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Sample records for chinese holstein cattle

  1. Effect of polymorphisms in the CSN3 (?-casein) gene on milk production traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Alim, M A; Dong, T; Xie, Y; Wu, X P; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shengli; Sun, D X

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and milk composition and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. Six SNPs were identified in the ?-casein gene using pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNPs were genotyped by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods from 507 individuals. Out of six, we identified three non-synonymous SNPs (g.10888T>C, g.10924C>A and g.10944A>G) that changed in the protein product. SIFT (Sorting_Intolerant_From_Tolerant) prediction score (0.01) demonstrated that protein changed Isoleucine > Threonine (g.10888T>C) will affect the phenotypes. Significant associations between identified SNPs and three yield traits (milk, protein and fat) and two composition traits (fat and protein percentages) were found whereas it did not reach significance for fat percentage in haplotypes association. Importantly, the significant SNPs in our results showed a large proportion of the phenotypic variation of milk protein yield and concentration. Our results suggest that CSN3 is an important candidate gene that influences milk production traits, and identified polymorphisms and haplotypes could be used as a genetic marker in programs of marker-assisted selection for the genetic improvement of milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:25091943

  2. Altered Molecular Expression of the TLR4/NF-?B Signaling Pathway in Mammary Tissue of Chinese Holstein Cattle with Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Huang, Shuai; Tang, Juan; Yu, Pan; Wang, Genlin

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated activation of the nuclear transcription factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway by mastitis initiates expression of genes associated with inflammation and the innate immune response. In this study, the profile of mastitis-induced differential gene expression in the mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated by Gene-Chip microarray and bioinformatics. The microarray results revealed that 79 genes associated with the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway were differentially expressed. Of these genes, 19 were up-regulated and 29 were down-regulated in mastitis tissue compared to normal, healthy tissue. Statistical analysis of transcript and protein level expression changes indicated that 10 genes, namely TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and IL-10, were up-regulated, while, CD14, TNF-?, MD-2, IL-?, NF-?B, and IL-12 were significantly down-regulated in mastitis tissue in comparison with normal tissue. Analyses using bioinformatics database resources, such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and the Gene Ontology Consortium (GO) for term enrichment analysis, suggested that these differently expressed genes implicate different regulatory pathways for immune function in the mammary gland. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence for better understanding the differential expression and mechanisms of the TLR4 /NF-?B signaling pathway in Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis. PMID:25706977

  3. Association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in JAK2 and STAT5B genes and their differential mRNA expression with mastitis susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Usman, T; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wang, X; Zhang, Y; Yu, Y

    2015-08-01

    The JAK-STAT pathway plays a key role in mediating immune responses. The genetic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in JAK2 and STAT5B were investigated for serum cytokines, mastitis indicators and productions traits in a population of 468 Chinese Holstein cattle. Pooled DNA sequencing revealed one SNP (BTA8:g.39645396A>G) in JAK2 and two SNPs (BTA19:g.43673888A>G and BTA19:g.43660093T>C) in STAT5B. A fixed effect model considering the effects of SNPs, parity, herd, season and year of calving was used by way of the general linear model procedure of sas. Genotype frequencies of these SNPs in the population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). A novel SNP (g.39645396A>G) in JAK2 was predicted to change the amino acid from lysine to asparagine and was significantly associated with the somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS), whereas g.43673888A>G in STAT5B was significantly associated with SCC, SCS and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (P < 0.05). The dominant effect of g.39645396A>G in JAK2 was significant for SCS, and its additive effect was significant for SCC, whereas the dominant effect of g.43673888A>G in STAT5B was significant for SCS and IL-4 (P < 0.05). The combination of g.39645396A>G in JAK2 and g.43673888A>G in STAT5B showed a significant effect on SCC, SCS, IL-4 and TNF-? (P < 0.05). As for mRNA expression analysis, the AA genotype g.39645396A>G and GG genotype g.43673888A>G indicated higher mRNA expression level and were significantly different from other genotypes (P < 0.05). The results imply that JAK2 and STAT5B genes could be useful candidate genes, and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis development. PMID:26154111

  4. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  5. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    PubMed

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1?H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies. PMID:25927168

  6. Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada Utilizing MACE Proofs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States are collaborating to develop and integrate genomic evaluations into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. There are substantially more genotyped Holstein bulls with MACE proofs than with domestic Canadian proofs in Canada. The use of...

  7. Origin and phylogeographical structure of Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Lei, C Z; Chen, H; Zhang, H C; Cai, X; Liu, R Y; Luo, L Y; Wang, C F; Zhang, W; Ge, Q L; Zhang, R F; Lan, X Y; Sun, W B

    2006-12-01

    Complete mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 231 samples were used to explore the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese cattle. Phylogenetical analysis of these sequences revealed both Bos taurus and Bos indicus mitochondrial types in Chinese cattle. Four of the previously identified mitochondrial DNA lineages (T1-T4) were identified in the Bos taurus type, including lineage T1, which was found for the first time in Chinese cattle. Two lineages (I1 and I2) were identified in the Bos indicus type. Our results support the suggestion that the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau is the domestication site of Chinese zebu. We also found evidence that Tibetan cattle originated from taurine and zebu cattle. The distribution pattern of Chinese cattle breeds was closely related to the geographical and climatic background. It was possible to divide Chinese cattle in this study into two major groups: northern and southern cattle. PMID:17121603

  8. Signature of forty years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle identified by long-range frequency analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of U.S. Holstein cattle were analyzed for selection signature of artificial selection since 1964 using long-range frequency measures. The three groups included Holsteins unselected since 1964, contemporary Holsteins, and an elite line of contemporary Holsteins. Long-range frequencies in...

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND BACKGROUND LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM IN NORTH AMERICAN HOLSTEIN CATTLE POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to (i) identify highly heterozygous Holstein bulls that are least related as possible and widely used in the US dairy industry; (ii) quantify the level of genetic diversity in US Holstein cattle; and (iii) determine the extent of background linkage disequilibrium (B...

  10. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-López, Felipe de J; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Montaldo, Hugo H; Huson, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) ) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO × JE and HO × BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire's country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures. PMID:25709615

  11. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96?h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  12. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (? > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location. PMID:26514650

  13. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  14. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

  15. Principal milk components in buffalo, holstein cross, indigenous cattle and red chittagong cattle from bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Alam, M K; Islam, M N; Khan, M A S; Ekeberg, D; Rukke, E O; Vegarud, G E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

  16. Fitting and validating the genomic evaluation model to Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Szyda, Joanna; Zarnecki, Andrzej; Suchocki, Tomasz; Kami?ski, Stanis?aw

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to fit the genomic evaluation model to Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. A training data set for the estimation of additive effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) consisted of 1227 Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls. Genotypes were obtained by the use of Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping BeadChip. Altogether 29 traits were considered: milk-, fat- and protein- yields, somatic cell score, four female fertility traits, and 21 traits describing conformation. The prediction of direct genomic values was based on a mixed model containing deregressed national proofs as a dependent variable and random SNP effects as independent variables. The correlations between direct genomic values and conventional estimated breeding values estimated for the whole data set were overall very high and varied between 0.98 for production traits and 0.78 for non return rates for cows. For the validation data set of 232 bulls the corresponding correlations were 0.38 for milk-, 0.37 for protein-, and 0.32 for fat yields, while the correlations between genomic enhanced breeding values and conventional estimated breeding values for the four traits were: 0.43, 0.44, 0.31, and 0.35. This model was able to pass the interbull validation criteria for genomic selection, which indicates that it is realistic to implement genomic selection in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:21553085

  17. Whole genome resequencing of black Angus and Holstein cattle for SNP and CNV discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel) between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs). Ten randomly selected CNVs, five genic and five non-genic, were successfully validated using quantitative real-time PCR. The CNVs are enriched for immune system genes and include genes that may contribute to lactation capacity. The majority of the CNVs (69%) were detected as regions with higher abundance in the Holstein bull. Conclusions Substantial genetic differences exist between the Black Angus and Holstein animals sequenced in this work and the Hereford reference sequence, and some of this variation is predicted to affect evolutionarily conserved amino acids or gene copy number. The deeply annotated SNPs and CNVs identified in this resequencing study can serve as useful genetic tools, and as candidates in searches for phenotype-altering DNA differences. PMID:22085807

  18. CARD15 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Chinese Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Tu, Wenji; Li, Wengui; Dong, Guodong; Xu, Cong; Qin, Bo; Liu, Kaihua; Yang, Jie; Chai, Jun; Shi, Xianwei; Zhang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, have been reported in several species. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CARD15 gene with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. DNA samples from 201 Chinese Holstein cows (103 cases and 98 controls) were collected from Kunming City, Yuxi City, and Dali City in China. SNPs in the CARD15 gene were assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Case-control association testing and statistical analysis identified six SNPs associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. The frequency of genotypes C/T, A/G, A/G, A/G, C/T, and A/G in E4 (-37), 208, 1644, 1648, 1799, and E10 (+107), respectively, was significantly higher in cases than in controls, and also the alleles C, A, A, G, T, and A, respectively, were associated with a greater relative risk in cases than in controls. The distribution of two haplotypes, TGGACA and CAGACA, was significantly different between cases and controls. Overall, this case-control study suggested that E4 (-37)(C/T), 208(A/G), 1644(A/G), 1648(A/G), 1799(C/T), and E10 (+107)(A/G) in the CARD15 gene were significantly associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows and that haplotypes TGGACA and CAGACA could be used as genetic markers in marker-assisted breeding programs for breeding cows with high resistance to BTB. PMID:26244859

  19. Joint genome-wide association study for milk fatty acid traits in Chinese and Danish Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Li, C; Sun, D; Zhang, Q; Poulsen, N A; Su, G

    2015-11-01

    The identification of causal genes or genomic regions associated with fatty acids (FA) will enhance our understanding of the pathways underlying FA synthesis and provide opportunities for changing milk fat composition through a genetic approach. The linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 486,464 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Bonferroni corrections were applied to adjust the significance thresholds for multiple testing at the genome- and chromosome-wide levels. According to the analysis of either the Chinese or Danish data individually, the total numbers of overlapping SNP that were significant at the chromosome level were 94 for C14:1, 208 for the C14 index, and 1 for C18:0. Joint analysis using the combined data of the 2 populations detected greater numbers of significant SNP compared with either of the individual populations alone for 7 and 10 traits at the genome- and chromosome-wide significance levels, respectively. Greater numbers of significant SNP were detected for C18:0 and the C18 index in the Chinese population compared with the joint analysis. Sixty-five significant SNP across all traits had significantly different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA. A large region (14.9-24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97-73.69 Mbp) on BTA9 showed a significantly different effect on C18:0 between the 2 populations. Detection of these important SNP and the corresponding QTL regions will be helpful for follow-up studies to identify causal mutations and their interaction with environments for milk FA in dairy cattle. PMID:26364108

  20. Coagulation factor XI deficiency in Holstein cattle: expression and distribution of factor XI activity.

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, P A; Ross, M L

    1994-01-01

    Factor XI (F XI) is a plasma protein that participates in the blood coagulation process. A study of the expression of F XI activity in Holstein cattle has confirmed that the inheritance of F XI deficiency is autosomal with severe deficiency in homozygotes (mean F XI level 2%, SD 1%), and partial deficiency in heterozygotes (mean F XI level 38%, SD 10%; normal mean F XI level 94%, SD 21%). In a total of 1469 males evaluated for F XI levels, 47 or 3.1% were identified as heterozygous and only one as homozygous for the disorder. In part because of the lack of a discrete distinction in the expression of F XI between heterozygous and normal animals, not all of the animals tested could be uniquely classified on the basis of the plasma F XI values. A mean F XI value of 53% (SD 7%) was found in a group of animals that were categorized as low normal/high heterozygous. If this group of cattle had been classified on the basis of the criterion used to classify human beings then these animals would have been categorized as heterozygous since the mean F XI value for proven bovine heterozygotes is approximately 20% lower than the values found in the human counterpart. Like the human form of the disease, however, there appears to be a low frequency of hemorrhagic episodes associated with F XI deficiency in cattle. PMID:7889454

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype effects associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To better understand the genetic determination of udder health, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a population of 2354 German Holstein bulls for which daughter yield deviations (DYD) for somatic cell score (SCS) were available. For this study, we used genetic information of 44 576 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 725 inferred haplotype blocks. Results When accounting for the sub-structure of the analyzed population, 16 SNPs and 10 haplotypes in six genomic regions were significant at the Bonferroni threshold of P???1.14?×?10-6. The size of the identified regions ranged from 0.05 to 5.62 Mb. Genomic regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 18 and 19 coincided with known QTL affecting SCS, while additional genomic regions were found on chromosomes 13 and X. Of particular interest is the region on chromosome 6 between 85 and 88 Mb, where QTL for mastitis traits and significant SNPs for SCS in different Holstein populations coincide with our results. In all identified regions, except for the region on chromosome X, significant SNPs were present in significant haplotypes. The minor alleles of identified SNPs on chromosomes 18 and 19, and the major alleles of SNPs on chromosomes 6 and X were favorable for a lower SCS. Differences in somatic cell count (SCC) between alternative SNP alleles reached 14 000 cells/mL. Conclusions The results support the polygenic nature of the genetic determination of SCS, confirm the importance of previously reported QTL, and provide evidence for the segregation of additional QTL for SCS in Holstein cattle. The small size of the regions identified here will facilitate the search for causal genetic variations that affect gene functions. PMID:24898131

  2. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined. PMID:25501190

  3. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rsb) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5? regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  4. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rs(b)) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5' regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  5. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most effective explanatory variables in predicting pregnancy outcome. PMID:24290820

  6. Low Incidence of an Altered Endometrial Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Profile in Repeat Breeder Holstein Heifers and Differential Effect of Parity on the EGF Profile Between Fertile Holstein (Dairy) and Japanese Black (Beef) Cattle

    PubMed Central

    KATAGIRI, Seiji; MORIYOSHI, Masaharu; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2–4 and 13–14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows. PMID:24064789

  7. Association of milk protein genes with fertilization rate and early embryonic development in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Khatib, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Concomitant with intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined in the last decades, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship between these traits. Given that the six main milk protein genes (i.e. whey proteins and caseins) are directly involved in milk production and hence have been a target of the strong selection aimed at improving milk yield in dairy cattle, we hypothesized that these genes could show selection footprints associated with fertility traits. In this study, we used an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) system to test genetic association between 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four caseins (?S1-casein, ?S2-casein, ?-casein and ?-casein) and the two whey protein genes (?-lactalbumin and ?-lactoglobulin) with fertilization rate and early embryonic development in the Holstein breed. A total of 6893 in-vitro fertilizations were performed and a total of 4661 IVF embryos were produced using oocytes from 399 ovaries and semen samples from 12 bulls. Associations between SNPs and fertility traits were analysed using a mixed linear model with genotype as fixed effect and ovary and bull as random effects. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs due to linkage disequilibrium. After correction, polymorphisms in the LALBA and LGB genes showed significant associations with fertilization success and blastocyst rate. No significant associations were detected between SNPs located in the casein region and IVF fertility traits. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between whey protein genes and fertility have not yet been characterized, this study provides the first evidence of association between these genes and fertility traits. Furthermore, these results could shed light on the antagonistic relationship that exists between milk yield and fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:22008563

  8. Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P

    2015-02-01

    Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the variance component estimates, the applied multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment method had to be tailored using country-specific reference measurement error variances. Results showed the feasibility of across-country genetic evaluation of cows and sires based on original test-day phenotypes. Nevertheless, applying a thorough model validation procedure is essential throughout the model building process to obtain reliable breeding values. PMID:25434332

  9. Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM. PMID:22327646

  10. Solexa Sequencing of Novel and Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Testicular and Ovarian Tissues in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinming; Ju, Zhihua; Li, Qiuling; Hou, Qinlei; Wang, Changfa; Li, Jianbin; Li, Rongling; Wang, Lingling; Sun, Tao; Hang, Suqin; Gao, Yundong; Hou, Minghai; Zhong, Jifeng

    2011-01-01

    The posttranscriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNA plays an important role in the development and function of male and female reproductive organs and germ cells in mammals, including cattle. In the present study, we identified novel and differentially expressed miRNAs in the testis and ovary in Holstein cattle by combining the Solexa sequencing with bioinformatics. In total 100 and 104 novel pre-miRNAs were identified in testicular and ovarian tissues, encoding 122 and 136 mature miRNAs, respectively. Of these, 6 miRNAs appear to be bovine-specific. A total of 246 known miRNAs were co-expressed in the testicular and ovarian tissues. Of the known miRNAs, twenty-one testis-specific and nine ovary-specific (1-23 reads) were found. Approximately 30.5% of the known bovine miRNAs in this study were found to have >2-fold differential expression within the two respective reproductive organ systems. The putative miRNA target genes of miRNAs were involved in pathways associated with reproductive physiology. Both known and novel tissue-specific miRNAs are expressed by Real-time quantitative PCR analysis in dairy cattle. This study expands the number of miRNAs known to be expressed in cattle. The patterns of miRNAs expression differed significantly between the bovine testicular and ovarian tissues, which provide important information on sex differences in miRNA expression. Diverse miRNAs may play an important regulatory role in the development of the reproductive organs in Holstein cattle. PMID:21912509

  11. Eight SNVs in NF-?B pathway genes and their different performances between subclinical mastitis and mixed Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Han, Yujiao; Chen, Yu; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Yu; He, Hua; Chen, Si; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-25

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway proteins are key players in controlling both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the information on NF-?B pathway genes is very limited in mastitis resistance and milk production of Chinese Holstein cows. In this study, we examine the association of the NF-?B pathway gene variants with milk quality traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in Chinese Holstein cows. Eight single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified within the bovine NF-?B pathway genes, using DNA pooled sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and forced PCR-RFLP methods. These SNVs include SNV1: g. 536 C>T (exon 10 of Rel), SNV2: g. 94 G>A (exon 20 of p100), SNV3: g. 43 T>C (intron 6 of p105), SNV4: g. 2397 T>G (intron 9 of p105), SNV5: g. 382 G>C (intron 1 of I?B?), SNV6: g. 21 C>T (exon 5 of I?B?), SNV7: g. 272 G>A (intron 6 of I?B?), and SNV8: g. 18 C>T (intron 10 of I?B?). The association analysis in mixed Chinese Holstein population showed that SNV1 was significantly or highly significantly associated (P<0.01 and P<0.05) with fat rate, protein rate and SCS. Furthermore, the SNV1-CC (wild genotype) determined serine showed the significantly lower SCS and higher milk production traits compared to TT and TC. SNV2 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with SCS; SNV3 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate; and SNV4 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate and SCS. In 199 subclinical mastitis Chinese Holstein cows, the statistical results absolutely differed from the mixed Chinese Holstein individuals. Splice-site prediction by SplicePort showed that single nucleotide difference at eight SNVs results in the acceptor score and donor score changing obviously that may lead to alternative splicing. In brief, SNV1, SNV2, SNV3 and SNV4 could be useful genetic markers for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein cows. Furthermore, whether these SNVs lead to alternative splicing need further research. PMID:25447913

  12. Genome-wide association study for calving traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Purfield, D C; Bradley, D G; Kearney, J F; Berry, D P

    2014-02-01

    Dystocia and perinatal mortality are quantitative traits that significantly impact animal productivity and welfare. Their economic importance is reflected by their inclusion in the national breeding goals of many cattle populations. The genetic architecture that influences these traits, however, has still yet to be thoroughly defined. Regions of the bovine genome associated with calving difficulty (direct and maternal) and perinatal mortality were detected in this study using a Bayesian approach with 43 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on up to 1970 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Several SNPs on chromosomes 5, 6, 11, 12, 17,18 and 28 were detected to be strongly associated with these calving performance traits. Novel genomic regions with previously reported associations with growth, stature, birth weight and bone morphology were identified in the present study as being associated with the three calving performance traits. Morphological abnormalities are a known contributor to perinatal mortality and the most significantly associated SNP for perinatal mortality in the present study was located in a region in linkage disequilibrium with the gene SLC26A7. This gene, SLC26A7, has similarities and colocalises with SLC4A2, which has previously been associated with osteoporosis and mortality in cattle populations. The HHIP gene that is known to be associated with stature in humans was strongly associated with direct calving difficulty in the present study; large calves are known to, on average, have a greater likelihood of dystocia. A stemloop microRNA, bta-mir-1256, on chromosome 12, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression was associated with maternal calving difficulty. Previously reported quantitative trait loci associated with calving performance traits in other populations were again identified in this study; with one genomic region on chromosome 18 supporting very strong evidence of an underlying causative mutation and accounting for 2.1% of the genetic variation in direct calving difficulty. Overlapping genomic regions associated with one or more of the calving traits were also detected substantiating the known genetic covariances existing between these traits. Moreover, some genomic regions were only associated with one of the calving traits implying the selective genomic breeding programs exploiting these regions could help resolve genetic antagonisms. PMID:24256561

  13. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  14. Association of IL8 -105G/A with mastitis somatic cell score in Chinese Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Zhangping; Zhu, Xiaorong; Ji, Dejun; Mao, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' upstream of bovine IL8 gene were investigated in 810 Chinese Holstein cows from 35 bull families in a dairy farm in Shanghai using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique. The Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of genotype Chinese Holstein dairy cows. The results showed that one SNP -105G>A was detected, designating three genotypes (GG, GA and AA) with respective frequencies of 0.38, 0.46, and 0.16. The significant association of the SNP -105G>A with somatic cell score (SCS) was identified. Genotype GG had a significantly lower SCS than genotype GA or AA (P < 0.01), and the relative mRNA expression and protein level of GG was found to be the highest. These results suggest that the genotype GG may be a useful genetic marker for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25380467

  15. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TO ASSESS THE VALIDITY OF BONNIER'S EQUATION FOR ESTIMATING THE FREQUENCY OF MONOZYGOUS TWINNING IN A POPULATION OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holstein cattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...

  16. Mutations in HSP70-2 gene change the susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin; Lu, Chunwan; Li, Jun; Xu, Jun; Liu, Zaiqun; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhao; Huo, Jiayan; Li, Honglin; Teng, Yong; Cai, Yafei

    2015-03-15

    To select the molecular markers susceptible to mastitis and reduce the loss induced by mastitis, the PCR-SSCP method was adopted to investigate the correlation between SNPs of the HSP70-2 gene and mastitis in 103 Chinese Holstein. 25 new polymorphisms were detected in this study: 9 SNPs (g.-115 G?A, g.-98 T?C, g.117 C?A, g.156 A?C, g.1743 G?A, g.1746 C?T, g.1761 T?G, g.1770 C?G, g.1877 G?C) were found to be associated with mastitis; 2 key SNPs led to amino-acid changes: g.1770 C?G (590 Asp?Glu), g.1877 G?C (626 Gly?Ala). 626 Gly?Ala affected the protein secondary structure. 3 potential cow HSP70-2 proteins were found in all the 103 individuals, but predicted three-dimensional structures of 3 proteins are the same with each other. It is suggested that 9 SNPs increase the susceptibility to mastitis due to their low polymorphisms and can be used as molecular markers to breed the dairy cows resistant to mastitis. PMID:25592821

  17. Genetic variation of mitochondrial D-loop region and evolution analysis in some Chinese cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shangang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Guixiang; Wang, Zhigang; Lei, Chuzhao; Yao, Ru; Han, Xu

    2007-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial D-loop region from 123 individuals in 12 Chinese cattle breeds and two individuals in Germany Yellow cattle breed was sequenced and analyzed. The results were shown as follows: 93 variations and 57 haplotypes were detected, and the average number of nucleotide difference was 22.708, nucleotide diversity (d) was 0.0251 +/- 0.00479, and haplotype diversity (Hd) was 0.888 +/- 0.026, indicating very high genetic diversity in Chinese cattle breeds. In the Neighbor-Joining tree, 13 cattle breeds were divided into two main clades, Bos taurus and Bos indicus; new Clade ? had only one sequence from Apeijiaza cattle breed in Tibet, which was similar to that of yak at a higher level than other cattle breeds, proving the introgression of genes from the yak. The proportions of Bos taurus and Bos indicus were 64.3% and 35.7% respectively in Xigazê Humped cattle breed, and 50.0% and 50.0% respectively in Apeijiaza cattle breed, which revealed that Tibet cattle included Bos indicus haplotypes. The importance of Yunnan cattle in the origin of Chinese cattle was also confirmed based on their abundant haplotypes. Then, a very special haplotype i1 discovered in 27 Chinese cattle breeds, including 11 breeds in this study and 16 breeds in the GenBank, played the role of a nucleus in Chinese zebu and was further discussed. At the same time, the construction of Chinese zebu core group based on haplotype i1 validated the distinct origin of Bos indicus in Tibet, which was different from that of the other cattle breeds with zebu haplotypes in China. PMID:17601610

  18. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...

  19. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  20. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P < 0.05) were developed for prediction of N (g/d) and OM (kg/d) excretion in feces and urine. The present data were also used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve national inventories of manure N output and greenhouse gas emissions and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies for young Holstein cattle. PMID:24879759

  1. Evaluating alternate models to estimate genetic parameters of calving traits in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The focus in dairy cattle breeding is gradually shifting from production to functional traits and genetic parameters of calving traits are estimated more frequently. However, across countries, various statistical models are used to estimate these parameters. This study evaluates different models for calving ease and stillbirth in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian cattle. Methods Data from first and later parity records were used. Genetic parameters for calving ease, stillbirth and gestation length were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method, considering different models i.e. sire (?maternal grandsire), animal, univariate and bivariate models. Gestation length was fitted as a correlated indicator trait and, for all three traits, genetic correlations between first and later parities were estimated. Potential bias in estimates was avoided by acknowledging a possible environmental direct-maternal covariance. The total heritable variance was estimated for each trait to discuss its theoretical importance and practical value. Prediction error variances and accuracies were calculated to compare the models. Results and discussion On average, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving traits were low, except for direct gestation length. Calving ease in first parity had a significant and negative direct-maternal genetic correlation. Gestation length was maternally correlated to stillbirth in first parity and directly correlated to calving ease in later parities. Multi-trait models had a slightly greater predictive ability than univariate models, especially for the lowly heritable traits. The computation time needed for sire (?maternal grandsire) models was much smaller than for animal models with only small differences in accuracy. The sire (?maternal grandsire) model was robust when additional genetic components were estimated, while the equivalent animal model had difficulties reaching convergence. Conclusions For the evaluation of calving traits, multi-trait models show a slight advantage over univariate models. Extended sire models (?maternal grandsire) are more practical and robust than animal models. Estimated genetic parameters for calving traits of UK Holstein cattle are consistent with literature. Calculating an aggregate estimated breeding value including direct and maternal values should encourage breeders to consider both direct and maternal effects in selection decisions. PMID:22839757

  2. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility to infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E; Collins, Michael T; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Susceptibility to Infection by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H.; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of blood and milk and reproduction in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, G L; Kiddy, C A; Young, C W; Hunter, A G; Trimberger, G W; Mather, R E

    1980-07-01

    Associations of blood and milk protein polymorphisms with reproductive performance were examined in more than 32,000 services in 15,000 service periods of 6,000 cows and 700 service sires in Holsteins. Seven blood groups, one serum protein, and four milk proteins were analyzed for relation to reproductive traits including conception rate and days open. Associations between polymorphic systems and reproductive traits in 15 of 112 analyses were significant. The S blood system appeared most influential, having statistical significance in five of ten traits. These were conception rates in all services for female phenotypes, male phenotypes, and male by female phenotypes combined, conception rate in first services for female phenotypes, and probability of conception for female phenotypes. The FV system influenced conception rates in all services and in first services for male by female phenotypes combined. Four of the polymorphic systems had no effect on any of the reproductive traits. Maternal-fetal incompatibility was not evident from comparing parental combinations of aborted fetuses and normal calves. Conception rates declined with age of cow. For animals that ultimately conceived, conception rates did not decline consistently from first to later services within a service period. PMID:7419774

  5. A whole genome scan for QTL affecting milk protein percentage in Italian Holstein cattle, applying selective milk DNA pooling and multiple marker mapping in a daughter design.

    PubMed

    Russo, V; Fontanesi, L; Dolezal, M; Lipkin, E; Scotti, E; Zambonelli, P; Dall'Olio, S; Bigi, D; Davoli, R; Canavesi, F; Medugorac, I; Föster, M; Sölkner, J; Schiavini, F; Bagnato, A; Soller, M

    2012-07-01

    We report on a complete genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk protein percentage (PP) in the Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle population, applying a selective DNA pooling strategy in a daughter design. Ten Holstein-Friesian sires were chosen, and for each sire, about 200 daughters, each from the high and low tails of estimated breeding value for PP, were used to construct milk DNA pools. Sires and pools were genotyped for 181 dinucleotide microsatellites covering all cattle autosomes. Sire marker allele frequencies in the pools were obtained by shadow correction of peak height in the electropherograms. After quality control, pool data from eight sires were used for all subsequent analyses. The QTL heterozygosity estimate was lower than that of similar studies in other cattle populations. Multiple marker mapping identified 19 QTL located on 14 chromosomes (BTA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 27). The sires were also genotyped for seven polymorphic sites in six candidate genes (ABCG2, SPP1, casein kappa, DGAT1, GHR and PRLR) located within QTL regions of BTA6, 14 and 20 found in this study. The results confirmed or excluded the involvement of some of the analysed markers as the causative polymorphic sites of the identified QTL. The QTL identified, combined with genotype data of these candidate genes, will help to identify other quantitative trait genes and clarify the complex QTL patterns observed for a few chromosomes. Overall, the results are consistent with the Italian Holstein population having been under long-term selection for high PP. PMID:22742505

  6. Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.

    PubMed

    Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2 ± 3.0 vs. 21.3 ± 2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.7 ± 1.3 h), mounting period (6.9 ± 2.7 vs. 18.2 ± 2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2 ± 2.8 vs. 17.5 ± 2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1 ± 4.0 vs. 17.6 ± 4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3) with longer average duration (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3 ± 6.2 vs. 18.1 ± 6.3) and per hour (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4 ± 5.0 vs. 18.5 ± 5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1.6 ± 0.3 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3) per hour than did NRF during mount estrus. A significant effect of milk yield was demonstrated only on this behavior. For other estrous signs, HF cows initiated chase-up (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 0.5 ± 0.4) and anogenital sniff (3.7 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.5) more frequently (counts per hour), whereas NRF expressed more total head butt behavior (32.3 ± 4.7 vs. 14.2 ± 4.8) during mount estrus. Body condition score had a significant effect on receptive behavior. Measures of estrus duration, sexually active group activity, and behavior related to estrus should be subjected to larger studies for improved heat detection and possible implementation in breeding programs. PMID:25622876

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5? promoter, intronic, and 3? regulatory regions, encompassing ~5?kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P?cattle. PMID:22303302

  8. Genetic evaluation of calf and heifer survival in Iranian Holstein cattle using linear and threshold models.

    PubMed

    Forutan, M; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sargolzaei, M

    2015-02-01

    Calf and heifer survival are important traits in dairy cattle affecting profitability. This study was carried out to estimate genetic parameters of survival traits in female calves at different age periods, until nearly the first calving. Records of 49,583 female calves born during 1998 and 2009 were considered in five age periods as days 1-30, 31-180, 181-365, 366-760 and full period (day 1-760). Genetic components were estimated based on linear and threshold sire models and linear animal models. The models included both fixed effects (month of birth, dam's parity number, calving ease and twin/single) and random effects (herd-year, genetic effect of sire or animal and residual). Rates of death were 2.21, 3.37, 1.97, 4.14 and 12.4% for the above periods, respectively. Heritability estimates were very low ranging from 0.48 to 3.04, 0.62 to 3.51 and 0.50 to 4.24% for linear sire model, animal model and threshold sire model, respectively. Rank correlations between random effects of sires obtained with linear and threshold sire models and with linear animal and sire models were 0.82-0.95 and 0.61-0.83, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between the five different periods were moderate and only significant for 31-180 and 181-365 (r(g) = 0.59), 31-180 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.52), and 181-365 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.42). The low genetic correlations in current study would suggest that survival at different periods may be affected by the same genes with different expression or by different genes. Even though the additive genetic variations of survival traits were small, it might be possible to improve these traits by traditional or genomic selection. PMID:25100295

  9. Transcription Factor Binding Site Polymorphism in the Motilin Gene Associated with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum in German Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (ORallele?=?0.64; ?log10Pallele?=?6.8, ?log10Pgenotype?=?7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

  10. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S.; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  11. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism within the Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 Gene Perfectly Coincides with Polledness in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Dierks, Claudia; Wöhlke, Anne; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Polledness is a high impact trait in modern milk and beef production to meet the demands of animal welfare and work safety. Previous studies have mapped the polled-locus to the proximal region of the bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) and narrowed it down to approximately 1 Mb. Sequencing of the positional candidate genes within the 1 Mb polled region and whole genome sequencing of Holsteins revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) AC000158: g.1390292G>A within intron 3 of the interferon gamma receptor 2 gene (IFNGR2) in perfect co-segregation with polledness in Holsteins. This complete association was validated in 443 animals of the same breed. This SNP allows reliable genotyping of horned, heterozygous and homozygous polled Holsteins, even in animals that could not be resolved using the previously published haplotype for Holstein. PMID:23805331

  12. Fatty acid profile of back fat and intramuscular fat from yak and Chinese yellow cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) and Chinese Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus) are important human dietary components in Northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid (FA) composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor, flavor, and nutritiona...

  13. Anti-bovine herpesvirus and anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody responses in pregnant Holstein dairy cattle following administration of a multivalent killed virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Billy I; Rieger, Randall H; Dickens, Charlene M; Schultz, Ronald D; Aceto, Helen

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of a commercially available multivalent killed virus vaccine on serum neutralizing (SN) and colostrum neutralizing (CN) antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 in pregnant dairy cattle. ANIMALS 49 Holstein dairy cattle. PROCEDURES 25 cattle were vaccinated (IM injection) at least 60 days prior to calving (ie, at the end of the lactation period or according to the expected calving date for heifers) and again 5 weeks later. The remaining 24 cattle were not vaccinated (control group). Titers of SN antibodies were measured at the 5-week time point. Titers of SN and CN antibodies were measured at parturition. RESULTS 5 weeks after initial vaccination, titers of SN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:512, 1:128, and 1:2,048, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:64, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in unvaccinated controls. Equivalent SN antibody titers at parturition were 1:256, 1:64, and 1:512, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:128, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in controls. Median titers of CN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:1,280, 1:10,240, and 1:20,480, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:80, 1:1,280, and 1:2,560, respectively, in controls. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly enhanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered. PMID:26413830

  14. Mutations in lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene change the susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jienan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenxin; Cai, Yafei; Wang, Genlin

    2012-10-01

    Mastitis is an unsolved human challenge all dairy farms facing with, which leads to immeasurable economic loss to the farmers. LBP gene plays a vital role in the innate immune recognition of Gram-negative bacterium that is a major cause of bovine clinical mastitis, but little is known about LBP mutations and their effects on cows' susceptibility to clinical mastitis. In this study, PCR-SSCP method was adopted to analyze SNPs of LBP gene in Chinese Holstein for the first time. 17 SNPs were found in the promoter core region, exon1, exon2, exon3, exon4 and exon8. The mutation g.-81C ? T in promoter leads to an AP-2 binding site lost. Two mutations, g.11T ? C (4 Leu ? Ser) and g.68G ? C (23Gly ? Ala) in signal peptide brought about molecular secondary structural change, meanwhile, g.11T ? C made a Big-1 domain lost, and there was an N-myristoylation site at the g.68G/C locus. The three mutations above were in complete linkage disequilibrium in allele A. In mature LBP protein, five mutations were found: g.3034G ? A(36Asp ? Asn), g.3040A ? G(38Asn ? Asp), g.3056T ? C(43Ile ? Thr) in allele D; g.4619G ? A(67Ala ? Thr) in allele F; 19975G ? A (282Val ? Met) in allele J. And SNPs in allele D and F were in complete linkage disequilibrium, also in which 38Asn ? Asp and 67Ala ? Thr influenced the protein secondary structure. Prediction of the 3-D structure shows mutations 36Asp ? Asn, 38Asn ? Asp and 43 Ile ? Thr were on the concave surface of LBP protein at barrel-N, 67Ala ? Thr was in the apolar pocket at barrel-N. Motif analysis shows 36Asp ? Asn causes loss of a CK2 phosphorylation site, 67 Ala ? Thr forms a new PKC phosphorylation site. And 43Ile ? Thr, 67Ala ? Thr made hydrophobic amino acids to be hydrophilic amino acids. Interestingly, the morbidity of AB (mixed type g.-81C/T, g.11T/C, g.68G/C), CD (mixed type g.3034G/A, g.3040A/G, g.3056T/C) and EF (mixed type g.4619G/A) genotype cows are significant higher than others in this study (P < 0.01), and it can be deduced that the SNPs in these 3 genotypes might affect the secretion of LBP protein and regulate the binding ability of LBP protein to LPS. Taken together, it is revealed that these SNPs may hold the secret of susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein. PMID:22733492

  15. Genetic diversity and origin of Chinese cattle revealed by mtDNA D-loop sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Song-Jia; Liu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Yan-Xing; Li, Xue-Wei; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2006-01-01

    To determine the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese cattle, we analyzed the complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of 84 cattle from 14 breeds/populations from southwest and west China, together with the available cattle sequences in GenBank. Our results showed that the Chinese cattle samples converged into two main groups, which correspond to the two species Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Although a dominant lineage was clearly discerned in both B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNAs, network analysis of the lineages in each of the two species further revealed multiple clades that presented regional difference. The B. taurus samples in China could be grouped into clades T2, T3, and T4, whereas B. indicus harbored two clades I1 and I2. Age estimation of these discerned clades showed a time range of 14,100-44,500 years before present (YBP). The phylogenetic pattern of Chinese cattle was consistent with the recently described cattle matrilineal pool from northeast Asia, but suggested that B. indicus contributed more to the cattle from south and southwest China. The genetic diversity of Chinese cattle varied among the breeds studied. PMID:16054846

  16. Ex-situ conservaton of Holstein-Friesian cattle comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve as much genetic diversity as possible for this breed. Genetic variability of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in ...

  17. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  18. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low- heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (>= 1.7; n=288) or low (<= -2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was geno...

  19. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  20. Comparison of longissimus dorsi Fatty Acids Profiles in Gansu Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle Steers and Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. G.; Liu, T.; Brown, M. A.; Wu, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat in Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle were evaluated in 44 Black Yak and 41 Chinese Yellow Cattle of both genders. Interactions of species with gender were observed for total saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations, as well as PUFA/SFA ratio in the longissimus dorsi (p<0.05). The SFA percentage was greater in yellow cattle than yak in both genders but the species difference in heifers was greater than in steers (p<0.05). Yak had greater UFA, MUFA and PUFA percentages than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05) but the difference between yak and yellow cattle heifers was greater than yak and yellow cattle steers. The percentages of inolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid; and PUFA/SFA were greater in yak than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05). In addition, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in yak was lesser than in yellow cattle (p<0.05). These results indicated that FA composition generally differed between yak and yellow cattle but the differences were not the same in heifers as compared to steers. Results also suggested that species differences in FA composition tended to favor Black Yak over Chinese Yellow Cattle, indicating that the longissimus dorsi of Black Yak may have a higher nutritive value than that of Chinese Yellow Cattle and potential for development as a desirable natural product.

  1. Genome-wide identification of copy number variations in Holstein cattle from Baja California, Mexico, using high-density SNP genotyping arrays.

    PubMed

    Salomón-Torres, R; González-Vizcarra, V M; Medina-Basulto, G E; Montaño-Gómez, M F; Mahadevan, P; Yaurima-Basaldúa, V H; Villa-Angulo, C; Villa-Angulo, R

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are an important source of genomic structural variation, and can be used as markers to investigate phenotypic and economic traits. CNVs also have functional effects on gene expression and can contribute to disease susceptibility in mammals. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays (SNP chips) are the technology of choice for identifying CNV variations. Microarray technologies have recently been used to study the bovine genome. The objective of the present study was to develop CNVs in Holstein cows from the Northwest of Mexico using the Affymetrix Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array, which assays 648,315 SNPs and provides a wide coverage for genome-wide studies. We applied the two most widely used algorithms for the discovery of CNVs (PennCNV and QuantiSNP) and found 56 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing 0.33% of the bovine genome (8.46 Mb). These CNVRs ranged from 1.5 to 970.8 kb with an average length of 151 kb. They involved 103 genes and showed a 28% overlap with CNVRs already reported. Of the 56 CNVRs found, 20 were novel. In this study we present the first genomic analysis of CNVs in Mexican cattle using high-density SNP data. Our results provide a new reference basis for future genomic variation and association studies between CNVs and phenotypes, especially in Mexican cattle. PMID:26436509

  2. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-?B p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. PMID:26679804

  3. Identification of factors that cause genotype by environment interaction between herds of Holstein cattle in seventeen countries.

    PubMed

    Zwald, N R; Weigel, K A; Fikse, W F; Rekaya, R

    2003-03-01

    Currently, the International Bull Evaluation Service calculates international dairy sire evaluations using the multiple-trait across country evaluation procedure. This method depends implicitly on political boundaries between countries, because the input data are national evaluations from each participating country. Therefore, different countries are treated as different production environments. The goal of this study was to identify factors that describe the production system on each farm. Such factors could be used to group herds across countries for borderless genetic evaluations. First lactation milk records of Holstein cows calving between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1997 in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa, Switzerland, and the USA were used in this study. Thirteen genetic, management, and climatic variables were considered as potential indicators of production environments: peak milk yield, persistency, herd size, age at first calving, seasonality of calving, standard deviation of milk yield, culling rate, days to peak yield, fat to protein ratio, sire PTA milk, percentage of North American Holstein genes, maximum monthly temperature, and annual rainfall. Herds were grouped into quintiles based on herd averages for each of these variables. Genetic correlations for lactation milk yield between quintiles were significantly less than one for maximum monthly temperature, sire PTA milk, percent North American Holstein genes, herd size, and peak milk yield. The variables can be used to group herds into similar production environments, regardless of country borders, for the purpose of accounting for genotype by environment interaction in international dairy sire evaluation. PMID:12703638

  4. Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for BSE-resistance polymorphisms from healthy U.S. holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. Two regulatory region polymorphisms in the bovine prion gene are associated with resistance to classical BSE disease: a 23 bp region in the promoter that contains a binding si...

  5. A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

  6. [Genetic diversity and origin of mitochondria DNA D-loop region of some Chinese indigenous cattle breeds].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Zheng, You-Min; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Han, Xu; Jia, Shan-Gang; Chen, Hong

    2009-02-01

    The complete D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA from 206 individuals in 16 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds was sequenced and analyzed to detect variability of D-loop region of mitochondria DNA for those breeds. The results showed as follows: 101 variations and 99 haplotypes were found, in which 73 haplotypes were of Bos taurus and the other 26 haplotypes were of Bos indicus, and the average number of nucleotide differences was 22.6920, haplotype diversity was 0.9320, and nucleotide diversity was 0.0227, indicating high genetic diversity in Chinese indigenous cattle breeds. According to the NJ phylogenetic tree, 16 cattle breeds were divided into two clades, Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Based on the Network graphics, the 73 haplotypes of Bos taurus were classified into 3 groups and the 26 haplotypes of Bos indicus were classified into 5 groups. It was inferred that cattle breeds of Bos indicus in China had experienced at least 4 population expansions during their movement. There was only 16% of H3 haplotype sequences similar to the sequence of Nellore, and 84% of those sequences had purine C variation in Chinese indigenous cattle breeds through the analysis on their common H3 haplotypes. It was concluded that those purine C decrease was possibly originated in Chinese Bos indicus. PMID:19273424

  7. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Chinese Beef Simmental Cattle Using High-density SNP Panels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, M.; Zhu, B.; Wang, Y. H.; Wu, Y.; Xu, L.; Guo, L. P.; Yuan, Z. R.; Zhang, L. P.; Gao, X.; Gao, H. J.; Xu, S. Z.; Li, J. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays an important role in genomic selection and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, the pattern of LD and effective population size (Ne) were investigated in Chinese beef Simmental cattle. A total of 640 bulls were genotyped with IlluminaBovinSNP50BeadChip and IlluminaBovinHDBeadChip. We estimated LD for each autosomal chromosome at the distance between two random SNPs of <0 to 25 kb, 25 to 50 kb, 50 to 100 kb, 100 to 500 kb, 0.5 to 1 Mb, 1 to 5 Mb and 5 to 10 Mb. The mean values of r2 were 0.30, 0.16 and 0.08, when the separation between SNPs ranged from 0 to 25 kb to 50 to 100 kb and then to 0.5 to 1 Mb, respectively. The LD estimates decreased as the distance increased in SNP pairs, and increased with the increase of minor allelic frequency (MAF) and with the decrease of sample sizes. Estimates of effective population size for Chinese beef Simmental cattle decreased in the past generations and Ne was 73 at five generations ago. PMID:25049849

  8. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  9. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ? 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PS<1 and RR<90 breaths per minute), whereas normal RR and PS were significantly less prevalent for animals outside shade. Our findings suggest that, even in temperate summers, heat can induce thermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort. PMID:25994098

  10. Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between forage quality and the physical appearance of feces of grazing cattle is explained. Four photographs provide a quick and easy visual reference for evaluating the diet quality of grazing beef cattle....

  11. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  12. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and liveweight in first-parity Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Zom, R; van Knegsel, A; Pryce, J E; De Haas, Y

    2014-09-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between traits across lactation difficult, let alone the possibility for selection of breeding animals. However, estimating national breeding values through cheaper and more easily measured correlated traits, such as milk yield and liveweight (LW), could be a first step to predict DMI. Combining DMI data across historical nutritional experiments might help to expand the data sets. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters for DMI, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield, and LW across the entire first lactation using a relatively large data set combining experimental data across the Netherlands. A total of 30,483 weekly records for DMI, 49,977 for FPCM yield, and 31,956 for LW were available from 2,283 Dutch Holstein-Friesian first-parity cows between 1990 and 2011. Heritabilities, covariance components, and genetic correlations were estimated using a multivariate random regression model. The model included an effect for year-season of calving, and polynomials for age of cow at calving and days in milk (DIM). The random effects were experimental treatment, year-month of measurement, and the additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual term. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using a third-order orthogonal polynomial. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.21 to 0.40 for DMI, from 0.20 to 0.43 for FPCM yield, and from 0.25 to 0.48 for LW across DIM. Genetic correlations between DMI at different DIM were relatively low during early and late lactation, compared with mid lactation. The genetic correlations between DMI and FPCM yield varied across DIM. This correlation was negative (up to -0.5) between FPCM yield in early lactation and DMI across the entire lactation, but highly positive (above 0.8) when both traits were in mid lactation. The correlation between DMI and LW was 0.6 during early lactation, but decreased to 0.4 during mid lactation. The highest correlations between FPCM yield and LW (0.3-0.5) were estimated during mid lactation. However, the genetic correlations between DMI and either FPCM yield or LW were not symmetric across DIM, and differed depending on which trait was measured first. The results of our study are useful to understand the genetic relationship of DMI, FPCM yield, and LW on specific days across lactation. PMID:25022692

  13. [Study on mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity of some cattle breeds in China].

    PubMed

    Lei, Chu-Zhao; Chen, Hong; Yang, Gong-She; Song, Lin-Sheng; Lei, Xue-Qin; Sun, Wei-Bin; Li, Rui-Biao; Liu, Xiao-Lin

    2004-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial D-loop sequences, 910 bp in length, in 22 individuals from 8 cattle breeds in China were analyzed. The results showed that A% + T% was about 61.65%. Comparisons of these 22 sequences revealed 66 polymorphic sites, and 5 types of mutation, transition, transversion, insertion, deletion and coexistence site of transition and transversion were observed,with the percentage of 81.82%, 6.06%, 7.57%, 3.03%, 1.52%, respectively. In reference to complete mtDNA D-loop of the European cattle as a control, eight Chinese cattle breeds were classified into 3 groups according to the average percentage of D-loop nucleotide variations. The lowest average percentage of mtDNA D-loop nucleotide variation was in Xizhen cattle, Mongolian cattle, Holstein, Qinchuan cattle with 0.37%, 0.44%, 0.52%, 0.66%, the mediate in Nanyang cattle and Jiaxian cattle with 1.91%, 2.02% and the highest in Jinnan cattle and Yueyang cattle with 4.47%, 4.73%, respectively. The average sequence divergence estimated from D-loop region within breeds and among breeds in China varied from 0.55% - 5.39% and 1.21% - 6.59%, respectively. Comparisons of these 22 sequences revealed 19 mitochondrial haplotypes, the percentage of haplotype was 86.36%, showing that abundant mitochondrial genetic diversity exists in Chinese cattle. The molecular phylogenetic tree of mtDNA D-loop of 8 Chinese cattle breeds was constructed by Neighbor-Joining method. The NJ tree indicated that these mtDNA sequences fell into 3 distinct haplotype groups, it also suggested in molecular level that there were probably 3 maternal origins, of which the main origins of Chinese cattle were from Bos taurus and Bos indicus. PMID:15468920

  14. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland.

  15. The effect of beta and kappa casein genes on milk yield and milk composition in different percentages of Holstein in crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Molee, Amonrat; Boonek, Lerchat; Rungsakinnin, Noppanan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the genotype, and composite genotype frequency, and the association between beta and kappa casein genes and milk yield (MY), percentage of fat (%Fat), protein (%Prot), and solids non-fat (%SNF) between two groups of crossbred Holstein: G1 ? 87.5% Holstein = 89 cows and G2 > 87.5% Holstein = 142 cows. Five genotypes of beta casein gene were observed. A1A2 and A1B were the most and rarest frequency, respectively, in both groups. Five genotypes of kappa casein gene were found. The highest and the lowest frequency were AA, and BB and BE, respectively, in both groups. Composite genotype A1A2AA was the most frequent in both groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two genes was detected. Significant differences of frequencies between both groups of both genes were not found. The association of the genes and the traits was different between G1 and G2. Negative effects on the traits were found in both groups. In addition, the stronger effect of the beta casein gene was observed in most of the traits. The conclusions were that different %Holstein caused different significant effects of these genes. A study of the association of these genes within each percentage of Holstein is strongly recommended. PMID:21794007

  16. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-01-01

    The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH) is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp) fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the T- or C-containing loci (designated as pGL3-T and pGL3-C) were transiently transfected into MLTC-1 to test the effect of SNP on HIBADH expression. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the pGL3-T genotype exhibited 58% higher transcriptional activity than the pGL3-C genotype (P < 0.05). The bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the methylation pattern of the core promoter presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen in high-motility and low-motility bulls. The results demonstrated for the first time that the g.-165 T>C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity. PMID:26133183

  17. A whole genome association analysis identified loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in U.S. Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome SNP assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont were fo...

  18. Impact of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus Origins on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. PMID:26260653

  19. Congenital mastocytomas in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B I; Phillips, L A

    2001-01-01

    Congenital defects occur infrequently in cattle. In this report, a stillborn Holstein calf was presented for unusual nodules in the skin. Necropsy and histopathologic findings aided in the diagnosis of systemic mastocytoma, or mast cell tumor. The diagnosis of congenital mastocytoma in this case is extremely rare and unique. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11519274

  20. Trends in International Flow of Holstein Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein genes spread from Europe to much of the world through live cattle more than 100 yr ago. By the advent of artificial insemination, selection emphasis in North America had led to a specialized dairy strain that was in demand internationally. From 1995, genetic evaluations through Interbull mo...

  1. Genomic signatures of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection in Holstein cattle has achieved tremendous phenotypic changes over the past 40 years. However, it is unknown how selection has changed the Holstein genome and how those genome signatures of selection are associated with the phenotypic changes. To categorize genome regions either affected o...

  2. Pre-rigor temperature control of Chinese yellow cattle carcasses to 12-18 °C during chilling improves beef tenderness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Liang, Rongrong; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Meng, Xianyong; Luo, Xin

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluates the effects of pre-rigor temperature control on quality traits of Chinese yellow cattle M. longissimus lumborum (LL). One stepwise chilling (SC) treatment was used on one half-carcass, involved a fast chilling (-11 ± 1 °C;0.5 m/s) for 2h, then the refrigeration was stopped to hold a core temperature of 12-18 °C until 10h postmortem, followed by a 1 ± 1 °C chilling (0.5 m/s) to 48h postmortem. The other half-carcass was conventional chilled at 1 ± 1 °C (0.5 m/s) until 48h as control chilling (CC). Quality attributes were evaluated at 1, 7 and 14 days. The SC treatment resulted in decreased WBSF and increased myofibril fragmentation index compared with control. SC-treated LL at 7d postmortem had a lower WBSF than those of CC-treated at 14d. This pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a realistic alternative for the beef industry in China to ensure adequate tenderness and shorten aging time. PMID:25460117

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

  4. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    PubMed

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. PMID:26334371

  5. A global view of the transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue in Chinese Qinchuan cattle using RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue development, we constructed a transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue by RNA sequencing. Samples were collected from Chinese Qinchuan fetuses, as well as adult heifers, bulls, and steers. We unambiguously detected a substantial numb...

  6. Modeling Extended Lactations of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modeling extended lactations for the US Holsteins is useful as a majority (>55%) of the cows in the present population produce lactations longer than 305 d. In this study nine empirical and mechanistic models were compared on their suitability for modeling 305-d and 999-d lactations of US Holsteins...

  7. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...

  8. Prediction of cow fertility based on productivity traits in dairy cattle under different production systems 

    E-print Network

    Banda, Liveness Jessica

    2014-11-28

    A study to examine factors that influence dairy cattle fertility was conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) and Malawi. Productivity data from the UK comprising 56,014 records from 574 Holstein cows were retrieved from ...

  9. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  10. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  11. MODELING EXTENDED LACTATIONS IN HOLSTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop an equation for predicting average yield of cows still in milk from 1 to 999 days. Test day yields (kg/d) of 903,529 lactations of 305,202 Holstein cows calved between 1997 and 2003 were used. Average daily yield (Y) for each 30-d interval of lactation wa...

  12. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...

  13. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

  14. A limited number of Y chromosome lineages is present in North American Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Dechow, Chad; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    Holsteins are the most numerous dairy cattle breed in North America and the breed has undergone intensive selection for improving milk production and conformation. Theoretically, this intensive selection could lead to a reduction of the effective population size and reduced genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effective population size of the Holstein Y chromosome and the effects of limited Y chromosome lineages on male reproduction and the future of the breed. Paternal pedigree information of 62,897 Holstein bulls born between 1950 and 2013 in North America and 220,872 bulls evaluated by multiple-trait across-country genetic evaluations of Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the number of Y chromosome lineages in Holsteins has undergone a dramatic decrease during the past 50 years because of artificial selection and the application of artificial insemination (AI) technology. All current Holstein AI bulls in North America are the descendants of only 2 ancestors (Hulleman and Neptune H) born in 1880. These 2 ancestral Y-lineages are continued through 3 dominant pedigrees from the 1960s; namely, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, and Penstate Ivanhoe Star, with a contribution of 48.78, 51.06, and 0.16% to the Holstein bull population in the 2010s, respectively. The Y-lineage of Penstate Ivanhoe Star is almost eliminated from the breed. The genetic variations in the 2 ancestral Y-lineages were evaluated among 257 bulls by determining the copy number variations (CNV) of 3 Y-linked gene families: PRAMEY, HSFY, and ZNF280BY, which are spread along the majority (95%) of the bovine Y chromosome male-specific region (MSY). No significant difference was found between the 2 ancestral Y-lineages, although large CNV were observed within each lineage. This study suggests minimal genetic diversity on the Y chromosome in Holsteins and provides a starting point for investigating the effect of the extremely limited number of Y-lineages on male reproduction and other traits important for the future of the Holstein breed. PMID:25660742

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Edward J; Nissing, Nick J; Grosz, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Findings Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR) where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP) of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. Conclusion These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins. PMID:19063733

  16. A SNP in the 3'-UTR of HSF1 in dairy cattle affects binding of target bta-miR-484.

    PubMed

    Li, Q L; Zhang, Z F; Xia, P; Wang, Y J; Wu, Z Y; Jia, Y H; Chang, S M; Chu, M X

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor 1 gene (HSF1) plays a key role in the heat stress response. We previously found a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3'-untranslated region (g.4693G>T) of HSF1 that was related to thermo tolerance in Chinese Holstein cattle through association analysis. However, it is not known whether other SNPs also affect thermo tolerance.In this study a novel SNP, g.1451G>T, was identified by DNA sequencing and genotyped using creating restriction site-polymerase chain reaction methodology. The g.1451G>T polymorphic site met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Association analysis demonstrated that this SNP had no effect on thermo tolerance traits in Holstein cattle. Findings of the study compared to the analysis of g.4693 G>T further indicated that g.4693 G>T may play an important role in thermo tolerance, although the mechanism is not clear. RNA hybrid and Targetscan prediction showed that the minimum free energy hybridization of bta-miR-484 with HSF1 3'-UTR was -31.9 kcal/mol and g.4693 G>T was in the seed sequence of bovine HSF1 that binds to bta-miR-484. Analysis by Luciferase assay indicated that HSF1 expression was directly targeted by bta-miR-484 in HEK 293T cells, and the Rluc/luc ratio of wildtype (GG) was lower than that of the mutant (TT) (P < 0.05). These results suggest that g.4693 G>T affects binding of HSF1 to bta-miR-484. PMID:26505425

  17. Cattle Differ in Ability to Adapt to Small Intestinal Digestion of Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-ruminal starch digestion on inflammatory response in dairy cattle. Six cull, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cannulated Holstein dairy cows (BW 804±101 kg) were fed a high forage diet ad libitum starting 15 d before the infusion p...

  18. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  19. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  20. Genomic evaluation and identification of haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluation of dairy cattle in the US has been available for Holstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations allowing for the evaluation of this breed. Gains ...

  1. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the US have been available for Brown Swiss, Holstein and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database, including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations, permitting the investigation and impleme...

  2. Cattle Vaccines 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2005-11-11

    Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

  3. Association of TLR4 polymorphisms with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection status in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B S; Abo-Ismail, M K; Schenkel, F S; You, Q; Verschoor, C P; Pant, S D; Karrow, N A

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic enteritis in cattle that results in substantial financial losses to the cattle industry worldwide. Given that susceptibility to MAP infection is determined in part by genetics, marker-assisted selection may help in the breeding of animals that are more resistant to MAP infection. The toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) was selected as a potential candidate gene because of its role in innate immunity and its involvement in MAP recognition and infection. The objective of this study, therefore, was to identify associations between TLR4 polymorphisms and susceptibility to MAP infection in Canadian Holstein cows. Two biologically relevant SNPs, including c.-226G>C in the 5'-untranslated region and the non-synonymous SNP c.2021C>T in the potential TIR domain, were selected for an association analysis with MAP infection status in 409 Canadian Holsteins. The haplotype C-T from these combined SNPs yielded significant association with susceptibility to MAP infection, supporting the involvement of TLR4 in susceptibility to MAP infection. PMID:26360329

  4. Deleted copy number variation of Hanwoo and Holstein using next generation sequencing at the population level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variation (CNV), a source of genetic diversity in mammals, has been shown to underlie biological functions related to production traits. Notwithstanding, there have been few studies conducted on CNVs using next generation sequencing at the population level. Results Illumina NGS data was obtained for ten Holsteins, a dairy cattle, and 22 Hanwoo, a beef cattle. The sequence data for each of the 32 animals varied from 13.58-fold to almost 20-fold coverage. We detected a total of 6,811 deleted CNVs across the analyzed individuals (average length =?2732.2 bp) corresponding to 0.74% of the cattle genome (18.6 Mbp of variable sequence). By examining the overlap between CNV deletion regions and genes, we selected 30 genes with the highest deletion scores. These genes were found to be related to the nervous system, more specifically with nervous transmission, neuron motion, and neurogenesis. We regarded these genes as having been effected by the domestication process. Further analysis of the CNV genotyping information revealed 94 putative selected CNVs and 954 breed-specific CNVs. Conclusions This study provides useful information for assessing the impact of CNVs on cattle traits using NGS at the population level. PMID:24673797

  5. Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Muirhead, Tammy L.; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications. PMID:24982517

  6. Independent Polled Mutations Leading to Complex Gene Expression Differences in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

  7. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  8. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention strategies. PMID:26555532

  9. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Bovenhuis, H; Kaart, T; Pärna, K; Kiiman, H; Pärna, E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E(30))] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somatic cell count, pH) in first-lactation Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 17,577 test-day records from 4,191 Estonian Holstein cows in 73 herds across the country were collected during routine milk recordings. Measurements of RCT and E(30) determined with the Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frepillon, France) are based on an optical signal in the near-infrared region. The cows had at least 3 measurements taken during the period from April 2005 to January 2009. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. There was substantial variation in milk coagulation traits with a coefficient of variation of 27% for E(30) and 9% for the log-transformed RCT. The percentage of variation explained by herd was 3% for E(30) and 4% for RCT, suggesting that milk coagulation traits are not strongly affected by herd conditions (e.g., feeding). Heritability was 0.28 for RCT and 0.41 for E(30), and repeatability estimates were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlation between both milk coagulation traits was negligible, suggesting that RCT and E(30) have genetically different foundations. Milk coagulation time had a moderately high positive genetic (0.69) and phenotypic (0.61) correlation with milk pH indicating that a high pH is related to a less favorable RCT. Curd firmness had a moderate positive genetic (0.48) and phenotypic (0.45) correlation with the protein percentage. Therefore, a high protein percentage is associated with favorable curd firmness. All reported genetic parameters were statistically significantly different from zero. Additional univariate random regression analysis for milk coagulation traits yielded slightly higher average heritabilities of 0.38 and 0.47 for RCT and E(30) compared with the heritabilities of the repeatability model. PMID:20655449

  10. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of €97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and €70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, €7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and found a decrease of the genetic trend for the birth years 1990 to 2006. Since 2010 the genetic index has increased due to a strong increase in the polled frequency. However, further investigation is needed to better understand the biology to determine the correct time of embryo loss and the economic value of fertility disorders. PMID:26601581

  11. Current status of bovine cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Nigatu; Tilahun, Getachew; Hailu, Asrat

    2009-03-01

    The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia between September 2004 and August 2005 was reported. The examination of various organs of 11227 cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir showed that 842 (7.5%) were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 10,329 male cattle, examined, 783 (7.6%) had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 59 (6.6%) of the 898 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local zebu cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle. PMID:18551380

  12. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  13. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000?µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  14. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000?µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  15. Genomic imputation and evaluation using high density Holstein genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations for 161,341 Holsteins were computed using 311,725 of the 777,962 markers on the Illumina high-density (HD) chip. Initial edits with 1,741 HD genotypes from 5 breeds revealed that 636,967 markers were usable but that half were redundant. Usable Holstein genotypes included 1,510 an...

  16. Things Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  17. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  18. A molecular study on Theileria and Babesia in cattle from Isfahan province, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid

    2013-10-01

    Bovine theileriosis and babesiosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. From March 2009 to July 2009, 176 blood samples of Holstein and crossbred cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from Isfahan province, Central Iran. The extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a set of primers derived from the 18s rRNA gene. 42 out of 176 blood samples (23.9 %) were positive for Theileria spp. and none of them was positive for Babesia spp.. The present study showed that Theileria is detectable in cattle without any sign of infection but maintained a persistant sub-clinical state in the carrier cattle, which can serve as reservoirs of infection for ticks and cause natural transmission of the disease. PMID:24431572

  19. Hepatic transcriptome profiling identifies differences in expression of genes associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth between Hereford and Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, Pawel; Ko?ciuczuk, Ewa M; Go?cik, Joanna; Pierzcha?a, Mariusz; Rowi?ska, Barbara; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-04-01

    This study examined liver transcriptomic profiles of cattle distinctly different in meat and milk production capacity. It was performed on bulls of two different genetic backgrounds: Herefords (H), a meat breed, and Holstein-Friesians (HF), a dairy breed. Using bovine long oligo-microarrays and qPCR, we identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed between the two breeds. In H bulls, we observed up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism (CD36, CAT, HSD3B1, FABP1, ACAA1) and involved in insulin signaling (INSR, INSIG2, NR4A1) and down-regulation of genes involved in somatotropic axis signaling (IGF1, GHR, IGFBP3) as compared to HF. Transcriptome profiling of these two breeds allowed us to pinpoint the transcriptional differences between Holstein and Hereford bulls at hepatic level associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth. PMID:24304134

  20. The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

    2012-03-01

    Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

  1. Emphysematous Eosinophilic Lymphangitis in the Ruminal Submucosa of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, S

    2015-11-01

    Twenty cattle (14 Holstein-Friesian, 3 Japanese Black, 3 Aberdeen Angus) ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years exhibited, at slaughter, emphysematous thickening of the ruminal submucosa owing to the appearance of numerous, contiguous, small gas bubbles. Microscopic changes in the ruminal submucosa consisted of (1) multiple cystic (emphysematous) lymphangiectasis that was frequently lined or occluded by granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, and eosinophils; (2) intralymphatic phagocytosis by macrophages and giant cells of eosinophils that showed positive labeling with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay; and (3) an inflammatory infiltrate extending from the area of lymphangitis into surrounding tissue, as well as edema, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibroplasia, or capillary proliferation throughout the lesional submucosa. In addition, 15 (75%) of the cattle had globular leukocyte infiltrates in the mucosal epithelia of the rumen. PMID:25710949

  2. Dissecting the matrilineal components of Tongjiang cattle from southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Liu, Yi-Ping; Wang, Wei; Gao, Cheng-Zhong; Yao, Yong-Gang; Lai, Song-Jia

    2008-04-01

    Tongjiang cattle are a local cattle population of Sichuan Province, China, numbering approximately half a million in 2005. They have long been grouped into the Bashan breed, although they have a unique breeding history and phenotypic characteristics, as well as a restricted geographic distribution. Morphologically, they can be divided into two groups based on the basic coat color (black and russet). In order to dissect the matrilineal components of Tongjiang cattle and to compare the body size traits of the two morphological groups, we measured five body size traits among 59 Tongjiang cattle samples and further sequenced the mtDNA D-loop sequence of 54 individuals. Among the 54 mtDNAs, 37 (68.5%) were Bos taurus types and 17 (31.5%) were Bos indicus types. Four known B. taurus haplogroups (T1-T4) and one B. indicus haplogroup (I1) were detected in these samples. Two body size traits differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the black group and the russet group, although the two groups possessed similar matrilineal genetic structure. This is the first report to identify all four B. taurus haplogroups in one local Chinese cattle population. Our results suggest that the contribution of different matrilineal lineages to Chinese cattle might be more complex than we originally thought. PMID:18246422

  3. Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances 

    E-print Network

    Sartwelle III, James D.; Davis, Ernest E.; Mintert, James R.; Borchardt, Rob

    2000-09-13

    James D. Sartwelle, III, Ernest E. Davis, James Mintert and Rob Borchardt* Ever-tightening profit margins and recurring cyclical downturns in cattle and calf markets have forced many cattle producers to search for ways to make their operations more...

  4. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth rates, feed conversion, and carcass traits in calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Duff, G C; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). A 3-d withdrawal was maintained immediately before slaughter. Cattle within an experiment were fed to a common number of days on feed. During the last 120 d before slaughter, ADG was not enhanced by feeding ZH for 20 d (P = 0.33 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.79 in Exp. 2). Gain-to-feed conversion was increased by feeding ZH for all durations in Exp. 1 (P < 0.05). Feeding ZH increased HCW by 9.3 (Exp. 2) to 11.6 (Exp. 1) kg at 20 d compared with the control groups. Across both experiments, dressing percent was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). Although skeletal maturity score, liver integrity, lean color, fat thickness, and KPH were not affected by feeding ZH for 20 d in either experiment (P >or= 0.6), LM area was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). The percentage of carcasses identified as USDA Choice was reduced (P < 0.01) for all durations of feeding ZH in Exp. 1. This effect was not observed in Exp. 2. Holstein steers clearly respond to the beta-agonist ZH, and 20 d of feeding ZH with a 3-d withdrawal significantly increased carcass weights, muscling, and carcass leanness. PMID:19717762

  5. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Brøndum, R F; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S

    2014-11-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions. PMID:25151887

  6. Composite ?-?-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jõudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite ?-?-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed ?-?-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent ?-?-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The ?-?-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of ?-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the ?-?-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively. PMID:22981570

  7. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  8. Lack of antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2 virus in beef and dairy cattle and horses in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; Konoby, C; West, K H; Allan, G M; Krakowka, S; McNeilly, F; Meehan, B; Walker, I

    2001-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a recently recognized agent that is consistently associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting disease in swine. There are conflicting data concerning the ability of this virus to infect and cause disease in other species. To determine if normal cattle, cattle affected with various illnesses, and normal horses in endemic areas of PCV2 infection in swine have had PCV2 infections, 100 randomly selected bovine sera, 100 equine sera, and 100 colostrum samples from clinically normal dairy cattle were examined for the presence of antibodies to porcine circoviruses by using ELISAs. All samples tested were negative for antibodies to porcine circoviruses. As well, a seronegative neonatal Holstein calf and 6 seronegative, 6-month-old beef calves that were experimentally infected with PCV2 failed to develop antibodies to the virus. These results suggest that natural infection of cattle and horses with PCV2 does not occur, or is a rare event, in western Canada. PMID:11424578

  9. Determining the value of Mexican cattle vs. sale barn cattle 

    E-print Network

    Horn, Shelby W.

    1992-01-01

    Feedyard managers are faced with cattle purchasing decisions almost daily. In making these decisions, they must be able to accurately estimate the performance, death loss, and a medicine charges of the cattle being considered. Sale barn cattle...

  10. Danish Holsteins Favor Bull Offspring: Biased Milk Production as a Function of Fetal Sex, and Calving Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441

  11. FOREICN NEWS CATTLE EGRET MOVEMENTS

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    FOREICN NEWS CATTLE EGRET MOVEMENTS The movements of Cattle Egrets in Amenica are discussed. lt IBISES Cattle Egrets were caught on the edges of suamps and feeding aneas, in mist-nets using white ibis

  12. Successful treatment of an intrathoracic bronchogenic cyst in a Holstein-Friesian calf

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 5-½-month-old female Holstein-Friesian calf was presented with a history of recurring ruminal tympany and poor development. The absence of lung sounds on the right hemithorax suggested a right-sided intrathoracic pathology. Radiography and computed tomography revealed a large thin-walled cavernous lesion with a gas-fluid interface which almost completely filled the right thoracic cavity. Fluid aspirated from the lesion was clear, yellowish and odorless. These findings led to the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The cyst strongly adhered to the adjacent lung tissue. After removal of the free wall, the adjacent lung tissue was sealed using surgical stapling instruments, and the non-removable part of the wall was curetted and rinsed. The intensive postoperative management included antibiotic therapy, oxygen supplementation and regional lidocaine infusion. Anti-inflammatory drugs were administered for further pain control. The calf recovered well and was released from the clinic on postoperative day 11. Intra- or extrathoracic bronchogenic cysts result from abnormal budding during the embryonic development of the tracheobronchial system. Successful treatment of this calf despite the size of the lesion and the invasive character of the surgical intervention indicates that resection of bronchogenic cysts in cattle may be an option for valuable animals. PMID:23421871

  13. Successful treatment of an intrathoracic bronchogenic cyst in a Holstein-Friesian calf.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, Beat; Meylan, Mireille; Gendron, Karine; Morath, Ute; Rytz, Ulrich; Lejeune, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    A 5-½-month-old female Holstein-Friesian calf was presented with a history of recurring ruminal tympany and poor development. The absence of lung sounds on the right hemithorax suggested a right-sided intrathoracic pathology. Radiography and computed tomography revealed a large thin-walled cavernous lesion with a gas-fluid interface which almost completely filled the right thoracic cavity. Fluid aspirated from the lesion was clear, yellowish and odorless. These findings led to the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The cyst strongly adhered to the adjacent lung tissue. After removal of the free wall, the adjacent lung tissue was sealed using surgical stapling instruments, and the non-removable part of the wall was curetted and rinsed. The intensive postoperative management included antibiotic therapy, oxygen supplementation and regional lidocaine infusion. Anti-inflammatory drugs were administered for further pain control. The calf recovered well and was released from the clinic on postoperative day 11. Intra- or extrathoracic bronchogenic cysts result from abnormal budding during the embryonic development of the tracheobronchial system. Successful treatment of this calf despite the size of the lesion and the invasive character of the surgical intervention indicates that resection of bronchogenic cysts in cattle may be an option for valuable animals. PMID:23421871

  14. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  15. GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG FERTILITY TRAITS OF HOLSTEINS AND JERSEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy Herd Improvement data with service dates from 2,195,643 Holstein and 171,981 Jersey sire-identified lactations from 1995 through 2000 were used to assess genetic variation in and relationships among fertility traits: days to first service (D1), days to last reported service (DL), nonreturn rat...

  16. TRAIT SELECTION WHEN CULLING U.S. HOLSTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emphasis by dairy producers on milk, fat, and protein yields; somatic cell score (SCS); days open (DO) and dystocia score (DS) when culling was documented for U.S. Holstein cows that calved since 1980. Least-squares differences between cows retained for additional parities and those culled were esti...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF HOLSTEIN HEIFER FERTILITY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall object of this research was to characterize US Holstein heifer fertility. This included investigation of factors influencing heifer fertility and estimation of heritability, as well as correlations with cow fertility and first lactation milk yield. A secondary objective was to compare ...

  18. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  19. Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...

  20. Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves H.M. Neibergs1, J. Williams1, B. Knie1, K.D. Sieverkropf1, E.R. Scraggs1, Z. Wang1, Bovine Respiratory Disease Consortium, H.L. Neibergs based on a scoring system based on the sum of points from 4 categories of clinical signs, with severity

  1. Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

    1994-01-01

    Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

  2. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus) × Holstein (Bos taurus) cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy) different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr × Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle. PMID:20433753

  3. Role of the major histocompatibility complex in immune responsiveness in a Holstein Charolais cattle cross population 

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Rebecca Jayne

    2011-06-27

    Infectious disease is a major issue facing the livestock industry. Further understanding of the role of genetic factors in the observed phenotypic variability of the immune response to pathogens and vaccination could ...

  4. Identification of loci associated with tolerance to Johne's disease in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease is a bacterial illness caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with genetic tolerance in cows infected with Map. Tolerance was defined as a cow's fitness at a given level of Map infection intensity. ...

  5. Prediction of parturition in Holstein dairy cattle using electronic data loggers.

    PubMed

    Titler, M; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gordon, E; McCullough, K; Federico, P; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of parturition on behavioral activity [steps, standing time, lying time, lying bouts (LB), and duration of LB] 4 d before calving using electronic data loggers. Animals (n=132) from 3 herds were housed in similar freestall barns using a prepartum pen 21 d before the expected calving date and were moved into a contiguous individual maternity pen for parturition. Electronic data loggers were placed on a hind leg of prepartum heifers (heifers, n=33) and cows (cows, n=99) at 7±3 d before the expected calving date and removed at 14±3 d in milk. Calving ease (scale 1-4), parity, calving date and time, and stillbirth (born dead or died within 24h) were recorded. The number of steps (no./d), standing time (min/d), lying time (min/d), number of LB (no./d), and duration of LB (min/b) were recorded. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS, adjusting for the herd effect. Only cows experiencing unassisted births (calving ease=1) were included in the study. An activity index was developed to predict calving time. Heifers and cows with unassisted births had significantly higher number of steps and longer standing time, decreased lying time, and more LB of shorter duration 24h before calving compared with d -4, -3, and -2. Additionally, the number of LB increased as both heifers and cows approached labor starting on d -2 and peaked at the day of calving. The time since the activity index increased over 50% to parturition did not differ between heifers and cows, and the activity index revealed the shift in activity on average 6h 14min (range from 2h to 14h 15min) before calf birth. This study provided evidence that heifers and cows approaching parturition showed a similar, but distinct, behavioral pattern that can be observed on average 6h before calf birth. The potential benefits of electronic data loggers as predictors of parturition along with proactive management practices should improve the overall survival and welfare of both the dam and calf. PMID:26074226

  6. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

  7. [Molecular Genetic Markers of Economically Important Traits in Dairy Cattle].

    PubMed

    Yudin, N S; Voevoda, M I

    2015-05-01

    The selection efficiency of complex quantitative economically important traits in dairy cattle depends on the identification of candidate genes responsible for these traits, as well as the determination of causative DNA polymorphism in these genes. Here, we review examples of DNA polymorphisms in coding and noncoding parts of genes that are associated with milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, milk fat and protein percentages, the biochemical composition of milk, and other milk production traits. Together with data with of foreign authors, which were obtained predominantly for Holstein animals, much attention in the review is paid to domestic studies on Russian cattle breeds. Particular attention is dedicated to DNA polymorphisms in the genes encoding transcription factors, which can potentially affect a large number of traits. The results of association analyses are summarized in a table, and they present the progress of research in this area in recent years. Our analysis indicates that the majority of SNPs, which are associated with significant effects on milk production traits, are in fact in a linkage disequilibrium with yet unknown mutations. The identification of functionally significant DNA polymorphisms and other genetic factors (epimutations, VNTR) is necessary for effective marker-assisted selection and genomic selection of diary cattle breeds. PMID:26137639

  8. A new insight into cattle's maternal origin in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shangang; Zhou, Yan; Lei, Chuzhao; Yao, Ru; Zhang, Zhiying; Fang, Xingtang; Chen, Hong

    2010-03-01

    The domestication of cattle fuelled the development of agricultural society in the history of human being. The evolution and genetic relationship of cattle can be elucidated by investigating the variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. In this study, we built a cattle phylogeny with a pool of 856 individual D-loop sequences, of which 264 Chinese cattle D-loop sequences were obtained in this study (141 ones were first analyzed, and 123 were first submitted) and the rest sequences of cattle from six Asian countries (Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, India and China) were retrieved from GenBank. Our results indicated that cattle from six Asian countries fell into three clades, Bos taurus (taurine), Bos indicus (zebu) and yak. Four main haplogroups T1A, T2, T3 (including T3A and T3B) and T5 were found in taurine, and two haplogroups I1 and I2 in zebu. Furthermore, we found that I1 and I2 haplogroups were separated by four variable sites rather than five ones and four haplogroups or sub-haplogroups of T1A, T3A, T3B and T5 were found for the first time in these Asian cattle. These data brought us a new insight into cattle's genetic structure in these six Asian countries. The geographical distribution of haplogroups was also outlined to provide systematic information on cattle genetic resources. PMID:20347826

  9. Copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in blood serum and diet of dairy cattle on semi-industrial farms in central Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid; Rasti, Mohsen; Ranjbari, Ahmad Reza; Shirvani, Edris

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood serum and diet concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in Holstein dairy cattle kept under semi-industrial farming in Isfahan province, central Iran. Moreover, the effects of season, pregnancy, and daily milk yield on serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were also evaluated. The study was carried out on 12 semi-industrial Holstein dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 blood serum samples (60 in each season) and 24 diet samples (12 in each season) were collected in the summer and winter. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents were assessed in samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the summer, the mean concentrations of Cu and Fe in serum samples were lower and higher than the critical level, respectively (P?cattle (P?cattle in different daily milk yield groups. It can be concluded that Holstein dairy cattle reared under semi-industrial dairy farming were deficient in serum Cu concentrations, especially in summer. Further, high level of Fe in blood serum might be due to feeding of cattle with diet containing excess quantity of Fe. PMID:21667325

  10. Incidence and Genetic Characterization of Gongylonema pulchrum in Cattle Slaughtered in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Salehi, N; Ashrafi-Helan, J; Sato, H

    2010-01-01

    Background The gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, is a thread-like spirurid nematode found in a variety of mammals worldwide. Its incidences in Iranian cattle of different breed or age have not been reported. The aims of the present study are to disclose the infection status of G. pulchrum in cattle slaughtered in northern region of Iran. Methods Full-length esophagi of cattle of 97 native dairy breed and 41 Holstein-Friesian breed were collected at four local abattoirs in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, from March 2006 to August 2007, and were examined parasitologically. Eight overlapping segments of the small- and large-subunits of rDNA were amplified by PCR, and the obtained nucleotide sequences were characterized. Results The incidences of G. pulchrum in female and male native dairy breed were 38.9% and 24.0%, respectively, whereas those in female and male Holstein-Friesian breed were 4.2% and 0%, respectively. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of G. pulchrum rDNA showed an intra-individual variation in the sequence and length, and the variation was ascribed to some unstable repeats of "A" or "CA". Conclusion Distinct incidences of G. pulchrum infection in native dairy breed and Holstein-Friesian breed might be ascribed to different animal husbandry manners for each breed in Iran; the former breed grazes freely in the pasture, but the latter breed is usually held in a pen. The rDNA sequence of Iranian G. pulchrum, obtained for the first time by us, might facilitate a reliable species identification of the parasite with a wide spectrum of morphological variations. PMID:22347239

  11. Chinese Idol

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-12-01

    Chinese youth on their toes when it comes to doing what's right. Well, stand back, Lei Feng, Liu Wei, winner of the first series of the hit TV show, China's Got Talent is breathing down your iconic neck. Liu Wei is dedicated: he taught himself to play...

  12. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  13. Synchronizing Estrus in Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2007-04-13

    Cattle producers can synchronize estrus (heat) to breed fertile females rapidly. The manipulation of the reproductive process reduces the need to detect estrus, creates a more uniform calf crop, and shortens the breeding and calving seasons...

  14. Reproductive Diseases in Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.; Field, Bob

    1998-12-03

    in Cattle State of Samples gestation needed for Diseases Organism How spread at abortion diagnosis Vaccination Remarks Brucellosis Bacterial Aborted fetuses, 6-9 months Blood sample Live vaccine in Cull infected animals. Do (Brucella abortus) fetal membranes...

  15. Determining Pregnancy in Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Beverly, John R.; Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2008-12-16

    The process of palpating to determine pregnancy in cattle and the equipment used during palpation are described and illustrated in this bulletin. The female reproductive system is discussed, along with the developmental stages of the embryo/fetus....

  16. Bracken poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    2015-11-21

    Bracken poisoning in cattle: a classic case in 15-month-old-cattleChlamydia abortus as the cause of abortion in a dairy cowCobalt deficiency in preweaned lambsFirst case of Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in pigs in 2015Mute swan mortalities on the River WearThese are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for July and August 2015. PMID:26589986

  17. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mammadova, Nazira

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  18. The first report of Histophilus somni pneumonia in Nigerian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Odugbo, Moses Odeh; Ogunjumo, Samuel O; Chukwukere, Sylvester C; Kumbish, Peterside R; Musa, Abdullahi; Ekundayo, Sarah O; Okewole, Philip A; Nwankpa, Nicholas D; Itodo, Audu E; Haruna, Gimba

    2009-09-01

    Clinical signs of severe bronchopneumonia, including anorexia, coughing, nasal discharge, dyspnoea, diarrhoea, distension of the neck, lethargy, recumbency, lameness preceding collapse, and death were observed among a herd of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. The outbreak occurred over a 30-day period, and attack and case-fatality rates were 0.4% and 50%, respectively. At necropsy, extensive consolidation in the cranioventral parts of the lungs was observed. Histologically, a severe acute bronchopneumonia with slight pleuritis was present. Both pathological and bacteriological evaluation of the lungs incriminated Histophilus somni (heavy growth). Supplementary laboratory investigations also isolated Clostridium and Klebsiella species (scanty growth) from the lungs. Histophilosis in cattle was confirmed for the first time in Nigeria. PMID:18445535

  19. Grid Pricing of Fed Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Ted C.; Hogan, Robert J.; Anderson, David P.

    2009-03-02

    There are several value-based fed cattle pricing systems, including formula pricing, price grids and alliances. This publication describes the different cattle pricing methods and helps you decide which is best for you....

  20. THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF FEEDER CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance and in the most severe cases death, thus resulting in the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to investigate the thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle to both acute and chronic exposures t...

  1. A bibliography of 17th century German imprints in Denmark and the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, P. M.

    1969-01-01

    OF DENMARK AS DUKE OF SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN, THIS ITEM IS TO BE CONSIDERED AS VALID ONLY FOR SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. 1602 5A DENMARK. Laws, statutes, etc. and SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN-GOTTORFF. Laws, statutes, etc. WJR Christian der vierdte/ von Gottes gnaden/ zu... Dennemarcken/ Norwegen/ der Wenden vnd Gotten König/ Vnd von desselben gna den/ J Johann Adolfï/ Erwehlter Bischoff zu Lübeck/ Erbe zu Nor wegen/ beide Hertzogen zu Schleßwick/ Holstein/ . . . | . . , | . . . Gegeben vnter vnsern Könniglichen vnd...

  2. PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEINS THAT ORIGINATED FROM EMBRYO TRANSFER OR MULTIPAROUS BIRTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern has continued on possible bias in genetic evaluations of animals from embryo transfer (ET) due to preferential management. Performance of registered ET Holsteins was documented and compared with that of registered Holsteins from uniparous and biparous births. During the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s,...

  3. PROGENY TESTING AND SELECTION INTENSITY FOR HOLSTEIN BULLS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    International Bull Evaluation Service Holstein evaluations from February 1995 through August 2002 were used to determine characteristics of progeny testing for Holstein bulls in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United St...

  4. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-12-30

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-? (IFN-?), IFN-?, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-?, and IFN-? mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV. PMID:26119170

  5. Common Cattle Parasites 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2005-11-11

    at a 2-week interval or once with avermec- tins (Ivomec ? , Eprinex ? , Dectomax ? ) or milbemycin (Cydectin ? ). Use spray, dust, pour-on, spot-on, injection or self- treatment methods in fall and winter for control. Injection does not work... ? , Dectomax ? ) or milbemycin (Cydectin ? ) to cattle no later than 3 months before grubs appear in the back. Use pour-on, spot-on, spray or injection methods to kill mi grat ing grubs before they reach the esoph a gus. If cattle are not treated...

  6. A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

  7. Pathologic changes associated with experimental lasalocid and monensin toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Galitzer, S J; Kruckenberg, S M; Kidd, J R

    1986-12-01

    The acute toxicity of lasalocid and monensin was studied in 36 Holstein steers. The cattle were given (orally) a single dosage of lasalocid (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg of body weight) or monensin (25 mg/kg of body weight) or rice hulls. Animals were observed once a day until they died or were euthanatized at 32 days after the dose was given. All cattle were necropsied. Heart, kidney, adrenal gland, liver, spleen, pancreas, lungs, brain, sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, small intestine, large intestine, and rumen tissue sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were studied microscopically. Lasalocid was lethal at dosages of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and monensin was lethal at the dosage given (25 mg/kg). Cattle dying of lasalocid and monensin toxicoses had gross and microscopic lesions consistent with cardiomyopathy. Dilated heart or petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were observed with both drugs. Microscopically, multifocal areas of myocyte necrosis were observed. Those cattle that died within 3 days of dosing with either drug had a marked degranulation of pancreatic acinar cells. Changes were not observed in any other tissues. PMID:3800122

  8. Forages for Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Bade, David H.; Dorsett, Donald J.

    2002-09-05

    Pasture forages for beef cattle are of five types--warm-season perennials, warm-season annuals, cool-season annuals, cool-season perennials and legumes. This publication discusses the five types and proposes a year-round forage management system...

  9. Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p?cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits. PMID:24655368

  10. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  11. New Quantum Monte Carlo Approach to the Holstein Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenadler, Martin; Evertz, Hans Gerd; von der Linden, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    Based on the canonical Lang-Firsov transformation of the Hamiltonian, we develop a novel quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for the Holstein model. Separation of the fermionic degrees of freedom by a reweighting of the probability distribution leads to a dramatic reduction in computational effort, and a principle component representation of the phonon degrees of freedom allows us to sample completely uncorrelated phonon configurations. Tests for the case of a single electron reveal that, despite a minus-sign problem resulting from the Lang-Firsov transformation, the combination of these elements enables us to perform efficient simulations for a wide range of temperature, phonon frequency and electron-phonon coupling in one to three dimensions, and on clusters large enough to avoid significant finite-size effects. In contrast to existing world-line methods, which have been used successfully to study the Holstein model with one or two electrons, the present method can be generalized to the many-electron case. The algorithm resembles closely to the determinant quantum Monte Carlo method, which is restricted to relatively large phonon frequencies by very strong autocorrelations, while the major advantage of our approach is the uncorrelated sampling of the phonons. This allows us to study the regime of small but finite phonon frequencies, into which transition metal oxides, such as the perovskite manganites, fall. In particular, we focus on the effects of quantum phonons, which have been completely neglected in existing Monte Carlo simulations for these materials.

  12. The effect of incremental levels of dietary nitrate on methane emissions in Holstein steers and performance in Nelore bulls.

    PubMed

    Newbold, J R; van Zijderveld, S M; Hulshof, R B A; Fokkink, W B; Leng, R A; Terencio, P; Powers, W J; van Adrichem, P S J; Paton, N D; Perdok, H B

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study effects of dietary nitrate on enteric methane production, blood methemoglobin concentration, and growth rate in cattle. In Exp. 1, 36 Holstein steers (288 ± 25 kg BW) were fed increasing levels of dietary nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 3.0% of feed DM) in corn silage-based total mixed rations. Nitrate was introduced gradually in a 25-d adaptation period before methane production was determined in environmentally controlled rooms. In the rooms, feed intake was restricted and similar among all treatments. Methane production (g/d) decreased linearly as dietary nitrate concentration increased (P < 0.01). The apparent efficiency (measured methane reduction divided by potential methane reduction) with which enteric methane was mitigated was 49%. Blood methemoglobin levels increased with increasing nitrate dose. In Exp. 2, 300 Nelore bulls (392 ± 28 kg) were fed increasing levels of nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 2.4% of feed DM) in high-concentrate total mixed rations offered ad libitum. Feed intake decreased linearly with increasing level of dietary nitrate (P < 0.01). However, ADG was not affected by nitrate dose (P = 0.54), resulting in a linear improvement in G:F (P = 0.03) as dietary nitrate level increased. Carcass dressing percentage showed a quadratic response to incremental dietary nitrate, reaching the highest value at 0.96% of NO3/kg DM (P = 0.04). PMID:25349351

  13. Chinese Studies Minor (19 Credits)

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    Chinese Studies Minor (19 Credits) The minor in Chinese Studies dimensions of the Chinese and minority communities historically and in the modern period. The minor requires a basic knowledge of Chinese. Study abroad

  14. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  15. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  17. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  18. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  19. Cattle Watering in the Penasco 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    importance in ng the optimum location and levels of cattle Regions with the most favorable competi- itage in cattle feeding exist primarily in a !~IN~~UUUS area encompassing the Texas-Oklahoma Panhandle, New Mexico, ,Colorado, Kansas-Nebraska, :nn..., total costs of pro- ducing and distributing fed beef are minimized when cattle feeding is concentrated predominantly in the Southern Plains, New Mexico-Arizona, Colorado, Kansas-Nebraska and the Central Corn Belt. 2. Increases in minimum regional...

  20. Short communication: Genetic relationships of milk coagulation properties with body condition score and linear type traits in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Cassandro, M; Battagin, M; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M

    2015-01-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are gaining popularity among dairy cattle producers and the improvement of traits associated with MCP is expected to result in a benefit for the dairy industry, especially in countries with a long tradition in cheese production. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations of MCP with body condition score (BCS) and type traits using data from first-parity Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The data analyzed consisted of 18,460 MCP records from 4,036 cows with information on both BCS and conformation traits. The cows were daughters of 246 sires and the pedigree file included a total of 37,559 animals. Genetic relationships of MCP with BCS and type traits were estimated using bivariate animal models. The model for MCP included fixed effects of stage of lactation, and random effects of herd-test-date, cow permanent environment, additive genetic animal, and residual. Fixed factors considered in the model for BCS and type traits were herd-date of evaluation and interaction between age at scoring and stage of lactation of the cow, and random terms were additive genetic animal, cow permanent environment, and residual. Genetic relationships between MCP and BCS, and MCP and type traits were generally low and significant only in a few cases, suggesting that MCP can be selected for without detrimental effects on BCS and linear type traits. PMID:25465560

  1. Multibreed genomic evaluations using purebred Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic models were developed and tested using the 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2009 USD...

  2. Biosecurity for Beef Cattle Operations 

    E-print Network

    Cleere, Jason; Gill, Ronald J.; Dement, Angela

    2008-10-06

    Biosecurity in the beef cattle industry involves understanding disease transmission and animal immunity, and then establishing a sound program for disease prevention. This publication explains general biosecurity practices.

  3. Individual Recognition in Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus): Evidence from 2D-Images of Heads from Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L.; Heyman, Yvan; Baudoin, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to maintain cohesion of groups, social animals need to process social information efficiently. Visual individual recognition, which is distinguished from mere visual discrimination, has been studied in only few mammalian species. In addition, most previous studies used either a small number of subjects or a few various views as test stimuli. Dairy cattle, as a domestic species allow the testing of a good sample size and provide a large variety of test stimuli due to the morphological diversity of breeds. Hence cattle are a suitable model for studying individual visual recognition. This study demonstrates that cattle display visual individual recognition and shows the effect of both familiarity and coat diversity in discrimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether 8 Prim'Holstein heifers could recognize 2D-images of heads of one cow (face, profiles, ¾ views) from those of other cows. Experiments were based on a simultaneous discrimination paradigm through instrumental conditioning using food rewards. In Experiment 1, all images represented familiar cows (belonging to the same social group) from the Prim'Holstein breed. In Experiments 2, 3 and 4, images were from unfamiliar (unknown) individuals either from the same breed or other breeds. All heifers displayed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Subjects reached criterion sooner when recognizing a familiar individual than when recognizing an unfamiliar one (Exp 1: 3.1±0.7 vs. Exp 2: 5.2±1.2 sessions; Z?=?1.99, N?=?8, P?=?0.046). In addition almost all subjects recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, however with greater difficulty. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that cattle have efficient individual recognition based on categorization capacities. Social familiarity improved their performance. The recognition of individuals with very different coat characteristics from the subjects was the most difficult task. These results call for studies exploring the mechanisms involved in face recognition allowing interspecies comparisons, including humans. PMID:19212439

  4. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

  5. Teaching Business Chinese Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a comprehensive approach to teaching business Chinese online that is beng developed in the language learning laboratory at the University of Illinois. The courseware consists of two complementary parts: a business Chinese workbook and a business Chinese simulation. (Author/VWL)

  6. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  7. Demolishing Searle's Chinese Room

    E-print Network

    Wolfram Schmied

    2004-03-11

    Searle's Chinese Room argument is refuted by showing that he has actually given two different versions of the room, which fail for different reasons. Hence, Searle does not achieve his stated goal of showing ``that a system could have input and output capabilities that duplicated those of a native Chinese speaker and still not understand Chinese''.

  8. Migration of Holstein Polarons in Anatase TiO2.

    PubMed

    Yan, Likai; Chen, Hanning

    2014-11-11

    A simple yet reliable valence bond theory was applied to ascertain the effective size and shape for the electron and hole polarons in bulk anatase TiO2 by examining the extent of polaron charge delocalization. It was found that the electron polaron is approximately 2 times as large as its hole counterpart, leading to a faster electron diffusion than hole hopping with regard to the electron-phonon coupling strength. Moreover, the oblate hole polaron exhibits a pronounced directional heterogeneity in migration, whereas the nearly spherical electron polaron tends to diffuse along all possible lattice directions. In light of the notable delocalization characteristics of both polarons, their migration should proceed in an adiabatic manner, and their rates can be calculated by the Arrhenius equation. It turns out that our calculated polaron mobilities at 300 and 1300K are both in excellent agreement with experimental values, justifying our novel approach for Holstein polaron modeling in crystalline semiconductors. PMID:26584382

  9. Quantum phase transitions in a pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Mengxing; Ingersent, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    We study a pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model of a magnetic impurity level that hybridizes with a conduction band whose density of states vanishes in power-law fashion at the Fermi energy, and couples, via its charge, to a nondispersive bosonic mode (e.g., an optical phonon). The model, which we treat using poor-man's scaling and the numerical renormalization group, exhibits quantum phase transitions of different types depending on the strength of the impurity-boson coupling. For weak impurity-boson coupling, the suppression of the density of states near the Fermi energy leads to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (Kondo) and local-moment phases. For sufficiently strong impurity-boson coupling, however, the bare repulsion between a pair of electrons in the impurity level becomes an effective attraction, leading to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (charge Kondo) and local-charge phases. Even though the Hamiltonian exhibits different symmetries in the spin and charge sectors, the thermodynamic properties near the two types of quantum phase transition are closely related under spin-charge interchange. Moreover, the critical responses to a local magnetic field (for small impurity-boson coupling) and to an electric potential (for large impurity-boson coupling) are characterized by the same exponents, whose values place these quantum-critical points in the universality class of the pseudogap Anderson model. One specific case of the pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model may be realized in a double-quantum-dot device, where the quantum phase transitions manifest themselves in the finite-temperature linear electrical conductance.

  10. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  11. Associations between allelic polymorphism of the BMP Binding Endothelial Regulator and phenotypic variation of cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunping; Gui, Linsheng; Li, Yaokun; Plath, Martin; Zan, Linsen

    2015-12-01

    The BMP Binding Endothelial Regulator (BMPER) is an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which play fundamental roles in adipocyte differentiation, fat development and energy balance. The objectives of this study were to detect polymorphisms of BMPER gene in four indigenous Chinese cattle populations and to investigate their effects on body size traits. Initially, three SNPs, namely G100597A (SNP1), C105331A (SNP2), and G105521A (SNP3) and eight distinct haplotypes were identified. In a total of 12 SNP-SNP combinations, SNP2-SNP3 had a strong linkage in Qinchuan cattle. These four cattle populations belong to intermediate genetic diversity at three SNP loci except Shuxuan cattle population in SNP3. At SNP1, genotype AA was associated with an increased body size. For SNP2, the heterozygous genotype individuals had a greater rump length than those of two other homozygotic genotypes. At SNP3, individuals with GG genotype had smaller rump length and hip width. A total of seven haplotype combinations were detected in Qinchuan cattle population and association analysis results showed individuals with Haplotype combination 4/2 (AAA/CAA) had greater rump length than those with Hap3/1 and Hap3/3 (P < 0.05). These results strongly suggest that bovine BMPER gene may be used as a genetic marker for cattle breeding. PMID:26420743

  12. In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloned cattle meat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Jung, Yu-Ri; Lee, Jung-Won; Im, Gi-Sun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2011-09-01

    Although the nutritional composition and health status after consumption of the meat and milk derived from both conventionally bred (normal) and somatic cell nuclear transferred (cloned) animals and their progeny are not different, little is known about their food safeties like genetic toxicity. This study is performed to examine both in vitro (bacterial mutation and chromosome aberration) and in vivo (micronucleus) genotoxicity studies of cloned cattle meat. The concentrations of both normal and cloned cattle meat extracts (0-10×) were tested to five strains of bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium: TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537; Escherichia coli: WP2uvrA) for bacterial mutation and to Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU) cells for chromosome aberration, respectively. For micronucleus test, ICR mice were divided into five dietary groups: commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) normal cattle meat, and pellets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) cloned cattle meat. No test substance-related genotoxicity was noted in the five bacterial strains, CHL/IU cells, or mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting that the cloned cattle meat potentially may be safe in terms of mutagenic hazards. Thus, it can be postulated that the cloned cattle meat do not induce any harmful genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21722695

  13. An assessment of population structure in eight breeds of cattle using a whole genome SNP panel

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Stephanie D; Schnabel, Robert D; Murdoch, Brenda M; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Aerts, Jan; Coppieters, Wouter; Crews, Denny; Neto, Emmanuel Dias; Gill, Clare A; Gao, Chuan; Mannen, Hideyuki; Wang, Zhiquan; Van Tassell, Curt P; Williams, John L; Taylor, Jeremy F; Moore, Stephen S

    2008-01-01

    Background Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. Previously, these studies have used a low density of microsatellite markers, however, with the large number of single nucleotide polymorphism markers that are now available, it is possible to perform genome wide population genetic analyses in cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among eight cattle breeds sampled from Bos indicus and Bos taurus. Results Two thousand six hundred and forty one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning all of the bovine autosomal genome were genotyped in Angus, Brahman, Charolais, Dutch Black and White Dairy, Holstein, Japanese Black, Limousin and Nelore cattle. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE and Fst estimates were used to construct a neighbor-joining tree to represent the phylogenetic relationship among these breeds. Conclusion The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. The greatest level of genetic differentiation was detected between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. When the Bos indicus breeds were excluded from the analysis, genetic differences among beef versus dairy and European versus Asian breeds were detected among the Bos taurus breeds. Exploration of the number of SNP loci required to differentiate between breeds showed that for 100 SNP loci, individuals could only be correctly clustered into breeds 50% of the time, thus a large number of SNP markers are required to replace the 30 microsatellite markers that are currently commonly used in genetic diversity studies. PMID:18492244

  14. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West

    2009-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of new strategies for the diagnosis of TSEs. PMID:19429980

  15. Application of the a posteriori granddaughter design to the Holstein genome.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Cole, J B; Vanraden, P M; Wiggans, G R

    2014-04-01

    An a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to estimate quantitative trait loci genotypes of sires with many sons in the US Holstein population. The results of this analysis can be used to determine concordance between specific polymorphisms and segregating quantitative trait loci. Determination of the actual polymorphisms responsible for observed genetic variation should increase the accuracy of genomic evaluations and rates of genetic gain. A total of 52 grandsire families, each with ?100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests, were analyzed for 33 traits (milk, fat and protein yields; fat and protein percentages; somatic cell score (SCS); productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; heifer and cow conception rates; service-sire and daughter calving ease; service-sire and daughter stillbirth rates; 18 conformation traits; and net merit). Of 617 haplotype segments spanning the entire bovine genome and each including ~5×106 bp, 5 cM and 50 genes, 608 autosomal segments were analyzed. A total of 19 335 unique haplotypes were found among the 52 grandsires. There were a total of 133 chromosomal segment-by-trait combinations, for which the nominal probability of significance for the haplotype effect was <10-8, which corresponds to genome-wide significance of <10-4. The number of chromosomal regions that met this criterion by trait ranged from one for rear legs (rear view) to seven for net merit. For each of the putative quantitative trait loci, at least one grandsire family had a within-family contrast with a t-value of >3. Confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by the nonparametric bootstrap for the largest effect for each of nine traits. The bootstrap distribution generated by 100 samples was bimodal only for net merit, which had the widest 90% CI (eight haplotype segments). This may be due to the fact that net merit is a composite trait. For all other chromosomes, the CI spanned less than a third of the chromosome. The narrowest CI (a single haplotype segment) was found for SCS. It is likely that analysis by more advanced methods could further reduce CIs at least by half. These results can be used as a first step to determine the actual polymorphisms responsible for observed quantitative variation in dairy cattle. PMID:24636822

  16. Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Hernandez, L L

    2015-04-01

    Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day -3 compared with -5 and -7 precalving (167.7 ± 80 vs 1511.1 ± 602 ng/mL). 5-HT nadir was on day -1 precalving and remained low postcalving (481.4 ± 49 ng/mL). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased precalving (P = 0.008) and were positively correlated with 5-HT during the precalving period (r = 0.55, P = 0.043). On day 1, postcalving hepatic messenger RNA expression of 5-HT1D, 2B, 3C, 6, and 7 receptors were decreased compared with day -7 (P < 0.048). The 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B decreased on day 7. The 5-HT2A increased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). The 5-HT1F and 5-HT1A receptors were increased 2.5- and 3.8-fold on day 7, respectively, compared with days -7 and 1 (P < 0.046). The 5-HT5A was not detected, and 5-HT4 was detected on days -7 and 1 only. Expression of Glut-2,-5 and SGLT1 were decreased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05), whereas Glut-1 was increased on day 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 5-HT could be important for liver glucose homeostasis possibly through receptor mediated signaling at specific times. Additional research is needed to further explore the functional role of these receptors in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. PMID:25528206

  17. Acclimation of Holstein Calves to Transit Stress: The Integration of Endocrine, Immune, and Behavior Systems 

    E-print Network

    Adams, Amber

    2012-10-19

    OF HOLSTEIN CALVES TO TRANSIT STRESS: THE INTEGRATION OF ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE, AND BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS A Dissertation by AMBER LYNN ADAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2012 Major Subject: Animal Science Acclimation of Holstein Calves to Transit Stress: The Integration of Endocrine, Immune, and Behavior Systems Copyright 2012...

  18. Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS|) and population differentiation index (FST)--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases) the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p < 0.05) from the expectation assuming a random distribution. However, significant FST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life and fertility traits in Holstein cattle. We conclude that high-resolution genome scans of selection signatures can be used to identify genomic regions contributing to within- and inter-breed phenotypic variation. PMID:21679429

  19. Cattle Tyrant Perched on Horse

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cattle tyrant perched on horse near Asuncion Bay, Paraguay. Cattle tyrants feed on parasitic arthropods on mammals, an example of mutualism. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savanna, Pas...

  20. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...

  1. Searching new signals for production traits through gene-based association analysis in three Italian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Milanesi, Marco; Bomba, Lorenzo; Cappelli, Katia; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely applied to disentangle the genetic basis of complex traits. In cattle breeds, classical GWAS approaches with medium-density marker panels are far from conclusive, especially for complex traits. This is due to the intrinsic limitations of GWAS and the assumptions that are made to step from the association signals to the functional variations. Here, we applied a gene-based strategy to prioritize genotype-phenotype associations found for milk production and quality traits with classical approaches in three Italian dairy cattle breeds with different sample sizes (Italian Brown n = 745; Italian Holstein n = 2058; Italian Simmental n = 477). Although classical regression on single markers revealed only a single genome-wide significant genotype-phenotype association, for Italian Holstein, the gene-based approach identified specific genes in each breed that are associated with milk physiology and mammary gland development. As no standard method has yet been established to step from variation to functional units (i.e., genes), the strategy proposed here may contribute to revealing new genes that play significant roles in complex traits, such as those investigated here, amplifying low association signals using a gene-centric approach. PMID:25997511

  2. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Woerdenbag, H J

    1995-07-28

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal medicine in China. It also describes modern scientific research into and the quality control of Chinese herbal medicines in China. Some examples of how new drugs derived from Chinese herbs have been developed on the basis of traditional therapeutic experience are presented. Finally, the situation of Chinese herbal medicine in the West is discussed. PMID:7581215

  3. Effect of dietary monensin on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Jeffery A; Hamilton, Scott W; DePeters, Edward J; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2010-02-01

    To determine the effect of monensin, a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic, on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents, we fed six lactating Holstein cows a diet containing monensin (600 mg day(-1)) or an identical diet without monensin. Fresh waste samples were taken directly from the animals once a month for 3 months and assayed for their bacterial population structure via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In total 6,912 16S rRNA genes were examined, comprising 345 and 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the monensin fed and control animals, respectively. Coverage estimates of the OTUs identified were 87.6% for the monensin fed and 88.3% for the control colonic content derived library. Despite this high level of coverage, no significant difference was found between the libraries down to the genus level. Thus we concluded that although monensin is believed to increase milk production in dairy cattle by altering the bacterial population structure within the bovine gastrointestinal tract, we were unable to identify any significant difference in the bacterial population structure of the colonic contents of monensin fed vs. the control dairy cattle, down to the genus level. PMID:19784643

  4. The First Outbreak of Chorioptes texanus (Acari: Psoroptidae) Infestation in a Cattle Farm in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Guk-Hyun; Hur, Tai-Young; Lim, Sun; Shin, Sang-Min; Kwon, Jungkee; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Chai-Yong

    2008-01-01

    Mites in the genus Chorioptes cause a mild form of skin disease in both domestic and wild ruminants. In July 2006, dermatitis characterized by alopecia, marked lichenification, accumulation of crust, and fissuring was recognized in 14 out of 200 Holstein dairy cattle raised in the cattle farm of the National Institute of Animal Science in Cheonan, Republic of Korea. Skin lesions were distributed mainly over the tail base, and sacral and perineal regions. Microscopic examinations of skin scraping samples from severely affected areas revealed numerous mites of all developmental stages. Morphologically, pedicels of the mites were short and unjointed. The tarsal suckers occurred on the pedicels of all the legs in the male worm and on the first, second, and fourth pair of legs in the adult female worm. A single long seta at the tarsus of legs III and the length of legs II being about twice as long as legs IV in adult male mites were observed. Arising anterior to the inner-most spatulate seta was a short seta with an average of 26.4 ± 5.8 µm in length. Also, the length of setae #4 on the opisthosomal lobes was relatively short. Based on these observations, the mites were identified as Choriptes texanus. Although the chorioptic mange may not influence the mortality rate in the affected farm, reports indicate that a decline in milk production can be observed. This is the first report of chorioptic infestation in a cattle farm from Korea. PMID:19127336

  5. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

  6. Development of embryos after in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes with sperm from either yaks (Bos grunniens) or cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Zi, Xiang-Dong; Lu, Hong; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, Shao-Wei

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate differences in fertilization and development of embryos after in vitro fertilization of Bos taurus (cow) oocytes with sperm from either yaks (Bos grunniens) or Holstein bulls. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa (Holstein n=5 sires; yak n=5 sires) were evaluated for motility (forward progression) and acrosomal status immediately post-thaw and then 1, 2, 3, and 8h later. In vitro-matured cow oocytes (n=1652) were inseminated with either Holstein bull or yak spermatozoa and after an 18-h co-incubation period, a proportion of the oocytes were fixed and examined for sperm penetration, polyspermy, and male pronuclear formation. The remaining oocytes were cultured in vitro and evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst production rates. Overall, there were species differences (P<0.05) and an effect of time (P<0.01) in sperm motility and acrosome integrity. An effect (P<0.01) of a species-by-time interaction was detected for motility, but not for acrosome integrity. The percentage of oocytes penetrated and the formation of two pronuclei when cow oocytes were inseminated with yak spermatozoa (97.4% and 81.6%, respectively) were greater (P<0.01) than that achieved with Holstein bull spermatozoa (77.8% and 65.9%, respectively), but the incidence of polyspermy (>2 pronuclei) was similar (P>0.05; 10.8% vs. 15.8%). The yak male symbolxcow combination gave a higher cleavage rate than the Holstein male symbolxcow combination (P<0.05; 76.3% vs. 63.3%), but there was no difference in the blastocyst rate (17.9% vs. 14.5%). It is concluded that yak spermatozoa could successfully fertilize cattle oocytes and their hybrid embryos had normal competence to develop to blastocysts. PMID:17889459

  7. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  8. September 2011 Dear FL Beef Cattle Producers,

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    September 2011 Dear FL Beef Cattle Producers, I am the veterinary entomologist for UF-IFAS and am beef cattle producers who have extensively used the Avenger insecticide ear tag on their cattle on beef cattle. However, the horn fly is expected to develop resistance to this chemical as it has most

  9. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14 Animals and...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  10. Determining Pregnancy in Cattle

    E-print Network

    Sorensen, A. M. Jr.; Beverly, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    weight (pounds) 550 500 450 400 3 50 I 6 / UTE 4 OVIDUC' / \\ FOL I VAGINA I URETHR Figure 2. Anatomy of the reproductive tract. the animal so she cannot jump over the side of the chute or kick the palpator. Prevent other cattle from coming... juteum and during pre\\gnancy. The next portion of the tract, the vagina, figure 2, acts as a receptacle for the penis during copulation and the point of deposition of the spermatozoa. The bladder, which opens on the floor of the vagina through...

  11. Anaplasmosis in Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Gill, Ronald J.

    1994-09-29

    substantial loss of RBCs has occurred, the animal will show signs of clinical anemia. The body temperature will commonly rise to 104 o to 107 o F (40 o to 41 o C), and a rapid decrease in milk production will occur in lactating cows. Cattle producers f... not prevent infec- tion or the development of a carrier animal. Antibiotic therapy can be used to control this type of outbreak as described later in the sec- tion ?Control Programs for Anaplasmosis.? An additional strategy is preventing stress in susceptible...

  12. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results indicated that management of diet CP levels of confined finishing steers mitigates NH3 emissions from steers but does not affect enteric CH4. In addition, results suggested that soil characteristics might be as important as manure N content to generate NH3 and greenhouse gases from soils receiving manure fertilization. PMID:25568381

  13. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shedding in Cattle by Addition of Chitosan Microparticles to Feed ?

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Kang, Min Young; Kang, Jihun; Baumler, David J.; Kaspar, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a significant human pathogen that resides in healthy cattle. It is thought that a reduction in the prevalence and numbers of EHEC in cattle will reduce the load of EHEC entering the food chain. To this end, an intervention strategy involving the addition of chitosan microparticles (CM) to feed in order to reduce the carriage of this pathogen in cattle was evaluated. Experiments with individual Holstein calves and a crossover study found that the addition of CM to feed decreased E. coli O157:H7 shedding. In the crossover study, CM resulted in statistically significant reductions in the numbers recovered from rectal swab samples (P < 0.05) and the duration of shedding (P < 0.05). The effects of feeding CM to calves differed, indicating that the optimal levels of CM may differ between animals or that other factors are involved in the interaction between CM and E. coli O157:H7. In vitro studies demonstrated that E. coli O157:H7 binds to CM, suggesting that the reduction in shedding may result at least in part from the binding of positively charged CM to negatively charged E. coli cells. Additional studies are needed to determine the impact of CM feeding on animal production, but the results from this study indicate that supplementing feed with CM reduces the shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. PMID:21335379

  14. Metagenomics of rumen bacteriophage from thirteen lactating dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bovine rumen hosts a diverse and complex community of Eukarya, Bacteria, Archea and viruses (including bacteriophage). The rumen viral population (the rumen virome) has received little attention compared to the rumen microbial population (the rumen microbiome). We used massively parallel sequencing of virus like particles to investigate the diversity of the rumen virome in thirteen lactating Australian Holstein dairy cattle all housed in the same location, 12 of which were sampled on the same day. Results Fourteen putative viral sequence fragments over 30 Kbp in length were assembled and annotated. Many of the putative genes in the assembled contigs showed no homology to previously annotated genes, highlighting the large amount of work still required to fully annotate the functions encoded in viral genomes. The abundance of the contig sequences varied widely between animals, even though the cattle were of the same age, stage of lactation and fed the same diets. Additionally the twelve animals which were co-habited shared a number of their dominant viral contigs. We compared the functional characteristics of our bovine viromes with that of other viromes, as well as rumen microbiomes. At the functional level, we found strong similarities between all of the viral samples, which were highly distinct from the rumen microbiome samples. Conclusions Our findings suggest a large amount of between animal variation in the bovine rumen virome and that co-habiting animals may have more similar viromes than non co-habited animals. We report the deepest sequencing to date of the rumen virome. This work highlights the enormous amount of novelty and variation present in the rumen virome. PMID:24180266

  15. Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Yu, Dayeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Lim, Dajeong

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. A total of approximately 3.12 and 3.07 billion sequence reads were mapped to the bovine reference sequence assembly (UMD 3.1) at an average of approximately 10.71- and 10.53-fold coverage for Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 17,936,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were yielded, of which 22.3% were found to be novel. By annotating the SNPs, we further retrieved numerous nonsynonymous SNPs that may be associated with traits of interest in cattle. Furthermore, we performed whole-genome screening to detect signatures of selection throughout the genome. We located several promising selective sweeps that are potentially responsible for economically important traits in cattle; the PPP1R12A gene is an example of a gene that potentially affects intramuscular fat content. These discoveries provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds. PMID:26018558

  16. Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.

    1987-09-01

    Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

  17. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter?10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  18. Time trends, environmental factors and genetic basis of semen traits collected in Holstein bulls under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Karoui, Sofiene; Díaz, Clara; Serrano, Magdalena; Cue, Roger; Celorrio, Idoia; Carabaño, María J

    2011-03-01

    The fact that results of artificial insemination (AI) are declining in highly selected dairy cattle populations has added a renewed interest to the evaluation of male fertility. Data from 42,348 ejaculates collected from 1990 to 2007 on 502 Holstein bulls were analysed in a Bayesian framework to provide estimates of the evolution of semen traits routinely collected in AI centres throughout the last decades of intense selection for production traits and estimate genetic parameters. The traits under consideration were volume (VOL), concentration (CONC), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (NESPZ), mass motility score (MM), individual motility (IM), and post-thawing motility (PTM). The environmental factors studied were year-season and week of collection, which account for changes in environmental and technical conditions along time, age at collection, ejaculate order, time from previous collection (TPC) and time between collection and freezing (TCF) (only for PTM). Bull's inbreeding coefficient (Fi), bull's permanent environmental and additive genetic effects were also considered. The use of reduced models was evaluated using the Bayes factor. For all the systematic effects tested, strong or very strong evidence in favour of including the effect in the model was obtained, except for Fi for motility traits and TCF for PTM. No systematic time trends for environment or bull effects were observed, except for PTM, which showed an increasing environmental trend, associated with improvements in freezing-thawing protocols. Heritability estimates were moderate (0.16-0.22), except for IM, which presented a low value (0.07). Genetic correlations among motilities and between motilities and CONC were large and positive [0.38-0.87], VOL showed a negative correlation with CONC (-0.13) but with ample HPD 95%. The magnitude of heritabilities would allow an efficient selection if required and grants the use of these traits as indicators of the sperm viability component of bulls breeding soundness. PMID:21377297

  19. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  20. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  1. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  2. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  3. Bovine Paratuberculosis of Dairy Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.; Jordan, Ellen R.; Stokes, Sandra R.; Magee, Derry D.; Roussel, Allen J.

    1999-03-11

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's (pronounced "Yo-nees) disease, is a chronic intestinal infection of cattle. It is increasingly recognized in both dairy and beef herds. This publication discusses transmission of the bacteria, and control and prevention...

  4. Protecting Cattle from Horn Flies 

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2004-05-24

    Horn flies are the most damaging insect to cattle in Texas. This publication explains biological, cultural and chemical methods of controlling horn flies. Various insecticides used to suppress horn flies are listed...

  5. Bovine Paratuberculosis of Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.; Roussel, Allen J.; Thrift, Todd A.; Gill, Ronald J.; Magee, Derry D.

    2002-02-05

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's (pronounced "Yo-nees) disease, is a chronic intestinal infection of cattle. It is increasingly recognized in both dairy and beef herds. This publication discusses transmission of the bacteria and control and prevention...

  6. Estimating Grazeable Acreage for Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Hohlt, Jason C.; Lyons, Robert K.; Hanselka, C. Wayne; McKown, David

    2009-04-17

    if more palatable grasses are available elsewhere. Like- wise, cattle will not use areas with heavy concentrations of certain perennial weeds such as goldenweed (Isocoma drummondii) and wolfweed (Leucosyris spinosa). The frequency of herbaceous species...

  7. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Determination of Genetic Diversity among Korean Hanwoo Cattle Based on Physical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, T. J.; Lee, S. S.; Yoon, D. H.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, C. D.; Hwang, I. H.; Kim, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Yang, C. G.; Seo, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish genetic criteria for phenotypic characteristics of Hanwoo cattle based on allele frequencies and genetic variance analysis using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genetic diversity among 399 Hanwoo cattle classified according to nose pigmentation and coat color was carried out using 22 microsatellite markers. The results revealed that the INRA035 locus was associated with the highest Fis (0.536). Given that the Fis value for the Hanwoo INRA035 population ranged from 0.533 (white) to 1.000 (white spotted), this finding was consistent with the loci being fixed in Hanwoo cattle. Expected heterozygosities of the Hanwoo groups classified by coat colors and degree of nose pigmentation ranged from 0.689±0.023 (Holstein) to 0.743±0.021 (nose pigmentation level of d). Normal Hanwoo and animals with a mixed white coat showed the closest relationship because the lowest DA value was observed between these groups. However, a pair-wise differentiation test of Fst showed no significant difference among the Hanwoo groups classified by coat color and degree of nose pigmentation (p<0.01). Moreover, results of the neighbor-joining tree based on a DA genetic distance matrix within 399 Hanwoo individuals and principal component analyses confirmed that different groups of cattle with mixed coat color and nose pigmentation formed other specific groups representing Hanwoo genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The results of this study support a relaxation of policies regulating bull selection or animal registration in an effort to minimize financial loss, and could provide basic information that can be used for establishing criteria to classify Hanwoo phenotypes. PMID:25049682

  9. SAMPLING GENE EXPRESSION FROM MAMMARY TISSUES BY EST SEQUENCING OR ORESTES CDNA LIBRARIES FROM HOLSTEIN AND GIR CATTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though more than 230,000 bovine expressed sequence tags (EST) are available in public databases, additional EST are needed. The objective of this study was to generate EST to better characterize the mammary gland transcriptome. Construction of cDNA libraries was performed using the open reading...

  10. Association analysis of bovine bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein gene polymorphisms with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is expressed primarily in bovine neutrophils and epithelial cells and functions as a binding protein of bacterial lipopolysaccharide produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The protein is important in host defense against bacterial infections and may pl...

  11. Short communication: Analysis of genomic predictor population for Holstein dairy cattle in the United States – Effects of sex and age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of females genotyped in the US has increased to 12,650 per month, comprising 74% of the total genotypes received in 2013. Concerns of increased computing time of the ever-growing predictor population set and linkage decay between the ancestral population and the current animals have arise...

  12. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2015-08-01

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152

  13. The Chinese Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostic, N.; Segan, S.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.

  14. ZU CHONGZHI CHINESE CALENDAR

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    : AN OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CALENDARS AND ASTRONOMY UP TO ZU CHONGZHI'S TIME SECTION 4: ASPECTS OF THE DAMING of astronomy are largely ignored outside Asia, partly due to ignorance of the Chinese system of astronomy interest in mathematics and astronomy. His inquiring nature led him to read widely into scientific works

  15. Chinese by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  16. Vietnamese to Chinese Machine Translation via Chinese Character as Pivot

    E-print Network

    Vietnamese to Chinese Machine Translation via Chinese Character as Pivot Hai Zhao1,2 Tianjiao Yin3@gmail.com zhangjingyizz@gmail.com Abstract Using Chinese characters as an intermedi- ate equivalent unit. This strategy is tentatively applied to machine translation between Vietnamese and Chinese. During the semantic

  17. 65School of Chinese Medicine Master of Chinese Medicine (MCM)

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Yiu-ming

    65School of Chinese Medicine Master of Chinese Medicine (MCM) (One-year Full-time or Two-year Part and enhance students' ability in proficiently applying Chinese medicine theories and methods to clinical practice as well as research in and development of Chinese medicine. After taking the programme, students

  18. Genetic regulation of prepartum dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shonka, B N; Tao, S; Dahl, G E; Spurlock, D M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI) in prepartum nonlactating and in lactating Holstein cows. Measurements were recorded on cows from Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Florida (UF) dairy herds. Individual feed intake data were recorded daily at ISU from approximately 30d prepartum through 150d in milk (DIM). Individual intakes from cows at UF were recorded for approximately 42d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum DMI traits were defined as DMI on d -15 (multiparous) or d -8 (primiparous) relative to calving date (DRYDMI), DMI on d -1 before parturition (CALVEDMI), and the negative of the slope of a regression line fitted through the last 14 (multiparous) or 7 (primiparous) days before calving (DEC). Lactation DMI traits were defined as DMI at 30 DIM (DMI30) and 100 DIM (DMI100; ISU data only). The final data set included 245 primiparous and 221 multiparous cows from ISU, and 125 multiparous cows from UF. Heritability estimates were 0.43, 0.64, 0.32, and 0.62 for DRYDMI, CALVEDMI, DEC, and DMI30, respectively. The estimate of heritability for DMI100 (ISU only) was 0.52. The genetic correlation between DRYDMI and DMI30 was 0.97. Thus, DMI prepartum is a moderately heritable trait that is highly correlated with intake during early lactation. Genetic correlations between DEC and DMI during lactation were lower and similar to standard error estimates (-0.24±0.22 for DEC and DMI30 for combined data, and -0.13±0.27 for DEC and DMI100 in ISU data). Thus, selection for altered DMI during lactation may not dramatically affect the depression in intake that occurs before parturition. PMID:26319760

  19. New Florida Cattle Identification Program to Protect Florida's Cattle Industry; Mitigate Spread of Disease

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    New Florida Cattle Identification Program to Protect Florida's Cattle Industry; Mitigate Spread. In the past, Florida cattle have struggled with animal disease outbreaks, such as Brucellosis and Tuberculosis and those diseases, present in other states, still threaten our cattle today. The Florida Department

  20. Metabolic adaptations to heat stress in growing cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M D; Rhoads, R P; Sanders, S R; Duff, G C; Baumgard, L H

    2010-02-01

    To differentiate between the effects of heat stress (HS) and decreased dry matter intake (DMI) on physiological and metabolic variables in growing beef cattle, we conducted an experiment in which a thermoneutral (TN) control group (n=6) was pair fed (PF) to match nutrient intake with heat-stressed Holstein bull calves (n=6). Bulls (4 to 5 mo old, 135 kg body weight [BW]) housed in climate-controlled chambers were subjected to 2 experimental periods (P): (1) TN (18 degrees C to 20 degrees C) and ad libitum intake for 9 d, and (2) HS (cyclical daily temperatures ranging from 29.4 degrees C to 40.0 degrees C) and ad libitum intake or PF (in TN conditions) for 9 d. During each period, blood was collected daily and all calves were subjected to an intravenous insulin tolerance test (ITT) on day 7 and a glucose tolerance test (GTT) on day 8. Heat stress reduced (12%) DMI and by design, PF calves had similar nutrient intake reductions. During P1, BW gain was similar between environments and averaged 1.25 kg/d, and both HS and PF reduced (P<0.01) average daily gain (-0.09 kg/d) during P2. Compared to PF, HS decreased (P<0.05) basal circulating glucose concentrations (7%) and tended (P<0.07) to increase (30%) plasma insulin concentrations, but neither HS nor PF altered plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Although there were no treatment differences in P2, both HS and PF increased (P<0.05) plasma urea nitrogen concentrations (75%) compared with P1. In contrast to P1, both HS and PF had increased (16%) glucose disposal, but compared with PF, HS calves had a greater (67%; P<0.05) insulin response to the GTT. Neither period nor environment acutely affected insulin action, but during P2, calves in both environments tended (P=0.11) to have a blunted overall glucose response to the ITT. Independent of reduced nutrient intake, HS alters post-absorptive carbohydrate (basal and stimulated) metabolism, characterized primarily by increased basal insulin concentrations and insulin response to a GTT. However, HS-induced reduction in feed intake appears to fully explain decreased average daily gain in Holstein bull calves. PMID:19783118

  1. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  5. Genetic Markers for Cattle Industry Liaison Office

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    Genetic Markers for Cattle Industry Liaison Office 121 Research Drive, Suite 501 Saskatoon, SK, S7N in Cattle Breeding (07-022) Background: Increased growth rates are typically associated with higher economic returns to beef producers. Consequently, methods to improve growth rate in cattle are of significant

  6. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  7. The Welfare of Cattle Jeffrey Rushen

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    The Welfare of Cattle Jeffrey Rushen Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri of research into the welfare of dairy, veal and beef cattle. The book provides a thorough and critical review of the most up-to-date research on the welfare of cattle, covering behaviour, nutrition and feeding, housing

  8. Cooperative Extension System Cattle Producer's Library

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    1150-1 Cooperative Extension System Cattle Producer's Library Cow-Calf Section CL1150 efficiency be used when balancing rations for beef cattle. One other ben- efit of the ammoniation process of wintering beef cattle. Those who have wheat or barley straw may find that ammoniation could solve

  9. Cooperative Extension System Cattle Producer's Library

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Cooperative Extension System Cattle Producer's Library Cow-Calf Section CL1100 Cattlemen have to vitamin A for calves or cows, may occur during drought. Even though cattle can store vitamin or the nursing-only calves during a trial period of 107 days. Roger Brownson, Beef Cattle Specialist Montana

  10. Heel Erosion in Dairy Cattle ANIMAL WELFARE

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Heel Erosion in Dairy Cattle ANIMAL WELFARE PROGRAM Heel Erosion in Dairy Cattle Lorna Baird, Luis erosion is a common problem in dairy cattle. An eroded heel provides less shock absorbance and increases erosion is associated with standing in moisture and manure, but little is known about other risk factors

  11. T-Cell and Antibody Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens in Tuberculin Skin-Test-Positive Bos indicus and Bos taurus Cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ameni, Gobena; Cockle, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Higher IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens were observed in Bos taurus (Holsteins) than in Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle which could due to differences in antigen recognition profiles between the two breeds. The present study was conducted to evaluate mycobacterial antigen recognition profiles of the two breeds. Twenty-three mycobacterial antigens were tested on 46 skin test positive (24 Zebu and 22 Holstein) using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and multiple antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Herds from which the study cattle obtained were tested for Fasciola antibody. The T cells from both breeds recognized most of the mycobacterial antigens at lower and comparable frequencies. However, antigens such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv0287, Rv0288, MPB87, Acr-2, Rv3616c, and Rv3879c were recognized at higher frequencies in zebu while higher frequencies of T cell responses were observed to Hsp65 in both breeds. Furthermore, comparable antibody responses were observed in both breeds; MPB83 being the sero-dominant antigen in both breeds. The prevalence of Fasciola antibody was 81% and similar in both breeds. This piece of work could not lead to a definitive conclusion if there are differences in mycobacterial recognition profiles between the two breeds warranting for further similar studies using sound sample size from the two breeds. PMID:22685689

  12. Mango tree pruning hay in substitution of elephant grass in cattle diet.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Fernando Santos; de Souza Wanderley, Carlos Wagner; Neto, Alvaro Santos Lisboa

    2013-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 %) of elephant grass by hay of mango tree pruning (HMTP) on intake and digestibility in cattle and on the in vitro gas production. Moreover, the effect of tannin in HMTP on the gas production and in vitro degradability of the dry matter was evaluated, using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The intake and digestibility were evaluated in a double 4 × 4 square Latin design, using eight Holstein intact bulls. To evaluate the gas production and degradability, in vitro semi-automated gas production technique was used. The substitution of elephant grass by HMTP decreased the intake (P<0.05) and the digestibility (P<0.05) of the nutrients and also the gas production (P<0.05). Furthermore, the utilization of PEG as a tannin-complexing agent increased the gas production and degradability of the HMTP (P<0.05). It was concluded that the high cell wall lignification and the presence of tannin limit the use of HMTP as the only source of roughage in cattle diets. PMID:23212837

  13. Lumpy skin disease of cattle: an emerging problem in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Tageldin, Mohamed Hassan; Wallace, David Brian; Gerdes, Gertruida Hermanna; Putterill, John Fraser; Greyling, Roelf Rudolph; Phosiwa, Maanda Noaxe; Al Busaidy, Rashied Mohammed; Al Ismaaily, Sultan Issa

    2014-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus belonging to the Capripoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. The purpose of this study is to place on record the first confirmation of LSD in the Sultanate. The disease was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy and serum neutralization testing. The epizootic occurred in 2009 involving a large number of animals and covering a wide area including Nezwa, Alqabel, Sohar, Saham and Burimi. Morbidity and mortality rates of 29.7 and 26.3 %, and 13.6 and 15.4 % were observed at Nezwa and Sohar, respectively. The clinical signs were much more severe in Holstein-Friesian cattle compared to indigenous breeds and were characterized by multiple skin nodules covering the neck, back, perineum, tail, limbs and genital organs. Affected animals also exhibited lameness, emaciation and cessation of milk production. Oedema of limbs and brisket, and superficial lymph node enlargement were highly prominent. It is not known from where the virus originated, or how it spread to the Sultanate. The disease has become endemic in the country and is liable to extend to other Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and cause a pandemic. It is of major concern to the Omani dairy industry. Due to the widespread presence of screw worm, serious economic losses can follow outbreaks. PMID:24097247

  14. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although absolute rates of CH4 emissions (g/day) were lower from cattle grazing UG than LG, cattle grazing UG would be expected to take longer to reach an acceptable finishing weight, thereby potentially off-setting this apparent advantage. Methane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

  15. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-12-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  16. USE OF CUBIC SPLINES FOR ESTIMATING LACTATION CURVES OF HOLSTEIN COWS TREATED WITH BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cubic splines can be used to model fixed and random effects of lactation curves. A total of 64,138 test-day observations for first lactation Holstein cows recorded as treated with bovine somatotropin (bST) and 138,008 test-day observations for untreated cows were obtained from Dairy Records Manageme...

  17. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  18. Endoscopic removal of esophageal and ruminal foreign bodies in 5 Holstein calves

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Cribb, Nicola C.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Nichols, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic removal of esophageal and ruminal foreign bodies was successfully performed in 5 Holstein-Friesian calves under sedation or general anesthesia by using an electrocautery snare or a wire-guided Dormi basket. This report describes the endoscopic manipulations, treatment, and outcomes of esophageal foreign body removal in these calves. PMID:25320385

  19. EFFECT OF RUMINALLY DEGRADED PROTEIN SOURCE ON NITROGEN METABOLISM IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of ruminally degraded protein (RPD) source on microbial protein flow measured in the reticulum and duodenum using 15N and in milk, urine and blood using allantoin. Eight early lactation Holstein cows were arranged in a repeated 4x4 Latin square design balanc...

  20. Phase separation in the combined Falicov-Kimball and static Holstein model B. M. Letfulov

    E-print Network

    Freericks, Jim

    Phase separation in the combined Falicov-Kimball and static Holstein model B. M. Letfulov Institute The Falicov-Kimball model has been known to phase separate when the correlation strength is large and the temperature is low. We examine the stability of phase separation under the influence of an additional electron

  1. Metritis causes long term decreases in the milk production of multiparous Holstein dairy cows

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Metritis causes long term decreases in the milk production of multiparous Holstein dairy cows Julie lactation. Although metritis is known to reduce milk production during the disease, no work to date has milk yields in dairy. Methodology: · Milk production and metritis data were compiled from two

  2. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  3. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  4. EFFECT OF MASTITIS AND POSTPARTUM METABOLIC DISEASES ON LACTATION PERSISTENCY OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) and post-partum metabolic disease (PPMD) on persistency of milk yield (P) in Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) cows. Data consisted of daily milk yields and health events for 59 H and 27 J calving between July, 2004 and ...

  5. GENETIC EVALUATION OF STILLBIRTH IN UNITED STATES HOLSTEINS USING A SIRE-MATERNAL GRANDSIRE THRESHOLD MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sire-maternal grandsire (MGS) threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Holsteins. Data consisted of almost 7.5 million records, and over 41,000 AI bulls received evaluations. The model included effects of herd-year, year-season, parity-sex, sire, birth year group of sire...

  6. Rumination behavior and its relationship to feeding behavior in Holstein dairy cows prepartum

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Rumination behavior and its relationship to feeding behavior in Holstein dairy cows prepartum K. To describe the diurnal pattern of times spent ruminating in prepartum dairy cows. 2. To determine the association between rumination time and DMI and lying time. Methodology: Rumination, DMI and lying time of 42

  7. Portomesenteric venous gas in a 2-week-old Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Gaelle; Silva, Goncalo; zur Linden, Alex; Needham, Hank; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    A 2-week-old Holstein Friesian female calf was presented with profuse diarrhea and abdominal distension. Clinicopathological findings included marked hypoproteinemia, hypoglycemia and leucopenia, mild hyperlactatemia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. On abdominal ultrasonography, features were consistent with portomesenteric venous gas (PVG), a rare condition reported in the medical literature. The PVG in this calf was associated with severe gastrointestinal illness and sepsis. PMID:24155417

  8. NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION AND ENERGY STATUS IN HOLSTEIN COWS WITH UTERINE HEALTH DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected w...

  9. GENETIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MATURITY RATES OF DAUGHTERS OF HOLSTEIN BULLS IN THE NETHERLANDS AND UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity rate of Holstein bull daughters in the Netherlands and United States were compared by examining sire predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for milk yield for each of the first 3 parities. For each bull with US daughters, PTA that included data from parity 1 (PTA1), parities 1 and 2, and pa...

  10. GENETIC EVALUATION OF STILLBIRTH IN UNITED STATES HOLSTEINS USING A SIRE-MATERNAL GRANDSIRE THRESHOLD MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sire-maternal grandsire threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in U.S. Holsteins. Calving ease and stillbirth records for herds reporting at least 10 dead calves were extracted from the AIPL database. About half of the 14 million calving ease records in the database have a k...

  11. Dissection of genomic correlation matrices of US Holsteins using multivariate factor analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim of the study was to compare correlation matrices between direct genomic predictions for 31 production, fitness and conformation traits both at genomic and chromosomal level in US Holstein bulls. Multivariate factor analysis was used to quantify basic features of correlation matrices. Factor extr...

  12. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been blamed for ... possible that some people are particularly sensitive to food additives. MSG is chemically similar to one of the ...

  13. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  14. Control of paratuberculosis in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Allen J

    2011-11-01

    As with any susceptible livestock species, the key to control of paratuberculosis in beef cattle is to reduce exposure of the susceptible calves to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)–contaminated feces. Because beef calves remain with mature, potentially shedding cattle until weaning, control strategies are aimed at providing an environment with the least possible fecal burden and removing MAP shedders as soon as possible. Testing and culling or separation may be more important in beef cattle than in dairy cattle. Seedstock owners have greater potential for economic loss from paratuberculosis, making control program more financially attractive to them than to commercial beef cattle producers. PMID:22023837

  15. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations. PMID:25384155

  16. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  17. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  18. Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange.

    PubMed

    Sarre, Charlotte; González-Hernández, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Grit, Rika; Grauwet, Korneel; Van Meulder, Frederik; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Geldhof, Peter; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, is a major problem in the beef cattle industry, especially in Belgian Blue (BB) cattle. This breed is naturally more predisposed to psoroptic mange but reasons for this high susceptibility remain unknown. Different immune responses could be a potential cause; thus in this study, the cutaneous immune response and in vitro cellular immune response after antigen re-stimulation were examined in naturally infested BB. Cytokine production in the skin and in circulating re-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) demonstrated a mixed pro-inflammatory Th2/Th17 profile, with transcription of IL-4, IL-13, IL-6 and IL-17. Strong IL-17 up-regulation in the skin of BB was associated with an influx of eosinophils and other immune cells, potentially leading towards more severe symptoms. Virtually no changes in cutaneous IFN-? transcription were detected, while there was substantial IFN-? up-regulation in re-stimulated PBMC from infested and uninfested animals, potentially indicating a role of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in the innate immune response. In Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, generally more resistant to P. ovis infection, a largely similar immunologic response was observed. Differences between HF and BB were the lack of cutaneous IL-17 response in infested HF and low transcription levels of IFN-? and high IL-10 transcription in re-stimulated PBMC from both infested and uninfested animals. Further research is needed to identify potential cell sources and biological functions for these cytokines and to fully unravel the basis of this different breed susceptibility to P. ovis. PMID:26582546

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n?=?677) and Holstein × Jersey (n?=?264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p?

  20. Lumpy skin disease: preliminary vaccine efficacy assessment and overview on outbreak impact in dairy cattle at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, Gelagay; Abate, Yebeyen; Sisay, Tesfaye; Nigussie, Haileleul; Gelaye, Esayas; Jemberie, Shiferaw; Asmare, Kassahun

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted in and around Debre Zeit town to assess the field efficacy of LSD vaccine in use and overview associated disease impact. The study comprised cross-sectional and retrospective study design which employed active disease follow-up, semi-structured questionnaire survey and molecular techniques. The finding revealed that the Kenyan sheep pox vaccine strain used for the control of LSD did not confer expected protection. From the total of 476 animals observed, 22.9% and 2.31% cattle were found sick and dead due to LSD, respectively. Breed specific morbidity rate was 22.5% in Holstein Friesian-zebu cross and 25.9% in local zebu breed. The disease was observed to be more serious in young animals and also in females. A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development. PMID:23428671

  1. Embryonic and early foetal losses in cattle and other ruminants.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Morris, D G

    2008-07-01

    Embryo survival is a major factor affecting production and economic efficiency in all systems of ruminant milk and meat production. For heifers, beef and moderate yielding dairy cows, does and camelids it appears that fertilization generally lies between 90% and 100%. In high-producing dairy cows there is a less substantive body of literature, but it would appear that it is somewhat lower and perhaps more variable. In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs before day 16 following breeding with some evidence of greater losses before day 8 in high-producing dairy cows. In cattle late embryo loss, while numerically much smaller than early embryo mortality loss, nevertheless, causes serious economic losses to producers because it is often too late to rebreed females when they repeat. In multiple ovulating small ruminants, the loss rate is positively related to ovulation rate. Systemic concentrations of progesterone, during both the cycle preceding and following insemination, affect embryo survival rate with evidence that too high or indeed too low a concentration being negatively associated with survival rate. Uterine expression of mRNA for progesterone receptor, oestradiol receptor and retinol-binding protein appears to be sensitive to changes in peripheral concentrations of progesterone during the first week after artificial insemination. Energy balance and dry matter intake during 4 weeks after calving are critically important in determining conception rate when cows are inseminated at 70-100 days post-calving. Concentrate supplementation of cows at pasture during the breeding period has minimal effects on conception rates though sudden reductions in dietary intake should be avoided. For all systems of milk production, more balanced breeding strategies with greater emphasis on fertility and feed intake and/or energy balance must be developed. There is sufficient genetic variability within the Holstein breed for fertility traits. Alternative dairy breeds such as the Jersey or Norwegian Red could also be utilized. Genomic technology will not only provide scientists with an improved understanding of the underlying biological processes involved in fertilization and the establishment of pregnancy, but also, in the future, identify genes responsible for improved embryo survival. Its incorporation into breeding objectives would increase the rate of genetic progress for embryo survival. PMID:18638133

  2. UF Beef Cattle Economics Webinar Series Southeast beef cattle producers are encouraged to tune-in to the upcoming

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    UF Beef Cattle Economics Webinar Series Southeast beef cattle producers are encouraged to tune-in to the upcoming UF Beef Cattle Economics Webinar Series. The event is hosted by the Range Cattle Research ways to increase your herd's production, performance, and profitability. Cattle producers saw record

  3. Vulnerability in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows : risk factors for culling and effect of temperament on oestrus 

    E-print Network

    Chiumia, Daniel

    2011-11-25

    The general aims of the work were to determine the factors associated with vulnerability in Holstein- Friesian dairy cows in two scenarios: A) culling and B) the effect of temperament on days to first recorded oestrus ...

  4. Effect of summer conditions and shade on the production and metabolism of Holstein dairy cows on pasture in temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Moons, C P H; Vandaele, L

    2015-09-01

    For dairy cattle on pasture in temperate regions, it is largely unknown to what degree hot summer conditions impact energy metabolism, milk yield and milk composition and how effective shade is in reducing these negative effects. During the summer of 2012, a herd of Holstein cows was kept on pasture without access to shade (treatment NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013, the herd was divided into a group with (treatment S) and a group without (treatment NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees combined with shade cloths (80% reduction in solar radiation). A weather station registered the local climatic conditions on open pasture, from which we calculated daily average Heat Load Index (HLI) values. The effects of HLI and shade on rectal temperature (RT), blood plasma indicators of hyperventilation and metabolic changes due to heat stress, milk yield and milk composition were investigated. RT increased with increasing HLI, but was less for S cows than for NS cows (by 0.02°C and 0.03°C increase per unit increase of HLI, respectively). Hyperchloraemia (an increased blood plasma concentration of Cl-), a sign of hyperventilation, increased for NS cows but not for S cows. The plasma concentration of alkaline phosphatase, a regulator of energy metabolism in the liver, decreased with increasing HLI for NS cows only. Access to shade, thus, reduced the effect of HLI on RT, hyperchloraemia and the regulation of metabolism by the liver. As HLI increased, the plasma concentration of cholesterol decreased (indicating increased lipolysis) and the plasma concentration of creatinine increased (indicating increased protein catabolism). These effects did not differ between S and NS cows. For NS cows, after a lag-time of 2 days, the milk yield decreased with increasing HLI. For S cows, the milk yield was unaffected by HLI and its quadratic factor. The milk concentrations of lactose, protein and fat decreased as HLI increased, but only the effect on milk protein content was remediated by shade. In conclusion, access to shade tempered the negative effects of high HLI on RT, hyperchloraemia and a blood plasma indicator of changing energy metabolism (generally) as well as prevented the decrease in milk yield observed in cows without access to shade. PMID:25998858

  5. Differential response to stocking rates and feeding by two genotypes of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Nieman, C C; Steensma, K M; Rowntree, J E; Beede, D K; Utsumi, S A

    2015-12-01

    The throughput of automatic milking systems (AMS) is likely affected by differential traffic behavior and subsequent effects on the milking frequency and milk production of cows. This study investigated the effect of increasing stocking rate and partial mixed ration (PMR) on the milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and use of AMS by two genotypes of Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-lactation. The study lasted 8 weeks and consisted in a factorial arrangement of two genotypes of dairy cattle, United States Holstein (USH) or New Zealand Friesian (NZF), and two pasture-based feeding treatments, a low stocking rate system (2 cows/ha) fed temperate pasture and concentrate, or a high stocking rate system (HSR; 3 cows/ha) fed same pasture and concentrate plus PMR. A total of 28 cows, 14 USH and 14 NZF, were used for comparisons, with 12 cows, six USH and six NZF, also used for tracking of animal movements. Data were analyzed by repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design. No differences (P>0.05) in pre- or post-grazing herbage mass, DMI and FCE were detected in response to increases in stocking rate and PMR feeding in HSR. However, there was a significant (P<0.05) grazing treatment×genotype×week interaction on milk production, explained by differential responses of genotypes to changes in herbage mass over time (P<0.001). A reduction (P<0.01) in hours spent on pasture was detected in response to PMR supplementation in HSR; this reduction was greater (P=0.01) for USH than NZF cows (6 v. 2 h, respectively). Regardless of the grazing treatment, USH cows had greater (P=0.02) milking frequency (2.51 v. 2.26±0.08 milkings/day) and greater (P<0.01) milk yield (27.3 v. 16.0±1.2 kg/day), energy-corrected milk (24.8 v. 16.5±1.0 kg/day), DMI (22.1 v. 16.6±0.8 kg/day) and FCE (1.25 v. 1.01±0.06 kg/kg) than NZF cows. There was also a different distribution of milkings/h between genotypes (P<0.001), with patterns of milkings/h shifting (P<0.001) as a consequence of PMR feeding in HSR. Results confirmed the improved FCE of grazing dairy cows with greater milk production and suggested the potential use of PMR feeding as a tactical decision to managing HSR and milkings/day in AMS farms. PMID:26343791

  6. Short communication: Reference limits for blood analytes in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows: Effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Lora, I; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F

    2015-11-01

    Reference limits for metabolic profiles in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows were determined considering the effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season. Blood samples were collected from 104 pregnant heifers and 186 dry cows (68 primiparous and 118 pluriparous) from 60 to 10 d before the expected calving date in 31 dairy farms in northeastern Italy. Sampling was performed during summer (182 samples) and the following winter (108 samples). All the animals were judged as clinically healthy at a veterinary visit before sampling. Outliers were removed from data of each blood analyte, and variables that were not normally distributed were log transformed. A mixed model was used to test the fixed effects of parity (late-pregnant heifers, primiparous or pluriparous dry cows), class of days relative to calving (60-41 d, 40-21 d, 20-10 d), season (summer or winter), and the interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season, with farm as random effect. Single general reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for analytes that did not vary according to fixed effects. Whenever a fixed effect included in the model significantly affected a given analyte, specific reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for each of its levels. Albumin, urea, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, conjugated bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, chloride, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were not influenced by any of the fixed effects. Total protein, globulins, creatinine, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium plasma concentrations were affected by parity. The class of days relative to calving had a significant effect on the concentrations of total protein, globulins, fatty acids, cholesterol, total bilirubin, and sodium. Season affected plasma concentrations of creatinine, glucose, fatty acids, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium. Interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season did not significantly affect any of the blood analytes tested. The reference limits and the 95% confidence intervals for blood analytes determined in the study could help dairy practitioners to improve the accuracy of metabolic profile interpretation in Holstein late-pregnant cattle. PMID:26364112

  7. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  8. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  9. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  10. 9 CFR 72.2 - Restrictions on movement of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Restrictions on movement of cattle. 72.2 Section 72.2 Animals...72.2 Restrictions on movement of cattle. Notice is hereby given that the...redwater, or splenetic, southern, cattle, Texas or tick fever exists...

  11. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella in feedlot cattle 

    E-print Network

    Hudnall, Jennifer Ann

    2002-01-01

    -resistant Salmonella within feedlot cattle, sampling the cattle and their environment, including soil, feed, water, and fecal pats. Samples were collected from an available feedlot that does not administer antibiotic-supplemented feed or growth promoters to its cattle...

  13. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

  14. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

  15. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  16. Segmenter for Chinese Kalle Beneus

    E-print Network

    Segmenter for Chinese Kalle Ben´eus Department of Computer Science Lund University, Sweden d04kb This article examines different methods of word segmentation for Chinese. First we look at some of Chinese. This includes studying their effectiveness in simple implementa- tions as well as looking

  17. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  18. Chinese American Experience: San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit encourages students to explore the history and current situation of Chinese Americans. Organized around five lesson plans, the unit's first lesson begins with the students' own perceptions of Chinese Americans, followed by a quiz that provides relevant background information. The second lesson examines the general history of Chinese

  19. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  20. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X?XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  1. The g.841G>C SNP of FASN gene is associated with fatty acid composition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kiri; Sakamoto, Takayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Yamaji, Keita; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Sasago, Nanae; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Maruyama, Shin; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study is to evaluate the association between fatty acid composition and fatty acid synthase gene polymorphisms as responsible mutations. For this purpose, we selected seven previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FASN gene, including one within promoter region (g.841G>C) and six non-synonymous SNPs (g.8805C>T, g.13126C>T, g.15532A>C, g.16024A>G, g.16039C>T, g.17924A>G), and genotyped them in Japanese Black cattle. Genotyping results revealed that g.8805 C>T and g.17924 A>G were monomorphic loci. Genome-wide association analysis including the other five SNPs revealed that only g.841G>C showed significant associations with the percentages of C14:0, C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1 at 5% genome-wide significance level. In order to further evaluate the effect, we genotyped g.841G>C using additional three populations, including two Japanese Black populations and a Holstein cattle population. g.16024A>G was also genotyped and included in the analysis because it has been reported to be associated with fatty acid composition in Japanese Black cattle. In the result of analysis of variance, g.841G>C showed stronger effects on fatty acid percentage than those of g.16024A>G in all populations. These results suggested that g.841G>C would be a responsible mutation for fatty acid composition and contribute to production of high-grade beef as a selection marker in beef cattle. PMID:25597874

  2. Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size in Four South African Sanga Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Makina, Sithembile O.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; van Marle-Köster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; Makgahlela, Mahlako L.; MacNeil, Michael D.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne) for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), and Bonsmara breeds (n = 46), using Angus (n = 31) and Holstein (n = 29) as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40–60 kb in Angus (0.21) and Holstein (0.21) and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20). This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2? 0.20 would require about 30,000–50,000 SNPs. However, r2? 0.20 extended only up to 10–20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20–40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for GWAS in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne = 95 (Nguni), Ne = 87 (Drakensberger), Ne = 77 (Bonsmara), and Ne = 41 (Afrikaner). Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa. PMID:26648975

  3. Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, N. E.

    2005-05-01

    As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

  4. Management Controls for Ranches Producing Breeding Cattle

    E-print Network

    Maddox, L. A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    PRODUCING FOR BREEDING CATTLE [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] MANAGEMENT CONTROLS FOR RANCHES PRODUCING BREEDING CATTLE L. A. Maddox, Jr.* The production and marketing of breeding cat- tle continues to increase in sophistication whether... is the bull (or bulls) introduced into the breeding herd. The bull introduces half the genetic material of all the calves he sires. Problems confronting beef cattle breeders include: (1) knowing the qualities of a good bull and how to recognize...

  5. Clinical coccidiosis in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara Reddy, B; Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C

    2015-09-01

    Coccidiosis is caused by the protozoan parasite belongs to the genous Eimeria spp. which parasitizes the epithelium lining of the alimentary tract. Infection damages the lining of the gut causing diarrhoea and possibly dysentery. Coccidiosis is primarily a disease of young animals but can affect older animals that are in poor condition. In a farm, seven adult cattle had foul smell bloody diarrhoea, anorexia, emaciation condition, smudging of the perineum and tail with blood stained dung. Laboratory examinations of the dung samples revealed the presence of coccidian oocysts. Animals were treated with 33.33 % (w/v) sulphadimidine, along with supportive and fluid therapy. After completion of 1 week of therapy all the affected cattle were recovered from the diarrhoea. PMID:26345070

  6. Being Chinese or Being Different: Chinese Undergraduates' Use of Discourses of Chineseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Myths about "the Chinese learner" developed from an outsider perspective abound in the Western world. The focus of this article, however, is how discourses of Chineseness were used by the Chinese international students themselves who, as undergraduate students in a New Zealand university, were the subjects of my doctoral research. It…

  7. Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    McCollum III, Ted

    1997-11-03

    and replacement heifers are gaining weight too slowly. Forage availability is not lim- iting intake, but its quality (in many instances, its protein con- tent) is limiting intake, and pos- sibly forage digestion. As a result, daily energy and protein intake... for each is different. Forage intake and diet crude protein Ruminal requirements Microbial fermentation in the rumen supplies most of the energy and protein metabolized by cattle. As in the host animal, microbes in the rumen require a balanced supply...

  8. Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

    1977-03-01

    Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

  9. Properties of a localized magnetic impurity in a superconducting host: The Anderson-Holstein-BCS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha Raju, Ch.; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    A symmetric Anderson-Holstein model with a BCS interaction term is considered to investigate the effect of local electron-phonon interaction on a magnetic impurity in a superconductor. The Kikuchi-Morita Cluster variation (CV) method is used to calculate the local impurity magnetic moment and the binding energy between the impurity and the conduction electrons in the superconductor. The effect of electron-phonon interaction and the order parameter on the bound state is discussed.

  10. Artificial insemination of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L E

    1976-12-01

    A system for the artificial insemination fo beef cattle was described. The system involved preparation of the cattle and facilities, visual oestrous detection twice a day, drafting each morning and insemination of oestrous cows twice a day. The AI program was evaluated during the course of the program and at pregnancy test 35 to 90 days after the end of the insemination period. The insemination period was from 25 to 60 days depending on efficiency, with programs from 25 to 35 days being favoured. Results for 12218 first inseminations (65.9%) and 2222 second inseminations (57.8%) in 56 AI programs compared favourably with results in dairy AI. Pregnancy rates in lactating cows (70.5%) were significantly higher than in nonlactating cows and heifers (66.1%). Overall efficiency of well-managed AI programs were represented by 63% of cows put into a program becoming pregnant in a 29-day insemination period. Seventy-two per cent of the cows put into the program were inseminated yielding an 88% pregnancy rate. The efficiency of visual oestrous detection was 95% but this estimate did not include false positives. Efficiency of AI programs were effected by management, nutrition, infection, inseminators, facilities and the origin and type of cattle put into a program. Environmental factors such as handling, stress and thunderstorms did not effect efficiency except via a nutritional effect. PMID:1021111

  11. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

  12. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

  13. Chinese Students Association 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    to open-market situations, the resulting changes in China’s spending habits will drive trends towards an overall saving rate level that is more similar to that of Western countries. For decades, Chinese citizens have been exposed to luxury products...

  14. The Imperative in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  15. The Ugly Chinese

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-01-24

    , and no removing your shoes on an airplane. Rules of etiquette are often culture specific but at least one of the Chinese caveats cuts across cultural borders: no shouting into your cell phone. Hear that USA?#ceas #china #hacker #tsutsui...

  16. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  17. Chinese Ring Puzzle The nine linked rings, which is also called Chinese rings, is perhaps Chinese greatest mechani-

    E-print Network

    Capogna, Luca

    Chinese Ring Puzzle The nine linked rings, which is also called Chinese rings, is perhaps Chinese Quantitatis, written around 1500. #12;Solving the Chinese Ring A procedure for solving the nine linked rings directions and begin undoing the steps you've already completed. Good luck! #12;Further Study: Chinese Ring

  18. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  19. Symmetry in Chinese Arts Yip Lixia, Sabrina

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    Symmetry in Chinese Arts Done by: Group 3 Lim Li Yan Yip Lixia, Sabrina Lee Weitian, Ivan Zhong Shengmin Goh Yoon Keong 1 #12;2 CONTENTS · Introduction · Symmetry in Chinese Literature · Chinese Paper Cuttings · Symmetry in Chinese buildings · Chinese Music · Conclusion · Bibliography #12;3 Introduction

  20. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  1. ROLE OF EHEC IN CATTLE AND HUMANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are important reservoirs of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), foodborne pathogens that cause severe diarrhea and sometimes kidney failure and death in humans. Our goal is to develop an effective vaccine to prevent cattle from beco...

  2. Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

  3. Using a Slide in Beef Cattle Marketing 

    E-print Network

    Machen, Richard V.; Gill, Ronald J.

    1998-08-21

    .15/cwt = $488.36 L-5063 8-98 Using a Slide in Beef Cattle Marketing Rick Machen and Ronald Gill* *Extension Livestock Specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Down Slide A down slide is exercised when the delivered weight of the cattle is less than...

  4. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  5. Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  6. Livestock Risk Protection Insurance for Fed Cattle

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    NebGuidediscussestheuseofLivestockRisk Protection (LRP) Insurance as a price risk tool for fed cattle producers. The USDA's Risk Management Agency throughalicensedlivestockinsuranceagentandallowproduc- ers to protect against the risk of national prices falling below an established coverage price. Produc- ers may insure between 1 to 2,000 head of fed cattle per SEC. From July 1 to June 30 each year

  7. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  8. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  9. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  10. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  11. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  12. Highly Divergent Hepaciviruses from African Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Grundhoff, Adam; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Gmyl, Anatoly; Wollny, Robert; Dei, Dickson; Ritz, Daniel; Binger, Tabea; Adankwah, Ernest; Marfo, Kwadwo Sarfo; Annison, Lawrence; Annan, Augustina; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Becher, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus (HCV; genus Hepacivirus) is a highly relevant human pathogen. Unique hepaciviruses (HV) were discovered recently in animal hosts. The direct ancestor of HCV has not been found, but the genetically most closely related animal HVs exist in horses. To investigate whether other peridomestic animals also carry HVs, we analyzed sera from Ghanaian cattle for HVs by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Nine of 106 specimens from different sampling sites contained HV RNA (8.5%) at median viral loads of 1.6 × 105 copies/ml. Infection seemed unrelated to cattle age and gender. Near-full-genome sequencing of five representative viruses confirmed taxonomic classifications. Cattle HVs formed two distinct phylogenetic lineages that differed by up to 17.7% on the nucleotide level in the polyprotein-encoding region, suggesting cocirculation of different virus subtypes. A conserved microRNA122-binding site in the 5? internal ribosomal entry site suggested liver tropism of cattle HVs. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the circulation of HVs in cattle for several centuries. Cattle HVs were genetically highly divergent from all other HVs, including HCV. HVs from genetically related equine and bovine hosts were not monophyletic, corroborating host shifts during the evolution of the genus Hepacivirus. Similar to equine HVs, the genetic diversity of cattle HVs was low compared to that of HCV genotypes. This suggests an influence of the human-modified ecology of peridomestic animals on virus diversity. Further studies should investigate the occurrence of cattle HVs in other geographic areas and breeds, virus pathogenicity in cattle, and the potential exposure of human risk groups, such as farmers, butchers, and abattoir workers. IMPORTANCE HCV (genus Hepacivirus) is a major human pathogen, causing liver failure and cancer. Unique hepaciviruses (HVs) were discovered over the last few years in animals, but the direct ancestor of HCV has not been found. The animal HV most closely related to HCV so far originated from horses, suggesting that other livestock animals also harbor HVs. Therefore, we investigated African cattle and discovered previously unknown HVs at high prevalence and viral loads. Because of the agricultural importance of cattle, it may be relevant to investigate HV pathogenicity. The frequent exposure of humans to cattle also may warrant investigations of the zoonotic potential of these viruses. Evolutionary analyses suggested that cattle HVs have existed for centuries. Despite the genetic relatedness of their animal hosts, HVs from cattle and horses were not phylogenetically related, corroborating frequent host shifts during the evolution of the genus Hepacivirus. PMID:25787289

  13. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of ?13C and ?D of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted ?13CH4, ?13CO2, and ?D-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of ?D-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in ?13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in ?13C between emitted gases and diet. The average ?13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of ?D-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These ?D measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

  14. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    PubMed

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. PMID:25676210

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid constituents collected at the atlanto-occipital site of xylazine hydrochloride sedated, healthy 8-week-old Holstein calves.

    PubMed Central

    St Jean, G; Yvorchuk-St Jean, K; Anderson, D E; Moore, W E

    1997-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at the atlanto-occipital site and serum were obtained from 10 male, 8-week-old, Holstein calves after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Glucose, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Optical characteristics, specific gravity, total red blood cell and nucleated cell counts and differentials were also evaluated in the CSF. Additionally, CSF protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations were determined. Then, albumin quotients (AQ) were derived. Erythrocytes were observed in 9 of 10 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0-10 cells x 10(6)/L with a mean of 3 cells x 10(6)/L. Differential nucleated cell count in the CSF consisted primarily of lymphocytes/small mononuclear cells (57%), fewer monocytes/ large mononuclear cells (38%), and scant neutrophils (4%) and eosinophils (0.05%). The concentration of sodium (134 to 139 mEq/L) was similar to that of serum, but the concentration of potassium (2.8 to 3 mEq/L) was lower than that of serum. Creatine kinase activity (0 to 4 U/L) of CSF was markedly lower than serum activity. The CSF glucose concentration was approximately 80% of the serum value. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentration determined by electrophoresis ranged from 110 to 330 mg/L with a mean of 159 mg/L. Cerebrospinal fluid albumin ranged from 48 to 209 mg/L with a mean of 86 mg/L. In all CSF samples, radial immunodiffusion of unaltered CSF and concentrated CSF (four-fold concentration) revealed quantities undetectable by the present techniques in which the lowest standard values for IgG1, IgG, and IgM determinations was 70 mg/L and IgG2 was 30 mg/L. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.15 to 0.65 with a mean of 0.25. Based on the results of this study, CSF may be collected at the atlanto-occipital site safely and efficiently in calves, and reported values for CSF from adult cattle may not be suitable for evaluation of CSF collected from immature cattle. PMID:9114961

  16. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other...) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, all cattle intended for importation from...

  17. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other...) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, all cattle intended for importation from...

  18. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  19. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  20. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  1. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  2. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  3. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  4. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  5. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  6. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  7. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other...) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, all cattle intended for importation from...

  8. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  9. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  10. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  11. Range Cattle Research & Education Center FIELD DAYOctober 1, 2013

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Range Cattle Research & Education Center FIELD DAYOctober 1, 2013 Forage and Cattle #12;RCREC Field and Center Director, Range Cattle Research and Education Center 10:15 AM Opening Remarks Henry Kempfer, Kempfer Cattle Company and PresidentElect, Florida Cattlemen's Association 10:30 AM Cogongrass

  12. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  13. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  14. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  15. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other...) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, all cattle intended for importation from...

  16. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  17. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  18. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  19. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  20. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    E-print Network

    Hillis, David

    New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events Emily Jane Mc December 17, 2012) Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European

  1. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other...) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, all cattle intended for importation from...

  2. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (1) Cattle from Canada from a herd in which any cattle have been determined to have tuberculosis... from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The date and place the cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were found negative for tuberculosis on such test; and that such test was...

  3. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (1) Cattle from Canada from a herd in which any cattle have been determined to have tuberculosis... from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The date and place the cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were found negative for tuberculosis on such test; and that such test was...

  4. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (1) Cattle from Canada from a herd in which any cattle have been determined to have tuberculosis... from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The date and place the cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were found negative for tuberculosis on such test; and that such test was...

  5. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (1) Cattle from Canada from a herd in which any cattle have been determined to have tuberculosis... from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The date and place the cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were found negative for tuberculosis on such test; and that such test was...

  6. Managing Beef Cattle for Show 

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.

    2001-11-16

    buffer all the time may decrease feed intake (because it is not palatable) and can increase the incidence of urinary calculi. Levels of 1 to 3 ounces per head per day of sodium bicarbonate for cattle weighing from 500 to 1,200 pounds, respectively... and condition increase. 10 Glossary Terms Sodium bicarbonate: A compound that can be administered intravenously or as a drench to teat acidosis, or fed in small amounts as a preventive treatment Urinary calculi: A disease in which mineral deposits crystalize...

  7. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  8. Midwest Area Chinese American Resources Guide

    E-print Network

    Chinese American Librarians Association - Midwest Chapter; Wu, Pei-ling; McElroy, Anna; Chang, Ling-li; Sanders, R. Bruce; Lin, Shao-Chen

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Midwest Area Chinese American Resources Guide is to promote multicultural understanding of Chinese Americans and to provide easy access to the Chinese American communities in the Midwest. This 1995 edition is a complete revision...

  9. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  10. Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Cancer.gov

    The current research project continues support for a residential cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older (45 to 74 years of age) Singapore Chinese men and women accrued between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, each study participant was interviewed in person by a trained interviewer using a structured questionnaire that emphasized current diet assessed via a validated, 165-item food frequency questionnaire.

  11. Scope processing in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Gao, Liqun

    2009-02-01

    The standard view maintains that quantifier scope interpretation results from an interaction between different modules: the syntax, the semantics as well as the pragmatics. Thus, by examining the mechanism of quantifier scope interpretation, we will certainly gain some insight into how these different modules interact with one another. To observe it, two experiments, an offline judgment task and an eye-tracking experiment, were conducted to investigate the interpretation of doubly quantified sentences in Chinese, like Mei-ge qiangdao dou qiang-le yi-ge yinhang (Every robber robbed a bank). According to current literature, doubly quantified sentences in Chinese like the above are unambiguous, which can only be interpreted as "for every robber x, there is a bank y, such that x robbed y"(surface scope reading), contrary to their ambiguous English counterparts, which also allow the interpretation that "there is a bank y, such that for every robber x, x robbed y"(inverse scope reading). Specifically, three questions were examined, that is, (i) What is the initial reading of doubly quantified sentences in Chinese? (ii) Whether inverse scope interpretation can be available if appropriate contexts are provided? (iii) What are the processing time courses engaged in quantifier scope interpretation? The results showed that (i) Initially, the language processor computes the surface scope representation and the inverse scope representation in parallel, thus, doubly quantified sentences in Chinese are ambiguous; (ii) The discourse information is not employed in initial processing of relative scope, it serves to evaluate the two representations in reanalysis; (iii) The lexical information of verbs affects their scope-taking patterns. We suggest that these findings provide evidence for the Modular Model, one of the major contenders in the literature on sentence processing. PMID:18521750

  12. Chinese Hypertension Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    According to the 4th National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002, the prevalence of hypertension in China was 18.8%. Although there are no recent updated nationwide data, it is believed that the prevalence of hypertension has increased substantially in the past decade up to more than 200 million hypertensive patients in the populous country of China. To fight against the growing risk of hypertension, three Chinese hypertension guidelines were compiled in the past two decades, in 1999, 2005, and 2011. The current guidance document for the management of hypertension was named ‘2010 Chinese hypertension guideline’, but it was actually published in 2011. In this guideline, all five classes of antihypertensive drugs were recommended as possible initial and maintenance therapy. The goal of treatment was a systolic/diastolic blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg in general, 130/80 mm Hg in various groups of high-risk patients, and 150/90 mm Hg in the elderly (?65 years). With the recent publication of several national and international hypertension guidelines, the Chinese guideline is now under discussion for updating.

  13. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4) Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard; Hardt, Michael; Scheuermann, Petra; Freick, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA) and 289 White Galloway (WGA) cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed. PMID:26076463

  14. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4) Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard; Hardt, Michael; Scheuermann, Petra; Freick, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA) and 289 White Galloway (WGA) cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed. PMID:26076463

  15. Quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Babiuk, S; Bowden, T R; Parkyn, G; Dalman, B; Manning, L; Neufeld, J; Embury-Hyatt, C; Copps, J; Boyle, D B

    2008-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease along with sheep pox and goatpox are the most serious poxvirus diseases of livestock, and are caused by viruses that belong to the genus Capripoxvirus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae. To facilitate the study of lumpy skin disease pathogenesis, we inoculated eight 4- to 6-month-old Holstein calves intravenously with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and collected samples over a period of 42 days for analysis by virus isolation, real-time PCR and light microscopy. Following inoculation, cattle developed fever and skin nodules, with the extent of infection varying between animals. Skin nodules remained visible until the end of the experiment on day post-inoculation (DPI) 42. Viremia measured by real-time PCR and virus isolation was not observed in all animals but was detectable between 6 and 15 DPI. Low levels of viral shedding were observed in oral and nasal secretions between 12 and 18 DPI. Several tissues were assessed for the presence of virus at DPI 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 42 by virus isolation and real-time PCR. Virus was consistently detected by real-time PCR and virus isolation at high levels in skin nodules indicating LSDV has a tropism for skin. In contrast, relatively few lesions were observed systemically. Viral DNA was detected by real-time PCR in skin lesions collected on DPI 42. Cattle developing anti-capripoxvirus antibodies starting at DPI 21 was detected by serum neutralization. The disease in this study varied from mild with few secondary skin nodules to generalized infection of varying severity, and was characterized by morbidity with no mortality. PMID:18503511

  16. Cattle Sex-Specific Recombination and Genetic Control from a Large Pedigree Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; VanRaden, Paul M.; Shen, Botong; Padhi, Abinash; Sun, Chuanyu; Bickhart, Derek M.; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Liu, George E.; Da, Yang; Wiggans, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process that generates genetic diversity and ensures proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. From a large USDA dairy cattle pedigree with over half a million genotyped animals, we extracted 186,927 three-generation families, identified over 8.5 million maternal and paternal recombination events, and constructed sex-specific recombination maps for 59,309 autosomal SNPs. The recombination map spans for 25.5 Morgans in males and 23.2 Morgans in females, for a total studied region of 2,516 Mb (986 kb/cM in males and 1,085 kb/cM in females). The male map is 10% longer than the female map and the sex difference is most pronounced in the subtelomeric regions. We identified 1,792 male and 1,885 female putative recombination hotspots, with 720 hotspots shared between sexes. These hotspots encompass 3% of the genome but account for 25% of the genome-wide recombination events in both sexes. During the past forty years, males showed a decreasing trend in recombination rate that coincided with the artificial selection for milk production. Sex-specific GWAS analyses identified PRDM9 and CPLX1 to have significant effects on genome-wide recombination rate in both sexes. Two novel loci, NEK9 and REC114, were associated with recombination rate in both sexes, whereas three loci, MSH4, SMC3 and CEP55, affected recombination rate in females only. Among the multiple PRDM9 paralogues on the bovine genome, our GWAS of recombination hotspot usage together with linkage analysis identified the PRDM9 paralogue on chromosome 1 to be associated in the U.S. Holstein data. Given the largest sample size ever reported for such studies, our results reveal new insights into the understanding of cattle and mammalian recombination. PMID:26540184

  17. Cattle Sex-Specific Recombination and Genetic Control from a Large Pedigree Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Shen, Botong; Padhi, Abinash; Sun, Chuanyu; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Liu, George E; Da, Yang; Wiggans, George R

    2015-11-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process that generates genetic diversity and ensures proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. From a large USDA dairy cattle pedigree with over half a million genotyped animals, we extracted 186,927 three-generation families, identified over 8.5 million maternal and paternal recombination events, and constructed sex-specific recombination maps for 59,309 autosomal SNPs. The recombination map spans for 25.5 Morgans in males and 23.2 Morgans in females, for a total studied region of 2,516 Mb (986 kb/cM in males and 1,085 kb/cM in females). The male map is 10% longer than the female map and the sex difference is most pronounced in the subtelomeric regions. We identified 1,792 male and 1,885 female putative recombination hotspots, with 720 hotspots shared between sexes. These hotspots encompass 3% of the genome but account for 25% of the genome-wide recombination events in both sexes. During the past forty years, males showed a decreasing trend in recombination rate that coincided with the artificial selection for milk production. Sex-specific GWAS analyses identified PRDM9 and CPLX1 to have significant effects on genome-wide recombination rate in both sexes. Two novel loci, NEK9 and REC114, were associated with recombination rate in both sexes, whereas three loci, MSH4, SMC3 and CEP55, affected recombination rate in females only. Among the multiple PRDM9 paralogues on the bovine genome, our GWAS of recombination hotspot usage together with linkage analysis identified the PRDM9 paralogue on chromosome 1 to be associated in the U.S. Holstein data. Given the largest sample size ever reported for such studies, our results reveal new insights into the understanding of cattle and mammalian recombination. PMID:26540184

  18. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered cattle for agricultural and biomedical applications. PMID:25596824

  19. Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation

    E-print Network

    Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation By Tansa Musa. Evidence of rampant deforestation around the globe points in one direction: booming demand in China, where buy from Amazon. com. POPULAR PAGES Rainforests Rain forests Amazon deforestation Deforestation

  20. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  1. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation. PMID:25597972

  2. Holstein-Hubbard model at half filling: A static auxiliary field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Saurabh; Pai, G. Venketeswara

    2015-10-01

    We study the Holstein-Hubbard model at half filling to explore the ordered phases such as the charge density wave and antiferromagnet. The Coulomb interaction is rewritten in terms of auxiliary fields. By treating the auxiliary fields and phonons as classical, we obtain real-space features of the system and transition between the phases from weak to strong coupling. When both interactions are weak, mutual competition between them leads to a metallic phase in an otherwise insulator-dominated phase diagram. Spatial correlations induced by thermal fluctuations lead to pseudogap features at intermediate range of coupling.

  3. ASSOCIATION AMONG FLUID, GRAIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN IN HOLSTEIN BULL CALVES 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez Ferreira, Marcelo A.

    2010-07-14

    stream_source_info GONZALEZ-FERREIRA-THESIS.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 34948 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name GONZALEZ-FERREIRA-THESIS.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 ASSOCIATION AMONG FLUID, GRAIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN IN HOLSTEIN BULL CALVES A Thesis by MARCELO GONZALEZ FERREIRA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using intratumoral injection of the 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for the treatment of eye cancer in cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Raduan; Mancilha, Geraldo; Zângaro, Renato A.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio

    2007-02-01

    A six-year old Holstein cow with an eye cancer (ocular squamous cell carcinoma) involving the third eyelid and conjunctiva was submitted to photodynamic therapy using intratumoral 20% aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA - Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, USA) and a light emitting diode (LED - VET LED - MMOptics (R)) with wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, power of 150 mW, light dose of 50 J/cm2 as a source of irradiation. Fifteen days after the experimental procedure we observed about 50% tumor reduction and complete remission after 3 months. Relapse was not observed up to 12 months after the treatment. Although the study only includes one animal not allowing definite conclusions, it indicates that PDT represents a safe and technically feasible approach in the treatment of eye cancer in cattle.

  5. Association between interleukin 8 receptor ? gene (CXCR1) and mastitis in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pawlik, Adrianna; Kapera, Magdalena; Korwin-Kossakowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune response plays an important role in the course of bacterial infections. Innate immunity effectiveness relies on the expression of many genes, connected, among others, to the activity of neutrophils. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) receptor ?, coded by the CXCR1 gene, is present on the neutrophil surface and binds pro-inflammatory IL-8 with high affinity. This is why the bovine CXCR1 gene carries a potential for use as a dairy cattle mastitis marker. To date, several studies on the CXCR1 polymorphism brought out contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between two SNPs of the CXCR1 gene, which is potentially important for the protein function and animal phenotype for mastitis susceptibility. A total of 554 Polish Holsteins were genotyped, and 140 among them were bacteriologically tested. The differences between animals carrying different genotypes and haplotypes of CXCR1 in test day somatic cell count (SCC) and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis susceptibility were estimated. We found that test day SCC was significantly related to CXCR1+472 SNP but not to CXCR1+735 SNP. No statistically significant association between CXCR1 polymorphism and susceptibility to S. aureus mastitis was found in the studied herd. PMID:26557028

  6. Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galey, F.D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M.A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.

    2000-01-01

    Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

  7. Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

  8. Teaching Chinese as Tomorrow's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Relatively few public school students are currently learning the Chinese language, but experts predict the number of K-12 schools offering such instruction will soon soar. With China poised to become the next global economic superpower, policymakers say it is essential that American schools expand their Chinese studies. Here, the author discusses…

  9. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  10. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  11. 9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.7 Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. Cattle in...

  12. 9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.7 Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. Cattle in...

  13. 9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.7 Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. Cattle in...

  14. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. 78.3 Section...Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle...

  15. 9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.7 Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. Cattle in...

  16. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. 78.3 Section...Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle...

  17. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. 78.3 Section...Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle...

  18. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. 78.3 Section...Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle...

  19. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. 78.3 Section...Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle...

  20. Implanting Beef Calves and Stocker Cattle 

    E-print Network

    McCollum III, Ted

    1998-04-24

    Implanting beef calves offers one of the highest benefit-to-cost ratios of all the management practices available to cow/calf and stocker cattle producers. This publication offers advice on implant administration....

  1. Cattle trades of Scotland, 1603-1745 

    E-print Network

    Koufopoulos, Alexander-John

    2005-06-23

    The cattle trade of Scotland is generally considered as a very important element of early modem Scottish economy and society. After peace was established in the Borders, and along with the gradual pacification of the Highlands, a regular trade...

  2. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    PubMed

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (<9 months of age) have resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  3. Hedging Cattle with an LRP Policy 

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Bill; Bevers, Stan; Pena, Jose G.

    2008-12-05

    Livestock Risk Protection policies offer price risk insurance to cattle producers. Hedging with an LRP policy is one way to secure an acceptable price now for a commodity that will be produced or marketed some time in the future....

  4. Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    funny because every time some young kid—whose pubes were probably just sprouting—would find some soggy rotten porno mag tossed in the bushes. They were always called Cheri or Club, and they dissolved into a pile of rainbow pulp in the kid’s hands. I... by the author. For example, in “The Girl of the Year,” Wolfe begins his profile of Baby Jane Holzer by telling the reader nothing about the relevance of his subject or his own motivations. Instead, he shows Holzer at a Rolling Stones concert in New York City...

  5. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  6. Effective Use of Chinese Structural Auxiliaries for Chinese Parsing * , Yingshun Wu

    E-print Network

    Effective Use of Chinese Structural Auxiliaries for Chinese Parsing * Yun Jin a , Qing Li b the Chinese structural auxiliary knowledge to detect and correct ungrammatical Chinese parsing errors. We that appropriate use of evident Chinese structural auxiliary knowledge indeed helps to correct parsing errors

  7. Is it harder to parse Chinese, or the Chinese Treebank? Department of Linguistics

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Is it harder to parse Chinese, or the Chinese Treebank? Roger Levy Department of Linguistics linguistic di#11;er- ences between Chinese and English, and on rel- evant tree-structural di#11;erences between the two treebanks. 1.1 Linguistic di#11;erences between English and Chinese Chinese and English

  8. Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Song, D. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Q.; Peng, H.; Bu, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

  9. Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Song, D J; Kang, H Y; Wang, J Q; Peng, H; Bu, D P

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×10(11) cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×10(11) cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

  10. Genetic correlations between production and disease traits during first lactation in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, K; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Togashi, K; Yamaguchi, S; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between milk yield, somatic cell score (SCS), mastitis, and claw and leg disorders (CLDs) during first lactation in Holstein cows by using a threshold-linear random regression test-day model. We used daily records of milk, fat and protein yields; somatic cell count (SCC); and mastitis and CLD incidences from 46 771 first-lactation Holstein cows in Hokkaido, Japan, that calved between 2000 and 2009. A threshold animal model for binary records (mastitis and CLDs) and linear animal model for yield traits were applied in our multiple trait analysis. For both liabilities and yield traits, additive genetic effects were used as random regression on cubic Legendre polynomials of days on milk. The highest positive genetic correlations between yields and disease incidences (0.36 for milk and mastitis, 0.56 for fat and mastitis, 0.24 for protein and mastitis, 0.32 for milk and CLD, 0.44 for fat and CLD and 0.31 for protein and CLD) were estimated at about the time of peak milk yield (36 to 65 days in milk). Selection focused on early lactation yield may therefore increase the risk of mastitis and CLDs. The positive genetic correlations of SCS with mastitis or CLD incidence imply that selection to reduce SCS in the early stages of lactation would decrease the incidence of both mastitis and CLD. PMID:24230485

  11. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  12. Chinese House JOHN YIN, Faculty Director

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    1 Chinese House JOHN YIN, Faculty Director YING HU, Faculty Director KEVIN NEVILLE, Student Director JASON RANCIATO, Student Director OVERVIEW The Chinese House has been a Living and Learning Center for students who are learning Chinese language and are interested in Chinese culture. It is also a place where

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of Northeast Asian cattle to other cattle populations determined using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Il; Lee, Jun-Heon; Lee, Sung-Soo; Yang, Young-Hoon

    2003-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Northeast Asian cattle to various other cattle breeds including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bison bison were assessed using mtDNA D-loop sequences. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed using sequences determined for 4 Cheju Black, 4 Cheju Yellow, 4 Korean Yellow cattle (Bos taurus), and 2 American Brahman cattle (Bos indicus), and also published sequences for 31 Japanese Black cattle, 45 European breed cattle, 6 African zebus, 2 African taurines, and 6 Indian zebus. Five American bisons (Bison bison) were used as an outgroup. The neighbor-joining tree showed that American bisons and Indian zebus are clearly separate from other cattle breeds, respectively, and African cattle clustered together, although with a low bootstrap probability (< 50%). Results indicate that cattle in Northeast Asia, Europe, and Africa are closely related to each other-suggesting their recent divergence, but are separate from Indian zebus. PMID:12670023

  14. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  15. Biotech's Chinese connection

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, G.

    1992-03-27

    Hong Kong last month opened the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology (HKIB), a nonprofit R and D center. By combining Chinese expertise in medicinal compounds and cell culturing with Western technical and marketing skills, the institute hopes to develop products that could be licensed to Hong Kong or Western films. The institute is also developing experimental cell lines and making genetically engineered versions of promising compounds, taking advantage of the cell-culturing and cloning skills that are highly developed on the mainland. The Shanghai contingent is already involved in one of the institute's projects, an effort to transfer human genes into mouse fibroblasts to create cell lines for research on the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Other Chinese researchers are taking part in HKIB's joint venture with Syntex, which was signed last April. The mainland researchers extract candidate medicinal compounds from plants and microorganisms. In Hong Kong, the compounds are tested for their effects on neurotransmitter receptors, while Syntex scientists in Palo Alto study how the same compounds affect enzyme activity and whole cells.

  16. Chinese Mainland Movie Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Fen; Xue, Yu-Hua; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    We propose describing a large kind of cooperation-competition networks by bipartite graphs and their unipartite projections. In the graphs the topological structure describe the cooperation-competition configuration of the basic elements, and the vertex weight describe their different roles in cooperation or results of competition. This complex network description may be helpful for finding and understanding common properties of cooperation-competition systems. In order to show an example, we performed an empirical investigation on the movie cooperation-competition network within recent 80 years in the Chinese mainland. In the net the movies are defined as nodes, and two nodes are connected by a link if a common main movie actor performs in them. The edge represents the competition relationship between two movies for more audience among a special audience colony. We obtained the statistical properties, such as the degree distribution, act degree distribution, act size distribution, and distribution of the total node weight, and explored the influence factors of Chinese mainland movie competition intensity.

  17. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance. PMID:26210769

  18. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  19. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  20. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  1. GENETIC CORRELATION ESTIMATES AMONG BODY CONDITION SCORE, DAIRY FORM, DAYS OPEN AND PRODUCTION TRAITS FOR US HOLSTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations among body condition score (BCS), dairy form (DF), days open (DO), ME milk, ME fat and ME protein production. Body condition score and DF obtained from the Holstein Association USA Inc. were merged with DO and production data from th...

  2. Effect of direct-fed microbials on performance, diet digestibility, and rumen characteristics of Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding bacterial direct fed microbial (DFM) products containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and Propionibacteria freudenreichii (PF) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation of Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactati...

  3. ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR FIRST LACTATION TEST-DAY YIELDS OF HOLSTEIN COWS WITH A CUBIC SPLINE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields with a cubic spline model. A total of 196,687 test-day records in the first 305-d of 38,172 first lactation Holstein cows that calved between 1994 and early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Ma...

  4. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  5. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  6. EFFECTS OF ACCOUNTING FOR HEAT STRESS ON GENETIC EVALUATION OF US HOLSTEINS FOR MILK BY A TEST DAY MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of heat stress on genotype by environment interaction among different regions of the United States. The national data consisted of 55.5 million first parity test-day (TD) milk yield records on 5.8 million Holstein cows. Subsets of the national dat...

  7. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megasphaera elsdenii (Me) is a lactate-utilizing bacterium whose ruminal abundance has been shown to be greatly elevated during milk fat depression (MFD). To further examine this association, a total of 25 cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were examined in three studies in which strains of Me wer...

  8. Comparison of efficiency of energy use in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows offered diets containing reduce fat distillers grains (RFDDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-six energy balances were completed with eight Holstein (H) and eight Jersey (J) multiparous lactating cows to examine the effect of breed on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. Two dietary treatments were fed in a repeated switch back design to compare breeds. Dietary treatments ...

  9. INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR TYPE-1 RECEPTOR DOWN-REGULATION ASSOCIATED WITH DWARFISM IN HOLSTEIN CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A phenotypic presentation of dwarfism in calves was studied to define perturbations in the endocrine interactions that impact normal growth. Three red and white German Holstein dwarf calves exhibiting retarded but proportionate growth were studied in addition to four phenotypically normal half-sibli...

  10. Evaluation of a rapid determination of heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen technique for rapid measurement of fasting heat production (FHP) and respiratory quotient (RQ), and compare this with heart rate (HR) and core temperature (CT). The experiment used 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) under controlled temp...

  11. Estimates of genetic parameters for Holstein cows for test-day yield traits with a random regression cubic spline model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated with REML for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields and SCS with a random regression cubic spline model. Test-day records of Holstein cows that calved from 1994 through early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems in Raleigh, North Car...

  12. Factors affecting pregnancy rates after ovum pick up-derived embryo transfer in lactating Holstein recipients under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High milk production, heat, physiological status and management impair reproduction in Holstein cows. The use of in vivo-produced embryos has been reported as an alternative to enhance pregnancy outcome in the tropics; however there are several limitations for its production, especially from variati...

  13. Evaluation of a rapid determination of heat production and respiratory quotient in holstein steers using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen technique for rapid measurement of fasting heat production (FHP) and RQ, and to compare this with heart rate (HR) and core temperature (CT). Eight Holstein steers (322 ± 30 kg) were maintained in a controlled temperature (21°C) envi...

  14. ,fiChinese J . Geophys. (in Chinese) , 2006 , 49(3)

    E-print Network

    Qian, Weihong

    along the monsoon boundary zone in East Asia. Chinese J . Geophys. (in Chinese) , 2006 , 49(3) : 698 ´ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡§ ¡¡­¤ CHINESE ¡¡JOURNAL ¡¡OF ¡¡ GEOPHYSICS Vol. 49 , No. 3 May , 2006 © 1994-2006 China Academic Journal

  15. Chinese Scrabble : a web-based speech-enabled game for Chinese vocabulary building

    E-print Network

    Trnovcova, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a web-based language game Chinese Scrabble, whose main objective is to help students of Chinese to practice speaking, to learn and review vocabulary both in pinyin and in Chinese characters. ...

  16. Mannheimia haemolytica A1-induced fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis in a naturally-infected Holstein-Friesian calf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an opportunistic bacterium that is widely recognized among the bovine respiratory disease complex as the predominant pathogen associated with pleuropneumonia in cattle. Among the characterized M. haemolytica serotypes, A1 is the major cause of severe pulmonary lesions in ca...

  17. SELECTION DIFFERENTIALS FROM NATIONAL HOLSTEIN BULL PROGENY TEST PROGRAMS ESTIMATED FROM INTERNATIONAL DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic progress in dairy cattle is largely determined by the merit of bulls used to sire the next generation. Overall bull merit is influenced by three factors: merit of parents, accuracy of progeny test (PT), and intensity of subsequent selection. The objective of this study was to calculate the p...

  18. The Chinese healthcare challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379

  19. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Evaluation of Meat Color and Physiochemical Characteristics in Forequarter Muscles of Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2015-01-01

    The beef forequarter muscle comprises approximately 52% of carcass weight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiochemical characteristics and meat color from forequarter muscle of Holstein steers. Fifteen forequarter muscles were trimmed of external connective tissue and fat. An experimental group of eight Holstein steers was assessed using meat color, water-holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner–Bratzler shear force value at the same quality grade. The M. omotransversarius (0.45 kg) had the highest (p<0.05) lightness (L*) value, whereas the M. teres major (0.4 kg) and M. triceps brachii (caput laterale) (0.52 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05) values. The M. semispanitus capitus (1.48 kg), which is a neck muscle, had the highest values for both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*), whereas the lowest (p<0.05) values were for the M. teres major. The M. omotransversarius, M. latissimus dorsi (1.68 kg), and M. rhomboideus (1.2 kg) were ranked high (p<0.05) in water-holding capacity. The drip loss value was the highest for the M. longissimus dorsi thoracis (p<0.05; 1.86 kg), while the M. infraspinatus (2.28 kg), M. supraspinatus (1.38 kg), M. brachiocephalicus (1.01 kg), and M. pectoralis superficialis (1.18 kg) had the lowest (p<0.05). The Warner–Bratzler shear force value indicated that the M. pectoralis profundus (3.39 kg), M. omotransversarius, and M. brachiocephalicus were the toughest (p<0.05), whereas the M. subscapularis (0.86 kg), M. longissimus dorsi thoracis, M. teres major, and M. infraspinatus were the most tender cuts (p<0.05). Here, muscle type explained most of the variability in the forequarter physiochemical characteristics. Thus, our findings suggest that these muscle profile data will allow for more informed decisions when selecting individual muscles to produce value-added products from Holstein steers.

  1. Evaluation of alfalfa inter-seeding effect on bahiagrass baleage fermentation and lactating Holstein performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research indicates that bahiagrass may be successfully conserved as baleage, but nutritive value is typically low for lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding modest amounts of alfalfa forage (22%), achieved by inter-seeding alfalfa into an existing bahiagrass pasture, on baleage nutritive value and lactation performance of Holstein cows. Forage treatments employed were monoculture bahiagrass baleage (MBB; negative control), bahiagrass-alfalfa mixture baleage (BAB) and conventional corn silage (CCS; positive control). Thirty six mid lactation Holstein cows [34.8?±?5.8 kg 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 112?±?19 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 forage treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common CCS-based TMR in a 10-d covariance period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Results The BAB contained more protein and less NDF than MBB (12.6 vs 10.3% CP and 71.8 vs 76.6% NDF). Diet DMI was similar for MBB and BAB (19.5 vs 21.6 kg/hd/d), but cows consumed more of the CCS diet (25.5 kg/hd/d) than either baleage-based diet. Cows offered BAB tended to produce more milk than cows offered MBB based TMR (28.4 vs 26.1 kg/hd/d), but both baleage diets generated less milk than CCS-based diets (33.1 kg/hd/d). Milk composition was similar across diets except for milk protein concentrations which were higher for CCS than either MBB or BAB diets; however, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was lowest for cows fed CCS diets. Cow BW gain was higher for BAB than MBB implying that a portion of the higher energy contributed by the alfalfa was being used to replenish weight on these mid lactation cows. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that alfalfa inter-seeded in bahiagrass sod that produces BAB with as little as 22% alfalfa may improve nutritive value compared to monoculture bahiagrass baleage and marginally improve lactation performance of Holstein cows. However, the CCS diet was vastly superior to either MBB or BAB-based diets for milk production. PMID:25143823

  2. Low Stress Cattle Handling in Dairy Environments (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Villarino, Mario A.

    2009-05-04

    Using low-stress methods of handling dairy cattle is efficient in terms of time and labor. This publication explains how cattle's natural instincts affect their responses, and ways handlers can use that knowledge to make handling easier and less...

  3. 9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  4. Pasture-scale measurement of methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying methane emission of cattle grazing on southern Great Plains pastures using micrometeorology presents several challenges. Cattle are elevated, mobile point sources of methane, so that knowing their location in relation to atmospheric methane concentration measurements becomes critical. St...

  5. Temperature Driven Diet Quality Prediction for Free-Ranging Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yingjie

    2009-05-15

    to analyze the relationship between GDD and cattle diet crude protein (CP). Repeatable high quality regressions were found for CP and GDD. A simple temperature based model was then developed to predict cattle diet quality for regional use. Another independent...

  6. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for...

  7. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for...

  8. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for...

  9. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for...

  10. Block and Tub Supplements for Grazing Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Machen, Richard V.

    2003-03-19

    Block supplements offer cattle producers a means of supplementing the diets of their grazing beef cattle. This publication discusses the types of blocks available and recommendations for the use of each....

  11. Economic viability of a commingled/backgrounded cattle sale 

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Jaret Roy

    2001-01-01

    is the Premium Stocker Sale developed by the Jordan Cattle Auction in San Saba, Texas. This premium sale features the commingling of different producers' cattle based on similar weights, quality, and general breed types. Producers registered to participate...

  12. "Fractal Expression" in Chinese Calligraphy

    E-print Network

    Yuelin Li

    2008-12-19

    We show that from historical record and mathematic analysis, "fractal expressions" may have been a conscious pursuit at least one thousand years ago as an element of beauty in ancient Chinese calligraphy.

  13. Chinese Constellations and Star Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

  14. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self-reliance, education and cultivation of moral character, and atheism. Confucian beliefs that interfere with fertility decline are the advocacy of self-sufficient livelihood, the emphasis on family and lineage, autocracy, patriarchy and feudal rule, the 5 constant virtues, contempt for labor and working people, science and technology, and a closed-door policy. Socialism hindered fertility decline by promoting population growth as a symbol of the superiority of socialism and by lack of recognition of population or environmental problems in socialist countries. The goal is to accept Westernization, reduce obstacles, develop economically, and use cultural influence positive to fertility decline. PMID:12317926

  15. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  16. From Robots to Animals: Virtual Fences for Controlling Cattle

    E-print Network

    Rus, Daniela

    From Robots to Animals: Virtual Fences for Controlling Cattle Zack Butler Peter Corke Ron Peterson the centuries. Cattle and other livestock forage over large paddocks whose perimeters are usually bounded. Nevertheless herding remains a labor intensive activity when cattle and sheep graze over large paddocks

  17. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quarantined area only in accordance with § 78.10, 9 CFR part 86, and this section. (a) Steers and spayed... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas....

  18. An early date for cattle from Namaqualand, South Africa

    E-print Network

    An early date for cattle from Namaqualand, South Africa: implications for the origins of herding did cattle come to South Africa? Radiocarbon dates on a newly found cow horn indicates a time in the early first millennium AD. In a study of the likely context for the advent of cattle herding

  19. Sacrificing Reproductive Success for the Primitive Accumulation of Cattle

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    Sacrificing Reproductive Success for the Primitive Accumulation of Cattle DURAN BELL and SHUNFENG provided by Cronk (1989), we have developed a computer simulation of the demographic growth and cattle the marrying out of daughters in order to accumulate cattle and parental neglect of sons, in order (we claim

  20. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 72 Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal... permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions are necessary to update and clarify the..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  1. Bylaws of the Range Cattle Research and Education Center

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Bylaws of the Range Cattle Research and Education Center University of Florida December 11, 2009 Preamble The shared goals of the faculty and administration of the Range Cattle Research and Education ­ Governance of the Range Cattle Research and Education Center These Bylaws establish the general principles

  2. Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs

    E-print Network

    Paschou, Peristera

    Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs Jamey Lewis1 that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic

  3. An immuno-epidemiological model for Johne's disease in cattle

    E-print Network

    Martcheva, Maia

    An immuno-epidemiological model for Johne's disease in cattle Maia Martcheva1 Email: maia's disease in dairy cattle, this paper illustrates a novel way to link a within-host model for Mycobacterium reproduction model. Introduction Johne's disease (JD) in dairy cattle is a chronic infectious disease

  4. ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY major economic damages in the cattle industry. One of the strategies to mitigate potential outbreak

  5. Nebraska's Cattle Feeding Industry: Size, Structure and Related Industries

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Nebraska's Cattle Feeding Industry: Size, Structure and Related Industries Thomas L. Holman Nutrition Specialist Galen Erickson, Extension Feedlot Nutrition Specialist With 6.7 million head of cattle and calves in 2007, Ne- braska has the second largest beef cattle herd in the nation. Cash receipts from

  6. Abingdon Feeder Cattle Association 234 West Valley Street, Suite B

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Abingdon Feeder Cattle Association 234 West Valley Street, Suite B Abingdon, VA 24210 "Moving Commission, the Abingdon Feeder Cattle Association, and Southwest Virginia Beef Producers. #12;2 BEEF BUILDER improvements to improve production, management and marketing of feeder cattle in tobacco dependent communities

  7. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...APHIS-2012-0069] Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the list of dips permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions...Matthew T. Messenger, Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program...

  8. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Range Cattle

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Range Cattle Research and Education Center Field Day at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center in Ona, Florida. The laboratory provides forage testing digestible nutrients (TDN). Mail samples to Forage Extension Laboratory, UF/IFAS, Range Cattle REC, 3401

  9. BCVA: Can recycled manure make a safe bed for cattle?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Suzanne

    2014-11-15

    The use of recycled manure solids for cattle bedding was among the subjects considered at the British Cattle Veterinary Association's congress last month. Both cattle and sheep vets gathered in Hinckley, Leicestershire, from October 16 to 18 to discuss a range of clinical and political issues. Suzanne Jarvis reports. PMID:25395564

  10. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ?10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  11. Diquat poisoning of dairy cattle by topical application.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, T L; Smyrl, T; Spearman, J G; Kernatz, S

    2001-01-01

    This case report describes poisoning of dairy cattle from a dermal challenge of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight diquat. Five of 36 cattle exposed, demonstrated clinical signs of intoxication, dehydration, and death over 5 days. Diquat poisoning of cattle by the dermal route has not previously been reported. PMID:11665429

  12. DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF FEEDER CATTLE TO SIMULATED HEAT WAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance, and in the most severe cases, death of the animals, thus causing the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to evaluate the dynamics of thermoregulation and feeding activities when feeder cattle w...

  13. New survival record of southern cattle tick in subfreezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) is considered to be one of the most significant pests of cattle worldwide. A vector for piroplasmosis, or cattle fever, R. microplus is a key target of an aggressive eradication program along the U.S./Mexico border. Endemic to ...

  14. 21 CFR 189.5 - Prohibited cattle materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibited cattle materials. 189.5 Section 189.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD Prohibited Cattle Materials § 189.5 Prohibited cattle materials. (a) Definitions. The definitions...

  15. Evaluation of catfish oil as a feedstuff for lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Amorocho, A K; Jenkins, T C; Staples, C R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate catfish oil (CFO) as a dietary ingredient for lactating Holstein cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (6 fitted with a rumen cannula and 6 noncannulated cows), arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design replicated 4 times, were used to evaluate CFO as a dietary ingredient for lactating Holstein cows. Each period lasted 27 d with the last 13 d used for data collection. Dietary treatments were 0, 1.5, and 3% CFO (dry matter basis). Orally dosing with chromium oxide powder was used as an external inert marker for calculation of apparent dry matter and nutrient digestion coefficients. Ruminal fluid was collected hourly for 8 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acids. Intake of dry matter increased as intake of CFO increased (23.0, 24.4, and 25.4 kg/d). Production of milk was unchanged by the feeding of CFO (29.0, 29.0, and 29.4 kg/d). Concentrations of milk fat (3.57, 3.60, and 3.48%) and protein (3.21, 3.18, and 3.23%) were unchanged by feeding CFO. Concentrations of plasma glucose (57.8, 55.1, and 56.0 mg/100 mL), urea nitrogen (11.6, 11.0, and 12.0 mg/100 mL), and insulin (0.55, 0.53, and 0.57 ng/mL) were not affected by dietary treatments. Average ruminal fluid pH decreased (6.40, 6.20, and 6.15), as did the molar proportions of acetate (64.5, 64.2, and 63.4%), as dietary concentration of CFO increased. The molar proportions of propionate increased (19.4, 20.0, and 20.4%) as did that of butyrate (12.0, 12.4, and 12.5%) as intake of CFO increased. Ruminal protozoa numbers were unchanged by treatments. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were increased by addition of CFO. In situ lag, rate, and extent of corn silage dry matter digestion were not affected by the inclusion of CFO. However, in situ digestion rate of neutral detergent fiber was increased (0.023, 0.024, and 0.029 h(-1)) with increasing intake of CFO. In a second study involving 190 Holstein cows, those fed CFO at 1.8% of dietary dry matter produced 1.2 kg more milk/d than those not fed CFO, along with an increase in milk protein concentration. Catfish oil can be a viable lipid source for dairy cows when fed at up to 3% of the dietary dry matter. PMID:19762836

  16. Relationship between blood calcium level and ST peak interval of electrocardiographic variables in peripartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Megumi; Sakurai, Yoshie; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The association between blood calcium levels and electrocardiographic variables was compared in 137 normal parturient and 36 peripartum recumbent Holstein cows to determine whether hypocalcemia in peripartum dairy cows can be rapidly diagnosed using electrocardiograph. Inverse of STc (ST peak interval/SS interval0.5) and blood ionized calcium or serum calcium concentrations were strongly correlated, and both correlation coefficients were 0.81 (P<0.001). The 95% prediction interval indicated that cows with STc >0.385 ± 0.001 sec are very likely to be hypocalcemic (blood ionized or serum calcium concentrations of <0.9 mmol/l or <7.5 mg/dl, respectively). These findings indicate that hypocalcemia in parturient cows can be non-invasively estimated using the STc. PMID:26118411

  17. A density matrix approach to the dynamical properties of a two-site Holstein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, S.; Ciuchi, S.

    2008-07-01

    The two-site Holstein model represents a first non-trivial paradigm for the interaction between an itinerant charge with a quantum oscillator, a very common topic in different ambits. Exact results can be achieved both analytically and numerically, nevertheless it can be useful to compare them with approximate, semi-classical techniques in order to highlight the role of quantum effects. In this paper we consider the adiabatic limit in which the oscillator is slower than the electron. A density matrix approach is introduced for studying the charge dynamics and the exact results are compared with two different approximations: a Born-Oppenheimer-based Static Approximation for the oscillator (SA) and a Quantum-classical (QC) dynamics.

  18. Health Information in Chinese - Simplified (????): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Baby, Your Heart and even Your Memory - English ????????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community ... ???? (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Memory Memory Power - English ???? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF ...

  19. Health Information in Chinese - Traditional (????): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Baby, Your Heart and even Your Memory - English ????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community ... ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Memory Memory Power - English ???? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF ...

  20. Association between growth hormone receptor AluI polymorphism and fertility of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A; Corrêa, M N; Butler, W R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effects of a growth hormone receptor (GHR) AluI polymorphism on the reproductive performance of Holstein cows. The cows (n = 94) were on the study from 3 weeks prepartum until 210 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected at -21, 0, 7, 21, and 60 DIM. For GHR genotyping, DNA was extracted from blood and the presence of the alleles determined after polymerase chain reaction and digestion with the restriction enzyme AluI. Milk samples were collected for progesterone analysis and detection of ovulation until first breeding. Cows were submitted to an OvSynch-TAI protocol at 55 DIM that was repeated for cows diagnosed as not pregnant. Data were analyzed with SAS for polynomial effects of the presence of 0, 1, or 2 GHR AluI (-) alleles. Among the cows, 37% had the AluI(+/+) genotype, 51% had AluI(-/+), and 12% were AluI(-/-). Interval from calving to first ovulation was not different among genotypes (P > 0.05). Cows carrying at least one GHR AluI(-) allele had fewer number of services per conception (P = 0.02). In addition, there was a linear reduction (P = 0.02) in the calving to conception interval among genotypes with fewest days for GHR AluI(-/-) cows. GHR AluI(-/-) cows also had the highest serum IGF-I concentrations (P = 0.03). Milk production and composition were not different among genotypes (P > 0.05). The presence of one or two GHR AluI(-) alleles in Holstein cows was associated with a linear reduction in the calving to conception interval and a reduction in the number of AI/conception. PMID:24094698

  1. Impact of thermal stress on the efficiency of ovulation synchronization protocols in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Tarabany, Akram A

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on the efficiency of three different protocols to synchronize time of ovulation in purebred Holstein cows under subtropical Egyptian conditions. The influence of temperature humidity index (THI) on the conception, pregnancy, embryonic loss and early abortion rates were investigated. Conception and pregnancy rates using the CIDRsynch and Presynch (37.5% and 33.9%; 29.5 and 29. 6%, respectively) were significantly greater than that for cows expressing spontaneous estrus (SE) and with use of the Ovsynch (28.5% and 24.3%; 21.6% and 24.6%, respectively) treatment regimen. Conception and pregnancy rates using the Ovsynch protocol were significantly decreased from 31.6% and 26.3% at the lesser THI to 11.5% and 9.9%, respectively than at the greater THI [crude odds ratio (COR) = 0.28 and 0.32; P = 0.001 and 0.004, respectively]. However, conception (P/AI at 28 days) and pregnancy (P/AI at 75 days) rates using the Presynch protocol were significantly reduced at either the lesser or greater THI (COR = 0.47 and 0.42; 0.48 and 0.34, respectively). Embryonic loss rate with the Presynch group was significantly increased from 11.5% at the lesser THI to 22.2% at the greater THI (COR = 2.28; P = 0.039). In contrast, conception, pregnancy and embryonic loss rates did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) with the CIDRsynch protocol at the different THI. Results from the present study indicate that use of the CIDRsynch protocol may provide consistent and satisfactory conception and pregnancy rates in Holstein cows under subtropical environmental conditions. PMID:26297623

  2. Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Nigatu

    2008-12-01

    The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from abattoir to abattoir (P>0.5). The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Of 4102 male cattle, examined, 768 (18.72%) had cysts of C. bovis while 56 (15.82%) of the 354 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in occurrence was recorded between the sexes. Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed a rise of infected animals during the dry season. PMID:18321540

  3. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Brenda M.; Murdoch, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  4. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  5. NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN CATTLE IN INDIA SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE AND WATER BUFFAOES IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum a...

  6. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS <3.0; n=10) or overweight (BCS >4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated ceramide and monohexosylceramide were elevated in cows with greater adiposity relative to those with a lean phenotype. Plasma ceramides (e.g., C24:0-ceramide) were positively correlated with plasma NEFA and inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity. Our data demonstrate a remodeled plasma sphingolipidome in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to lactation characterized by a concomitant increase in plasma ceramides with the development of peripartal insulin resistance. PMID:26342987

  7. Comparison of the Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Methods for Discriminating among Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), Imported, and Crossbred Beef in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Jo; Park, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The identity of 45 Hanwo and 47 imported beef (non-Hanwoo) samples from USA and Australia were verified using the microsatellite (MS) marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methods. Samples were collected from 19 supermarkets located in the city of Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea, from 2009 to 2011. As a result, we obtained a 100% concordance rate between the MS and SNP methods for identifying Hanwoo and non-Hanwoo beef. The MS method presented a 95% higher individual discriminating value for Hanwoo (97.8%) than for non-Hanwoo (61.7%) beef. For further comparison of the MS and SNP methods, blood samples were collected and tested from 54 Hanwoo × Holstein crossbred cattle (first, second, and third generations). By using the SNP and MS methods, we correctly identified all of the first-generation crossbred cattle as non-Hanwoo; in addition, among the second and third generation crossbreds, the ratio identified as Hanwoo was 20% and 10%, respectively. The MS method used in our study provides more information, but requires sophisticated techniques during each experimental process. By contrast, the SNP method is simple and has a lower error rate. Our results suggest that the MS and SNP methods are useful for discriminating Hanwoo from non-Hanwoo breeds.

  8. Generating Chinese Couplets and Quatrain Using a Statistical Approach

    E-print Network

    statistical approach to automatically generate Chinese couplets and Chinese poetry. For Chinese couplets couplets and classic Chinese poetry with a Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) model. ChineseGenerating Chinese Couplets and Quatrain Using a Statistical Approach Ming Zhou a , Long Jiang

  9. Preliminary studies on lasalocid toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Galitzer, S J; Bartley, E E; Oehme, F W

    1982-12-01

    Polyether antibiotics are gaining widespread use in the feedlot cattle industry. One such investigational antibiotic, Lasalocid, was studied at oral doses of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/kg to determine effects of toxicosis in six cattle. Deaths occurred at 100 and 125 mg/kg body weight. The general syndrome developed as muscle tremors, increased heart rate and respiration rate followed by or concurrent with anorexia (within 24 hr) and watery, forced diarrhea (48 through 72 hr). There were signs of cardiac effects one week to ten days after administration of the drug. PMID:7179711

  10. Repeatability and standardization in cattle blood typing.

    PubMed

    KIDDY, C A; HOOVEN, N W

    1961-09-01

    Thirteen laboratories engaged in cattle blood typing have participated in tests to compare their blood-typing reagents. Over 75,000 individual tests of cattle erythrocytes were made. When the laboratories tested duplicate samples without knowing they were duplicates, the results were in agreement 99 percent of the time. Tests on samples from the same 199 animals with 56 different reagents from two or more of the laboratories showed agreement 89 percent of the time. The agreement was unexpectedly good, since the primary purpose of the tests was to allow comparison of independently developed reagents and since the sources of error were numerous. PMID:13755822

  11. Chemotherapy of paramphistomosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C

    1987-11-01

    Controlled tests were used to assess the efficacy of anthelmintics against immature paramphistomes, predominantly Calicophoron calicophorum, in 127 calves which were exposed to contaminated pasture for 7 weeks, treated and slaughtered. When a combination product of oxyclozanide and levamisole was used, oxyclozanide at 18.7 mg/kg reduced parasite numbers in the small intestine, abomasum and rumen-reticulum by 61 to 96.1%, 50.0 to 92.6% and 56.5 to 98.1%, respectively. When 2 doses were given 3 days apart, oxyclozanide was 99.9%, 100% and 100% effective, respectively, in the above organs, and produced improvement in clinically affected calves. This treatment elicited transient diarrhoea. Hexachlorophene at 20 mg/kg as a single dose was 99.5%, 100% and 100% effective against the fluke in the small intestine, abomasum and rumen respectively but severe neurological signs were seen in some calves. Niclosamide at 160 mg/kg given as single or 2 doses 3 days apart was 91.1% and 92.6% effective, respectively, against the parasites in the small intestine. No toxicity was noted. Closantel, at 7.5 mg/kg was not effective. Oxyclozanide and niclosamide when given as a single treatment had varying activity. Two doses of oxyclozanide and a single dose of hexachlorophene gave consistent results. Further tests based on reduction of faecal egg counts, 10 to 14 days after treatment were conducted with oxyclozanide and hexachlorophene against mature paramphistomes in 207 cattle. Oxyclozanide as a single dose or 2 doses 3 days apart at 12.8 to 18.7 mg/kg was 93.6 to 97.5% effective in reducing egg counts. Hexachlorophene at 20 mg/kg was 83.0% effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3447575

  12. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  13. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in fertility breeding value reliability (i.e., increased by 30%; up to 0.72 points of reliability), whereas a lower increase in reliability (4 points, i.e., increased by 10%) was obtained by including angularity, foot angle, and pin set in the index. In situations when a limited number of daughters have been phenotyped for CR42, including type data for sires increased reliabilities compared with when type data were omitted. However, sires with more than 80 daughters with CR42 records achieved reliability estimates close to 80% on average, and there did not appear to be a benefit from having daughters with type records. The cost of phenotyping to obtain such reliabilities (assuming a cost of AU$14 per cow with type data and AU$5 per cow with pregnancy diagnosed) is lower if more pregnancy data are collected in preference to type data. That is, efforts to increase the reliability of fertility EBV are most cost effective when directed at obtaining a larger number of pregnancy tests. PMID:26547639

  14. Genetic analysis of the cumulative pseudo-survival rate during lactation of Holstein cattle in Japan by using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, O; Aihara, M; Nishiura, A; Takeda, H; Satoh, M

    2015-08-01

    Longevity is a crucial economic trait in the dairy farming industry. In this study, our objective was to develop a random regression model for genetic evaluation of survival. For the analysis, we used test-day records obtained for the first 5 lactations of 380,252 cows from 1,296 herds in Japan between 2001 and 2010; this data set was randomly divided into 7 subsets. The cumulative pseudo-survival rate (PSR) was determined according to whether a cow was alive (1) or absent (0) in her herd on the test day within each lactation group. Each lactation number was treated as an independent trait in a random regression multiple-trait model (MTM) or as a repeated measure in a random regression single-trait repeatability model (STRM). A proportional hazard model (PHM) was also developed as a piecewise-hazards model. The average (± standard deviation) heritability estimates of the PSR at 365 d in milk (DIM) among the 7 data sets in the first (LG1), second (LG2), and third to fifth lactations (LG3) of the MTM were 0.042±0.007, 0.070±0.012, and 0.084±0.007, respectively. The heritability estimate of the STRM was 0.038±0.004. The genetic correlations of PSR between distinct DIM within or between lactation groups were high when the interval between DIM was short. These results indicated that whereas the genetic factors contributing to the PSR between closely associated DIM would be similar even for different lactation numbers, the genetic factors contributing to PSR would differ between distinct lactation periods. The average (± standard deviation) effective heritability estimate based on the relative risk of the PHM among the 7 data sets was 0.068±0.009. The estimated breeding values (EBV) in LG1, LG2, LG3, the STRM, and the PHM were unbiased estimates of the genetic trend. The absolute values of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the EBV of the relative risk of the PHM and the EBV of PSR at 365 DIM for LG1, LG2, LG3, and the STRM were 0.75, 0.87, 0.91, and 0.93, respectively. These results indicated that the EBV of PSR could predict the genetic contribution to survival. The EBV based on the PSR of the STRM was highly correlated with that of the MTM (0.83-0.96). Furthermore, the calculation load of the STRM was lighter than that of the MTM because the rank of the matrix of the STRM was smaller than that of the MTM. These results indicated that the STRM is an appropriate model for estimating survivability by using random regression models. PMID:26004830

  15. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone receptor gene showed strong association with milk, fat, and protein yields. In HOL, the highest peaks for milk yield and susceptibility to mastitis were separated by over 3.5 Mb (3.8 Mb by haplotype analysis, 3.6 Mb by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis), suggesting separate genetic variants for the traits. Further analysis yielded 2 candidate mutations for the mastitis QTL, at 33,642,072 bp (rs378947583) in an intronic region of the caspase recruitment domain protein 6 gene and 35,969,994 bp (rs133596506) in an intronic region of the leukemia-inhibitory factor receptor gene. These findings suggest that it may be possible to separate these beneficial and detrimental genetic factors through targeted selective breeding. PMID:26409972

  16. Assessment of Chinese Students' Experience with Foreign Faculty: A Case Study from a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…

  17. An Alignment based technique for Text Translation between Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese

    E-print Network

    An Alignment based technique for Text Translation between Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese Sue J. Ker Department of Computer and Information Science Soochow University Taipei, Taiwan, R of translation approaches can be used. We especially focuses on Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese text

  18. Writing Chinese and Mathematics Achievement: A Study with Chinese-American Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…

  19. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  20. Using Chinese Gigaword Corpus and Chinese Word Sketch in linguistic research

    E-print Network

    Using Chinese Gigaword Corpus and Chinese Word Sketch in linguistic research Jia-Fei Hong, Chu based on corpus and computational linguistic tools in this paper. In particular, we adopt Chinese Word Sketch, the application of Word Sketch Engine to Chinese GigaWord Corpus, for linguistic research. We