevant changes in the dietary intake of essential nutrients. However, small amounts of non-essential contaminant minerals are present in some formulas, and further research is necessary to understand the significance of this finding. PMID:22289051

Shmalberg, J; Hill, R C; Scott, K C

2013-04-01

196

Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning  

PubMed Central

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

2011-01-01

197

Chips and Qi: microcomponent-based analysis in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 50 years or so Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been subject to intensive basic and clinical research. Although the effectiveness and remarkable safety of TCM have been documented after controlled clinical studies, there are several herbal and animal parts that are toxic or difficult to identify. DNA polymorphism-based assays have recently been developed for the identification of

Maria Carles; Thomas Lee; Shanti Moganti; Ralf Lenigk; Karl W. K. Tsim; Nancy Y. Ip; I-Ming Hsing; Nikolaus J. Sucher

2001-01-01

198

Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of opiate addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese

Jie Shi; Yan-li Liu; Yu-xia Fang; Guo-zhu Xu; Hai-fen Zhai; Lin Lu

2006-01-01

199

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Traditional Chinese Medicine Must Search Chinese Databases to Reduce Language Bias  

PubMed Central

Systematic reviews (SRs) that fail to search non-English databases may miss relevant studies and cause selection bias. The bias may be particularly severe in SRs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as most randomized controlled trials (RCT) in TCM are published and accessible only in Chinese. In this study we investigated how often Chinese databases were not searched in SRs of TCM, how many trials were missed, and whether a bias may occur if Chinese databases were not searched. We searched 5 databases in English and 3 in Chinese for RCTs of Chinese herbal medicine for coronary artery disease and found that 96.64% (115/119) eligible studies could be identified only from Chinese databases. In a random sample of 80 Cochrane reviews on TCM, we found that Chinese databases were only searched in 43 or 53.75%, in which almost all the included studies were identified from Chinese databases. We also compared SRs of the same topic and found that they may draw a different conclusion if Chinese databases were not searched. In conclusion, an overwhelmingly high percentage of eligible trials on TCM could only be identified in Chinese databases. Reviewers in TCM are suggested to search Chinese databases to reduce potential selection bias. PMID:24223063

Wu, Xin-Yin; Tang, Jin-Ling; Mao, Chen; Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Qin, Ying; Chung, Vincent C. H.

2013-01-01

200

Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Opportunities for Domestic Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past three decades, traditional Chinese medicine, based primarily on plant materials, has been adopted throughout the much of the Western world and become one of the fastest-growing healthcare choices in the United States (P. Darrin, pers. commun. ). Evidence of growth in the practice of Chinese medicine is probably best illustrated by the increase in number of licensed

Lyle E. Craker; Jean Giblette

2002-01-01

201

Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

2014-01-01

202

Antioxidative activities and the total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal\\u000a herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric\\u000a reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu\\u000a method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could

D.-J. Guo; H.-L. Cheng; S.-W. Chan; P. H.-F. Yu

2008-01-01

203

Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of specific herbal medicinal products, potential effects of long term use as well as possible interactions of herbal medicinal products with concomitantly used conventional medicines. PMID:24988878

2014-01-01

204

The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed. PMID:25395193

Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

2014-11-14

205

[Study on self-similarity of property combination mode of traditional Chinese medicines].  

PubMed

The combination of medicinal properties refers to expression forms of elements with active properties combined according to a specific sequence. The mode of medicinal property combination refers to the compatible relationship multiple medicinal property combinations. In this paper, based on the mode, safflower, Taohong Siwu decoction, Xuefu Zhuyu decoction and Buyang Huanwu decoction were taken for example to study the characteristics of the compatibility among single herb, herbal pairs and prescriptions. The authors discovered the similarities and differences among them, interpreted the self-similarity in medicinal property combinations of traditional Chinese medicines, and analyzed the compatible relationship among multiple medicinal property combinations, so as to bring forth new ideas in discovering the correlation between the compatibility study mode of traditional Chinese medicines based medicinal property combinations and the efficient compatibility of medicinal property combination. PMID:25276946

Sun, Jing; Zhang, Bai-Xia; Yan, Su-Rong; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

2014-07-01

206

Herbal medicines today and the roots of modern pharmacology.  

PubMed

The transformation of digitalis from a folk medicine, foxglove, to a modern drug, digoxin, illustrates principles of modern pharmacology that have helped make drugs safer and more effective. Digitalis was improved because its preparation was standardized, first by bioassay and then by chemical methods; however, few of today's herbs are standardized by methods that can ensure a consistent product and, hence, consistent safety and efficacy profiles. Many herbs have been evaluated in randomized, controlled trials, and several-St. John's wort and ginkgo, for example-are apparently effective. Yet, many trials of herbs have limited value because of poor design, small samples, and, above all, use of products of uncertain composition and consistency. The uncertain composition of many herbal products raises questions about their safety, as does evidence indicating that herbs may have harmful interactions with prescription drugs. Such adverse effects of herbs are probably underreported. Meanwhile, systematic studies, such as those identifying adverse reactions to drugs, are hindered because herbal preparations are not standardized-one brand of St. John's wort, for example, will differ chemically from another-and, unlike for prescription drugs, there are no databases linking herb consumption to later medical problems. Since herbal medicines are regulated as dietary supplements, they are not subject to the premarketing regulatory clearance required for drugs. The burden of proof is on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to show a dietary supplement is unsafe, unlike for drugs, which cannot be approved until the manufacturer has demonstrated safety and effectiveness. PMID:11601931

Goldman, P

2001-10-16

207

[Construction and thinking of data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy information].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop the data element standard directory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy information, to provide application standards and models of TCM clinical pharmacy for the electronic medical record (EMR). The developed line of work is as follows: initially establish research through four forms: literature analysis, questionnaires, discussion groups, expert advice. The research range from the Chinese herbal medicine research, herbal origin, harvesting, processing, identification of traits, physical and chemical identification, modern research, character, taste, Indications, clinical application, processing, dispensing medicine, Chinese medicine specifications, usage, dosage, caution, efficacy indications to small packaging applications, drug research, management and other related issues, including traditional Chinese medicine theory, application and hospital management information; according to the general and part 16 content of the national "Health Information Data Element Standards", and the basic method of extracting data element to study and develop the data element of TCM clinical pharmacy information from the defining content. Correspondingly propose the ideas and methods of construction of the "Data Element Standard Directory of TCM Clinical Pharmacy Information", sort out medicine clinical information data element standard catalog, divided into basic categories, clinical application class, management class three parts, and set norms and standards of identifying data elements, definitions, allowable value of traditional Chinese medicine clinical information, and discuss the sources and standards of information collection, leaving the interface, standardized and scientific terminology, docking with the existing standards, maintenance and management program and oter issues. PMID:25095392

Wang, Xiao-Xia; Jin, Zhong-Zheng; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

2014-05-01

208

A Comparison of the ancient use of ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known medicinal herb native to China and Korea, and has been used as a herbal remedy in eastern Asia for thousands of years. However, there is different evidence of ginseng efficacy between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), modern pharmacological experiments and clinical trials. In TCM, ginseng is a highly valued herb and has been applied

2008-01-01

209

TCMGeneDIT: a database for associated traditional Chinese medicine, gene and disease information using text mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complementary and alternative medical system in Western countries, has been used to treat various diseases over thousands of years in East Asian countries. In recent years, many herbal medicines were found to exhibit a variety of effects through regulating a wide range of gene expressions or protein activities. As available TCM data continue to

Yu-Ching Fang; Hsuan-Cheng Huang; Hsin-Hsi Chen; Hsueh-Fen Juan

2008-01-01

210

Concurrent Use in Taiwan of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Hormone Users Aged 55 Years to 79 Years and Its Association with Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among women aged 55 to 79 years who had also been prescribed hormonal therapies (HT) and its association with breast cancer risk. Methods. The use, frequency of service, and CHP prescribed among 17,583 HT users were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and HT. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer between the TCM nonusers and women who had undergone coadministration of HT and a CHP or CHPs. Results. More than one out of every five study subjects used a CHP concurrently with HT (CHTCHP patients). Shu-Jing-Huo-Xie-Tang was the most commonly used CHP coadministered with HT. In comparison to HT-alone users, the HRs for invasive breast cancer among CHTCHP patients were not significantly increased either in E-alone group or in mixed regimen group. Conclusions. The coadministration of hormone regimen and CHPs did not increase the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24987432

Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Lin, Shun-Ku

2014-01-01

211

Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future  

PubMed Central

Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

2010-01-01

212

Effect of Chinese herbal therapy on breast cancer adenocarcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use of medicinal herbs to prevent and treat many diseases, including cancer, there are insufficient scientific data on the safety and efficacy of the majority of herbal therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a unique Chinese herbal therapy (CHT) from controlled manufactured concentrated powders, on an in vitro model of breast cancer. Three breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MDA-231, MDA-453, T47D) were exposed to CHT for 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by XTT (sodium 3'-[1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3, 4-tetra zolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulphonic acid hydrate) assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle stage were determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. CHT decreased cell survival in a dose-dependent manner in all tested cell lines. FACS analysis of treated and non-treated T47D cells demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of CHT was associated with an increase in apoptosis. A randomized clinical trial is currently underway to investigate CHT as supplementary therapy for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:21227007

Maimon, Y; Karaush, V; Yaal-Hahoshen, N; Ben-Yosef, R; Ron, I; Vexler, A; Lev-Ari, S

2010-01-01

213

Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) use as an herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity. PMID:25125882

Verma, Rameshwar; Gangrade, Tushar; Punasiya, Rakesh; Ghulaxe, Chetan

2014-07-01

214

Stimulation of Apolipoprotein A-IV expression in Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes and reduction of triglyceride formation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by potential anti-obesity Chinese herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Background Chinese medicine has been proposed as a novel strategy for the prevention of metabolic disorders such as obesity. The present study tested 17 Chinese medicinal herbs were tested for their potential anti-obesity effects. Methods The herbs were evaluated in terms of their abilities to stimulate the transcription of Apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) in cultured Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes. The herbs that showed stimulating effects on ApoA-IV transcription were further evaluated in terms of their abilities to reduce the formation of triglyceride in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results ApoA-IV transcription was stimulated by Rhizoma Alismatis and Radix Angelica Sinensis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in cultured Caco-2/TC7 cells. Moreover, these two herbs reduced the amount of triglyceride in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion The results suggest that Rhizoma Alistmatis and Radix Angelica Sinensis may have potential anti-obesity effects as they stimulate ApoA-IV transcription and reduce triglyceride formation. PMID:19321011

Guo, Ava Jiangyang; Choi, Roy Chi-yan; Cheung, Anna Wing-han; Li, Jun; Chen, Ivy Xiaoying; Dong, Tina Tingxia; Tsim, Karl Wah-keung; Lau, Brad Wing-chuen

2009-01-01

215

Target network differences between western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients in treating cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Background Western drugs have achieved great successes in CVDs treatment. However, they may lead to some side effects and drug resistance. On the other hand, more and more studies found that Traditional Chinese herbs have efficient therapeutic effects for CVDs, while their therapeutic mechanism is still not very clear. It may be a good view towards molecules, targets and network to decipher whether difference exists between anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients. Results Anti-CVD western drugs and Chinese herbal ingredients, as well as their targets were thoroughly collected in this work. The similarities and the differences between the herbal ingredients and the western drugs were deeply explored based on three target-based perspectives including biochemical property, regulated pathway and disease network. The biological function of herbal ingredients' targets is more complex than that of the western drugs' targets. The signal transduction and immune system associated signaling pathways, apoptosis associated pathways may be the most important pathway for herbal ingredients, however the western drugs incline to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction associated pathways. Chinese herbal ingredients prefer to regulate the downstream proteins of apoptosis associated pathway; while the western drugs incline to regulate the upstream proteins of VECC (Vascular Epidermal Cells Contraction) related pathways. Conclusion In summary, the characteristics identified in this study would be valuable for designing new network-based multi-target CVD drugs or vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25104437

2014-01-01

216

Folk herbal medicines used in birth control and sexual diseases by tribals of southern Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey of tribal area of southern Rajasthan was carried out during the year 2001–2002 for ethnosexicological herbal medicines. The information on ethnosexicological herbs is based on the exhaustive interview with local medicine-men and -women, birth attendants and other knowledgeable persons who prescribe their own herbal preparation to check birth control, including abortion at initial stages, preventing conception or

Anita Jain; S. S. Katewa; B. L. Chaudhary; Praveen Galav

2004-01-01

217

China traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Patent Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep indexed China Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Patent Database was established by the State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) of PR China. The purpose of creating this database was mainly to meet the need of patent examination. The database has already been put to use in the patent examination department in SIPO since April 2002.The Chinese version of the database

Yanhuai Liu; Yanling Sun

2004-01-01

218

Chemical and biological assessment of angelica roots from different cultivated regions in a chinese herbal decoction danggui buxue tang.  

PubMed

Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692

Zhang, Wendy L; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhan, Janis Y X; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Dong, Tina T X; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

2013-01-01

219

Chemical and Biological Assessment of Angelica Roots from Different Cultivated Regions in a Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang  

PubMed Central

Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction. PMID:23476692

Zhang, Wendy L.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Zhu, Kevin Y.; Zhan, Janis Y. X.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chen, J. P.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

2013-01-01

220

Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by ?-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by ? irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by ?-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

1998-06-01

221

Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients  

PubMed Central

Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property. PMID:21854570

2011-01-01

222

Herbal medicine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by profound memory loss sufficient to interfere with social and occupational functioning. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than 20 million people worldwide. AD is characterized by an insidious loss of memory, associated functional decline, and behavioral disturbances. Patients may live for more than a decade after they are diagnosed with AD, making it the leading cause of disability in the elderly. The incidence of AD ranges from 1 to 4 percent of the population per year, rising from its lowest level at ages 65 to 70 years to rates that may approach 6 percent for those over the age of 85 years. The first neurotransmitter defect discovered in AD involved acetylcholine (ACh). As cholinergic function is required for short-term memory, the cholinergic deficit in AD was also believed to be responsible for much of the short-term memory deficit. Clinical drug trials in patients with AD have focused on drugs that augment levels of ACh in the brain to compensate for the loss of cholinergic function. These drugs have included ACh precursors, muscarinic agonists, nicotinic agonists, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The most highly developed and successful approaches to date have employed acetylcholinestrase inhibition. Although some Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs are available for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the outcomes are often unsatisfactory, and there is a place for alternative medicine, in particular, herbal medicine. This paper reviews the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines for the treatment of AD. PMID:16634467

Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin

2006-01-01

223

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2011-12-01

224

Evidence-based practice of Chinese medicine in physical rehabilitation science.  

PubMed

Chinese medicine is among other traditional medical systems practiced either as a coadjutant intervention to Greek medicine or as the unique therapeutic intervention for illness prevention, treatment or rehabilitation. The complete spectrum from that traditional system includes acupuncture and moxibustion, herbal and food therapy, massage therapy (tuina), physical exercises (taijiquan), and breathing exercises (qigong). In this article, it is presented several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews on the application of all therapeutic modalities from Chinese medicine in the physical rehabilitation scenario. The discussed studies encompasses both "positive" and "negative" results of Chinese medicine intervention for disabilities due to illnesses of the nervous, musculoskeletal or cardiovascular systems. Additionally, the importance of the personalized approach for Chinese medicine and rehabilitation is emphasized together with the need for reproducible methods for pattern differentiation and intervention selection. Chinese medicine resources are recognized as promising methods for therapeutic rehabilitation and can be incorporated into the rehabilitation science. The wide variety of therapeutic resources explains why Chinese medicine is currently a multidisciplinary practice for health protection and promotion, early diagnosis and treatment as well as rehabilitation with roles in the public health care system. PMID:23504579

de Sá Ferreira, Arthur

2013-10-01

225

Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer. PMID:25364657

Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

2014-01-01

226

Review of the regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines in USA.  

PubMed

In 2012, USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 39 new drugs, however, there are only two botanical drugs (one topical and one oral) approved by FDA since the publication of the FDA's industry guidelines for the botanical drug product in June 2004. The approval shows the Western guideline can be used for herbal medicines, authors investigate current regulation on herbal medicine clinical research, identify challenges conducting clinical trials, and seek to produce some guidance for potential investigators and sponsors considering a clinical trial in this area. Key words were formulated for searching on Medline and FDA website to locate relevant regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines to understand current environment for herbal medicine usage and examine the barriers affecting herbal medicine in clinical trials. Authors critically explore case study of the 1st FDA approved botanical drugs, Veregen (sinecatechins), green tea leaves extract, a topical cream for perianal and genital condyloma. In consideration of current regulation environment in USA, based on the findings and analysis through the literature review and Veregen case study, authors produce and propose a Checklist for New Drug Application of Herbal Medicines for potential investigators and sponsors considering in a herbal medicine clinical trial. PMID:25428336

Tang, Tony Yuqi; Li, Fang-Zhou; Afseth, Janyne

2014-12-01

227

Prevalence and Pattern of Use of Herbal Medicines During Pregnancy in Tumpat District, Kelantan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of herbal medicines use during pregnancy among women in Tumpat district, Kelantan. A total of 210 mothers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There were 108 mothers (51.4%) who used at least one type of herbal medicines during pregnancy. The most common herbal medicines used (63.9%) was coconut oil which was ingested during the third trimester of pregnancy only. The most common indication was (89.8%) to facilitate labour. The majority of users (79.6%) used herbal medicines during the third trimester of pregnancy only. Many of them (81.5%) believed that herbal medicines were effective to solve their health problems and fulfilled the indications for use. The older generation like parents and in laws (63.9%) were the most common persons who suggested using herbal medicines. The majority of them used the herbs only once (56.5%) and one type (87.0%) throughout the pregnancy. Further research focusing on local commonly used herbal medicines is to be carried out to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the herbs. PMID:22570588

Rahman, Azriani Ab.; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Daud, Wan Nudri Wan; Hamid, Abdul Manaf

2008-01-01

228

Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy.

Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

2014-01-01

229

Adverse Events Associated with Metal Contamination of Traditional Chinese Medicines in Korea: A Clinical Review  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted. PMID:25048473

Kim, Hyunah; Hawes, Emily M.

2014-01-01

230

Herbal medicines supplied by community pharmacies in Lagos, Nigeria: pharmacists’ knowledge  

PubMed Central

Background The use of herbal medicines is on the increase globally and they are usually supplied in pharmacies as non-prescription medicines. Pharmacists are, therefore, responsible for educating and informing the consumers about rational use of herbal medicines. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria with regards to the herbal medicines they supplied by their pharmacies. Methods Pharmacists in charge of randomly selected 140 community pharmacies from 20 Local Government Areas in Lagos were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. We gathered information on their knowledge of the indications, adverse effects, potential drug-herb interactions and contraindications of the herbal medicines they supply in their pharmacies. Results Of the 140 questionnaires distributed, 103 (72.9%) participants completed the questionnaire appropriately. The majority (74; 71.8%) of the participants were males and 36-50 years (56; 54.4%). The pharmacies supplied mostly Yoyo cleanser bitters® (101; 98.5%), ginseng (97; 98.5%), Jobelyn® (91; 88.3%), Ciklavit® (68; 66.6%), gingko (66; 64.1%), herbal tea (66; 64.1%), and Aloe vera (57; 55.3%). The pharmacists self-rated their knowledge of herbal medicines mostly as fair (39%) and good (42%), but they exhibited poor knowledge with regards to the indications, contraindications and safety profiles. Seventy participants consulted reference materials such as leaflet insert in the herbal medicines (56%) and internet (20%) before supplying herbal medicines. The information most frequently sought was herb-drug interactions (85%), contraindications (75%) and adverse effects (70%). Conclusions Community pharmacists need to be informed about the indications and safety profiles of herbal medicines. PMID:24367462

Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Oreagba, Ibrahim A.; Ogunleye, Olayinka O.; Oluwa, Rashidat; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Olayemi, Sunday O.

231

An attempt to integrate Western and Chinese medicine: rationale for applying Chinese medicine as chronotherapy against cancer  

PubMed Central

Current Western medical treatment lays its main emphasis on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and cure is assessed by quantifying the effects of treatment statistically. In contrast, in Chinese medicine, cure is generally assessed by evaluating the patient's “pattern” (Zheng) [cf. Glossary] and medicines are prescribed according to this. We believe that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cannot be evaluated precisely according to Western principles, in which a constant amount of the same medicine is given to a group of patients to be evaluated. When assessing cure using TCM, Zheng is more important than the determination of medical effects. This means that quantitative evaluation of TCM treatment can be very difficult. In this paper, we focused on the Yin-Yang [cf. Glossary] balance to determine Zheng, and at the same time attempted to determine the treatment effects by applying the concept of regulation of Yin-Yang according to chronotherapeutic principles. According to Zheng, advanced cancer patients generally lack both Yin and Yang. Chinese medical treatment therefore seeks to supplement both Yin and Yang. However, we divided patients into two groups and compared them with respect to survival. One group was administered a predominantly Yang (Qi) [cf. Glossary] tonic herbal treatment during the daytime, while the other group was administered Yin (Blood) [cf. Glossary] tonics during night time. A comparison of the results of treatment showed that the patients in the group receiving Yang (Qi) replenishment during the daytime lived longer than patients receiving Yin (Blood) nourishment during the night. Moreover, the patients in the daytime Yang (Qi) replenishment group also fared significantly better than patients treated solely by Western methods. PMID:16275482

Seki, K.; Chisaka, M.; Eriguchi, M.; Yanagie, H.; Hisa, T.; Osada, I.; Sairenji, T.; Otsuka, K.; Halberg, F.

2008-01-01

232

[Chinese medicine needs the baptism of science].  

PubMed

All branches of mature practical technologies of both Eastern and Western ancient cultures, such as astronomy, geography, calendar, agriculture, architectonics, medicine, and so on, possess their own scientific connotation, which were derived from gradual accumulation and repeated validation of practical experiences. The ancient Greek medicine has the advantage of easily receiving scientific 'baptism' (reformation). The ontology and logics in ancient Greek philosophy, served as the epistemological and methodological bases, could effectively promote the development of science. Therefore, following the rapid progress of natural sciences since the Renaissance of the West world, the ancient Greek medicine rationally received the scientific "baptism" and gradually transformed into "modern medicine". In recent years, an upsurge to study and reappraise the works of Galen, an outstanding doctor and philosopher of Roman Empire, was evoked to discover and illuminate the practical and historical values of ancient Greek medicine. In ancient times, the medical theories and clinical practice of both Greek medicine and Chinese medicine were quite similar to each other, and they separately produced particular merits of themselves. However, owe to lack in the support of natural philosophy in ancient China, the progress of Chinese medicine, with its original native qualities for thousands of years only showed increase of clinical experiences, rather than scientific reformation of its essences. Therefore, Chinese medicine should also receive scientific "baptism" as Greek medicine. Ebb tide and see the real gold. The valuable medical experiences of Chinese medicine can be picked up for wide application, and its great historical achievements can be revealed for later pondering. PMID:23173244

Wang, Tai

2012-08-01

233

[Development of traditional Chinese medicine in United States].  

PubMed

The United States government established Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) to meet the public needs. In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) approved the first acupuncture clinic for their patients. The National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was founded at NIH in 1998 to sponsor and develop CAM research. In 2001, the budget for NCCAM had grown to 130 million USD. Of the 3 300 papers on CAM published in the past ten years, 520 were funded by NIH. NCCAM goals are to focus on "mind and body medicine" and "herbals" for future research. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the major components in CAM. From 1998 to 2012, NCCAM funded 248 research subjects on TCM, with a total budget of 236 million USD. The subjects were as follows: 160 for acupuncture, 36 for Chinese medicine, 33 for Tai Chi, and 19 for Qigong. The American public is increasingly supportive of CAM, including TCM. According to the national survey in 2008, nearly 40% of American used CAM, 11% of them were children, self-spending 33.9 billion USD in 2007. In the same year, 3.7 million people received acupuncture in the United States. The data also indicate that women, higher income and higher educated people used CAM more frequently. An increasing number of allopathic medical professionals are open to CAM, and recommend their patients to use acupuncture and other modalities. TCM, as an important part of CAM, has become a new option for patients in improving their healthcare services in conjunction with allopathic medicine. TCM will have more potential to be utilized in the United States. PMID:23073580

Tian, Xiao-ming

2012-10-18

234

[Discussing of influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream].  

PubMed

This study left flavonoids and alkaloids Chinese herbal monomer with common parent nucleus as cream base carriages drug respectively, cream base were prepared with stable span 60-tween 80 emulsification system. The near-infrared stability analysis technology was performed to quantitatively characterize the physical stability of cream. Base on the theory of gel network structure, theory of emulsification, theory of solubility parameter and theory of double layer, the influence mechanism of Chinese herbal monomer on physical stability of cream was discussed. The results showed that tetrahydropalmatine, matrine and naringenin had similar solubility parameter value with cream base material, creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomer have higher Zeta potential value and stronger physical stability, and that those creams had similar microstructure information with cream base. However, a larger solubility parameter difference exists between baicalin, baicalein, berberine, palmatine and cream base material. Creams prepared with those Chinese herbal monomers had lower Zeta potential value and poorer physical stability, and that those creams had great different microstructure information with cream base. PMID:25612435

Yin, Hui-Fu; Nie, He-Yun; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Li, Rong-Miao

2014-10-01

235

Chinese Herbal Ingredients Are Effective Immune Stimulators for Chickens Infected with the Newcastle Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of 4 Chinese herbal ingredients (CHI) as immune stimulators for an active vaccine in chickens using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The CHI used were Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Isatis root polysaccharide (IRPS), Propolis polysaccharide, and Epimedium flavone at vari- ous concentrations. Two hundred 14-d-old male White Roman chickens were randomly

X.-F. Kong; Y.-L. Hu; Y.-L. Yin; G.-Y. Wu; R. Rui; D.-Y. Wang; C.-B. Yang

236

An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.  

PubMed

Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research. PMID:24063783

Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

2013-09-01

237

Social capital and use of folk and herbal medicine by older women in Almaty, Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing women who seek folk healers for care and who use herbal medicine are not well understood. The influence of social capital and cultural factors on utilisation behaviour of three ethnic groups â Kazakhs, Russians and Koreans â in Almaty, Kazakhstan, was investigated. It was postulated that seeing a folk healer was positively associated with the use of herbal

Thomas T. H. Wan; Askar Chukmaitov

2007-01-01

238

A survey of Chinese herbal ingredients with liver protection activities  

PubMed Central

A literature survey was conducted on herbs, their preparations and ingredients with reported liver protection activities, in which a total of 274 different species and hundreds of active ingredients have been examined. These ingredients can be roughly classified into two categories according to their activities: (1) the main ingredients, such as silybin, osthole, coumarin, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin A, schisandrin A, flavonoids; and (2) supporting substances, such as sugars, amino acids, resins, tannins and volatile oil. Among them, some active ingredients have hepatoprotective activities (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulating and liver cirrhosis-regulating effects). Calculation of physicochemical parameters indicates that the main ingredients with negative and positive Elumo values possibly display their hepatoprotective effects through different mechanisms, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. As the combination of herbs may achieve some treatment effects synergistically and/or additively, it is common in Chinese medicine to use mixtures of various medicinal herbs with pharmacologically active compounds to have synergistic and/or additive effects, or to reduce harmful effects of some pharmacologically active compounds. In particular, the active compounds with Clog P around 2 are suitable for passive transport across membranes and accessible to the target sites. Thus, Elumo and Clog P values are good indicators among the calculated parameters. Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, ?, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf) and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating) are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:17490493

Wang, Rubin; Kong, John; Wang, Dali; Lien, Linda Lin-min; Lien, Eric Jung-chi

2007-01-01

239

Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology.  

PubMed

Herbal treatments are becoming increasingly popular, and are often used for dermatological conditions. Thus dermatologists should know about their potential to cause adverse events. This review is aimed at addressing this area in a semisystematic fashion. Some agents, particularly Chinese herbal creams, have been shown repeatedly to be adulterated with corticosteroids. Virtually all herbal remedies can cause allergic reactions and several can be responsible for photosensitization. Some herbal medicines, in particular Ayurvedic remedies, contain arsenic or mercury that can produce typical skin lesions. Other popular remedies that can cause dermatological side-effects include St John's Wort, kava, aloe vera, eucalyptus, camphor, henna and yohimbine. Finally, there are some herbal treatments used specifically for dermatological conditions, e.g. Chinese oral herbal remedies for atopic eczema, which have the potential to cause systemic adverse effects. It is concluded that adverse effects of herbal medicines are an important albeit neglected subject in dermatology, which deserves further systematic investigation. PMID:11069498

Ernst, E

2000-11-01

240

Effects of Chinese herbal products on mammalian retinal functions.  

PubMed

Ocular ischemia and inflammation are two major factors which induce retinal degeneration. Treatment of these diseases has been difficult, though numerous agents have been tried. Natural products could be a good field to venture into because various medicinal plants have been used for centuries to treat circulation stasis, inflammation, visual disturbances, and eyesight failure. Tetramethyl-pyrazine, coumarin, methyl tyramine, rescinnamine, apocynin, and hesperetin are some natural products isolated from Chinese herbs for improving ocular blood flow, particularly in the choroid and retina. For ocular inflammation, at least a dozen natural products are reviewed in this article. Among those, matrine, tetrandrine and osthole draw particular attention, because they are effective mainly as interleukin-1 blockers, but not as arachidonate blockers. As a result, these agents are potent anti-inflammatory agents and are even more potent than the prototype corticosteroid, prednisolone. It is hoped that all aforementioned agents can be used to treat retinopathies resulting from ocular ischemia and/or ocular inflammation. Scoparone, corylifolinin, epigallocatechin-3-0-gallate, esculetin, and lespedezaflavanone A are some natural products which can improve retinal functions measured with electroretinogram's b-wave recovery. Further research should be carried out to relate natural products which can improve ocular blood flow and inflammation to retinal function and vice versa. PMID:8875344

Liu, S X; Chiou, G C

1996-01-01

241

Herbal medicines for cancer cachexia: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612. PMID:24893603

Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-01-01

242

Simultaneous determination of cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA in traditional Chinese medicinal preparations containing Radix salvia miltiorrhiza by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the simultaneous determination of tanshinones in five kinds of traditional Chinese medicinal preparations (TCMPs) containing Radix salvia miltiorrhiza (Chinese herbal name: Danshen). Tanshinones including cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA were successfully separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (150mm×4.6mm i.d., 5?m). The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol, tetrahydrofuran,

Zhihong Shi; Jiantao He; Tingting Yao; Wenbao Chang; Meiping Zhao

2005-01-01

243

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Controlled Clinical Studies Published in Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databases from their inception to November 2011. We bibliometrically analyzed the included studies and assessed the reporting quality. Results A total of 2964 reports (involving 253,434 cancer patients) including 2385 randomized controlled trials and 579 non-randomized controlled studies were included. The top seven cancer types treated were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer by both study numbers and case numbers. The majority of studies (72%) applied TCM therapy combined with conventional treatment, whilst fewer (28%) applied only TCM therapy in the experimental groups. Herbal medicine was the most frequently applied TCM therapy (2677 studies, 90.32%). The most frequently reported outcome was clinical symptom improvement (1667 studies, 56.24%) followed by biomarker indices (1270 studies, 42.85%), quality of life (1129 studies, 38.09%), chemo/radiotherapy induced side effects (1094 studies, 36.91%), tumor size (869 studies, 29.32%) and safety (547 studies, 18.45%). Completeness and adequacy of reporting appeared to improve with time. Conclusions Data from controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies in cancer treatment is substantial, and different therapies are applied either as monotherapy or in combination with conventional medicine. Reporting of controlled clinical studies should be improved based on the CONSORT and TREND Statements in future. Further studies should address the most frequently used TCM therapy for common cancers and outcome measures should address survival, relapse/metastasis and quality of life. PMID:23560092

Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan

2013-01-01

244

Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview  

PubMed Central

Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components have not been fully elucidated or easily monitored. Bioactive, characteristic, main, synergistic, correlative, toxic and general components may be selected. This article reviews the effective use of chemical markers in the quality control of herbal medicines including the selection criteria considering the roles and physicochemical factors which may affect the effective use of chemical markers. PMID:18588699

Li, Songlin; Han, Quanbin; Qiao, Chunfeng; Song, Jingzheng; Lung Cheng, Chuen; Xu, Hongxi

2008-01-01

245

Expression Profiling and Proteomic Analysis of JIN Chinese Herbal Formula in Lung Carcinoma H460 Xenografts  

PubMed Central

Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been used in cancer therapy. The JIN formula is an ancient herbal formula recorded in the classic TCM book Jin Kui Yao Lue (Golden Chamber). The JIN formula significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous human H460 xenografted tumors in vivo compared with the growth of mock controls. Gene array analysis of signal transduction in cancer showed that the JIN formula acted on multiple targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, hedgehog, and Wnt signaling pathways. The coformula treatment of JIN and diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) affected the stress/heat shock pathway. Proteomic analysis showed 36 and 84 differentially expressed proteins between the mock and DDP groups and between the mock and JIN groups, respectively. GoMiner analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins between the JIN and mock groups were enriched during cellular metabolic processes, and so forth. The ones between the DDP and mock groups were enriched during protein-DNA complex assembly, and so forth. Most downregulated proteins in the JIN group were heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as HSP90AA1 and HSPA1B, which could be used as markers to monitor responses to the JIN formula therapy. The mechanism of action of the JIN formula on HSP proteins warrants further investigation. PMID:24066008

Zheng, Luyu; Zhang, Weiyi; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Huarong; Xiong, Fei; Yu, Yang; Chen, Meijuan; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Mingyan; Cheng, Ge; Duan, Jinao; Yu, Wei; Lin, Biaoyang; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

2013-01-01

246

Effects of several Chinese herbal aqueous extracts on human sperm motility in vitro.  

PubMed

The effects of six kinds of aqueous extracts of Chinese herbal medicine (Astragalus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Panax genseng and Ophiopogon japonicus, P. genseng and Aconitum carmichaeli, Salviae miltiorrhiae, Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide) on sperm motility characteristics of 30 infertile male volunteers were studied in vitro with a computer-assisted sperm analysis at 15, 60 and 180 min after incubated with the drugs. The results showed that per cent viability, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement were significantly enhanced by A. membranaceus (P < 0.05 or < 0.01), per cent viability, average path velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement were significantly enhanced by A. senticosi (P < 0.05), but all the above were not affected by P. genseng and O. japonicus, P. genseng and A. carmichaeli, S. miltiorrhiae and P. umbellatus polysaccharide. It is suggested that A. membranaceus and A. senticosi can enhance the motility of human spermatozoa in vitro. PMID:15084153

Liu, J; Liang, P; Yin, C; Wang, T; Li, H; Li, Y; Ye, Z

2004-04-01

247

Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecular Biology Perspective  

PubMed Central

Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio of RA and RAS used in DBT for osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays. Moreover, the optimal concentration of DBT for bone cell culture was also determined by colorimetric, ALP activity, nodule formation, Western blotting, wound-healing, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays. Consequently, the most appropriate weight ratio of RA to RAS for the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was 5?:?1. Moreover, the most effective concentration of DBT was 1,000??g/mL, which significantly increased the number of osteoblasts, intracellular ALP levels, and nodule numbers, while inhibiting osteoclast activity. Additionally, 1,000??g/mL of DBT was able to stimulate p-ERK and p-JNK signal pathway. Therefore, DBT is highly promising for use in accelerating fracture healing in the middle or late healing periods. PMID:25295277

Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

2014-01-01

248

Statistical Validation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) originated from experiences doctors had with patients in ancient times. We ask the question whether aspects of TCM theories can be reconstructed through data analy- sis. To answer the question, we have developed a data analysis method called latent tree models and have used it to analyze several TCM data sets. This paper

Nevin L. Zhang; Shihong Yuan; Tao Chen; Yi Wang

2008-01-01

249

Traditional Chinese Medicines as Immunosuppressive Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been used for centuries in China to treat various immune-mediated disord ers. Methods: This review focuses on the clinical and experimental studies that have been performed with TCM as immunosuppressive ag ents for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atopic eczema and solid organ transplantati on. Results: The \\

V Ramgolam; S G Ang; Y H Lai; C S Loh; H K Yap

250

Alternative Perspectives: How Chinese Medicine Understands Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Treatment of cardiovascular disease, albeit under the auspices of other clinical descriptors to those described in western biomedicine, has a long history in China. Chinese Medicine (CM) is guided by unique philosophical underpinnings and theories. There are differences in how the heart is conceptualised traditionally in CM compared to biomedicine. This paper focusses on how hypercholesterolemia is understood from within the Chinese medical paradigm, including its aetiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. A brief overview of the key characteristics and theories of CM is given to provide context. Modern science has demonstrated that many Chinese herbs have cholesterol-lowering properties. Examples of research into individual herbs and medicinal formulae, combinations of herbs are presented. At a more sophisticated level, some researchers are challenging some of the very assumptions upon which CM is based, including applicability of CM theory to modern clinical entities such as hypercholesterolemia, and are seeking intersections of knowledge between CM and biomedicine that may extend CM theory. PMID:21490916

O'Brien, Kylie A.

2010-01-01

251

The potential contributions of traditional Chinese medicine to emergency medicine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been developed and used to treat acute and urgent illness for many thousands of years. TCM has been widely perceived in western societies that TCM may only be effective to treat chronic diseases. The aim of this article is to provide some scientific evidence regarding the application of TCM in emergency medicine and its future potential. METHODS: Multiple databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Academic Search Elite and Science Direct) were searched using the terms: Traditional Chinese Medicine/ Chinese Medicine, Emergency Medicine, China. In addition, three leading TCM Journals in China were searched via Oriprobe Information Services for relevant articles (published from 1990—2012). Particular attention was paid to those articles that are related to TCM treatments or combined medicine in dealing with intensive and critical care. RESULTS: TCM is a systematic traditional macro medicine. The clinical practice of TCM is guided by the TCM theoretical framework – a methodology founded thousands of years ago. As the methodologies between TCM and Biomedicine are significantly different, it provides an opportunity to combine two medicines, in order to achieve clinical efficacy. Nowadays, combined medicine has become a common clinical model particular in TCM hospitals in China. CONCLUSIONS: It is evident that TCM can provide some assistance in emergency although to combine them in practice is still its infant form and is mainly at TCM hospitals in China. The future effort could be put into TCM research, both in laboratories and clinics, with high quality designs, so that TCM could be better understood and then applied in emergency medicine. PMID:25215100

He, Jun; Hou, Xiang-yu

2013-01-01

252

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

2014-01-01

253

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

254

Advances in herbal medicine for treatment of ischemic brain injury.  

PubMed

Ischemic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and has attracted a lot of attention in the field of drug discovery. Cerebral ischemia is a complex pathological process involving a series of mechanisms, including generation of free radicals, oxidative stress, disruption of the membrane function, release of neurotransmitters and apoptosis. Thrombolytic therapy is the most effective therapeutic strategy, but the benefits are far from being absolute. Increased attention in the field of drug discovery has been focused on using natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs for neuroprotection, which appears to be a promising therapeutic option for cerebral ischemia with minimal systemic adverse effects that could limit their long term use. The scenario calls for extensive investigations which can result in the development of lead molecules for neuroprotection in the future. In this context, the present review focuses on possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of herbal drugs in patients with cerebral ischemic injury. Natural compounds have been demonstrated to have neurofunctional regulatory actions with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, calcium antagonizing and anti-apoptotic activities. Among the several leads obtained from plant sources as potential neuroprotective agents, resveratrol, EGb761, curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate have shown significant therapeutic benefits in cerebral ischemic conditions. However, ligustilide, tanshinone, scutellarin and shikonin are the few lead molecules which are under investigation for treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID:25230523

Ghosh, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Rituparna; Bhat, Zulfiqar A; Mandal, Vivekananda; Bachar, Sitesh C; Nima, Namsa D; Sunday, Otimenyin O; Mandal, Subhash C

2014-07-01

255

Maturation and Activation of Dendritic Cells by Botanicals Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Role in Immune Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually attributed to its up- or downregulation of immune\\u000a responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a central role in the initiation and\\u000a regulation of immune responses. A number of TCM herbal medicines or their components have in vitro and in vivo activity in promoting major functions of

Xin Chen

256

Mortality and cancer incidence among physicians of traditional Chinese medicine: a 20-year national follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo study the risks of mortality and cancer incidence in physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) who had frequent exposure to herbal medicine.MethodsA population-based cohort design was conducted in which a total of 7675 certified physicians of TCM who ever practised between 1985 and 2005 were compared with the age-, sex- and calendar year-specific mortalities and cancer incidence rates of

Shu-Hui Liu; Yu-Feng Liu; Saou-Hsing Liou; Yun-Lian Lin; Yuen-Chen Hsiao; Chu-Chieh Chen; Chung-Yi Li; Trong-Neng Wu

2010-01-01

257

[Construction of research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier].  

PubMed

Based on practice of Epimedium processing mechanism for many years and integrated multidisciplinary theory and technology, this paper initially constructs the research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier, which to form an innovative research mode of the " chemical composition changes-biological transformation-metabolism in vitro and in vivo-intestinal absorption-pharmacokinetic combined pharmacodynamic-pharmacodynamic mechanism". Combined with specific examples of Epimedium and other Chinese herbal medicine processing mechanism, this paper also discusses the academic thoughts, research methods and key technologies of this research system, which will be conducive to systematically reveal the modem scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine processing, and enrich the theory of Chinese herbal medicine processing. PMID:24946533

Sun, E; Xu, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wei, Ying-Jie; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Xu-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2014-02-01

258

The most common herbal medicines affecting Sarcomastigophora branches: a review study.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases cause annual mortality of more than 200 thousand people. Currently many drugs are used to treat parasitic diseases; however, they are mostly expensive, toxic, with side effects and drug resistance. Medicinal plants have been shown to represent natural source of cheap drugs with low toxicity. In this review article, the most common and most effective herbal medicines on pathogenic protozoan Sarcomastigophora branches such as Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Amoeba, Trichomonas and Giardia were reviewed. The recently published papers about different drugs as well as herbal medicines as alternative for synthetic drugs were searched using scientific sites such as Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar. The used terms included: Medicinal plants, herbal medicine, protozoa, Trypanosoma, Sarcomastigophora branches, Leishmania, Amoeba, Trichomonas or Giardia. PMID:25312109

Bahmani, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Karamati, Seyed Ahmad; Eftekhari, Zohre; Jelodari, Mahyar

2014-09-01

259

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Herbal Medicine on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine (HM) as an adjunct therapy has been shown to be promising for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of herbs in COPD remains largely unexplored. In this present study, we conducted the systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of herbs in COPD. 176 clinical studies with reporting pulmonary function were retrieved from English and Chinese database. Commonly used herbs for acute exacerbations stage (AECOPD) and stable COPD stage (SCOPD) were identified. A meta-analysis conducted from 15 high quality studies (18 publications) showed that HM as an adjunct therapy had no significant improvement in pulmonary function (FEV1, FEV%, FVC, and FEV1/FVC) compared to conventional medicine. The efficacy of the adjunct HM on improving the arterial blood gas (PaCO2 and PaO2) for AECOPD and SCOPD remains inconclusive due to the heterogeneity among the studies. However, HM as an adjunct therapy improved clinical symptoms and quality of life (total score, activity score, and impact score of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Studies with large-scale and double-blind randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the role of the adjunct HM in the management of COPD. PMID:24795773

Chen, Hai Yong; Ma, Chun Ho; Cao, Ke-Jian; Chung-Man Ho, James; Ziea, Eric; Wong, Vivian Taam; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2014-01-01

260

[Development of quality traceability system of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The development of Chinese medicine is directly related to the quality and safety issues, It has drawn great attention of people. Chinese traditional medicine quality issue involves two aspects of traditional Chinese medicine itself and human. In order to prevent man-made or illegal factors led to the decrease of the quality of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or security risk, it needs to establish a feasible system to guarantee, in which the construction and development of traditional Chinese medicine quality traceability system is an important direction of the development of the traditional Chinese medicine in the future. This paper first reviews the development of quality traceability system status and critical retrospective techniques, then introduced current development status of quality traceability system of traditional Chinese medicine( QTS-TCM), pointing out the characteristics of QTS-TCM, and finally given the current research findings of QTS-TCM. PMID:24558859

Cai, Yong; Hu, Hao; Ni, Jing-Yun; Wang, Yi-Tao

2013-11-01

261

Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

erbs have been used as medical treatments since the beginning of civilization and some derivatives (eg, aspirin, reserpine, and digitalis) have become mainstays of hu- man pharmacotherapy. For cardiovascular diseases, herbal treatments have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, ath- erosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency, and arrhythmia. However, many herbal remedies used today have

Nick H. Mashour; George I. Lin; William H. Frishman

1998-01-01

262

Attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese to traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine: survey and cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether within a cohort of Hong Kong out-patients definable subtypes exist based on their attitudes to traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Design: Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Setting: The sample of 503 subjects was recruited at two local outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Main outcome measures: The study employs demographic variables, illness status, the

M. F. Chan; E. Mok; Y. S. Wong; T. F. Tong; M. C. Day; C. K. Y. Tang; D. H. C. Wong

2003-01-01

263

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-04-01

264

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect ? cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

2008-01-01

265

Use frequency of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Use of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important category of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has increased substantially in Western countries during the past decade. Use of TCM is also widespread in the Chinese population. However, few informative data have been obtained to date by large-scale investigations of TCM use in the Chinese population. This study was aimed at

Fang-Pey Chen; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Yen-Ying Kung; Yu-Chun Chen; Li-Fang Chou; Fan-Jou Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang

2007-01-01

266

Herbal medicines for the management of opioid addiction: safe and effective alternatives to conventional pharmacotherapy?  

PubMed

Striking increases in the abuse of opioids have expanded the need for pharmacotherapeutic interventions. The obstacles that confront effective treatment of opioid addiction - shortage of treatment professionals, stigma associated with treatment and the ability to maintain abstinence - have led to increased interest in alternative treatment strategies among both treatment providers and patients alike. Herbal products for opioid addiction and withdrawal, such as kratom and specific Chinese herbal medications such as WeiniCom, can complement existing treatments. Unfortunately, herbal treatments, while offering some advantages over existing evidence-based pharmacotherapies, have poorly described pharmacokinetics, a lack of supportive data derived from well controlled clinical trials, and severe toxicity, the cause for which remains poorly defined. Herbal products, therefore, require greater additional testing in rigorous clinical trials before they can expect widespread acceptance in the management of opioid addiction. PMID:22133323

Ward, Jeanine; Rosenbaum, Christopher; Hernon, Christina; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

2011-12-01

267

Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2012-01-01

268

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

Wang, Zhijun

2013-01-01

269

Regulation of Neuroinflammation by Herbal Medicine and Its Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine has long been used to treat neural symptoms. Although the precise mechanisms of action of herbal drugs have yet to be determined, some of them have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and\\/or anti-oxidant effects in a variety of peripheral systems. Now, as increasing evidence indicates that neuroglia-derived chronic inflammatory responses play a pathological role in the central nervous

Kyoungho Suk

2005-01-01

270

Cardiac glycosides in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of cardiac glycosides containing medicinal herbs, e.g. Ting Li Zi (Descurainia sophia), against heart failure was detected by traditional Chinese doctors at the beginning of the first century, more than 16 centuries\\u000a before Withering’s discovery of digitalis to promote diuresis. We ran infer the diagnosis from the description of the symptom\\u000a complex, for which the herb as the

Lu Fu-hua

1987-01-01

271

Modern Cancer Research on Chinese Medicine: Acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acupuncture, a popular modality of Chinese medicine, is commonly used to control cancer- or cancer therapy-caused symptoms,\\u000a and accumulated evidence shows that it can play an important role in support care for cancer patients. The anti-emetic effects\\u000a of acupuncture are well documented: studies consistently report that the modality significantly reduces the incidences of\\u000a vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy, and animal

Ruixin Zhang; Lixing Lao

272

Applying Evidence-Based Medicine to Traditional Chinese Medicine: Debate and Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on recent paper published literature in both English and Chinese, this explores reactions to the eval- uation of Chinese medicine using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The literature review revealed a few sources which contend that Chinese medicine should not be evaluated on the basis of RCTs, but a far greater number which

Jeanne L. Shea

2006-01-01

273

A pilot study of herbal medicine use in a Midwest Latino population  

PubMed Central

Background Herbal medicine use is common in the United States, especially in immigrant populations. This plant use is incompletely understood, with significant gaps in the literature for people living in the Midwest, about the plant species used, and about how home herbal medicine use interacts with allopathic medicine. Methods This pilot project used a qualitative research approach (interviews and focus groups, convenience sampling) to explore this topic for Latin America immigrants living in Madison, Wisconsin. Results Eight interviews and focus groups consisting of 42 people yielded 199 minutes of audio recordings and the mention of 57 medicinal plants. These plants were obtained from gardens, relatives and friends (abroad and local), mail order, and ten local retail establishments. Retail sites sold fresh plants, dried plants, spices, foods, and packaged products, ranging from 20 to over 150 plant products per site. A preponderance of plants, especially in Latino-focused stores, was food that also served a medicinal purpose. Participants mentioned 35 distinct health and disease categories for which herbal medicines were used, and sometimes, but not always, discussed plant use with their health care provider. When compared with likely Latin binomial taxonomic names, clinically-relevant confusions with the use of common plant names were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the findings presented illustrate the complexities surrounding herbal medicine use, and create a case for future work to involve other demographics, and focus on botanical identification, the quantification of disclosure rates, and the development of educational interventions for physicians and patients. PMID:24908901

Kiefer, David; Bradbury, E. Jane; Tellez-Girón, Patricia

2014-01-01

274

Soliciting an Herbal Medicine and Supplement Use History at Hospice Admission  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Reconciling medication use and performing drug utilization review on admission of a patient into hospice care are essential in order to safely prescribe medications and to prevent possible adverse drug events and drug–drug interactions. As part of this process, fully assessing herbal medicine and supplement use in hospice patients is crucial, as patients in hospice may be likely to use these medications and may be more vulnerable to their potential adverse effects. Objective Our purpose was to identify herbals, vitamins, and supplements that should be routinely assessed on every hospice admission because of their higher likelihood of use or higher risk of adverse effects or drug interactions. Methods Experts in the fields of palliative medicine, pharmacy, and alternative medicine were asked to complete a Web-based survey on 37 herbals, vitamins, supplements, and natural products, rating likelihood of use, potential for harm, and recommendation to include it on the final list on a scale of 1 to 5 (least to most likely to agree). Results Twenty experts participated in the survey. Using a cutoff of 3.75 for inclusion of a medication on the final list, 12 herbal medicines were identified that should be routinely and specifically assessed on hospice admission. Conclusions Although assessing all herbal medicine use is ideal, thorough detection of herbals may be challenging. The list of herbals and supplements identified by this survey could be a useful tool for medication reconciliation in hospice and could aid in identifying potentially harmful medication use at the end of life. PMID:20557233

Kaiser, Karen; Jackson, Steve; McPherson, Mary Lynn

2010-01-01

275

Herbal medicines for treating tic disorders: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background It was reported that 64% of tic disorder patients used complementary and alternative medicine. This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicines in treating tic disorders. Methods We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and CINAHL from their respective inceptions up to September 2013. The search terms were related to the concept of “herbal medicine” AND “tic disorder OR Tourette’s syndrome”. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of herbal medicines. We assessed the methodological quality of the trials according to the Cochrane risk of bias criteria. Results Sixty one studies were identified, and four RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Two types of herbal medicines, Qufeng Zhidong Recipe (QZR) decoction and Ningdong (ND) granules, were used in the included RCTs. All four RCTs had a high risk of bias. Two RCTs tested the effects of QZR on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score and response rate compared with conventional medicine. The meta-analysis showed significant effects of QZR on the YGTSS score with high statistical heterogeneity (n?=?142; weighted mean difference: ?18.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): ?23.07 to ?13.60; I2?=?97%) and the response rate (n?=?142; risk ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.39 to 2.06; I2?=?0%). One RCT compared ND granules with placebo and showed significant effects on the YGTSS score and response rate. The other RCT show significant effects of ND granules plus conventional medicine on the response rate compared with conventional medicine only. Conclusion This systematic review provided first piece of limited meta-analytic evidence for the effectiveness of herbal medicines in improving the symptoms of tic disorders. PMID:24507013

2014-01-01

276

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies – an annotated bibliography. Part 2: Herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles and books. To be included articles had to review prospective clinical trials of herbal medicines; had to describe review methods explicitly; had to be published; and had to focus on treatment effects. Information on conditions, interventions, methods, results and conclusions was extracted using a pre-tested form and summarized descriptively. Results From a total of 79 potentially relevant reviews pre-selected in the screening process 58 met the inclusion criteria. Thirty of the reports reviewed ginkgo (for dementia, intermittent claudication, tinnitus, and macular degeneration), hypericum (for depression) or garlic preparations (for cardiovascular risk factors and lower limb atherosclerosis). The quality of primary studies was criticized in the majority of the reviews. Most reviews judged the available evidence as promising but definitive conclusions were rarely possible. Conclusions Systematic reviews are available on a broad range of herbal preparations prescribed for defined conditions. There is very little evidence on the effectiveness of herbalism as practised by specialist herbalists who combine herbs and use unconventional diagnosis. PMID:11518548

Linde, Klaus; ter Riet, Gerben; Hondras, Maria; Vickers, Andrew; Saller, Reinhard; Melchart, Dieter

2001-01-01

277

Efficacy and mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines for treating asthma and allergy  

PubMed Central

Background While corticosteroids and ?-2 agonists are effective in managing asthma symptoms, a curative therapy for asthma is lacking. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. Objective This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Methods We first reviewed five clinical studies of “anti-asthma” TCM herbal remedies published between 2005–2007. We then summarized possible mechanisms underlying their effects based on data in the original articles, published abstracts, and available data bases. Possible mechanisms include anti-inflammation, inhibition of airway smooth muscle contraction, and immunomodulation. Research on TCM herbal therapy for food allergy is rare, and we therefore focused on the effect and mechanism of action of Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) on a murine model of peanut allergy and preliminary clinical study results. Conclusion Evidence from clinical studies supports beneficial effects of TCM herbal therapy on asthma. A number of mechanisms may be responsible for efficacy of these agents. Strong preclinical study data suggest potential efficacy of FAHF-2 for food allergy. PMID:19203653

Li, Xiu-Min; Brown, Laverne

2009-01-01

278

[Development history of methodology of Chinese medicines' authentication].  

PubMed

This paper reviewed the emergence process of the subject and methodology of Chinese Medicines' Authentication. Based on the research progress and major achievements acquired in research of each methodology including identification of origin, description, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Chinese medicines, it is expounded that the development process of each methodology combined modem digital technology, information science and its own characteristics. And the development direction is further described for methodology of Chinese Medicines' Authentication towards systematization and informationization. PMID:25011254

Chen, Ke-Li; Huang, Lin-Fang; Liu, Yi-Mei

2014-04-01

279

DNA methods for identification of Chinese medicinal materials  

PubMed Central

As adulterated and substituted Chinese medicinal materials are common in the market, therapeutic effectiveness of such materials cannot be guaranteed. Identification at species-, strain- and locality-levels, therefore, is required for quality assurance/control of Chinese medicine. This review provides an informative introduction to DNA methods for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials. Technical features and examples of the methods based on sequencing, hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are described and their suitability for different identification objectives is discussed. PMID:17803808

Yip, Pui Ying; Chau, Chi Fai; Mak, Chun Yin; Kwan, Hoi Shan

2007-01-01

280

Comparison of a Chinese Herbal Medicine (CCH1) and Lactulose as First-Line Treatment of Constipation in Long-Term Care: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, and Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Many institutionalized patients and their healthcare providers are dissatisfied with current laxative therapy. This study compared therapeutic efficacy, safety, and laxative cost of an herbal formula (CCH1) and lactulose for long stay patients with constipation. In this double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 93 residents with chronic constipation from two long-term care facilities in Taiwan to receive either CCH1 with lactulose placebo or CCH1 placebo with lactulose for 8 weeks, then followed up for 4 weeks without study medication. Both treatments were effective and well tolerated for patients, but CCH1 produced more spontaneous bowel movements, less rectal treatments, less amount of rescue laxative, and lower laxative cost than lactulose during treatment. No significant differences were found in stool consistency, stool amount, global assessment, and safety concerns. In conclusion, our results suggest that CCH1 may have better efficacy and could be used as an alternative option to lactulose in the treatment of constipation in long-term care. PMID:22474530

Huang, Chien-Hsun; Lin, Jui-Shan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lee, Shih-Chang; Wang, Hsiu Po; Lue, Hung-Chi; Su, Yi-Chang

2012-01-01

281

African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV\\/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for

Edward Mills; Curtis Cooper; Dugald Seely; Izzy Kanfer

2005-01-01

282

Identification and quantitation of the ingredients in a counterfeit Vietnamese herbal medicine against rheumatic diseases.  

PubMed

Counterfeit and/or illegally manufactured drugs and herbal medicines are becoming an increasing problem throughout the world. Internet sales simplify distribution and payment of these falsified drugs. Here we report on a Vietnamese herbal medicine, which was advertised for treatment of rheumatic disease from a religious Vietnamese healer. By means of NMR and LC/MS we found 863mg acetaminophen, 262mg sulfamethoxazole, 42mg indomethacin and less than 1% trimethoprim in a sachet of 2.617g powder content, in addition to some cinnamon bark and phosphate. PMID:24793595

Wiest, Johannes; Schollmayer, Curd; Gresser, Gabriele; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

2014-08-01

283

The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

Ekor, Martins

2014-01-01

284

Traditional Japanese herbal (kampo) medicines and treatment of ocular diseases: a review.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines have been used clinically in Eastern Asia, and traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formulas are approved as ethical drugs. The Kampo formulas are mixtures of the crude extracts of several herbs, each of which contains multiple components. Numerous investigators have reported that some herbal medicines are efficacious for treating several human diseases. We reviewed the literature on traditional herbal medicines and treatment of ocular diseases. Oral Orengedoku-to and Kakkon-to inhibit postoperative uveitis in humans. Oral Goshajinki-gan improved ocular surface disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan increased retinal blood flow. Keishi-bukuryo-gan Sho might be associated with vitreoretinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral Hachimijio-gan and Goshajinki-gan delayed lens opacification in rats and mice. Oral Sairei-to, Orengedoku-to, Senkanmeimoku-to, Scutellariae radix extract, Gardeniae fructus extract, topical Liguisticum wallichii rhizoma extract, and intravenous injection of tetramethylpyrazine, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, and crocetin inhibited some forms of experimental uveitis in rabbits. Topical glycyrrhizinate improved allergic conjunctivitis in humans and rats. Oral crocetin improved eyestrain in humans. Oral berberine diminished experimental uveitis in rats. Baicalein, wogonin, berberine, and berberrubine inhibited in vitro expression of several cytokines in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Some Kampo formulas are efficacious for treating several ocular diseases in humans and animals. Some herbal extracts and their components inhibit some forms of experimental uveitis. PMID:22928823

Hayasaka, Seiji; Kodama, Tatsuo; Ohira, Akihiro

2012-01-01

285

Self-reference chemical profiling in the comprehensive dissolution test of herbal medicines.  

PubMed

The power of chemical profiling in characterizing the samples' chemical pools has greatly raised the interests of phytomedicine researchers. Unfortunately, the semi-quantitative nature of chemical profiling retards its exploration into the dissolution test of herbal medicines, which is a crucial quantitative measure to evaluate and control the in vitro releasing properties as the prerequisite for biomembrane permeation of herbal constituents. Here, a method integrating chemical profiling approach and self-reference strategy is developed for the purpose of dissolution test of herbal medicines. The chromatographic fingerprints of the self-reference samples are translated by principal component analysis (PCA) into chemical profiles that highly correlate to their nominal gross concentrations in spite of the poor quantitative performances of some individual peaks. Pareto scaling previous to PCA selectively highlights the relative loadings of peaks with good quantitative performances. An example of ginkgo biloba tablets shows that this method is efficient to judge whether the detected constituents are simultaneously released or not, determine both the gross release and the respective dissolution rates of them, and rapidly screen the slowly released ones that may have potential clinical implications. This method has potentials to enable deep insight into the molecular diffusion and dissolution of complex herbal formulations, and open a new window to comprehensively consider the bioavailable properties of herbal medicines. PMID:22748665

Wang, Anqi; Wang, Zhanguo; Yu, Wenjun; Zhong, Ting; Dai, Weiyang; Xu, Liang; Gong, Tao; Lan, Ke

2012-11-01

286

Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases. PMID:23736100

Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

2014-09-01

287

[Integrated DNA barcoding database for identifying Chinese animal medicine].  

PubMed

In order to construct an integrated DNA barcoding database for identifying Chinese animal medicine, the authors and their cooperators have completed a lot of researches for identifying Chinese animal medicines using DNA barcoding technology. Sequences from GenBank have been analyzed simultaneously. Three different methods, BLAST, barcoding gap and Tree building, have been used to confirm the reliabilities of barcode records in the database. The integrated DNA barcoding database for identifying Chinese animal medicine has been constructed using three different parts: specimen, sequence and literature information. This database contained about 800 animal medicines and the adulterants and closely related species. Unknown specimens can be identified by pasting their sequence record into the window on the ID page of species identification system for traditional Chinese medicine (www. tcmbarcode. cn). The integrated DNA barcoding database for identifying Chinese animal medicine is significantly important for animal species identification, rare and endangered species conservation and sustainable utilization of animal resources. PMID:25244735

Shi, Lin-Chun; Yao, Hui; Xie, Li-Fang; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Song, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Shi-Lin

2014-06-01

288

Targeting Tumor Proteasome with Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

The proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex whose activity is required for the growth of normal or tumor cells. It has been shown that human cancer cells are more sensitive to proteasome inhibition than normal cells, indicating that the proteasome could be a target of chemotherapy. Studies suggest that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an effective approach for cancer treatment. Here we reviewed several TCMs for their potential in treatment of cancer. This short review focuses mainly on the TCMs that potentially target the tumor cellular proteasome and NF-?B pathway whose activation is dependent on the proteasome activity. PMID:20156140

Yang, Huanjie; Liu, Jinbao; Dou, Q. Ping

2012-01-01

289

Therapeutic wisdom in traditional Chinese medicine: a perspective from modern science.  

PubMed

The reasons why the standards of evaluating Western medicine are not suitable for testing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are explicit in the therapeutic objective and principles of TCM. TCM aims to correct maladjustments and restore the self-regulatory ability of the body, and not to antagonize specific pathogenetic targets. Maladjustments in a disease can be classified into several 'patterns' according to TCM theory. Multiple diseases might share one 'pattern' and be treated by the same herbal formula whereas one disease might display several different 'patterns' and be treated by multiple formulae. These principles are supported by evidence that multi-system changes in one pattern can be modulated by a herbal formula. The approaches used in systems biology and pharmacogenetics are similar to the practices of TCM. I propose that a combined approach using specific parameters associated with modern medicine, the general condition of individuals, as outlined by TCM, and pattern stratification of diseases should be employed to re-evaluate herbal formulae. PMID:16185775

Jiang, Wen-Yue

2005-11-01

290

Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

2014-08-01

291

Asserted and neglected issues linking evidence-based and Chinese medicines for cardiac rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

High blood pressure is among the most prevalent chronic disease in adults that impacts on the quality of life of patients, which are often subjected to physical rehabilitation. Chinese medicine intervention in patients with hypertension presents promising albeit inconclusive results, mostly due to methodological issues. This paper discusses asserted and neglected issues linking evidence-based and Chinese medicines as related to systemic arterial hypertension, as well as their impact on the physical rehabilitation of those patients. On the one hand, natural history of hypertension, pulse palpation, and herbal therapy are among the asserted issues because of the scientific evidence collected about them, either in favor or against its integration to the current medical practice. On the other hand, anatomical variations of vessels and comparative physiology are among the most commonly neglected issues because previous researches on integrative medicine ignored the possible effects of these issues as related to the study’s outcome. The asserted issues highlighted in this paper stimulate the increasing use of Chinese medicine for health care and the continuity of research on integrative medicine in the cardiovascular field for rehabilitation. The neglected issues poses additional challenges that must not be overlooked in future research on this topic so that the integration of both traditional and current knowledge may be of benefit to the population with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24944759

Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; de Moura, Nathalia Gomes Ribeiro

2014-01-01

292

Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phyto- therapeutic

J. B. Calixto

2000-01-01

293

Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

294

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

295

Analytical approaches for traditional Chinese medicines exhibiting antineoplastic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicines have attracted great interest in recent researchers as alternative antineoplastic therapies. This review focuses on analytical approaches to various aspects of the antineoplastic ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines. Emphasis will be put on the processes of biological sample extraction, separation, clean-up steps and the detection. The problems of the extraction solvent selection and different types of column

Tung-Hu Tsai

2001-01-01

296

Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by the source of these ingredients. PMID:25081126

Jamal, Salma

2014-01-01

297

Anticancer drugs from traditional toxic Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

Many anticancer drugs are obtained from natural sources. Nature produces a variety of toxic compounds, which are often used as anticancer drugs. Up to now, there are at least 120 species of poisonous botanicals, animals and minerals, of which more than half have been found to possess significant anticancer properties. In spite of their clinical toxicity, they exhibit pharmacological effects and have been used as important traditional Chinese medicines for the different stages of cancer. The article reviews many structures such as alkaloids of Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus and Cephalotaxus fortunei, lignans of Dysosma versipellis and Podophyllum emodi, ketones of Garcinia hanburyi, terpenoids of Mylabris and Ginkgo biloba, diterpenoids of Tripterygium wilfordii, Euphorbia fischeriana, Euphorbia lathyris, Euphorbia kansui, Daphne genkwa, Pseudolarix kaempferi and Brucea javanica, triterpenoids of Melia toosendan, steroids of Periploca sepium, Paris polyphylla and Venenum Bufonis, and arsenic compounds including Arsenicum and Realgar. By comparing their related phytochemistry, toxic effects and the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of action, this review puts forward some ideals and examples about how to increase antitumour activity and/or reduce the side effects experienced with Chinese medicine. PMID:22389143

Man, Shuli; Gao, Wenyuan; Wei, Changlong; Liu, Changxiao

2012-10-01

298

Introduction to photon traditional Chinese medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon traditional Chinese medicine (PTCM), and inter- discipline of photonics and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), studies TCM, such as the diagnostics, therapeutics, indistinct disease theory, rehabilitation, health care and so forth, by using photonics. IN this paper, we will give an introduction of PTCM and review its progress in the collective interaction of low intensity laser irradiation with biological systems, the propagation of low intensity laser irradiation through tissue, the biophotonics representation of acupoint, low intensity laser therapy, TCM laser hemotherapy, laser acupuncture. In this paper, the concept of biological unit was put forward for acupoint and cell membrane receptors to be considered as an identical particle model. The interaction of identical particles was studied by quantum chemistry, as well as the response of the system interacting with physical factors by the time quantum theory on radiation-matter interaction. It was shown that the identical particles from coherent states, the response rate of the super-change state is a linear function of N2 and N3 (N is the particle number), and the one of the sub-change state is zero. Its application led to the explanation of the contribution of biological unit number of acupoint to acupoint specificity and the contribution of cell membrane receptors to low in tensity laser irradiation. The comparative research of acupoint effect and cell function with biophoton emission showed that acupoint states and the membrane receptor state are related to body diseases.

Liu, Songhao; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Meng, Yao-Yong

2000-10-01

299

Emerging glycolysis targeting and drug discovery from chinese medicine in cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Molecular-targeted therapy has been developed for cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Cancer cells have different metabolic properties from normal cells. Normal cells mostly rely upon the process of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to produce energy whereas cancer cells have developed an altered metabolism that allows them to sustain higher proliferation rates. Cancer cells could predominantly produce energy by glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. This alternative metabolic characteristic is known as the "Warburg Effect." Although the exact mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect are unclear, recent progress indicates that glycolytic pathway of cancer cells could be a critical target for drug discovery. With a long history in cancer treatment, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is recognized as a valuable source for seeking bioactive anticancer compounds. A great progress has been made to identify active compounds from herbal medicine targeting on glycolysis for cancer treatment. Herein, we provide an overall picture of the current understanding of the molecular targets in the cancer glycolytic pathway and reviewed active compounds from Chinese herbal medicine with the potentials to inhibit the metabolic targets for cancer treatment. Combination of TCM with conventional therapies will provide an attractive strategy for improving clinical outcome in cancer treatment. PMID:22844340

Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping; Shen, Jiangang

2012-01-01

300

Traditional Chinese medicine: Some historical and epistemological reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

So-called Chinese medicine is practiced widely in the U.S.A. and Europe, and traditional Chinese medical concepts are presented, and advocated, through a vast body of secondary literature in European languages, as alternatives to current western interpretations of illness and disease. The present paper analyses some of the values determining the reception of traditional Chinese medicine in the west, and it

Paul U. Unschuld

1987-01-01

301

Systematic Review of Chinese Medicine for Miscarriage during Early Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregnancy and provide scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines for miscarriage, we located all the relevant pieces of literature on the clinical applications of Chinese Medicine for miscarriage and worked out this systematic review. Results. 339,792 pieces of literature were identified, but no placebo was included and only few studies were selected for systematic review and conducted for meta-analysis. A combination of Chinese medicines and Western medicines was more effective than Chinese medicines alone. No specific safety problem was reported, but potential adverse events by certain medicines were identified. Conclusions. Studies vary considerably in design, interventions, and outcome measures; therefore conclusive results remain elusive. Large scales of randomized controlled trials and more scientific evidences are still necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicines during early pregnancy. PMID:24648851

Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu

2014-01-01

302

Trends in the Treatment of Hypertension from the Perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a major public-health issue. Much consensus has been reached in the treatment, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. However, the standard-reaching rate of blood pressure is far from satisfaction. Considering these data and the seriousness of the effects of hypertension on the individual and society as a whole, both economically and socially, physicians must look for more effective and alternative ways to achieve the target blood pressure. Could treatment of hypertension be improved by insights from traditional Chinese medicine? As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, TCM is regularly advocated for lowering elevated blood pressure. Due to the different understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension between ancient and modern times, new understanding and treatment of hypertension need to be reexplored. Aiming to improve the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating hypertension, the basis of treatment is explored through systematically analyzing the literature available in both English and Chinese search engines. This paper systematically reviews the trends in emerging therapeutic strategies for hypertension from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23878594

Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Chu, Fuyong; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

2013-01-01

303

Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review*  

PubMed Central

In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID:17965759

2007-01-01

304

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1? (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?) were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses. PMID:24723959

Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Bauer, Rudolf; Ma, Yan

2014-01-01

305

Anti-inflammatory effects of the chinese herbal formula sini tang in myocardial infarction rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- ? , interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 ? (TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-1 ? ) were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-1 ? in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses. PMID:24723959

Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Bauer, Rudolf; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Ma, Yan

2014-01-01

306

TradReg 2013: Regulation of herbal and traditional medicinal products - European and global strategies - International symposium.  

PubMed

Plants have always been an important source of treatment. The important contribution of phytotherapy became particularly recognised through European Directive 2004/24/EC (Directive 2004/24/EC, 2004), which set up a new Committee dedicated to herbal medicinal products at the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In addition, it created a new status for traditional herbal medicinal products by making possible their simplified "registration" based on plausible level of efficacy. Nearly 10 years after the creation of this new framework, an impressive number of monographs were established. However, implementation remains a challenge. There is also a critical need to encourage innovation and research and to ensure that new pieces of legislation are applied to herbal medicinal products taking due account of their characteristics. This article reflects the concerns and expectations of the European manufacturers of herbal medicines. PMID:25281419

Cranz, Hubertus; Anquez-Traxler, Christelle

2014-12-01

307

Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10?mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50?mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5?g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

308

The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.  

PubMed

The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far. PMID:25043780

Peschel, Wieland

2014-12-01

309

Knowledge mapping of chinese medicine interdisciplinary research field.  

PubMed

Based on 248 core biomedical journals indexed in the General Contents of Chinese Core Journals(2011 edition)released by Peking University,we established a Chinese Medicine Sciences Citation Index(CMSCI)database;in addition,based on the Chinese Library Classification(4(th) edition),we identified 13 259 articles concerning Chinese medicine interdisciplinary research. The knowledge mapping was performed for keywords co-occurence,total cites of articles,and total cites of authors using the CiteSpace3 software,with an attempt to reveal the research priorities,knowledge sources,and highly influential authors.

PMID:25676277

Xu, Hao; Pu, Wen-Yuan; Qian, Ai-Bing; Zhu, Xue-Fang

2015-02-12

310

Determination of noradrenaline and dopamine in Chinese herbal extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) in Chinese herbal plant extracts from the different parts of Portulaca oleracea L. The effects of various parameters, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration, pH value and proportion of methanol on

Juan Chen; Yan-Ping Shi; Jing-Yan Liu

2003-01-01

311

Identification and determination of the major constituents in Traditional Chinese Medicinal formula Danggui-Shaoyao-San by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of six herbal medicines (Paeonia lactiflora, Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Poria cocos, Atractylodis macrocephalae and Rhizoma Alismatis), has been used as a classical gynecological remedy in China for centuries. However, its active substances have remained unknown. In this paper, an HPLC\\/DAD\\/ESI-MS\\/MS method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of

Linlin Chen; Jin Qi; Yan-xu Chang; Danni Zhu; Boyang Yu

2009-01-01

312

Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to the initial state. In both acupuncture and herbal medical interventions, there have been no serious adverse events reported, proving the safety of the interventions while most of the interventions provided over 50% relief of symptoms associated with PMS/PMDD. Stricter diagnostic criteria may have excluded many participants from some studies. Also, depending on the severity of symptoms, the rate of improvement in the outcomes of the studies may have greatly differed. PMID:24410911

2014-01-01

313

Folk herbal medicines from tribal area of Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floristic survey of ethnomedicinal plants occurring in the tribal area of Rajasthan was conducted to assess the potentiality of plant resources for modern treatments. The information on medicinal uses of plants is based on the exhaustive interviews with local physicians practising indigenous system of medicine, village headmen, priests and tribal folks. The Aravalli hills of Mewar region of Rajasthan

S. S. Katewa; B. L. Chaudhary; Anita Jain

2004-01-01

314

Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25050339

Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

2014-01-01

315

Integration of Herbal Medicine in Primary Care in Israel: A Jewish-Arab Cross-Cultural Perspective  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine is a prominent complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality in Israel based on the country's natural diversity and impressive cultural mosaic. In this study, we compared cross-cultural perspectives of patients attending primary care clinics in northern Israel on herbal medicine specifically and CAM generally, and the possibility of integrating them within primary care. Research assistants administered a questionnaire to consecutive patients attending seven primary care clinics. About 2184 of 3713 respondents (59%) defined themselves as Muslims, Christians or Druze (henceforth Arabs) and 1529 (41%) as Jews. Arab respondents reported more use of herbs during the previous year (35 versus 27.8% P = .004) and of more consultations with herbal practitioners (P < .0001). Druze reported the highest rate of herbal consultations (67.9%) and Ashkenazi Jews the lowest rate (45.2%). About 27.5% of respondents supported adding a herbal practitioner to their clinic's medical team if CAM were to be integrated within primary care. Both Arabs and Jews report considerable usage of herbal medicine, with Arabs using it significantly more. Cross-cultural perspectives are warranted in the study of herbal medicine use in the Arab and Jewish societies. PMID:19864354

Ben-Arye, Eran; Lev, Efraim; Keshet, Yael; Schiff, Elad

2011-01-01

316

Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Gentiopicroside, Geniposide, Baicalin, and Swertiamarin in Chinese Herbal Formulae after Oral Administration in Rats by LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A sensitive and efficient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of gentiopicroside, geniposide, baicalin, and swertiamarin in rat plasma. To avoid the stress caused by restraint or anesthesia, a freely moving rat model was used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of herbal medicine after the administration of a traditional Chinese herbal prescription of Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang (10 g/kg, p.o.). Analytes were separated by a C18 column with a gradient system of methanol-water containing 1 mM ammonium acetate with 0.1% formic acid. The linear ranges were 10-500 ng/mL for gentiopicroside, geniposide, and baicalin, and 5-250 ng/mL for swertiamarin in biological samples. The intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) ranged from 0.9% to 11.4% and 0.3% to 14.4%, respectively. The accuracy (relative error) was from -6.3% to 10.1% at all quality control levels. The analytical system provided adequate matrix effect and recovery with good precision and accuracy. The pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) values of gentiopicroside, geniposide, baicalin, and swertiamarin were 1417 ± 83.8, 302 ± 25.8, 753 ± 86.2, and 2.5 ± 0.1 min µg/mL. The pharmacokinetic profiles provide constructive information for the dosage regimen of herbal medicine and also contribute to elucidate the absorption mechanism in herbal applications and pharmacological experiments. PMID:25532849

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2014-01-01

317

Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

2013-01-01

318

Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture for Breast Cancer Palliative Care and Adjuvant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease among women worldwide with annual rates of reported incidence and death increasing alarmingly. Chemotherapy is a recommended and effective treatment option for breast cancer; however, the narrow therapeutic indices and varied side effects of currently approved drugs present major hurdles in increasing its effectiveness. An increasing number of literature evidence indicate that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used in treatment-related symptom control and alleviation of side effects plays an important role in increasing survival rate and quality of life in breast cancer patients. This review focuses on the use of herbal medicines and acupuncture in palliative care and as adjuvants in the treatment of breast cancer. Herbal medicinal treatments, the correlation of clinical use with demonstrated in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action, and the use of certain acupoints in acupuncture are summarized. The aim of this review is to facilitate an understanding of the current practice and usefulness of herbal medicine and acupuncture as adjuvants in breast cancer therapy. PMID:23840256

Liao, Guo-Shiou; Shyur, Lie-Fen

2013-01-01

319

[Analysis and discussion about current development of relevant studies on "traditional Chinese medicine components"].  

PubMed

As traditional Chinese medicine components have become a hotspot in the field of traditional Chinese medicine study, they have followed a development trend of diversity and false identification. In studies on a new modem product, we shall encourage the diversified development mode, but avoid the false concept identification of traditional Chinese medicine components. In this paper, by analyzing the current development of traditional Chinese medicine components and problems, we discussed the standardization of traditional Chinese medicine components, with the aim of reducing and avoiding the situations to study non-traditional Chinese medicine components as traditional Chinese medicine components. PMID:24761626

Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2014-01-01

320

Do Herbal Medicines Have Potential for Managing Snake Bite Envenomation?  

PubMed Central

Snake envenomation is a global public health problem, with highest incidence in Southeast Asia. Inadequate health services, difficult transportation and consequent delay in antisnake venom administration are the main reasons for high mortality. Adverse drug reactions and inadequate storage conditions limit the use of antisnake venom. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention. A wide array of plants and their active principles have been evaluated for pharmacological properties. However, numerous unexplored plants claimed to be antidotes in folklore medicine need to be studied. The present article reviews the current status of various medicinal plants for the management of snake bite. PMID:22778503

Gupta, Y. K.; Peshin, S. S.

2012-01-01

321

Evidence of ERalpha and ERbeta selectivity and partial estrogen agonism in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

The use of complementary and alternative medicine and herbal products, especially traditional Chinese medicines, is progressively rising for both adults and children. This increased use is based on the popular belief that these medicines are safe and harmless. In this report, we describe the results of a bedside-to-bench study that involved a short-statured 4-year-old boy with deficiencies in growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone due to an ectopic posterior pituitary gland and invisible pituitary stalk. Although the boy was given replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and L-thyroxin, the parents refused to treat him with growth hormone and consulted a naturopath who prescribed a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to stimulate the boy's growth. From the age of 20 months, the child's growth was regularly monitored while he was being treated with hydrocortisone, thyroxin, and the TCM. Over a 36-month period, the child's growth velocity accelerated (3 cm/year to 8 cm/year), his height increment substantially increased (-2 SD to -0.8 SD), and his bones matured. In the laboratory investigation, estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta reporter cell lines were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the TCM medicine and its 18 components, and the results established that the medicine and some of its components have estrogen receptor ERalpha and ERbeta selectivity and partial estrogen agonism. Partial estrogenic activity of the TCM was confirmed using whole-cell competitive binding, cell proliferation, and endogenous gene expression assays in the ERalpha-positive breast cancer cell lines. Although the presence of evidence is not always evidence of causality, we have concluded that this traditional Chinese medicine contains ingredients with estrogenic activity that can sustain bone growth and maturation without affecting other estrogen-dependent tissues. PMID:25300391

Tiosano, Dov; Paris, Françoise; Grimaldi, Marina; Georgescu, Vera; Servant, Nadège; Hochberg, Zeev; Balaguer, Patrick; Sultan, Charles

2014-01-01

322

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca,

E. M. Ritch-Krc; S. Thomas; N. J. Turner; G. H. N. Towers

1996-01-01

323

Carrier herbal medicine: traditional and contemporary plant use.  

PubMed

The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinal plants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452

Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H

1996-06-01

324

Establishing an EU-China consortium on traditional Chinese medicine research  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used in the European Union (EU) and attracts intense research interests from European scientists. As an emerging area in Europe, TCM research requires collaboration and coordination of actions. Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era, also known as GP-TCM, is the first ever EU-funded 7th Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action, aiming to inform the best practice and harmonise research on the safety and efficacy of TCM through interdisciplinary exchange of experience and expertise among clinicians and scientists. With its increasingly large pool of expertise across 19 countries including 13 EU member states, Australia, Canada, China, Norway, Thailand and the USA, the consortium provides forums and collaboration platforms on quality control, extraction technology, component analysis, toxicology, pharmacology and regulatory issues of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as well as on acupuncture studies, with a particular emphasis on the application of a functional genomics approach. The project officially started in May 2009 and by the time of its conclusion in April 2012 a Europe-based academic society dedicated to TCM research will be founded to carry on the mission of GP-TCM. PMID:21156056

2010-01-01

325

Evaluation of Residual Diazinon and Chlorpiryfos in Children Herbal Medicines by Headspace-SPME and GC-FID  

PubMed Central

The oldest method for the managing of the illness is the use of medicinal plants. The use of herbal products as the first choice in self-treatment of minor conditions continues to expand rapidly across Iran. This makes the safety of herbal products an important public health issue. Pesticides are used widely in agriculture to increase the production by controlling the harmful insects and disease vectors, however it has some hazards on biological system of human especially children. The present study was designed to examine the residual amount of organophosphorus pesticides (Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos) in children herbal medicines available in the Iranian market. Five children herbal medicine liquid dosage forms were purchased from pharmacy store. They were extracted with SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) using the PDMS-DVB fibre. Then the extracts were injected into a GC. The gas chromatograph was Younglin model YL 6100 equipped with a flame ionization detector. The column was Technokroma 60 m length, 0.53 mm internal diameter and 1.25 µm film coated. The presence and quantity of Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos were evaluated using their standard curves. Trace amounts of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were detected in a few herbal medicines. Based on European pharmacopeia, threshold limits of chlorpyrifos and diazinon residues for medicinal plant materials are 0.2 and 0.5 mg/Kg, respectively. Our analysis results showed that residue limits of these two pesticides in five children herbal medicines are ignorable. PMID:25237349

Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Fakhrossadat; Asghari, Gholamreza

2014-01-01

326

Neonatal Jaundice — Traditional Chinese Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal treatment of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) has been practiced in China for a long time. Even to-date, a variety of herbal items, including “Yin-chin” (Artemisia), “Huang-qin” (Scutellaria), “Da-huang” (Rheum officinale), “Gan-cao” (Glycyrrhiza), and “Huang-lin” (Coptis chinesis), are still being prescribed to jaundiced infants, often in combination with modern treatment such as phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Their efficacy has, however, not

Tai Fai Fok

2001-01-01

327

Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Medicines for Vascular Dementia  

PubMed Central

We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM), as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM), mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD). We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese). were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made. PMID:22235231

Man, Sui Cheung; Chan, Kam Wa; Lu, Jia-Hong; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Liu, Liang-Feng; Li, Min

2012-01-01

328

Modified local straight-line screening to detect synthetic drugs in adulterated herbal medicines.  

PubMed

A local straight-line screening (LSLS) algorithm was recently designed as a method to detect synthetic drug(s) in adulterated herbal medicines based on infrared spectroscopy. Some modifications are made in this paper to improve the existing LSLS algorithm, including interpolation, second derivation, and change of calculation regions from 3 to 7 data points. These modifications have decreased the effect of unpredicted noises and baseline shift on infrared spectroscopy, resulting in outstanding detailed spectral characteristics of the suspected synthetic drugs. The algorithm has been tested using five kinds of synthetic drugs (sibutramine, fenfluramine, lovastatin, sildenafil, and methyldopa) in 40 herbal medicine samples. The concentration of the synthetic drug(s) predicted by the modified LSLS algorithm is closer to those determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Consequently, the correct results rise from 30 obtained using the original LSLS to 36 obtained using the modified LSLS in 40 samples, the false negative responses drop from 5 to 1, and the false positive responses drop from 5 to 3. The results obtained using the M-LSLS algorithm based on the sibutramine spectrum collected at different times and on different instruments also vary within acceptable ranges. These allow the method to be more appropriate for the preliminary screening of herbal medicines suspected of adulteration with synthetic drugs, with high rapidity, accuracy, and cost effectiveness. PMID:19366515

Xueyi, Zhu; Zhonghu, Zhang; Feng, Lu; Yutian, Wu; Yunpeng, Qi

2009-04-01

329

Tissue-smashing based ultra-rapid extraction of chemical constituents in herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Sample extraction is the first challenge in analysis of herbal medicines (HMs). Numerous methods have been developed to improve extraction efficiency, use less solvent and short time. In this work, a tissue-smashing based ultra-rapid extraction (TSURE) method has been proposed through the designed particle crushing, drastic stir, and dynamic molecular permeation at normal temperature. Factors in TSURE like extraction time, volts, and solvents were optimized for extraction efficiency of salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA from Salvia miltiorrhiza. The TSURE method was validated in terms of repeatability (RSD<2.2%) and extraction recoveries (93-106% with RSD<5.0%). TSURE showed a comparable extraction efficiency to conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE) and better than ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE). The extraction time was about 2.0-3.0 min for TSURE, 60 times faster than the performance of HRE and 20 times faster than UAE. Microscopic analysis showed that the Krummbein diameter of plant particles after extraction were about 600-1200 ?m for HRE and UAE, and decreased to 50-80 ?m for TSURE. Subsequently, the developed TSURE was applied to high-throughput extraction of 19 S. miltiorrhiza samples collected in different regions of China. Besides, application of TSURE to other herbal medicines was also investigated, including Panax quinquefolius and Lonicera japonica. TSURE method provided an ultra-rapid and promising alternation for extraction of ingredients in herbal medicines, and can be extended to pharmaceutics, foods and cosmetics. PMID:24685727

Fan, Yong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Chen, Cheng; So, Kwok-Fai; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

2014-07-01

330

Mercury, lead, and other heavy metals in Chinese medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-nine samples of common Chinese medicines were purchased from Chinese medical shops in Singapore and Malaysia and analyzed\\u000a for mercury, lead, copper, cadmium, cobalt, iron, and nickel. The majority of these medicines were manufactured in China,\\u000a Hong Kong, and Malaysia. A few of them were of Singapore and Taiwan origin. Atomic absorption method (both flame and flameless)\\u000a was used for

M. K. Wong; L. L. Koh

1986-01-01

331

[Chemical pattern recognition of traditional Chinese medicine kudingcha (I)].  

PubMed

In this paper, the non-linear mapping method of pattern recognition was adopted to classify 78 samples of traditional Chinese medicine Kudingcha, with macro and trace elements as classified characteristic features. Ilex cornuta Lindl., Ilex latifolia Thunb. and Ligustrum lucidum Ait. were identified accurately. The results agree with those from pharmacognosy. This paper provides a new method for identification of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12567936

Su, W; Wu, Z; Chen, J; He, X; Li, J

1998-03-01

332

Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

2011-01-01

333

Low Potency Homeopathic Remedies and Allopathic Herbal Medicines: Is There an Overlap?  

PubMed Central

Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance. PMID:24019954

Csupor, Dezs?; Boros, Klára; Hohmann, Judit

2013-01-01

334

Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula.  

PubMed

The gut microbiota is hypothesized to have a critical role in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Gegen Qinlian Decoction (GQD), can alleviate T2D. To find out whether GQD modulates the composition of the gut microbiota during T2D treatment, 187 T2D patients were randomly allocated to receive high (HD, n=44), moderate (MD, n=52), low dose GQD (LD, n=50) or the placebo (n=41) for 12 weeks in a double-blinded trial. Patients who received the HD or MD demonstrated significant reductions in adjusted mean changes from baseline of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with the placebo and LD groups. Pyrosequencing of the V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed a dose-dependent deviation of gut microbiota in response to GQD treatment. This deviation occurred before significant improvement of T2D symptoms was observed. Redundancy analysis identified 47 GQD-enriched species level phylotypes, 17 of which were negatively correlated with FBG and 9 with HbA1c. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that GQD significantly enriched Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which was negatively correlated with FBG, HbA1c and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels and positively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function. Therefore, these data indicate that structural changes of gut microbiota are induced by Chinese herbal formula GQD. Specifically, GQD treatment may enrich the amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium spp. In conclusion, changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the anti-diabetic effects of GQD. PMID:25279787

Xu, Jia; Lian, Fengmei; Zhao, Linhua; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Xinyan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhou, Qiang; Xue, Zhengsheng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Liping; Tong, Xiaolin

2015-03-01

335

In vitro anti- Helicobacter pylori activity of Greek herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have studied the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of 70 Greek plant extracts and a number of commercially available herbs used traditionally in folk medicine against gastric ailments, peptic ulcer included. The extracts of Anthemis melanolepis, Cerastium candidissimum, Chamomilla recutita, Conyza albida, Dittrichia viscosa, Origanum vulgare and Stachys alopecuros have been proved active against one standard strain and

George Stamatis; Panayiotis Kyriazopoulos; Stamatina Golegou; Aris Basayiannis; Spyros Skaltsas; Helen Skaltsa

2003-01-01

336

Administration of Chinpi, a Component of the Herbal Medicine Ninjin-Youei-To, Reverses Age-Induced Demyelination  

PubMed Central

The disruption of myelin causes severe neurological diseases. An understanding of the mechanism of myelination and remyelination is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for demyelination diseases. Our previous findings indicated that the FcR?/Fyn cascade is a potential therapeutic target for remyelination caused by the Chinese/Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo) medicine ninjin'youeito (Ninjin-youei-to, NYT), which is a hot-water extract made from 12 medicinal herbs. To identify which constituents of NYT are involved in the reversal of demyelination and to examine the potential therapeutic effect, we tested several of the chemical constituents of NYT. Here, we report that Chinpi, a constituent of NYT, upregulates the FcR?/Fyn signaling cascade resulting in a potentially therapeutic effect against age-induced demyelination. In addition, we observed that phosphorylated (activated) FcR?/Fyn upregulated the expression of the 21.5?kDa isoform of myelin basic protein, inducing rapid morphological differentiation, when oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) were cultured in the presence of hesperidin and/or narirutin (the major active constituents of Chinpi). These results suggest that hesperidin and narirutin participate in the FcR?/Fyn signaling pathway in OPCs causing these cells to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. PMID:21799684

Sato, Nanako; Seiwa, Chika; Uruse, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kayoko; Kawakita, Takuya; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Akio; Takao, Masakatsu; Kudo, Chiaki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Ishige, Atushi; Watanabe, Kenji; Asou, Hiroaki

2011-01-01

337

Strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the eyes of some Hong Kong Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo explore the attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese towards the strengths and weaknesses of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine.DESIGNQualitative study of subjects' opinions using semi-structured focus group interviews.SETTINGSouthern district of Hong Kong Island where many of the residents have a fisherman background.PARTICIPANTSTwenty nine participants took part in eight focus group interviews.Measurements and main results—Participants' attitudes towards TCM and

T P Lam

2001-01-01

338

Control Strategy on Hypertension in Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a clinical common disease, with high mortality and disability. Although there have also been significant advances in therapeutic concepts and measures, it has shown a certain value and significance in the treatment of Chinese medicine. The control strategy on hypertension is described from the following aspects such as differentiation of symptoms, pathogenesis, formula syndrome, and herb syndrome. As the common clinical manifestations of hypertension are dizziness, headache, fatigue, lassitude in the loins and knees, and so on, the pathogeneses of them are analysed. The author found that the main pathogenesis of the disease is heat, excessive fluid, and deficiency, which occurred incorporatively and interacted with each other in patients. Although the pathogenesis of the disease is complicated, the distribution of formula syndromes and herb syndromes is regular. The common formula syndromes include Banxia Baishu Tianma Tang (Decoction of Pinellia ternata, Atractylodes and Gastrodia elata), Da Chaihu Tang (Major Bupleurum Decoction), and Liu Wei Dihuang Wan (Pill of Rehmannia). And the common herb syndromes include Tian Ma (Gastrodia elata) syndrome, Sheng Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae) syndrome, Niu Xi (Achyranthes Root) syndrome, and Chuan Xiong (Ligusticum wallichii) syndrome. PMID:22194771

Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

2012-01-01

339

Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). One class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics and work by increasing the excretion of urine from the body as well as the amount of sodium in urine. There are a growing number of studies purporting diuretic effects with traditional medicines. The aim of this article was to review these studies and identify which extracts promote diuresis (which we assessed on terms of urine excreted and urinary sodium excretion) and also to identify the research needs in this area. We identified a number of species and genuses reporting diuretic effects. Of these, the most promising, at the present time, are the species Foeniculum vulgare, Fraxinus excelsior, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Petroselinum sativum and Spergularia purpurea, and species from the genuses Cucumis (Cucumis melo and Cucumis trigonus), Equisetum (Equisetum bogotense, Equisetum fluviatile, Equisetum giganteum, Equisetum hiemale var. affine and Equisetum myriochaetum), Lepidium (Lepidium latifolium and Lepidium sativum), Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus corcovadensis and Phyllanthus sellowianus) and Sambucus (Sambucus mexicana and Sambucus nigra). However, there the number of studies is limited and we recommend that further studies be conducted to confirm reported effects. Such evidence is needed to provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines and even be helpful in the development of future medicines, treatments and treatment guidelines. PMID:17804183

Wright, C I; Van-Buren, L; Kroner, C I; Koning, M M G

2007-10-01

340

Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds: a review of their role on hepatitis B virus infection.  

PubMed

Since the significant public health hazard of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and obvious drug resistance and dose-dependent side effects for common antiviral agents (e.g., interferon ?, lamivudine, and adefovir), continuous development of agents to treat HBV infection is urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an established segment of the health care system in China. Currently, it is widely used for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China and many parts of the world. Over a long period of time in clinical practice and in basic research progress, the effectiveness and beneficial contribution of TCM on CHB have been gradually known and confirmed. Based upon our review of related papers and because of our prior knowledge and experience, we have selected some Chinese medicines, including Chinese herbal formulas (e.g., Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Xiao-Yao-San, and Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang), single herbs (e.g., Phyllanthus niruri, Radix astragali, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rheum palmatum, and Salvia miltiorrhiza) and related active compounds (e.g., wogonin, artesunate, saikosaponin, astragaloside IV, and chrysophanol 8-O-beta-Dglucoside) and Chinese medicine preparations (e.g., silymarin, silibinin, kushenin, and cinobufacini), which seem effective and worthy of additional and indepth study in treating CHB, and we have given them a brief review. We conclude that these Chinese herbal medicines exhibit significant anti-HBV activities with improved liver function, and enhanced HBeAg and HBsAg sero-conversion rates as well as HBV DNA clearance rates in HepG2 2.2.15 cells, DHBV models, or patients with CHB. We hope this review will contribute to an understanding of TCM and related active compounds as an effective treatment for CHB and provide useful information for the development of more effective antiviral drugs. PMID:24423652

Qi, F H; Wang, Z X; Cai, P P; Zhao, L; Gao, J J; Kokudo, N; Li, A Y; Han, J Q; Tang, W

2013-12-01

341

Antioxidative activities and the total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could supplement total antioxidants intake. Amongst the tested herbal extracts, extracts of Canarium album Raeusch., Flos caryophylli and Fructus amomi were found to have the highest antioxidative activities in both DPPH and FRAP assays. Their antioxidative activities were comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Thus, these herbs are safe and inexpensive sources of natural antioxidants. A significant relationship between the antioxidative effects and total phenolic contents were found, indicating phenolic compounds are the major contributor of antioxidative capacities of these herbs. In addition, a strong correlation between DPPH assay and FRAP assay implied that antioxidants in these herbs were capable of scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidants. PMID:18815744

Guo, D-J; Cheng, H-L; Chan, S-W; Yu, P H-F

2008-10-01

342

Complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel diseases: what is the future in the field of herbal medicine?  

PubMed

The use of complementary and alternative medicine is wide-spread not only in Eastern countries, but also in the Western world. Despite the increasing evidence on the harmful effects induced by several naturopathic/homeopathic products, patients seem to appreciate these remedies, in particular because they consider them to be absolutely safe. This same phenomenon is common among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. As a result there is a significant request for scientific data to evaluate both the efficacy and safety of these remedies, and to support the use of such medications as adjuvant treatments to biological and synthetic drugs. We aimed to review the current evidence on efficacy and safety of some natural products that are believed to be effective in inflammatory bowel disease. Further perspectives for the clinical use of herbal products and strategies for improving knowledge about herbal products in IBD are also discussed. PMID:24813226

Gilardi, Daniela; Fiorino, Gionata; Genua, Marco; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio

2014-09-01

343

Evaluation of sample pretreatment methods for analysis of polonium isotopes in herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Herbal infusions like ayurvedic aristas are widely consumed by Indian population for good health. With increasing awareness about radiological assessment, an effort was made to assess the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in herbal medicines. (210)Po is an important alpha particle emitter contributing to internal dose to man from ingestion. Though (210)Po can be spontaneously deposited on silver disk for alpha spectrometric measurements with less radiochemical step, great care has to be taken during the sample pretreatment step owing to the high volatility of polonium even at low temperatures. Aim of the study was to evaluate an appropriate sample pretreatment method for estimation of polonium in herbal medicines. (209)Po was used for radiochemical yield calculation. Conventional open vessel wet ashing, physical evaporation, freeze-drying and microwave digestion in a Teflon vessel were examined. The recovery ranged between 9 and 79%. The lowest recovery was obtained for the samples that were processed by open vessel digestion without any volume reduction. The recoveries were comparable for those samples that were freeze dried and subjected to HNO3 + HClO4 + H2O2 + HF acid digestion and microwave digested samples. (210)Po concentration in the samples ranged from 11.3 to 39.6 mBq/L. PMID:25176601

Sreejith, Sathyapriya R; Nair, Madhu G; Rao, D D

2014-12-01

344

Computational methods for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been actively researched through various approaches, including computational techniques. A review on basic elements of TCM is provided to illuminate various challenges and progresses in its study using computational methods. Information on various TCM formulations, in particular resources on databases of TCM formulations and their integration to Western medicine, are analyzed in several facets, such

Suryani Lukman; Yulan He; Siu-Cheung Hui

2007-01-01

345

Determination of Trace Elements in Jinqi, a Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the trace element composition of Jingi, a common remedy used in traditional Chinese medicine, using atomic\\u000a absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentration of the trace elements analyzed in this medicine decreases in the order:\\u000a zinc > manganese > chromium > magnesium > copper > iron > lead > nickel > vanadium. We suggest that these trace elements may

Chunchao Han; Jia Li; Qiusha Hui

2008-01-01

346

Molecular profile of the unique species of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese seahorse ( Hippocampus kuda Bleeker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA library of male Chinese seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeker) was constructed to investigate the molecular profile of seahorse as one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicine materials, and to reveal immunological and physiological mechanisms of seahorse as one of the most primitive vertebrates at molecular level. A total of 3372 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) consisting of 1911 unique

Ning Zhang; Bin Xu; Chunyan Mou; Wenli Yang; Jianwen Wei; Liang Lu; Junjie Zhu; Jingchun Du; Xiaokun Wu; Lanting Ye; Zhiyan Fu; Yang Lu; Jianghai Lin; Zizi Sun; Jing Su; Meiling Dong; Anlong Xu

2003-01-01

347

Integration of traditional Chinese medicine with Western medicine--Right or wrong?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a dualistic medical system in most Asian, African and Latin American countries results from specific historical events. In China, traditional medicine and Western medicine exist side by side during the last century. Though Chinese medicine suffered from discrimination which retarded its development for several decades, under the protection and encouragement of New China's policy, it develops steadily

Cai Jingfeng

1988-01-01

348

An Analysis of Chemical Ingredients Network of Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

As a complex system, the complicated interactions between chemical ingredients, as well as the potential rules of interactive associations among chemical ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal formulae are not yet fully understood by modern science. On the other hand, network analysis is emerging as a powerful approach focusing on processing complex interactive data. By employing network approach in selected Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), this article aims to construct and analyze chemical ingredients network of herbal formulae, and provide candidate herbs, chemical constituents, and ingredient groups for further investigation. As a result, chemical ingredients network composed of 1588 ingredients from 36 herbs used in 8 core formulae for the treatment of CHD was produced based on combination associations in herbal formulae. In this network, 9 communities with relative dense internal connections are significantly associated with 14 kinds of chemical structures with P<0.001. Moreover, chemical structural fingerprints of network communities were detected, while specific centralities of chemical ingredients indicating different levels of importance in the network were also measured. Finally, several distinct herbs, chemical ingredients, and ingredient groups with essential position in the network or high centrality value are recommended for further pharmacology study in the context of new drug development. PMID:25658855

Ding, Fan; Zhang, Qianru; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yitao; Han, Yifan; Hu, Yuanjia; Qi, Jin

2015-01-01

349

The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200-250 herbs are used in treating

Hassan Azaizeh; Bashar Saad; Khalid Khalil; Omar Said

2006-01-01

350

Determination of bioactive components in Chinese herbal formulae and pharmacokinetics of rhein in rats by UPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Rhein (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylic acid, cassic acid) is a pharmacological active component found in Rheum palmatum L. the major herb of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a medicinal herbal product used as a remedy for constipation. Here we have determined multiple bioactive components in SHXXT and investigated the comparative pharmacokinetics of rhein in rats. A sensitive and specific method combining liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated to simultaneously quantify six active compounds in the pharmaceutical herbal product SHXXT to further study their pharmacokinetics in rats. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was employed for quantification with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. There were no significant matrix effects in the quantitative analysis and the mean recovery for rhein in rat plasma was 91.6%±3.4%. The pharmacokinetic data of rhein demonstrate that the herbal formulae or the single herbal extract provide significantly higher absorption rate than the pure compound. This phenomenon suggests that the other herbal ingredients of SHXXT and rhubarb extract significantly enhance the absorption of rhein in rats. In conclusion, the herbal formulae (SHXXT) are more efficient than the single herb (rhubarb) or the pure compound (rhein) in rhein absorption. PMID:24699148

Hou, Mei-Ling; Chang, Li-Wen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2014-01-01

351

Memory enhancement by traditional Chinese medicine?  

PubMed

Cognitive repair by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) through activation of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is well established, but not used for clinical therapy due to its link to cancer. We hypothesize that IGF-IR activation rather than IGF-I per se may be essential for cognitive repair and attempted to identify ligands from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with drug-like potential towards IGF-IR. TCM ligands, 3-(2-carboxyphenyl)-4(3H)-quinazolinone from Isatisin digotica, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine from Lindera aggregate, and (+)-1(R)-Coclaurine from Nelumbonucifera Gaertn, exhibited high binding affinities and good blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration crucial for accessing IGF-IR. Stable complex formation of the candidates was observed during molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Interactions with Leu975 and Gly1055 or Asp1056 were important for ligand binding. Amino acid distance analysis revealed residues 974/975, 984-986, 996-1006, 1040-1056, and 1122-1135 as "hotspots" for ligand binding in IGF-IR. Versatile entry pathways for the TCM candidates suggest high accessibility to the binding site. Blockage of the binding site opening by the TCM candidates limits binding site access by other compounds. Multiple linear regression (R²?=?0.9715), support vector machine (R²?=?0.9084), Bayesian network (R²?=0.8233) comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA, R²?=?0.9941), and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA, R²?= 0.9877) models consistently suggest that the TCM candidates might exert bioactivity on IGF-IR. Contour of representative MD conformations to CoMFA and CoMSIA maps exhibits similar results. Properties including BBB passage, evidence of ability to form stable complexes with IGF-IR by MD simulation, and predicted bioactivity suggest that the TCM candidates have drug-like properties and might have potential as cognitive-enhancing drugs. PMID:23249175

Hung, I-Chi; Chang, Su-Sen; Chang, Pei-Chun; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

2013-12-01

352

Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations\\u000a and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire\\u000a piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or\\u000a 2 g\\/kg of the powder,

X. F. Kong; Y. L. Yin; Q. H. He; F. G. Yin; H. J. Liu; T. J. Li; R. L. Huang; M. M. Geng; Z. Ruan; Z. Y. Deng; M. Y. Xie; G. Wu

2009-01-01

353

Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts. PMID:17691984

Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

2007-08-01

354

Chamomile tea: herbal hypoglycemic alternative for conventional medicine.  

PubMed

Chamomile is considered as one of the oldest and also documented as medicinal plant. It has shown to be an anti-inflammatory, astringent and antioxidant especially in floral part since ancient times. Recent studies reported that chamomile has potential to lower blood sugar levels in hyperglycemia. In the present study we have investigated the pharmacological effects of chamomile tea on fasting and post prandial glucose levels and HbA1C in blood of diabetic rats (alloxan induced) and the results were compared with glibenclamide as standard. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. It has been observed in our study that it has reduced progressively the fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels, significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats particularly on day 30 and 60. It also reduced the level of HbA1C significantly at the end of the study and the effects were similar to that of the standard group. Chamomile tea administration has also controlled the reduction in weight in diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control and the results were not very much different from standard. Results from the present study indicate that chamomile tea have a glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats so its daily consumption can be potentially useful in hyperglycemia and it can be used as a substitute of conventional drug treatment. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact molecular mechanism involved in anti-diabetic action of chamomile. PMID:25176245

Khan, Saira Saeed; Najam, Rahila; Anser, Humera; Riaz, Bushra; Alam, Nausheen

2014-09-01

355

Herbal medicine analysis by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The fact that the effects of herbal medicines (HMs) are brought about by their chemical constituents has created a critical demand for powerful analytical tools performing the chemical analysis to assure their efficacy, safety and quality. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an excellent technique to analyze multi-components in complex herbal matrices. Due to its inherent characteristics of accurate mass measurements and high resolution, time-of-flight (TOF) MS is well-suited to this field, especially for qualitative applications. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the potential of TOF, including the hybrid quadrupole- and ion trap-TOF (QTOF and IT-TOF), hyphenated to LC for chemical analysis in HMs or HM-treated biological samples. The peculiarities of LC-(Q/IT)TOF-MS for the analysis of HMs are discussed first, including applied stationary phase, mobile-phase selection, accurate mass measurements, fragmentation and selectivity. The final section is devoted to describing the applicability of LC-(Q/IT)TOF-MS to routine analysis of multi-components, including target and non-target (unknown) compounds, in herbal samples, emphasizing both the advantages and limitations of this approach for qualitative and quantitative purposes. The potential and future trends of fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (e.g. rapid resolution LC and ultra-performance LC) coupled to (Q)TOF-MS for chemical analysis of HMs are highlighted. PMID:19501368

Zhou, Jian-Liang; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

2009-10-30

356

Insights on the formulation of herbal beverages with medicinal claims according with their antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Several herbal beverages claim medicinal benefits due to their antioxidant properties. However, operational factors such as the extracted herbal component, preparation method or concentration levels, might influence their biological activity. To assess this effect, the antioxidant activity of beverages prepared with Camellia sinensis, Aspalathus linearis or Cochlospermum angolensis, used solely or mixed with different fruit, plant or algae extracts, was studied using different formulations (bags, leaves, roots, granulates, powders, liquids) and different preparation methods (infusion, solubilisation or promptly used). The DF50 (dilution factor responsible for 50% of antioxidant activity) values were calculated to compare their antioxidant activity. A linear discriminant analysis was used to categorize the assayed samples according to their antioxidant activity and bioactive molecules profiles. The results indicated that antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds are significantly affected by formulation and preparation method, but overall the labelled antioxidant benefits were validated. Green tea showed the highest activity, but with different behaviour within each used formulation. The high DF50 values calculated for some products might be used to adjust the dietary dose or formulation, preventing also putative pro-oxidant effects. Hence, the obtained results might be useful to define the formulation of these highly consumed herbal beverages, enhancing their health effects. PMID:23459297

Barreira, João C M; Morais, Ana L; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

2013-01-01

357

Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease.

S. P. Li; F. Q. Yang; Karl W. K. Tsim

2006-01-01

358

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

359

Individually integrated traditional chinese medicine approach in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a major public health issue causing chronic disability worldwide with the increasing number of aging people. In China and increasingly worldwide, many sufferers with knee OA are using complementary and alternative medicine including herbal drug, herbal patch, acupuncture and Tuina etc., to alleviate their symptoms. However, evidence gathered from systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials (RCT) has only validated acupuncture for the management of osteoarthritic pain. Moreover, such Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) methods above are commonly used in an integrative way. This trial is aimed to compare the efficacy of an individually integrated TCM approach in the management of knee OA with other single treatments as parallel randomized controls. Methods/design Five teaching hospitals will participate in this randomized controlled trial. 500 participants, 100 in each hospital, will be randomly assigned to receive oral administration of a Chinese herbal drug (counter osteophytes capsule), topical use of a Chinese herbal patch (Fufnag Zijin patch), acupuncture, Tuina and the individually integrated TCM approach. The individually integrated TCM approach consists of basic treatment of oral counter osteophytes capsule, variable use of Tuina, acupuncture and a herbal patch based on the severity of the patient's symptoms. The interventions are given for a period of 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the self-reported total score using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Secondary outcome measures include patient and investigator global assessment of response to treatment, patient and investigator global assessment of OA condition, WOMAC pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales, short-form 36 (SF-36) and TCM assessment of OA condition measured by syndromes questionnaire. Mixed models and sensitivity analysis will be used for the statistical analysis. Discussion The trial is designed to test the hypothesis that an individually integrated TCM approach is more effective than four treatment modalities used separately. The major limitation of this study is lack of placebo control and of double blinding. Trial Registration Chinese Cochrane Center ChiCTR-TRC-00000176 PMID:21696615

2011-01-01

360

Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products?-?part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.  

PubMed

This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

2014-07-01

361

Effectiveness, Medication Patterns, and Adverse Events of Traditional Chinese Herbal Patches for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the evidence whether traditional Chinese herbal patches (TCHPs) for osteoarthritis (OA) are effective and safe and analyze their medication patterns. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using all the possible Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords from January 1979 to July 2013. Both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. Estimated effects were analyzed using mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and meta-analysis. Results. 86 kinds of TCHPs were identified. RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) which were mostly of low quality favored TCHPs for local pain and dysfunction relief. TCHPs, compared with diclofenac ointment, had significant effects on global effectiveness rate (RR = 0.50; 95% CI (0.29, 0.87)). Components of formulae were mainly based on the compounds “Xiao Huo Luo Dan” (Minor collateral-freeing pill) and “Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang” (Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi decoction). Ten kinds of adverse events (AEs), mainly consisting of itching and/or local skin rashes, were identified after 3-4 weeks of follow-up. Conclusions. TCHPs have certain evidence in improving global effectiveness rate for OA; however, more rigorous studies are warranted to support their use. PMID:24527043

Wang, Xuezong; Liu, Ting; Gao, Ningyang; Ding, Daofang; Duan, Tieli; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin

2014-01-01

362

Current Evidence of Chinese Herbal Constituents with Effects on NMDA Receptor Blockade  

PubMed Central

NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) is an important molecular entity governing a wide range of functions in the central nervous system. For example, the NMDA-R is involved in memory and cognition, and impairment of both (as in Alzheimer’s Disease) is attributed to NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity. With greater understanding of the NMDA-R structure, antagonists with varying degrees of binding-site and subtype selectivity have been developed and put into clinical use. Discovery of target-specific Chinese herbs have also been made in parallel. This article provides an overview of the known active sites on the NMDA-R, followed by a discussion of the relevant herbs and their constituents. Experimental evidence supporting the inhibitory role of the herbal compounds on the NMDA-R is highlighted. For some of the compounds, potential research directions are also proposed to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the herbs. It is envisaged that future investigations based on the present data will allow more clinically relevant herbs to be identified. PMID:24276380

Liang, Willmann; Lam, Wai Ping; Tang, Hong Chai; Leung, Ping Chung; Yew, David T.

2013-01-01

363

Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ER?-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ER?-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

2009-01-01

364

Herbal medicinal products target defined biochemical and molecular mediators of inflammatory autoimmune arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by synovial inflammation, damage to cartilage and bone, and deformities of the joints. Several drugs possessing anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties are being used in the conventional (allopathic) system of medicine to treat RA. However, the long-term use of these drugs is associated with harmful side effects. Therefore, newer drugs with low or no toxicity for the treatment of RA are actively being sought. Interestingly, several herbs demonstrate anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity. In this review, we describe the role of the major biochemical and molecular mediators in the pathogenesis of RA, and highlight the sites of action of herbal medicinal products that have anti-arthritic activity. With the rapidly increasing use of CAM products by patients with RA and other inflammation-related disorders, our review presents timely information validating the scientific rationale for the use of natural therapeutic products. PMID:21115252

Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

2010-01-01

365

Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome Caused by Herbal Medicine: CT and MRI Features  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. Materials and Methods The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Results Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Conclusion Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity. PMID:24643319

Zhou, Hua; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lou, Hai-yan; Xu, Xiao-jun

2014-01-01

366

Treatment of asthma patients with herbal medicine TJ-96: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Alternative medicine use has increased at a remarkable pace all over the world in recent years. Although herbal medicine for the treatment of asthma is becoming the focus of public attention, randomized studies had not been performed, even in Eastern countries including Japan. This study was designed to investigate whether one of the Japanese government approved herbal complexes Saiboku-to (TJ-96) is effective for the treatment of atopic asthma, and to investigate whether this protective activity is associated with a reduction in eosinophilic inflammation. A double-blind, randomized, crossover design was used. Subjects received 2.5 g of TJ-96 or placebo orally 3 times daily for 4 weeks and then, after a washout period of at least 4 weeks, crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. We assessed the effects of pretreatment with TJ-96 on bronchoconstriction precipitated by inhalation of methacholine. Furthermore, eosinophil counts and measurement of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) were performed. After 4 weeks of treatment with TJ-96, values of PC20 -methacholine significantly improved in the treatment with TJ-96. Also, patients' symptoms, blood eosinophils, serum ECP, sputum eosinophils, and sputum ECP were significantly decreased. Our results suggest that TJ-96 has an antiinflammatory effect on bronchial eosinophilic infiltration. This study raises further interesting therapeutic possibilities and argues for further trials of new approaches to the treatment of asthma. PMID:12117049

Urata, Y; Yoshida, S; Irie, Y; Tanigawa, T; Amayasu, H; Nakabayashi, M; Akahori, K

2002-06-01

367

A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine, but also for the rational discovery of potent drug/herb combinations that are individually subtherapeutic. PMID:23243453

Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

2012-01-01

368

Application of isoabsorption plots generated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection to the development of multicomponent quantitative analysis of traditional herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Multicomponent quantitative analysis is one of the mainstream quality control methods of traditional herbal medicines. Since the constituents of traditional herbal medicines samples are complex, the development of high-performance liquid chromatography methods is laborious. In this study, an isoabsorption plot, a chromatographic/spectrometric data image plotted by diode array detection was utilized to facilitate the establishment of a high-performance liquid chromatography method by optimizing and validating the detection conditions off-line. Consequently a simple, reliable and accurate method for simultaneous determination of seven active polyphenolic components (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, scutellarin, and apigenin) in Qingfei mixture, a long-used Chinese prescription, was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution of phosphoric acid aqueous solution (0.05%, v/v) and acetonitrile, and a wavelength switch program optimized with isoplot was adopted for detection. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the seven polyphenolic components in different production batches of Qingfei Mixture. These results indicated that isoplot is an effective tool to improve the establishment of multicomponent quantitative analysis methods. PMID:25146493

Fang, Luo; Yang, Guonong; Song, Yu; Li, Fanzhu; Lin, Nengming

2014-11-01

369

In vitro response of Blastocystis hominis against traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in vitro study on the activity of 20 kinds of crude extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the intestinal parasite, Blastocystis hominis using the criteria of living cell count (LCC) and living cell rate (LCR). LCC and LCR were applied as observation indicators, the former as a fixed-quantity and the latter as a fixed-quality method.

L. Q. Yang; Mulkit Singh; E. H. Yap; G. C. Ng; H. X. Xu; K. Y. Sim

1996-01-01

370

Tongue Area Extraction in Tongue Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of tongue area from digital photos is essential to an automatic tongue diagnostic system in traditional Chinese medicine. Simple segmentation methods couldn't be effective due to the weak edge of tongue and the details on the tongue's surface. In this paper, we propose a unique segmentation method based on the combination of the watershed transform and active contour

Jia Wu; Yonghong Zhang; Jing Bai

2005-01-01

371

Cordyceps – A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are growing in popularity. However, are they effective? Cordyceps is not studied as systematically for bioactivity as another TCM, Ganoderma. Cordyceps is fascinating per se, especially because of the pathogenic lifestyle on Lepidopteron insects. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a TCM for centuries. However, the natural fungus has been

R. Russell M. Paterson

2008-01-01

372

Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Dermatologic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

raditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an alternative method of therapy that can be administered in oral, topical, or injectable forms. It emphasizes the importance of using many herbs that are combined in different formulations for each individual patient. Among some segments of the patient population, it has become increasingly popular as a mode for treating dermatologic diseases. As a result,

John Koo; Sumaira Arain

1998-01-01

373

Statistical Quality Control Process for Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical quality control process on raw materials and\\/or the final product of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is examined. We develop a statistical quality control (QC) method to assess a proposed consistency index of raw materials from different sources and\\/or final products manufactured at different sites. The idea is to construct a 95% confidence interval for a proposed consistency index

Siu-Keung Tse; Jang-yang Chang; Wei-Lun Su; Shein-Chung Chow; Chao Hsiung; Qingshu Lu

2006-01-01

374

A quantitative system for pulse diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulse diagnosis is one of the most important examinations in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Due to the subjectivity and fuzziness of pulse diagnosis in TCM, quantitative systems or methods are needed to modernize pulse diagnosis. But up to now, the effective models that can classify pulse types according to pulse waves automatically have not been reported, which undoubtedly limits

Huiyan Wang; Yiyu Cheng

2005-01-01

375

Traditional chinese medicine (tongue acupuncture) in children with drooling problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tongue acupuncture is an innovative technique in traditional Chinese medicine. We have demonstrated that specific tongue acupoints are related to various functional domains. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of tongue acupuncture in children with neurologic disability who had severe drooling problems. We conducted an intent-to-treat study in a cohort of 10 children. A continuous course of tongue acupuncture

Virginia Wong; J. G Sun; Wilfred Wong

2001-01-01

376

Cordyceps - A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are growing in popularity. However, are they effective? Cordyceps is not studied as systemat- ically for bioactivity as another TCM, Ganoderma. Cordyceps is fascinating per se, especially because of the pathogenic lifestyle on Lepi- dopteron insects. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a TCM for centuries. However, the natural fungus

R. Russell; M. Paterson

377

[Chemical pattern recognition of traditional Chinese medicine kudingcha (II)].  

PubMed

In this paper, the HPLC data from 78 samples of Kudingcha were treated with back propagation algorithm of artifical neural network pattern recognition, and the computer-aided classification of Ilex cornuta Lindl., Ilex latifolia Thunb. and Ligustrum lucidum Ait. was accomplished. This paper provides a scientific, advanced and feasible method for identification of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12567945

Su, W; Wu, Z; He, X; Chen, J

1998-04-01

378

Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of oven drying at 50?C ± 1?C for 9 hour, 70?C ± 1?C for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. The medicinal plants selected were leaves of Apium graveolens (saderi), Averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), Centella asiatica (pegaga), Mentha arvensis (pudina), Psidium guajava (jambu batu), Sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), Solanum nigrum (terung meranti) and Polygonum minus (kesum ). Results revealed that both type and conditions of the drying treatments affected retention of all phytochemicals analysed. Herbal preparation developed using oven drying was found to have inferior phytochemicals content compared to that obtained by freeze dryer. Nevertheless, the herbal preparation developed using all treatments still retain appreciable amount of phytochemicals studied, especially carotenoids, ascorbic acid, niacin and riboflavin and thus have potential for commercial purposes. PMID:22692357

Mahanom, H; Azizah, A; Dzulkifly, M

1999-12-01

379

Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica  

PubMed Central

More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

1999-01-01

380

The Use of Herbal Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease—A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

The treatments of choice in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA-receptor antagonists, although doubts remain about the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. Herbal medicine products have been used in the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) but with various responses. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. Randomized controlled studies assessing AD in individuals older than 65 years were identified through searches of MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, dissertation Abstract (USA), ADEAR (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials Database), National Research Register, Current Controlled trials, Centerwatch Trials Database and PsychINFO Journal Articles. The search combined the terms Alzheimer disease, dementia, cognition disorders, Herbal, Phytotherapy. The crossover results were evaluated by the Jadad's measurement scale. The systematic review identified two herbs and herbal formulations with therapeutic effects for the treatment of AD: Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis and Yi-Gan San and BDW (Ba Wei Di Huang Wan). Ginkgo biloba was identified in a meta-analysis study. All five herbs are useful for cognitive impairment of AD. M. officinalis and Yi-Gan San are also useful in agitation, for they have sedative effects. These herbs and formulations have demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness but these results need to be compared with those of traditional drugs. Further large multicenter studies should be conducted in order to test the cost-effectiveness of these herbs for AD and the impact in the control of cognitive deterioration. PMID:17173107

dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz; de Vilhena Toledo, Maria Alice; Medeiros-Souza, Patrícia; de Souza, Gustavo Almeida

2006-01-01

381

Chinese medicine and biomodulation in cancer patients--Part one.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicine (tcm) may be integrated with conventional Western medicine to enhance the care of patients with cancer. Although tcm is normally implemented as a whole system, recent reductionist research suggests mechanisms for the effects of acupuncture, herbs, and nutrition within the scientific model of biomedicine. The health model of Chinese medicine accommodates physical and pharmacologic interventions within the framework of a body-mind network. A Cartesian split does not occur within this model, but to allow for scientific exploration within the restrictions of positivism, reductionism, and controls for confounding factors, the components must necessarily be separated. Still, whole-systems research is important to evaluate effectiveness when applying the full model in clinical practice. Scientific analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that will improve the design of clinical studies and enhance safety. Enough preliminary evidence is available to encourage quality clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of integrating tcm into Western cancer care. PMID:18317584

Sagar, S M; Wong, R K

2008-01-01

382

A systematic review of the evidence for use of herbal medicine for the treatment of acute diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Acute diarrhea (AD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among both children and adults. An ideal antidiarrheal treatment should be safe, effective, compatible with Oral Rehydration Solution, and inexpensive. Herbal medicines, if effective, should fit these criteria as well or better than standard treatment. ^ Objective. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness

Zahra Asgari

2010-01-01

383

“Zahraa”, a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: Components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as “Zahraa” in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout.

M. D. Carmona; R. Llorach; C. Obon; D. Rivera

2005-01-01

384

The influence of herbal medicine ursolic acid on the uptake of rosuvastatin mediated by OATP1B1*1a and *5.  

PubMed

Chinese herbal medicines such as hawthorn, salvia, etc., are frequently combined with statins so as to treat cardiovascular diseases more effectively. Chinese herbal medicines contain many kinds of active components, which may have drug-drug interactions with statins. This study aims to explore the effect and mechanism by which ursolic acid affects OATP1B1-mediated transport of rosuvastatin. This study will explore the effect of ursolic acid on OAPT1B1-mediated transport of rosuvastatin in the different cell systems. Given the genetic polymorphisms of OATP1B1, simultaneously, this study will further explore the effect of ursolic acid on OATP1B1 (521T>C)-mediated transport of rosuvastatin. When the concentration of ursolic acid was 1.8 and 18 µM, it showed that ursolic acid significantly inhibits the uptake of rosuvastatin in both OATP1B1*1a-HEK 293T cells and OATP1B1*5-HEK 293T cells. The reduction of OATP1B1*1a transport of rosuvastatin were 34.60 ± 2.99 and 66.08 ± 1.83 %, and for OATP1B1*5 were 34.27 ± 7.08 % and 66.95 ± 1.14 %. Inhibitory parameters of IC50 were 6.25 ± 0.42 and 6.07 ± 0.57 µM, respectively. This study suggests that ursolic acid can affect the uptake of rosuvastatin in hepatocytes by inhibiting the transport of OATP1B1, and gene mutation of OATP1B1 may cause different effects on its transport of rosuvastatin. PMID:24736980

Hua, Wen Jin; Hua, Wei Xiao; Nan, Fu Yong; Jiang, Wang An; Yan, Chen

2014-09-01

385

[Acquisition and storage methods for image data collected in Chinese medicine resources survey].  

PubMed

The acquisition and storage of the image data are important in the Chinese medicine resources survey, and it is important data and evidence for the process and the results. The image data of the Chinese medicinal materials' habitat, original plant or animal, processing in habitat, commodity form, the relative contents and workshop scenarios in the investigation are important for the compiling of the Color Atlas of National Chinese Medicine Resources, mapping the digital scattergram of the Chinese medicine resources, establishing the digital Chinese medicine plant herbarium and acquiring the documentary of the Chinese medicine resource survey. The content, procedures and methods of the video data collecting have been related and analyzed in this article to provide reference for the Chinese medicine resources survey. PMID:25011278

Li, Li; Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Guo, Zheng-Zheng; Li, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Qin

2014-04-01

386

In vitro antioxidation activity and genoprotective effect of selected Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Some traditional Chinese medicinal seeds and fruits are well known for their antioxidant properties. This research aims to investigate whether Fructus Lycii, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Semen Cuscutae protect DNA from oxidant challenge by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The standard comet assay was used to assess the genoprotective effect of these medicinal herbs. Blood was taken from three healthy adults, aged from 36 to 42. Lymphocytes were isolated and treated with different concentrations of aqueous herbal extracts, while controls were treated with phosphate buffered saline. The lymphocytes were stressed with 50 ?M H(2)O(2). Treated cells were embedded in agarose and layered on slides. These sandwiched lymphocytes were lysed and afterwards subjected to an electric field in an alkaline environment. Damaged DNA was pulled out from the nucleus towards the positive electrode as a comet tail; its density was related to the degree of DNA damage. Finally, the slides were stained with fluorescence dye and tails were visually scored for 100 cells. The experiment was repeated three times and DNA damage in treated cells was compared to the controls. There was no statistical difference in DNA damage among the herb treated cells and untreated cells in the comet assay. Our data demonstrated that the selected medicinal herbs did not show in vitro DNA protection in the comet assay against oxidant challenge. PMID:21721160

Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Shirley Ching Yee; Wong, Julia Wai Ming; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

2011-01-01

387

Herbal Medicines for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective We conducted systematic review to evaluate current evidence of herbal medicines (HMs) for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Along with hand searches, relevant literatures were located from the electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycInfo, CNKI, 7 Korean Medical Databases and J-East until August, 2010 without language and publication status. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials, which evaluate HMs for idiopathic PD were selected for this review. Two independent authors extracted data from the relevant literatures and any disagreement was solved by discussion. Results From the 3432 of relevant literatures, 64 were included. We failed to suggest overall estimates of treatment effects on PD because of the wide heterogeneity of used herbal recipes and study designs in the included studies. When compared with placebo, specific effects were not observed in favor of HMs definitely. Direct comparison with conventional drugs suggested that there was no evidence of better effect for HMs. Many studies compared combination therapy with single active drugs and combination therapy showed significant improvement in PD related outcomes and decrease in the dose of anti-Parkinson's drugs with low adverse events rate. Conclusion Currently, there is no conclusive evidence about the effectiveness and efficacy of HMs on PD. For establishing clinical evidence of HMs on PD, rigorous RCTs with sufficient statistical power should be promoted in future. PMID:22615738

Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Ki-Ho; Jung, Woo-Sang; Lee, Myeong Soo

2012-01-01

388

Immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethnoveterinary medicines.  

PubMed

Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits. PMID:24175417

Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K

2012-08-15

389

Phytochemistry and biology of Loranthus parasiticus Merr, a commonly used herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Loranthus parasiticus Merr (L. parasiticus) is a member of Loranthaceae family and is an important medicinal plant with a long history of Chinese traditional use. L. parasiticus, also known as Sang Ji Sheng (in Chinese), benalu teh (in Malay) and baso-kisei (in Japanese), is a semiparasitic plant, which is mostly distributed in the southern and southwestern regions of China. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of L. parasiticus and to highlight the needs for further investigation and greater global development of the plant's medicinal properties. To date, pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant biological activities, which support the traditional use of the plant as a neuroprotective, tranquilizing, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antiviral, diuretic and hypotensive agent. In addition, studies have identified antioxidative, antimutagenic, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and antinephrotoxic activity. The key bioactive constituents in L. parasiticus include coriaria lactone comprised of sesquiterpene lactones: coriamyrtin, tutin, corianin, and coriatin. In addition, two proanthocyanidins, namely, AC trimer and (+)-catechin, have been recently discovered as novel to L. parasiticus. L. parasiticus usefulness as a medicinal plant with current widespread traditional use warrants further research, clinical trials and product development to fully exploit its medicinal value. PMID:24467533

Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Kamarudin, Muhamad Noor Alfarizal; Chan, Chim Kei; Goh, Bey Hing; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

2014-01-01

390

Identification of Licopyranocoumarin and Glycyrurol from Herbal Medicines as Neuroprotective Compounds for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In the course of screening for the anti-Parkinsonian drugs from a library of traditional herbal medicines, we found that the extracts of choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to protected cells from MPP+-induced cell death. Because choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to commonly contain the genus Glycyrrhiza, we isolated licopyranocoumarin (LPC) and glycyrurol (GCR) as potent neuroprotective principals from Glycyrrhiza. LPC and GCR markedly blocked MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death and disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were mediated by JNK. LPC and GCR inhibited MPP+-induced JNK activation through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby inhibiting MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death. These results indicated that LPC and GCR derived from choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to would be promising drug leads for PD treatment in the future. PMID:24960051

Fujimaki, Takahiro; Saiki, Shinji; Tashiro, Etsu; Yamada, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imoto, Masaya

2014-01-01

391

Negotiating biomedical and traditional chinese medicine treatments among elderly chinese singaporean women.  

PubMed

In this article we examine how elderly Chinese Singaporean women navigated between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine in their practices of maintaining well-being. We interviewed 36 elderly women to understand their negotiation of medical choices in the i