These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effect of polymorphisms in the CSN3 (?-casein) gene on milk production traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and milk composition and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. Six SNPs were identified in the ?-casein gene using pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNPs were genotyped by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods from 507 individuals. Out of six, we identified three non-synonymous SNPs (g.10888T>C, g.10924C>A and g.10944A>G) that changed in the protein product. SIFT (Sorting_Intolerant_From_Tolerant) prediction score (0.01) demonstrated that protein changed Isoleucine > Threonine (g.10888T>C) will affect the phenotypes. Significant associations between identified SNPs and three yield traits (milk, protein and fat) and two composition traits (fat and protein percentages) were found whereas it did not reach significance for fat percentage in haplotypes association. Importantly, the significant SNPs in our results showed a large proportion of the phenotypic variation of milk protein yield and concentration. Our results suggest that CSN3 is an important candidate gene that influences milk production traits, and identified polymorphisms and haplotypes could be used as a genetic marker in programs of marker-assisted selection for the genetic improvement of milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:25091943

Alim, M A; Dong, T; Xie, Y; Wu, X P; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shengli; Sun, D X

2014-11-01

2

A multiple-SNP approach for genome-wide association study of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The multiple-SNP analysis has been studied by many researchers, in which the effects of multiple SNPs are simultaneously estimated and tested in a multiple linear regression. The multiple-SNP association analysis usually has higher power and lower false-positive rate for detecting causative SNP(s) than single marker analysis (SMA). Several methods have been proposed to simultaneously estimate and test multiple SNP effects. In this research, a fast method called MEML (Mixed model based Expectation-Maximization Lasso algorithm) was developed for simultaneously estimate of multiple SNP effects. An improved Lasso prior was assigned to SNP effects which were estimated by searching the maximum joint posterior mode. The residual polygenic effect was included in the model to absorb many tiny SNP effects, which is treated as missing data in our EM algorithm. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to validate the proposed method, and the results showed that compared with SMMA, the new method can dramatically decrease the false-positive rate. The new method was also applied to the 50k SNP-panel dataset for genome-wide association study of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Totally, 39 significant SNPs and their nearby 25 genes were found. The number of significant SNPs is remarkably fewer than that by SMMA which found 105 significant SNPs. Among 39 significant SNPs, 8 were also found by SMMA and several well-known QTLs or genes were confirmed again; furthermore, we also got some positional candidate gene with potential function of effecting milk production traits. These novel findings in our research should be valuable for further investigation. PMID:25148050

Fang, Ming; Fu, Weixuan; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

2014-01-01

3

Association of SCD1 and DGAT1 SNPs with the intramuscular fat traits in Chinese Simmental cattle and their distribution in eight Chinese cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a key parameter for evaluation of nutritional quality of beef, with its endogenous synthesis regulated by stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1) and diacylglycerol-acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1) genes in cattle. The object of this research was to evaluate the effect of SCD1 and DGAT1 polymorphisms on IMF trait in beef cattle and to estimate the frequency distribution of SNPs in the two genes in Chinese cattle populations. The SCD1 and DGAT1 polymorphisms were detected by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method in Chinese Simmental cattle and their associations with IMF traits were analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). The frequency distribution of SNPs in SCD1 and DGAT1 genes were detected by PCR-SSCP method and analyzed in seven other cattle populations. The results showed significant associations of SNPs SCD1-878, SCD1-762, and DGAT1 10433 and 10434 with IMF (%) and shearing force values (SFV; kg) in Chinese Simmental cattle. A haplotype combining SCD1-878C, SCD1-762T, and DGAT1 10433 and 10434-GC had the highest IMF, marbling score and shearing force. The polymorphic investigation indicated that the frequency of SCD1-878C or SCD1-762T was significantly higher in Chinese southern cattle (Leiqiong, Yunnan High pump, BMY or Minnan Cattle) than in Chinese northern cattle (Chinese Simmental, Luxi Cattle, Bohai Black or Chinese Holstein), while the frequency of DGAT1 10433 and 10434-GC in Chinese indigenous breed (Leiqiong, Yunnan High pump, BMY, Luxi Cattle, Bohai Black, or Minnan Cattle) was significantly lower than breeds with imported blood (Chinese Simmental or Chinese Holstein). These findings demonstrated that both the SCD1 and DGAT1 SNPs were prospect genetic markers for IMF traits, and the SCD1 SNPs could be used as a genetic marker for southern or northern blood in Chinese cattle. PMID:21607624

Wu, X X; Yang, Z P; Shi, X K; Li, J Y; Ji, D J; Mao, Y J; Chang, L L; Gao, H J

2012-02-01

4

Mannose-binding lectin 1 haplotypes influence serum MBL-A concentration, complement activity, and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin protein family that binds a broad range of microorganisms and activates the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with an increased risk for various infections and arises from five polymorphisms in the promoter and first exon of the MBL gene in humans. In this study, three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region and two previously reported SNPs in exon 2 of the MBL1 gene were detected using PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequencing in 537 cattle from three Chinese breeds. Analysis of the genotypes and haplotypes was used to investigate the polymorphisms and their possible implications, especially their association with serum MBL-A levels, complement activity (CH50 and ACH50), and milk production traits was investigated. The g.2651G > A SNP in exon 2 affected the serum MBL-A concentrations and the serum CH50 values, whereas the g.-1330G > A SNP significantly affected CH50 and the somatic cell scores (SCSs). Statistical analysis revealed that cows with the ATGGC/ACAAC combined genotype and those with the AAGGT/ACGGT combined genotype exhibited the lowest and highest SCSs, respectively. Serum antibacterial activities were also conducted to verify the effect of the SNPs on resistance to mastitis pathogens. Results of real-time PCR showed that the liver of cows with clinical mastitis exhibited a higher MBL1 expression compared with healthy ones (P ?

Liu, Jianbo; Ju, Zhihua; Li, Qiuling; Huang, Jinming; Li, Rongling; Li, Jiangbin; Ma, Lijuan; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

2011-11-01

5

Short communication: Distribution of recessive genetic defect carriers in Chinese Holstein.  

PubMed

In dairy cattle, 4 important recessive hereditary diseases exist: complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), citrullinemia (CTLN), and deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS). Holstein Associations in developed countries have established monitoring systems for such disorders in Holstein bulls for decades. Over the past decades, China has continuously imported Holstein semen and embryos, mainly from North America but also from Europe. The dissemination of such genetic defects was undetermined until now, although efforts were taken to develop molecular techniques and detect carriers for CVM and BLAD in small populations of Chinese dairy cattle. Thus, herein we extensively screened 732 proven bulls participating in artificial insemination programs and 136 young bulls entering progeny test from 15 bull stations in China for CVM, BLAD, CTLN, and DUMPS. The proportion of carriers of the defects was found to be 7.72, 1.38, 0.23, and 0.12%, respectively. Given our findings, early diagnostic and monitoring systems on recessive inherited disorders among proven and young bulls entering the national genetic improvement programs for dairy cattle of China should be established immediately, in which a series of measures will be taken to prevent further spreading of such disorders and gradually eliminate them in the dairy cattle population in China. PMID:22032394

Sun, D X; Fan, X H; Xie, Y; Chu, Q; Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S L; Gong, W J; Chen, S H; Li, Y H; Shi, W H; Zhang, Y

2011-11-01

6

Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows genotyped with 54K chip, 510 Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped with HD chip, and 4398 Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped with 54K chip and with deregressed proofs for five milk production traits. Based on these data, the accuracy of imputation from 54K to HD marker data and the accuracy of genomic predictions in Chinese Holstein were assessed. The allele correct rate increased around 2.7 and 1.7% in imputation from the 54K to the HD marker data for Chinese Holstein bulls and cows, respectively, when the Nordic HD-genotyped bulls were included in the reference data for imputation. However, the prediction accuracy was improved slightly when using the marker data imputed based on the combined HD reference data, compared with using the marker data imputed based on the Chinese HD reference data only. On the other hand, when using the combined reference population including 4398 Nordic Holstein bulls, the accuracy of genomic predictions increased 6.5 percentage points together with a reduction of prediction bias. The HD markers did not outperform the 54K markers in genomic prediction based on the present data. The results indicate that for Chinese Holsteins, it is necessary to genotype more individuals with 54K chip to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density. PMID:25099946

Ma, P; Lund, M S; Ding, X; Zhang, Q; Su, G

2014-12-01

7

Rates of inbreeding and genetic diversity in Iranian Holstein Cattle.  

PubMed

The accumulation of inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity is a potential problem in Holstein dairy cattle. The goal of this study was to estimate inbreeding levels and other measures of genetic diversity, using pedigree information from Iranian Holstein cattle. Edited pedigree included 1?048?572 animals. The average number of discrete generation equivalents and pedigree completeness index reached 13.4 and 90%, respectively. The rate of inbreeding was 0.3% per year. Effective number of founders, founder genomes, non-founders and ancestors of animals born between 2003 and 2011 were 503, 15.6, 16.1 and 25.7, respectively. It was proven that the unequal founder contributions as well as bottlenecks and genetic drift were important reasons for the loss of genetic diversity in the population. The top 10 ancestors with the highest marginal genetic contributions to animals born between 2003 and 2011 and with the highest contributions to inbreeding were 48.20% and 63.94%, respectively. Analyses revealed that the most important cause of genetic diversity loss was genetic drift accumulated over non-founder generations, which occurred due to small effective population size. Therefore, it seems that managing selection and mating decisions are controlling future co-ancestry and inbreeding, which would lead to better handling of the effective population size. PMID:25041055

Dadar, Mohsen; Mahyari, Saeid Ansari; Rokouei, Mohammad; Edriss, Mohammd Ali

2014-10-01

8

Prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in serum of Holstein cattle in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holstein cattle of a small scale dairy production systems were screened for Brucella abortus antibodies in 21 villages in Cameroon by ELISA. Results show a general seroprevalence of 8.4% in Holstein cattle. Of the\\u000a 192 cows tested, 14 were infected giving a within-sex seroprevalence of 7.3% while 6\\/74 bulls were infected with a seroprevalence\\u000a of 8%. There was no evidence

P. H. Bayemi; E. C. Webb; M. V. Nsongka; H. Unger; H. Njakoi

2009-01-01

9

Blood types in cattle of Iberian ancestry and in Holsteins at various altitudes.  

PubMed

Gene frequencies of RBC antigens were determined in Holsteins and Colombian (criollas) cattle living at 3,000 m, and in cattle descended from fighting bulls (Vacas de lidia) living at 2,500 m. These frequencies were compared with those of Holsteins, cattle native to Florida (scrub cattle), longhorns, and native cattle from Brazil (caracu cattle) living at sea level. The criollas, Vacas de lidia, scrub cows, longhorns, and caracu are descendants of original Iberian stock introduced to the Americas. We found that despite common ancestry (scrub cattle, long-horns, criollas, and caracu), genetic differences may have been derived through years of demographic isolation. The most remarkable blood-group differences were found in the high prevalence of the B system phenogroup (heritable group of antigenic factors) BQA'G'34 in the Vacas de lidia, and of the S system phenogroup U1H' in these cattle and in caracu. Furthermore, the gene frequencies differed in the Holsteins maintained at moderately high altitude (descended from Holsteins kept at sea level), and may have been reflective of the need to adapt to moderately high altitude and chronic hypoxemic conditions. Blood group polymorphism was found in all groups of cattle, although it was reduced in the Vacas de lidia, possibly because their breeding has been carefully controlled and they appear to be highly inbred. PMID:1497198

Ramirez, G; Miller, W J; Bittle, P A; Hidalgo, A; Santacruz, R; Colice, G

1992-07-01

10

Principal milk components in buffalo, holstein cross, indigenous cattle and red chittagong cattle from bangladesh.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

Islam, M A; Alam, M K; Islam, M N; Khan, M A S; Ekeberg, D; Rukke, E O; Vegarud, G E

2014-06-01

11

Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

2014-01-01

12

Glucose metabolism in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on two types of roughage at different stages of lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was performed to study the glucose kinetics of crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on either hay or 5% urea-treated rice straw during early lactation (30 days post partum), mid-lactation (120 days post partum) and late lactation (210 days post partum). Two breeds: Holstein Friesian×Red Sindhi (50:50=50% HF) and Holstein Friesian×Red Sindhi (87.5:12.5=87.5% HF) were used. In early lactating 87.5%

Narongsak Chaiyabutr; Sumpun Preuksagorn; Siripen Komolvanich; Somchai Chanpongsang

2000-01-01

13

Glucose metabolism in vivo in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on different types of roughage during late pregnancy and early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to study the glucose kinetics of crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on either hay or 5% urea treated rice straw during late pregnancy (21 days prepartum) and early lactation (30 days postpartum). In all 16 pregnant heifers (23–25 months of age) were selected for the experiments, including eight animals of two breed types, Holstein Friesian×Red Sindhi

Narongsak Chaiyabutr; Siripen Komolvanich; Suwanakiet Sawangkoon; Sumpun Preuksagorn; Somchai Chanpongsang

1998-01-01

14

A new Robertsonian translocation in Holstein-Friesian cattle  

E-print Network

by Ham's F12). Hypotonic treatment (10 mL 1/6 calf serum) was followed by pre-fixation and fixation apparentés de l'animal porteur a permis de mettre en évidence aeux autres animaux porteurs. bovin / Holstein fibroblast. Whole blood was cultured at 37°C for 72 h in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 20% fetal calf

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows. PMID:21959893

Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

2012-02-01

16

A genome-wide association study reveals a QTL influencing caudal supernumerary teats in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Supernumerary teats represent a common abnormality of the bovine udder. A genome-wide association study was performed based on the proportion of the occurrence of supernumerary teats in the daughters of 1097 Holstein bulls. The heritability of caudal supernumerary teats without mammary gland in this study was 0.604. The largest proportion of the heritability was attributable to BTA 20. The strongest evidence for association was with five SNPs on chromosome 20, referred to as a QTL. The mode of inheritance at this QTL was dominant. These findings reveal that the occurrence of caudal supernumerary teats without mammary gland in Holstein cattle is influenced by a QTL on chromosome 20 and a polygenic part. The data support the high potential of the SNPs in the QTL region as markers for breeding against caudal supernumerary teats. PMID:25204440

Joerg, H; Meili, C; Ruprecht, O; Bangerter, E; Burren, A; Bigler, A

2014-12-01

17

Rates of inbreeding and genetic diversity in Canadian Holstein and Jersey cattle.  

PubMed

The accumulation of inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity is a potential problem in the modern dairy cattle breeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the pedigrees of Canadian Holstein and Jersey cattle to estimate the past and current rates of inbreeding and genetic diversity, and to identify the main causes of diversity loss. Completeness and depth of the pedigrees were good for both breeds. For Holsteins, the average rates of inbreeding per generation showed a decreasing trend in recent years when compared with the 1990s. The estimated current effective population size was about 115 for Holsteins and is not expected to significantly change in the near future if generation intervals stay at current value, as rates of increase in inbreeding and coancestry showed decreasing trends. For Jerseys, the estimated effective population size was about 55 and it is expected to decrease in the near future due to the observed increasing rates of coancestry and inbreeding. Ancestors with the highest marginal genetic contributions to the gene pool in current years and with the highest contributions to inbreeding were identified. The 2 most heavily used and represented ancestors in the Holstein pedigree (i.e., Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation and his son Hanoverhill Starbuck), accounted for 30% of inbreeding. Analyses revealed that the most important cause of genetic diversity loss in both breeds was genetic drift accumulated over nonfounder generations, which occurred due to small effective population size. Therefore, a need exists in both breeds, particularly in Jerseys, for managing selection and mating decisions to control future coancestry and inbreeding, which would lead to better handling of the effective population size. PMID:21943766

Stachowicz, K; Sargolzaei, M; Miglior, F; Schenkel, F S

2011-10-01

18

Polymorphism in the 5?-UTR of the insulin-like growth factor I gene associated with production traits in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) gene plays important roles in the growth and body composition of animals. Serum IGF1 concentration has been associated with growth traits in many livestock species. We found a polymorphism of cattle IGF1-TasI locus and analyzed the distribution of alleles in three cattle breeds, including Qinchuan, Nanyang, and Chinese Holstein. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that allele A was the dominant allele. The frequencies of allele A varied from 0.84 to 0.97. Distributions of genotypic and allelic frequencies were significantly different among breeds. Polymorphism of the IGF1 gene was significantly affecting hucklebone width at 6 months in the Nanyang breed and protein and fat yield of the third lactation in Chinese Holstein cattle. Individuals with allele C had a significantly higher performance in production traits. PMID:25177970

Zhang, L-Z; Ren, G; Hua, L-S; Lan, X-Y; Lei, C-Z; Chen, H

2014-01-01

19

Association between BoLA-DRB3 and somatic cell count in Holstein cattle from Argentina.  

PubMed

Different studies have proved that the resistance/susceptibility to mastitis is genetically determined. The major histocompatibility complex in cows is known as bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA). Genes from the BoLA have been associated with the occurrence of infectious diseases such as mastitis and leukosis, especially the BoLA-DRB gene. The object of the present study was to detect associations between BoLA-DRB3 alleles and somatic cell count (SCC), as an indicator of resistance/susceptibility to mastitis in Holstein cattle (N = 123) from La Pampa, Argentina. Fisher's exact test and Woolf-Haldane odds ratio were applied to study the association between SCC and BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies. Significant association was noted between BoLA-DRB3.2*23 and *27 alleles (p < 0.05) and protective or susceptibility effects, respectively. In addition, alleles BoLA-DRB3.2*20 and *25 exhibit suggestive association with high SCC (p < 0.1). These results were partially in agreement with data reported from Japanese Holstein cattle, but differed from those published by other authors. A possible explanation for the contrasting results could be that the mastitis is a multifactor disease caused by different pathogens. Moreover, most of the studies were carried out using PCR-RFLP method, which has less resolution than PCR-SBT because PCR-RFLP defined alleles included more than one sequenced alleles. PMID:22531932

Baltian, L R; Ripoli, M V; Sanfilippo, S; Takeshima, S N; Aida, Y; Giovambattista, G

2012-07-01

20

Haplotype analysis of TLR4 gene and its effects on milk somatic cell score in Chinese commercial cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine mastitis is a very complex and common disease of dairy cattle and a major source of economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the bovine TLR4 was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. This study aimed to analyze the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype and somatic cell score (SCS) in 404 Chinese commercial dairy cattle including Chinese Holstein, Sanhe cattle and Chinese Simmental breeds. The polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods were used for detecting genotype and allele frequency distribution of the two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064), statistical results showed that T allele at rs8193062 and C allele at rs8193064 were the predominate alleles. Moreover, six SNPs, including two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064) and four SNPs (rs8193060, rs8193069, rs29017188, rs8193046) which were chosen according the polymorphism level for the same cattle populations in previous studies, were used for haplotype analysis, the results revealed that twenty-one haplotypes were found in the mentioned animals, of which, Hap1 (30.5 %) and Hap2 (30.4 %) were the most common haplotypes. Hap2, Hap4 and Hap12 might negatively effect on milk SCS, whereas Hap13 might positively effect on milk SCS. The results in this study might assist in marker assisted selection and provided some reference to be implemented in breeding programs to improve the mastitis resistance of dairy cattle. PMID:24415303

Wang, Xing Ping; Luoreng, Zhuo Ma; Gao, Shu Xin; Guo, Dong Sheng; Li, Jun Ya; Gao, Xue; Xu, Shang Zhong; Li, Feng; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin Ren

2014-04-01

21

Identification and diversity of bovine major histocompatibility complex class II haplotypes in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle in Japan.  

PubMed

Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA), the major histocompatibility complex of cattle, is one of the most polymorphic gene clusters. We genotyped a population of 109 Japanese Black and 39 Holstein cattle to analyze their BoLA class II haplotypes, BoLA-DRB3 locus, 5 BoLA-DQA loci, and 5 BoLA-DQB loci. We identified 26 previously reported DRB3 alleles, 22 previously reported and 3 new DQA alleles, and 24 previously reported and 6 new DQB alleles. A dendrogram was constructed based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the ?1 or ?1 domains encoded by BoLA-DQA or -DQB alleles, which revealed that DQA alleles were clustered into 5 loci, whereas DQB alleles could not be clearly assigned to specific DQB loci. The BoLA-DRB3-DQA-DQB haplotypes were sorted by sequential analytical processes, and 42 distinct haplotypes, including 11 previously published haplotypes and 31 novel haplotypes, were defined. Strong linkage disequilibrium was present in the BoLA genes. We also compared DRB3-DQA1 haplotype frequencies between 507 Japanese Black and 143 Holstein cattle. Thirty-nine DRB3-DQA1 haplotypes were identified, including 29 haplotypes from Japanese Black and 22 haplotypes from Holstein cattle. The majority of the haplotypes could be identified in both breeds, although several haplotypes were identified in only a single breed. This is the first report presenting a detailed study of the BoLA class II haplotype in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle in Japan. PMID:22192221

Miyasaka, T; Takeshima, S-N; Sentsui, H; Aida, Y

2012-01-01

22

Effect of BoLA-DRB3 exon2 polymorphisms on lameness of Chinese Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The involvement of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) in immune system and its role in susceptibility/resistance to infectious diseases has been extensively studied. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the association between BoLA and gait scores. Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in BoLA gene are associated with susceptibility of lameness in 435 Chinese Holstein cows. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3.2 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with three restriction endonucleases (BstUI, BstYI and HaeIII). The relationship between the polymorphisms in BoLA-DRB3.2 gene and gait scores was analyzed by least-squares linear model. The gait score was non-significant among all five BstUI-RFLP and BstYI-RFLP genotypes. However, analysis of seven HaeIII-RFLP genotypes revealed a significantly higher gait score for AB genotype than others. In conclusion, BoLA-DRB3.2 may be a candidate gene for lameness susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:23065285

Sun, Liping; Song, Yapan; Riaz, Hasan; Yang, Liguo

2013-02-01

23

Genetic parameters for body condition score, locomotion, angularity, and production traits in Italian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The objectives of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for body condition score (BCS) and locomotion (LOC), and to assess their relationships with angularity (ANG), milk yield, fat and protein content, and fat to protein content ratio (F:P) in the Italian Holstein Friesian breed. The Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association collects type trait data once on all registered first lactation cows. Body condition score and LOC were introduced in the conformation scoring system in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Variance (and covariance) components among traits were estimated with a Bayesian approach via a Gibbs sampling algorithm and an animal model. Heritability estimates were 0.114 and 0.049 for BCS and LOC, respectively. The genetic correlation between BCS and LOC was weak (-0.084) and not different from zero; therefore, the traits seem to be genetically independent, but further investigation on possible departures from linearity of this relationship is needed. Angularity was strongly negatively correlated with BCS (-0.612), and strongly positively correlated with LOC (0.650). The genetic relationship of milk yield with BCS was moderately negative (-0.386), and was moderately positive (0.238) with LOC. These results indicate that high-producing cows tend to be thinner and tend to have better locomotion than low-producing cows. The genetic correlation of BCS with fat content (0.094) and F:P (-0.014) was very weak and not different from zero, and with protein content (0.173) was weak but different from zero. Locomotion was weakly correlated with fat content (0.071), protein content (0.028), and F:P (0.074), and correlations were not different from zero. Phenotypic correlations were generally weaker than their genetic counterparts, ranging from -0.241 (BCS with ANG) to 0.245 (LOC with ANG). Before including BCS and LOC in the selection index of the Italian Holstein breed, the correlations with other traits currently used to improve type and functionality of animals need to be investigated. PMID:23726426

Battagin, M; Sartori, C; Biffani, S; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

2013-08-01

24

Genetic association analysis of paratuberculosis forms in holstein-friesian cattle.  

PubMed

A genetic susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants has been longtime suspected to exist. Recently, natural infections in cattle have been reclassified into latent and patent forms based on histopathological findings and their associations with immunological and microbiological variables. This study aims to explore whether these newly defined phenotypes are associated with twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six bovine candidate genes: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1), nuclear body protein SP110 (SP110), toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, and CD209 (also known as DC-SIGN, dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin). SNPs were genotyped for 772 Holstein-Friesian animals (52.6% apparently free; 38.1% latent; 9.3% patent) by TaqMan OpenArray technology. Genotypic-phenotypic associations were assessed by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age at slaughter, under five models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and log-additive), and corrected for multiple testing. The rs208222804 C allele (CD209 gene) was found to be associated with latent paratuberculosis (log-additive model: P < 0.0034 after permutation procedure; OR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.48-0.86). No significant association was detected between any SNP and the patent phenotype. Consequently, CD209 gene may play a key role in the pathogenesis of bovine paratuberculosis. PMID:24971191

Vázquez, Patricia; Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Garrido, Joseba M; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Agirre, Mikel; Estonba, Andone; Juste, Ramón A

2014-01-01

25

Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position. PMID:19254385

Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frederic; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W

2009-01-01

26

Genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity for milk and milk quality in Walloon Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Animals that are robust to environmental changes are desirable in the current dairy industry. Genetic differences in micro-environmental sensitivity can be studied through heterogeneity of residual variance between animals. However, residual variance between animals is usually assumed to be homogeneous in traditional genetic evaluations. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic heterogeneity of residual variance by estimating variance components in residual variance for milk yield, somatic cell score, contents in milk (g/dL) of 2 groups of milk fatty acids (i.e., saturated and unsaturated fatty acids), and the content in milk of one individual fatty acid (i.e., oleic acid, C18:1 cis-9), for first-parity Holstein cows in the Walloon Region of Belgium. A total of 146,027 test-day records from 26,887 cows in 747 herds were available. All cows had at least 3 records and a known sire. These sires had at least 10 cows with records and each herd × test-day had at least 5 cows. The 5 traits were analyzed separately based on fixed lactation curve and random regression test-day models for the mean. Estimation of variance components was performed by running iteratively expectation maximization-REML algorithm by the implementation of double hierarchical generalized linear models. Based on fixed lactation curve test-day mean models, heritability for residual variances ranged between 1.01×10(-3) and 4.17×10(-3) for all traits. The genetic standard deviation in residual variance (i.e., approximately the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance) ranged between 0.12 and 0.17. Therefore, some genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity existed in the Walloon Holstein dairy cattle for the 5 studied traits. The standard deviations due to herd × test-day and permanent environment in residual variance ranged between 0.36 and 0.45 for herd × test-day effect and between 0.55 and 0.97 for permanent environmental effect. Therefore, nongenetic effects also contributed substantially to micro-environmental sensitivity. Addition of random regressions to the mean model did not reduce heterogeneity in residual variance and that genetic heterogeneity of residual variance was not simply an effect of an incomplete mean model. PMID:23871372

Vandenplas, J; Bastin, C; Gengler, N; Mulder, H A

2013-09-01

27

Impact of Variation at the FTO Locus on Milk Fat Yield in Holstein Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO) gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans. PMID:23691044

Zielke, Lea G.; Bortfeldt, Ralf H.; Reissmann, Monika; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

2013-01-01

28

Identification of loci associated with tolerance to Johne's disease in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), is a fatal disease in cattle. The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tolerance in cows infected with Map. Tolerance was defined as a cow's fitness at a given level of Map infection intensity. Fitness was measured by Map faecal cultures, and Map infection intensity was measured by culturing four gut tissues. The quantitative phenotype of tolerance was defined by numerical indexes of cultures of peak (peak tolerance, PT) and average (average tolerance, AT) faecal and tissue Map from 245 Holstein cows. The categorical phenotype was defined as: ? 100 cfu Map tissue infection, and faecal shedding ? 75 cfu (intolerant) or <10 cfu (tolerant cows). In 94 cows, Map was identified in ? 1 tissue, including 44 cows with ? 100 Map tissue cfu and 36 with ? 1 faecal cfu. A genome-wide association analysis was performed after filtering, leaving genotypes for 45,789 SNPs in 90 animals for the quantitative phenotype and 16 cases and 25 controls for the categorical analysis of tolerance. rs41748405:A>C (BTA15) was associated with PT (P = 1.12 × 10(-7)) and AT (P = 2.17 × 10(-6)). Associations were identified with PT and adjacent SNPs ss61512613:A>G and ss61530518:A>G (BTA6) (P < 3.0 × 10(-5)), and with AT for ss61469568:A>G (BTA 2) (P = 3.3 × 10(-5)) and ss86284768:A>G (BTA1) (P = 3.31 × 10(-5)). For the categorical phenotype, an association was found with ss8632653:A>G (BTA6) (P < 5.0 × 10(-5)). This is the first study to identify loci associated with tolerance to Johne's disease. PMID:20477805

Zanella, R; Settles, M L; McKay, S D; Schnabel, R; Taylor, J; Whitlock, R H; Schukken, Y; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Neibergs, H L

2011-02-01

29

Glucose metabolism in vivo in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on different types of roughage during late pregnancy and early lactation.  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out to study the glucose kinetics of crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on either hay or 5% urea treated rice straw during late pregnancy (21 days prepartum) and early lactation (30 days postpartum). In all 16 pregnant heifers (23-25 months of age) were selected for the experiments, including eight animals of two breed types, Holstein Friesian x Red Sindhi (50:50 = 50% HF) and Holstein Friesian x Red Sindhi (87.5:12.5 = 87.5% HF). They were divided into four groups of four animals each. Animals from the same breed type in each group were fed with either rice straw treated with 5% urea or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage throughout the experiments. The glucose turnover rate in both types of crossbred Holstein cattle was determined using a continuous infusion of [U-14C] and 3-[3H]glucose during late pregnancy and early lactation. Total glucose entry and utilization rates increased significantly during lactation for all groups. Recycling of [C]glucose was, approximately 20% in both crossbred cattle fed either hay or urea treated rice straw and was unaffected by the stage of late pregnancy or early lactation. Comparing 50 and 87.5% HF animals, arterial plasma glucose concentrations were slightly higher during pregnant periods but significantly higher in lactating periods in 50% HF animals. The ratio of specific radioactivity of arterial blood bicarbonate relative to that of arterial blood [14C]glucose in the lactating period, significantly decreased in 50% HF animals fed either urea treated rice straw or hay. An increase in udder blood flow during early lactation was significantly higher in 87.5% HF animals than in 50% HF animals. The uptake, arteriovenous differences and extraction ratio for glucose across the udder, significantly increased in the lactating period for all crossbred animals. Glucose uptake by the udder of 87.5% HF animals accounted for 65% of the total glucose turnover rate compared to a value of 46% in the lactating 50% HF animals. It can be concluded that both crossbred cattle fed either urea treated rice straw or hay exhibit the same body glucose turnover rate. The 87.5% HF animal has the genetic potential for a high milk yield and has high body and udder glucose metabolisms compared with 50% HF animals. PMID:9773484

Chaiyabutr, N; Komolvanich, S; Sawangkoon, S; Preuksagorn, S; Chanpongsang, S

1998-04-01

30

Characterization of naturally occurring cutaneous neurofibromatosis in Holstein cattle. A disorder resembling neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis in cattle is typically a noncutaneous disease. A small group of cows in a Holstein dairy herd developed cutaneous neurofibromatosis. This unique condition was investigated and compared with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in humans. All cutaneous lesions but one were consistent with neurofibromas in noncutaneous sites in cattle and neurofibromas in patients with NF1. One bovine lesion was classified as a neurofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy supported Schwannian differentiation in benign and malignant lesions. Linkage analysis with a polymorphism in the bovine NF1 gene confirmed that two affected animals from the same sire inherited the same paternal NF1 allele. Bovine cutaneous neurofibromatosis is a naturally occurring disease in this group of animals, characterized by skin tumors morphologically identical to those of NF1. An informative polymorphism at the NF1 locus of two animals and their sire suggests this disorder may be caused by hereditary mutations at the bovine NF1 locus. PMID:7977647

Sartin, E A; Doran, S E; Riddell, M G; Herrera, G A; Tennyson, G S; D'Andrea, G; Whitley, R D; Collins, F S

1994-11-01

31

PLCz Functional Haplotypes Modulating Promoter Transcriptional Activity Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter. PMID:23554927

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

2013-01-01

32

Effects of parity on uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activities in postpartum Chinese Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

Favorable uterine involution and ovarian activity are very important for the next reproductive cycle of postpartum cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parity on uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in Chinese Holstein dairy cows after calving under similar postpartum nutritional conditions. Traits of the status of uterus and ovaries detected by ultrasonography, dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, body condition score (BCS), and estradiol concentration in milk samples were analyzed for 46 Chinese Holstein dairy cows in various parities (primiparous=18; biparous=13; multiparous=15). The results showed that there was no significant difference for DMI, BCS, and milk yield among different parities; all cows were considered to be under similar nutritional conditions. Days of the previous gravid uterine horn involution were significantly greater in primiparous dairy cows than in biparous and multiparous dairy cows. Days from calving to ovulation (first and second) and the number of follicular waves to first ovulation were significantly greater in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows. In summary, there was a significant negative relationship between parity and postpartum uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in Chinese Holstein cows under similar body conditions. PMID:20412911

Zhang, J; Deng, L X; Zhang, H L; Hua, G H; Han, L; Zhu, Y; Meng, X J; Yang, L G

2010-05-01

33

Expression, SNV identification, linkage disequilibrium, and combined genotype association analysis of the muscle-specific gene CSRP3 in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

The cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) plays an important role in the myofiber differentiation. Here, we identified five SNVs in all exon and intron regions of the CSRP3 gene using DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and forced-PCR-RFLP methods in 554 cattle. Four of the five SNVs were significantly associated with growth performance and carcass traits of the cattle. In addition, we evaluated haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium coefficient of five sequence variants. The result of haplotype analysis demonstrated 28 haplotypes present in Qinchuan and two haplotypes in Chinese Holstein. Only haplotypes 1 and 8 were being shared by two populations, haplotype 14 had the highest haplotype frequency in Qinchuan (17.4%) and haplotype 8 had the highest haplotype frequency in Chinese Holstein (94.4%). Statistical analyses of combined genotypes indicated that some combined genotypes were significantly or highly significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. qPCR analyses also showed that bovine CSRP3 gene was exclusively expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle and heart tissues. The data support the high potential of the CSRP3 as a marker gene for the improvement of growth performance and carcass traits in selection programs. PMID:24279998

He, Hua; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Li, Zhi-Xiong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Lin

2014-02-01

34

Accuracy of imputation to whole-genome sequence data in Holstein Friesian cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The use of whole-genome sequence data can lead to higher accuracy in genome-wide association studies and genomic predictions. However, to benefit from whole-genome sequence data, a large dataset of sequenced individuals is needed. Imputation from SNP panels, such as the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, to whole-genome sequence data is an attractive and less expensive approach to obtain whole-genome sequence genotypes for a large number of individuals than sequencing all individuals. Our objective was to investigate accuracy of imputation from lower density SNP panels to whole-genome sequence data in a typical dataset for cattle. Methods Whole-genome sequence data of chromosome 1 (1737 471 SNPs) for 114 Holstein Friesian bulls were used. Beagle software was used for imputation from the BovineSNP50 (3132 SNPs) and BovineHD (40 492 SNPs) beadchips. Accuracy was calculated as the correlation between observed and imputed genotypes and assessed by five-fold cross-validation. Three scenarios S40, S60 and S80 with respectively 40%, 60%, and 80% of the individuals as reference individuals were investigated. Results Mean accuracies of imputation per SNP from the BovineHD panel to sequence data and from the BovineSNP50 panel to sequence data for scenarios S40 and S80 ranged from 0.77 to 0.83 and from 0.37 to 0.46, respectively. Stepwise imputation from the BovineSNP50 to BovineHD panel and then to sequence data for scenario S40 improved accuracy per SNP to 0.65 but it varied considerably between SNPs. Conclusions Accuracy of imputation to whole-genome sequence data was generally high for imputation from the BovineHD beadchip, but was low from the BovineSNP50 beadchip. Stepwise imputation from the BovineSNP50 to the BovineHD beadchip and then to sequence data substantially improved accuracy of imputation. SNPs with a low minor allele frequency were more difficult to impute correctly and the reliability of imputation varied more. Linkage disequilibrium between an imputed SNP and the SNP on the lower density panel, minor allele frequency of the imputed SNP and size of the reference group affected imputation reliability. PMID:25022768

2014-01-01

35

National Genetic Evaluation for Test-Day Milk Yield of First Parity Using Random Regression Test-Day Animal Model in Korean Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single trait of random regression an imal model was used to estimate genetic parameters of test day milk yield for Korean Holstein cattles. The model u sed for the analysis included the fixed effect of herd test day effect with regression coefficients to well describe the lactation curve nested within age and season classes and random effects of additive

S. D. Kim; K. J. Han; J. H. Cho; G. J. Jeon; H. K. Lee; D. H. Lee

36

Association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CXCR1 gene with the milk performance traits of Chinese native cattle.  

PubMed

Mastitis is an economically devastating disease affecting the dairy industry. Dairy cows with mastitis give reduced milk yield and produce milk that is unfit for consumption. The chemokine receptor CXCR1 is an excellent prospective genetic marker for mastitis resistance in cattle because it regulates neutrophil migration, killing, and survival during infection. We detected 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CXCR1 gene in Chinese native cattle and analyzed their associations with milk traits. Screening for genetic variations in CXCR1 among 648 Chinese Holstein, Luxi Yellow, and Bohai Black cattle by created restriction site polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, and DNA sequencing revealed 4 new SNPs with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.676 to 0.821, 0.706 to 0.803, 0.647 to 0.824, and 0.558 to 0.581. All four CXCR1 gene SNPs were located in exon II. Two SNPs, c.337A>G and c.365C>T, were nonsynonymous mutations [ATC (Ile) > GTC (Val) and GCC (Ala) > GTC (Val)], whereas two, c.291C>T and c.333C>T, were synonymous mutations [TTC (Gly) > TTT (Gly) and GGC (Phe) > GGT (Phe)]. Statistical analyses revealed the significant association of c.337A>G and c.365C>T with the somatic cell score, which suggests the possible role of these SNPs in the host response against mastitis. Our data suggest that combined genotypes CCAC/CCGC, CCAC/CTAT, and CCAT/CTAT (lowest somatic cell scores); CTAC/CTAT (highest protein rate); CCAC/CTGC (highest fat rate); and CCAT/CTAT (highest 305-day milk yield) can be used as possible candidates for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:23979897

Zhou, L; Wang, H M; Ju, Z H; Zhang, Y; Huang, J M; Qi, C; Hou, M H; An, L G; Zhong, J F; Wang, C F

2013-01-01

37

Glucose metabolism in crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on two types of roughage at different stages of lactation.  

PubMed

An experiment was performed to study the glucose kinetics of crossbred Holstein cattle feeding on either hay or 5% urea-treated rice straw during early lactation (30 days post partum), mid-lactation (120 days post partum) and late lactation (210 days post partum). Two breeds: Holstein FriesianxRed Sindhi (50:50 = 50% HF) and Holstein FriesianxRed Sindhi (87.5:12.5 = 87.5% HF) were used. In early lactating 87.5% HF animals feeding on either hay or urea-treated rice straw, the high milk yields and lactose secretion were related to glucose uptake by the udder and udder blood flow as compared with those of 50% HF animals. Marked decreases in udder blood flow, glucose uptake, lactose secretion and milk yield were apparent in mid- and late lactation of both groups of 87.5% HF animals. In contrast, both groups of 50% HF animals showed no significant changes in udder blood flow, udder glucose uptake, lactose secretion and milk yields throughout the course of lactation. Total glucose entry rate using 3-[3H] glucose infusion, recycling of glucose carbon and plasma glucose clearance significantly increased during late lactation for 50 and 87.5% HF animals feeding on urea-treated rice straw. The utilization rates of glucose using [U-(14)C] glucose infusion were not significantly different among groups of animals and periods of lactation. It can be concluded that 87.5% HF animals have the genetic potential for a higher milk yield, but a shorter peak yield and poorer persistence in comparison with 50% HF animals. Changes in the utilization of glucose by the mammary gland for milk production in both groups of crossbred animals during feeding on either hay or urea-treated rice straw would be dependent on intramammary changes. PMID:10779738

Chaiyabutr, N; Preuksagorn, S; Komolvanich, S; Chanpongsang, S

2000-01-01

38

Prediction of Excretion of Manure and Nitrogen by Holstein Dairy Cattle1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of N balance data (n = 1801) was partitioned into four groups to define the mean excre- tion of manure and N and to develop empirical equa- tions to estimate these excretions from Holstein herds. Mean excretion of manure for cows that aver- aged 29 kg\\/d of milk production was 3 kg\\/d per 1000 kg of body weight

V. A. WILKERSON; D. R. MERTENS; D. P. CASPER

1993-01-01

39

Performance of Holstein and Crossbred Dairy Cattle in Louisiona. II1. rHeolth ond Viability 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viability and health disorders were compared for straightbred Holsteins and crosses between Holsteins, Brown Swiss, Jerseys, and Red Sindhis. In addition, effects of mating systems and effects of various parts of Red Sindhi heredity on these traits were evaluated. Losses be- fore first calving per 100 females born alive were: Holsteins 22; Holstein-sired crosses 20: Brown Swiss-sired crosses 26; daughters

B. F. HOLLON; C. BRANTON

40

Evaluating alternate models to estimate genetic parameters of calving traits in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The focus in dairy cattle breeding is gradually shifting from production to functional traits and genetic parameters of calving traits are estimated more frequently. However, across countries, various statistical models are used to estimate these parameters. This study evaluates different models for calving ease and stillbirth in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian cattle. Methods Data from first and later parity records were used. Genetic parameters for calving ease, stillbirth and gestation length were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method, considering different models i.e. sire (?maternal grandsire), animal, univariate and bivariate models. Gestation length was fitted as a correlated indicator trait and, for all three traits, genetic correlations between first and later parities were estimated. Potential bias in estimates was avoided by acknowledging a possible environmental direct-maternal covariance. The total heritable variance was estimated for each trait to discuss its theoretical importance and practical value. Prediction error variances and accuracies were calculated to compare the models. Results and discussion On average, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving traits were low, except for direct gestation length. Calving ease in first parity had a significant and negative direct-maternal genetic correlation. Gestation length was maternally correlated to stillbirth in first parity and directly correlated to calving ease in later parities. Multi-trait models had a slightly greater predictive ability than univariate models, especially for the lowly heritable traits. The computation time needed for sire (?maternal grandsire) models was much smaller than for animal models with only small differences in accuracy. The sire (?maternal grandsire) model was robust when additional genetic components were estimated, while the equivalent animal model had difficulties reaching convergence. Conclusions For the evaluation of calving traits, multi-trait models show a slight advantage over univariate models. Extended sire models (?maternal grandsire) are more practical and robust than animal models. Estimated genetic parameters for calving traits of UK Holstein cattle are consistent with literature. Calculating an aggregate estimated breeding value including direct and maternal values should encourage breeders to consider both direct and maternal effects in selection decisions. PMID:22839757

2012-01-01

41

Effect of Artificial Selection on Runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins. PMID:24348915

Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B.; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Crooker, Brian A.; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S.

2013-01-01

42

Effect of artificial selection on runs of homozygosity in u.s. Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins. PMID:24348915

Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Crooker, Brian A; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S

2013-01-01

43

Polymorphisms of the bovine growth differentiation factor 9 gene associated with superovulation performance in Chinese Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) belongs to the transforming growth factor ? superfamily and plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate. We examined the bovine GDF9 gene polymorphism and analyzed its association with superovulation performance. Based on the sequence of the bovine GDF9 gene, six pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of two exons and intron 1 of GDF9 using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism. Only the products amplified by primer 3-1 displayed polymorphisms. Sequencing revealed two mutations of A485T and A625T in intron 1 of the GDF9 gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation. Association analysis showed that these two single nucleotide polymorphisms of A485T and A625T had significant effects on the number of transferable embryos (P < 0.05), and the A625T polymorphism was significantly associated with the total number of ova (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant additive effect on the number of transferable embryos was detected in polymorphisms of A485T (P < 0.05). This study is the first to identify two polymorphisms in bovine GDF9 and describe their correlation with superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:23420363

Tang, K Q; Yang, W C; Li, S J; Yang, L-G

2013-01-01

44

Changes of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in mammary epithelial cells during mammogenesis in Chinese Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of the research was to study the changes of the major organelles, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, in mammary epithelial cells of the Chinese Holstein dairy cow during mammogenesis. For this purpose, a mammary epithelial cell bank was established from 9 selected Chinese Holstein dairy cows using collagenase I digestion and attachment culture biotechniques. This cell bank included 9 samples at stages of pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes of ER and mitochondria in the mammary cells were observed at the subcellular level using living cell fluorescent labeling and laser confocal microscopy. Subsequently, the area of integrated optical density of each sample was calculated to determine changes of ER and mitochondria in the mammary epithelial cells. The results showed clear differences in the epithelial major organelles during the various mammary gland development stages. The ER and mitochondria, as an indicator of lactogenic activity of alveolar secretory cells, increased in number from pregnancy to lactation by an average 37.32% and 18.44%, respectively, which was followed by a reduction at involution by an average 38.04% and 22.91% compared to lactation. Our study shows that the stages of mammogenesis are accompanied by changes in activity of the major organelles of the mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21920588

Qu, Bo; Jiang, Yujun; Zhao, Feng; Xiao, Jianhua; Li, Qing Zhang

2012-09-01

45

A candidate gene association study for nine economically important traits in Italian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

We genotyped 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 25 candidate genes in about 800 Italian Holstein sires. Fifty-six (minor allele frequency >0.02) were used to evaluate their association with single traits: milk yield (MY), milk fat yield (FY), milk protein yield (PY), milk fat percentage (FP), milk protein percentage (PP), milk somatic cell count (MSCC); and complex indexes: longevity, fertility and productivity-functionality type (PFT), using deregressed proofs, after adjustment for familial relatedness. Thirty-two SNPs were significantly associated (proportion of false positives <0.05) with different traits: 16 with MSCC, 15 with PY, 14 with MY, 12 with PFT, eight with longevity, eight with FY, eight with PP, five with FP and two with fertility. In particular, a SNP in the promoter region of the PRLR gene was associated with eight of nine traits. DGAT1 polymorphisms were highly associated with FP and FY. Casein gene markers were associated with several traits, confirming the role of the casein gene cluster in affecting milk yield, milk quality and health traits. Other SNPs in genes located on chromosome 6 were associated with PY, PP, PFT, MY (PPARGC1A) and MSCC (KIT). This latter association may suggest a biological link between the degree of piebaldism in Holstein and immunological functions affecting somatic cell count and mastitis resistance. Other significant SNPs were in the ACACA, CRH, CXCR1, FASN, GH1, LEP, LGB (also known as PAEP), MFGE8, SRC, TG, THRSP and TPH1 genes. These results provide information that can complement QTL mapping and genome-wide association studies in Holstein. PMID:24796806

Fontanesi, L; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Negrini, R; Marino, R; Nardone, A; Ajmone-Marsan, P; Russo, V

2014-08-01

46

Population genetic analysis of 6 Y-STR loci in Chinese northwestern Qinchuan yellow cattle breed.  

PubMed

Six Y-STR loci (UMN0929, UMN0108, UMN0920, INRA124, UMN2404 and UMN0103) were analyzed using 576 healthy and unrelated males and 10 females of the Qinchuan cattle population in Chinese Shaanxi Province. Allele frequency, gene diversity, the polymorphic information content, and the number of effective gene were calculated. All loci were in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The population data were compared with published data of other cattle breeds, suggesting that Qinchuan cattle were originated primarily from Bos Taurus. Results are valuable for individual identification, paternity testing, and origin analysis of Qinchuan cattle breed. PMID:19823952

Xin, Yaping; Zan, Linsen; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Hongyu; Tian, Wanqiang; Fan, Yueyuan; Huang, Lei

2010-07-01

47

Effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition and related indices in Chinese Holstein cows in northern China.  

PubMed

This study was to investigate the effects of seasonal change and parity on milk composition and related indices, and to analyze the relationships among milk indices in Chinese Holstein cows from an intensive dairy farm in northern China. The 6,520 sets of complete Dairy Herd Improvement data were obtained and grouped by natural month and parity. The data included daily milk yield (DMY), milk solids percentage (MSP), milk fat percentage (MFP), milk protein percentage (MPP), milk lactose percentage (MLP), somatic cell count (SCC), somatic cell score (SCS), milk production loss (MPL), and fat-to-protein ratio (FPR). Data analysis showed that the above 9 indices were affected by both seasonal change and parity. However, the interaction between parity and seasonal change showed effects on MLP, SCS, MPL, and DMY, but no effects on MFP, MPP, MSP, and FPR. Duncan's multiple comparison on seasonal change showed that DMY (23.58 kg/d), MSP (12.35%), MPP (3.02%), and MFP (3.81%) were the lowest in June, but SCC (288.7 × 10(3)/mL) and MPL (0.69 kg/d) were the lowest in January; FPR (1.32) was the highest in February. Meanwhile, Duncan's multiple comparison on parities showed that MSP, MPP, and MLP were reduced rapidly in the fourth lactation, but SCC and MPL increased with increasing parities. The canonical correlation analysis for indices showed that SCS had high positive correlation with MPL (0.8360). Therefore, a few models were developed to quantify the effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition using the Wood model. The changing patterns of milk composition and related indices in different months and parities could provide scientific evidence for improving feeding management and nutritional supplementation of Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:24054296

Yang, L; Yang, Q; Yi, M; Pang, Z H; Xiong, B H

2013-11-01

48

Genome Wide Analysis of Fertility and Production Traits in Italian Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits. PMID:24265800

Stella, Alessandra; Biffani, Stefano; Negrini, Riccardo; Lazzari, Barbara; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Williams, John L .

2013-01-01

49

Identification of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein populations using a next generation sequencer.  

PubMed

Bovine leucocyte antigen (encoded by BoLA) has been widely studied to identify the association with many traits related to immunity. Exon2 of BoLA-DRB3 is extremely polymorphic, and more than 100 alleles have been identified. We investigated polymorphisms of BoLA-DRB3.2 in Korean native cattle and Holstein populations using a next generation sequencer of the GS-FLX Titanium system. We found 38 alleles including 11 new alleles (BoLA-DRB3*1303, *4702, *7101, *7501, *7201, *7301, *7601, *1104, *7701, *7401 and *50021) in Hanwoo, and nine alleles including one new allele (BoLA-DRB3*7601) in Holstein. The 454 sequencing method is a promising alternative technology for high throughput genotyping of BoLA-DRB3.2 because of its technical advantages that allow it to overcome the disadvantages of sequence-based typing methods. PMID:22497659

Lee, Bo-Young; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Heebal

2012-08-01

50

High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Holsteins Compared to Zebu Breeds under Field Cattle Husbandry in Central Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either zebus (22.2% versus 11.6%, ?2 = 61.8; P < 0.001) or crosses (22.2% versus 11.9%, ?2 = 50.7; P < 0.001). Moreover, the severity of pathology in Holsteins (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 6.84 ± 0.79) was significantly higher (P = 0.018) than the severity of pathology in zebus (5.21 ± 0.30). In addition, the risk of TB in Holsteins was more than twice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89, 2.85) that in zebus. Animals between 5 and 9 years of age were at higher (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.80, 3.12) risk of bovine TB than those 2 years of age or below. A significant difference (?2 = 351; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of TB lesions in lymph nodes was recorded; the mesenteric lymph node (mean pathology score ± SEM, 1.95 ± 0.08) was most severely affected, followed by the retropharyngeal (0.80 ± 0.05) and caudal mediastinal (0.8 ± 0.06) lymph nodes. Fifty-six percent (n = 145) of the animals with gross TB lesions were culture positive; the lowest culture positivity was recorded in the skin lesions (27.3%) and the lesions of the mesenteric lymph node (31.5%). Both the skin test response and the postmortem findings suggested a higher susceptibility to bovine TB in Holsteins than zebus under identical field husbandry conditions (on pasture). In the light of increased numbers of Holstein cattle introduced into this area to raise milk production to satisfy the needs of Addis Ababa's growing population, these findings highlight the need for a control program in these herds. PMID:17761523

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2007-01-01

51

The inheritance of the piebald spotting pattern and its variation in Holstein-Friesian cattle and in Landseer-Newfoundland dogs.  

PubMed

The black and white spotting patterns of Landseer dogs are divided into qualitatively recognizable phenotypic classes. Breeding data were obtained from the Swiss Dog Stud Book (SHSB) and from breeders' recent records. A plausible interpretation assumed qualitative inheritance of the generally accepted piebald spotting gene sp1 with at least two modifiers, s2 and s3. The modifier genes are regarded as minor spotting genes and may be responsible for white markings in the related Newfoundland breed which has been cross-bred with Landseers. The proposed scheme of polygenic inheritance can also be applied to the piebald spotting pattern of Holstein-Friesian cattle, using breeding data from literature. PMID:2323567

Pape, H

1990-01-01

52

Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3?-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3?-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3?-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3?-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

53

Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System  

PubMed Central

Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

2014-01-01

54

Short communication: validation of somatic cell score-associated loci identified in a genome-wide association study in German Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Recently, we identified 6 genomic loci affecting daughter yield deviations (DYD) for somatic cell score (SCS) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed with German Holstein bulls. In the current study, we tested if these loci were associated with SCS in cows using their own performance data. The study was performed with 1,412 German Holstein cows, of which 483 were daughters of 71 bulls that had been used in the GWAS. We tested 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) representing 6 genomic regions that were associated with DYD for SCS in bulls. All tested SNP were significant in cows. Seven of them, located on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 6, 13, and 19, had the same direction of effect as those previously reported in the bull population. The most significant associations were detected on BTA6 and BTA19, accounting for 1.8% of the total genetic variance. The major allele of the 2 SNP on BTA6 and the minor allele of the 2 SNP on BTA19 were favorable for lower SCS. The differences between the homozygous genotype classes were up to 15,000 cells/mL. The verification of SNP associated with SCS in this study provides further evidence for the functional role of the linked genomic regions for immune response and contributes to identification of causative mutations. In particular, SNP with minor frequency of the favorable allele possess high potential to reduce SCS in German Holstein cattle by selection. PMID:24485673

Abdel-Shafy, Hamdy; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Reissmann, Monika; Brockmann, Gudrun A

2014-04-01

55

A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism within the Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 Gene Perfectly Coincides with Polledness in Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

Polledness is a high impact trait in modern milk and beef production to meet the demands of animal welfare and work safety. Previous studies have mapped the polled-locus to the proximal region of the bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) and narrowed it down to approximately 1 Mb. Sequencing of the positional candidate genes within the 1 Mb polled region and whole genome sequencing of Holsteins revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) AC000158: g.1390292G>A within intron 3 of the interferon gamma receptor 2 gene (IFNGR2) in perfect co-segregation with polledness in Holsteins. This complete association was validated in 443 animals of the same breed. This SNP allows reliable genotyping of horned, heterozygous and homozygous polled Holsteins, even in animals that could not be resolved using the previously published haplotype for Holstein. PMID:23805331

Dierks, Claudia; Wohlke, Anne; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

2013-01-01

56

Mutations in lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene change the susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein.  

PubMed

Mastitis is an unsolved human challenge all dairy farms facing with, which leads to immeasurable economic loss to the farmers. LBP gene plays a vital role in the innate immune recognition of Gram-negative bacterium that is a major cause of bovine clinical mastitis, but little is known about LBP mutations and their effects on cows' susceptibility to clinical mastitis. In this study, PCR-SSCP method was adopted to analyze SNPs of LBP gene in Chinese Holstein for the first time. 17 SNPs were found in the promoter core region, exon1, exon2, exon3, exon4 and exon8. The mutation g.-81C ? T in promoter leads to an AP-2 binding site lost. Two mutations, g.11T ? C (4 Leu ? Ser) and g.68G ? C (23Gly ? Ala) in signal peptide brought about molecular secondary structural change, meanwhile, g.11T ? C made a Big-1 domain lost, and there was an N-myristoylation site at the g.68G/C locus. The three mutations above were in complete linkage disequilibrium in allele A. In mature LBP protein, five mutations were found: g.3034G ? A(36Asp ? Asn), g.3040A ? G(38Asn ? Asp), g.3056T ? C(43Ile ? Thr) in allele D; g.4619G ? A(67Ala ? Thr) in allele F; 19975G ? A (282Val ? Met) in allele J. And SNPs in allele D and F were in complete linkage disequilibrium, also in which 38Asn ? Asp and 67Ala ? Thr influenced the protein secondary structure. Prediction of the 3-D structure shows mutations 36Asp ? Asn, 38Asn ? Asp and 43 Ile ? Thr were on the concave surface of LBP protein at barrel-N, 67Ala ? Thr was in the apolar pocket at barrel-N. Motif analysis shows 36Asp ? Asn causes loss of a CK2 phosphorylation site, 67 Ala ? Thr forms a new PKC phosphorylation site. And 43Ile ? Thr, 67Ala ? Thr made hydrophobic amino acids to be hydrophilic amino acids. Interestingly, the morbidity of AB (mixed type g.-81C/T, g.11T/C, g.68G/C), CD (mixed type g.3034G/A, g.3040A/G, g.3056T/C) and EF (mixed type g.4619G/A) genotype cows are significant higher than others in this study (P < 0.01), and it can be deduced that the SNPs in these 3 genotypes might affect the secretion of LBP protein and regulate the binding ability of LBP protein to LPS. Taken together, it is revealed that these SNPs may hold the secret of susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein. PMID:22733492

Cheng, Jienan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenxin; Cai, Yafei; Wang, Genlin

2012-10-01

57

Clone of Chinese Jinan redcross yellow cattle and evaluation of reproductive characteristics of cloned calf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell clone technology is a viable approach to preserving endangered livestock and wildlife genetic resources. In the\\u000a present research, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was performed using granulose cells from the critical endangered Chinese\\u000a red-cross yellow cattle as donor cells. A total of 211 oocytes were manipulated and 166 (79%) of them were successfully enucleated.\\u000a 112 (67.4%) SCNT embryos

Yunping Dai; Zhengxing Lian; Huabin Zhu; Guochun Gong; Lili Wang; Haiping Wang; Zhihui Zhao; Qinghong Zhu; Jing Fei; Ning Li

2005-01-01

58

Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. PMID:24952782

Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

2014-08-01

59

Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls  

PubMed Central

Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

2014-01-01

60

Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is one of the most common disorders of the digestive system in many dairy breeds and particularly in Holstein dairy cows. We performed a genome-wide association study for 854 German Holstein cows, including 225 cases and 629 controls. All cows were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After quality control of genotypes, a total of 36,226 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were left for analysis. We used a mixed linear model approach for a genome-wide association study of LDA. In total, 36 SNP located on 17 bovine (Bos taurus) chromosomes (BTA) showed associations with LDA at nominal -log10P-values >3.0. Two of these SNP, located on BTA11 at 46.70 Mb and BTA20 at 16.67 Mb, showed genome-wide significant associations with LDA at -log10P-values >4.6. Pathway analyses indicated genes involved in calcium metabolism and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to be factors in the pathogenesis of LDA in German Holstein cows. PMID:23548285

Mömke, S; Sickinger, M; Lichtner, P; Doll, K; Rehage, J; Distl, O

2013-06-01

61

Accumulation of clenbuterol residues in the hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle during and after treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of clenbuterol residues in the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of clenbuterol for 21 days. This experiment was conducted in six male red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were administered clenbuterol at a dose of 16 and 48 ?g/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively. Hair samples were collected on Days 7, 14 and 21 during treatment, and on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 70 after discontinuation of medication, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. About 500 mg hair samples spiked with 50 pg/mg D9-clenbuterol internal standard were analyzed with which the method recovery was from 88.6 to 116.9%. The results showed that clenbuterol was significantly accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 0.98 ± 0.56 pg/mg in Group 1 and 6.34 ± 3.21 pg/mg in Group 2 on Day 7 of treatment, and the residue concentrations increased as treatment proceeded. During the early withdrawal period, the residues increased from 13.52 ± 8.69 to 17.96 ± 6.94 pg/mg in Group 1 and from 55.15 ± 4.04 to 147.79 ± 15.35 pg/mg in Group 2. No significant differences were found in the later withdrawal period in both treatment groups. The results of the present study indicated that the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle has high accumulation potential for clenbuterol residues. Hair, as a target matrix, even light-pigmented hair, can be used to monitor clenbuterol abuse over a long period. PMID:24327621

Li, Lijun; Zhang, Junmin; Tang, Chaohua; Zhao, Qingyu

2014-01-01

62

Comparison of heritabilities of dairy traits in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle from genomic and pedigree data and implications for genomic evaluations.  

PubMed

The reliability of genomic evaluations depends on the proportion of genetic variation explained by the DNA markers. In this study, we have estimated the proportion of variance in daughter trait deviations (DTDs) of dairy bulls explained by 45 993 genome wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for 29 traits in Australian Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. We compare these proportions to the proportion of variance in DTDs explained by the additive relationship matrix derived from the pedigree, as well as the sum of variance explained by both pedigree and marker information when these were fitted simultaneously. The proportion of genetic variance in DTDs relative to the total genetic variance (the total genetic variance explained by the genomic relationships and pedigree relationships when both were fitted simultaneously) varied from 32% for fertility to approximately 80% for milk yield traits. When fitting genomic and pedigree relationships simultaneously, the variance unexplained (i.e. the residual variance) in DTDs of the total variance for most traits was reduced compared to fitting either individually, suggesting that there is not complete overlap between the effects. The proportion of genetic variance accounted by the genomic relationships can be used to modify the blending equations used to calculate genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) from direct genomic breeding value (DGV) and parent average. Our results, from a validation population of young dairy bulls with DTD, suggest that this modification can improve the reliability of GEBV by up to 5%. PMID:23317062

Haile-Mariam, M; Nieuwhof, G J; Beard, K T; Konstatinov, K V; Hayes, B J

2013-02-01

63

Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Chinese Beef Simmental Cattle Using High-density SNP Panels.  

PubMed

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays an important role in genomic selection and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, the pattern of LD and effective population size (Ne ) were investigated in Chinese beef Simmental cattle. A total of 640 bulls were genotyped with IlluminaBovinSNP50BeadChip and IlluminaBovinHDBeadChip. We estimated LD for each autosomal chromosome at the distance between two random SNPs of <0 to 25 kb, 25 to 50 kb, 50 to 100 kb, 100 to 500 kb, 0.5 to 1 Mb, 1 to 5 Mb and 5 to 10 Mb. The mean values of r(2) were 0.30, 0.16 and 0.08, when the separation between SNPs ranged from 0 to 25 kb to 50 to 100 kb and then to 0.5 to 1 Mb, respectively. The LD estimates decreased as the distance increased in SNP pairs, and increased with the increase of minor allelic frequency (MAF) and with the decrease of sample sizes. Estimates of effective population size for Chinese beef Simmental cattle decreased in the past generations and Ne was 73 at five generations ago. PMID:25049849

Zhu, M; Zhu, B; Wang, Y H; Wu, Y; Xu, L; Guo, L P; Yuan, Z R; Zhang, L P; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Xu, S Z; Li, J Y

2013-06-01

64

Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Chinese Beef Simmental Cattle Using High-density SNP Panels  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays an important role in genomic selection and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, the pattern of LD and effective population size (Ne) were investigated in Chinese beef Simmental cattle. A total of 640 bulls were genotyped with IlluminaBovinSNP50BeadChip and IlluminaBovinHDBeadChip. We estimated LD for each autosomal chromosome at the distance between two random SNPs of <0 to 25 kb, 25 to 50 kb, 50 to 100 kb, 100 to 500 kb, 0.5 to 1 Mb, 1 to 5 Mb and 5 to 10 Mb. The mean values of r2 were 0.30, 0.16 and 0.08, when the separation between SNPs ranged from 0 to 25 kb to 50 to 100 kb and then to 0.5 to 1 Mb, respectively. The LD estimates decreased as the distance increased in SNP pairs, and increased with the increase of minor allelic frequency (MAF) and with the decrease of sample sizes. Estimates of effective population size for Chinese beef Simmental cattle decreased in the past generations and Ne was 73 at five generations ago. PMID:25049849

Zhu, M.; Zhu, B.; Wang, Y. H.; Wu, Y.; Xu, L.; Guo, L. P.; Yuan, Z. R.; Zhang, L. P.; Gao, X.; Gao, H. J.; Xu, S. Z.; Li, J. Y.

2013-01-01

65

Genetic variants in BMP8B gene are associated with growth traits in Chinese native cattle.  

PubMed

As a signaling molecule, bone morphogenetic protein 8B (BMP8B) plays an essential role in bone metabolism and is able to regulate thermogenesis and energy balance, which suggests that BMP8B gene may be a new candidate for growth traits. Here, to characterize the effects of BMP8B gene on growth traits, we first used three Chinese indigenous cattle breeds (n=845) to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five novel SNPs of BMP8B gene (g.-242C>T, g.2164C>T, g.2639T>C, g.2900C>G and g.10817C>T) were identified by DNA pool sequencing and forced PCR-RFLP. And then we associated the five SNPs with four growth traits (body weight, body length, heart girth, and hucklebone width). Results from association analysis showed that the SNPs 1, 2, and 3 affected growth trait(s) markedly (P<0.05). Further, 6 combined haplotypes were constructed to guarantee the reliability of analysis results. There were also significant differences in body length, heart girth and body weight between the 6 combined haplotypes (P<0.05), but not in hucklebone width (P>0.05). Collectively, our results suggest a modulatory role of BMP8B gene in cattle growth and development, and 3 SNPs could be used as molecular markers in early marker assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:24076131

Cao, Xiu-Kai; Wang, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Qi, Xing-Lei; Chen, Hong

2013-12-10

66

Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This component of fertility adds another dimension to selection for fertility that can be used to change the negative genetic progress of reproductive performance presented in this population of Holstein cows. The use of a reaction norm model should allow producers to obtain more robust cows for maintenance of fertility levels along the whole productive life of the cows. PMID:23664344

Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

2013-07-01

67

Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL. PMID:23647142

Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S

2013-12-01

68

Craniometrical estimation of the native Japanese Mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

The present study on measurement of the skull of Mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native Japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. The data of the skull of Mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. Korean cattle (Hamhung, Pyongyang, Chinju Suwon, and Kwangju), Mongolian cattle, Hainan Tao cattle, northeastern Chinese cattle (Shuangliao, Shenyang, Tongliao, Lüta, and Chilin), Astatic Water Buffalo, Yak, Bos Banteng, American Bison, and Holstein-Friesian. The Mishima cattle was included in the group of Korean breeds, especially it was closed on the group of Pyongyang and Chinju breeds. The distance on the craniometrical multivariate analyzing co-ordinate between Mishima cattle and Hainan Tao breed of Zebu cattle was larger than the distance between Mishima cattle and Korean breeds. While result, as a above the present study was very important for the origin of "Wagyu" (native Japanese cattle). Since the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle has been reported on the type of serum enzymes and hemotypes. It was suggested that the craniometrical multivariate analysis supported to the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle. PMID:2764276

Ogawa, Y; Daigo, M; Amasaki, H

1989-01-01

69

A whole genome association analysis identifies loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in US holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont enrolled in longitudinal herd studies between January 1999 and November 2007 were assessed for the presence of Map in both faecal and tissue samples. An animal was considered tissue infected if any sample contained at least one colony forming unit of Map per gram of tissue (CFU/g) and the same definition was employed for faecal samples. Each animal was genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and after quality assurance filtering, 218 animals and 45 683 SNPs remained. We sought to identify loci associated with four different case/control classifications: presence of Map in the tissue, presence of Map in faeces, presence of Map in both tissue and faeces and presence of Map in tissue but not faeces. A case-control genome wide association study was conducted to test the four different classifications of Map infection status (cases) when compared with a Map-negative control group (control). Regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 16, 21 and 23 were identified with moderate significance (P < 5 x 10(-5)). Two regions, one on chromosome 3 (near EDN2) and another on chromosome 9 (no positional gene candidates), were identified with a high level of association to the presence of Map in tissue and both tissue and faeces respectively (P < 5 x 10(-7), genome-wide Bonferonni P < 0.05). PMID:19422364

Settles, M; Zanella, R; McKay, S D; Schnabel, R D; Taylor, J F; Whitlock, R; Schukken, Y; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Neibergs, H

2009-10-01

70

Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low-heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (? 1.7; n?=?288) or low (? ?2; n?=?262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was genotyped for 434 candidate SNPs using the Sequenom MassARRAY® system. Three types of SNPs were evaluated: SNPs previously reported to be associated with reproductive traits or physically close to genetic markers for reproduction, SNPs in genes that are well known to be involved in reproductive processes, and SNPs in genes that are differentially expressed between physiological conditions in a variety of tissues associated in reproductive function. Eleven reproduction and production traits were analyzed. Results A total of 40 SNPs were associated (P?

2013-01-01

71

Evaluation of inbreeding depression in Holstein cattle using whole-genome SNP markers and alternative measures of genomic inbreeding.  

PubMed

The effects of increased pedigree inbreeding in dairy cattle populations have been well documented and result in a negative impact on profitability. Recent advances in genotyping technology have allowed researchers to move beyond pedigree analysis and study inbreeding at a molecular level. In this study, 5,853 animals were genotyped for 54,001 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); 2,913 cows had phenotypic records including a single lactation for milk yield (from either lactation 1, 2, 3, or 4), reproductive performance, and linear type conformation. After removing SNP with poor call rates, low minor allele frequencies, and departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 33,025 SNP remained for analyses. Three measures of genomic inbreeding were evaluated: percent homozygosity (FPH), inbreeding calculated from runs of homozygosity (FROH), and inbreeding derived from a genomic relationship matrix (FGRM). Average FPH was 60.5±1.1%, average FROH was 3.8±2.1%, and average FGRM was 20.8±2.3%, where animals with larger values for each of the genomic inbreeding indices were considered more inbred. Decreases in total milk yield to 205d postpartum of 53, 20, and 47kg per 1% increase in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively, were observed. Increases in days open per 1% increase in FPH (1.76 d), FROH (1.72 d), and FGRM (1.06 d) were also noted, as well as increases in maternal calving difficulty (0.09, 0.03, and 0.04 on a 5-point scale for FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively). Several linear type traits, such as strength (-0.40, -0.11, and -0.19), rear legs rear view (-0.35, -0.16, and -0.14), front teat placement (0.35, 0.25, 0.18), and teat length (-0.24, -0.14, and -0.13) were also affected by increases in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively. Overall, increases in each measure of genomic inbreeding in this study were associated with negative effects on production and reproductive ability in dairy cows. PMID:23684028

Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Vukasinovic, N; Nkrumah, J D

2013-07-01

72

Comparison of genomic predictions using medium-density (?54,000) and high-density (?777,000) single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels in Nordic Holstein and Red Dairy Cattle populations.  

PubMed

This study investigated genomic prediction using medium-density (?54,000; 54K) and high-density marker panels (?777,000; 777K), based on data from Nordic Holstein and Red Dairy Cattle (RDC). The Holstein data comprised 4,539 progeny-tested bulls, and the RDC data 4,403 progeny-tested bulls. The data were divided into reference data and test data using October 1, 2001, as a cut-off date (birth date of the bulls). This resulted in about 25% genotyped bulls in the Holstein test data and 20% in the RDC test data. For each breed, 3 data sets of markers were used to predict breeding values: (1) 54K data set with missing genotypes, (2) 54K data set where missing genotypes were imputed, and (3) imputed high-density (HD) marker data set created by imputing the 54K data to the HD data based on 557 bulls genotyped using a 777K single nucleotide polymorphism chip in Holstein, and 706 bulls in RDC. Based on the 3 marker data sets, direct genomic breeding values (DGV) for protein, fertility, and udder health were predicted using a genomic BLUP model (GBLUP) and a Bayesian mixture model with 2 normal distributions. Reliability of DGV was measured as squared correlations between deregressed proofs (DRP) and DGV corrected for reliability of DRP. Unbiasedness was assessed by regression of DRP on DGV, based on the bulls in the test data sets. Averaged over the 3 traits, reliability of DGV based on the HD markers was 0.5% higher than that based on the 54K data in Holstein, and 1.0% higher than that in RDC. In addition, the HD markers led to an improvement of unbiasedness of DGV. The Bayesian mixture model led to 0.5% higher reliability than the GBLUP model in Holstein, but not in RDC. Imputing missing genotypes in the 54K marker data did not improve genomic predictions for most of the traits. PMID:22818480

Su, G; Brøndum, R F; Ma, P; Guldbrandtsen, B; Aamand, G P; Lund, M S

2012-08-01

73

Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland.

Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

2008-09-01

74

Haplotypes and effects on growth traits of bovine Wnt7a gene in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Wnt7a is a member of the WNT gene family, which encodes secreted signaling proteins and responds to many biological processes. Specifically Wnt7a influences satellite stem cells and regulates the regenerative potential of the muscle. However, similar researches about the bovine Wnt7a gene are lacking. Therefore, in this study, polymorphisms of the bovine Wnt7a gene were detected in 488 individuals from Chinese Qinchuan cattle by DNA pooling, forced PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing methods. 3 novel SNPs were identified, two SNPs (g.T4926C and g.A21943G) were in the intron and the last one (g.C63777T) was in the exon. Five haplotypes involved in these three variant sites in the Wnt7a gene were identified and their effects on growth traits were analyzed. The results revealed that haplotype 1 had the highest haplotype frequencies and was highly significantly associated with body height (P<0.01), body weight (P<0.05), chest width (P<0.05) and height at hip cross (P<0.01) respectively. PMID:23612250

Xue, Jing; Sun, Yujia; Guo, Wenjiao; Yang, Ziqi; Tian, Huibin; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

2013-07-25

75

Mannose-binding lectin 1 haplotypes influence serum MBLA concentration, complement activity, and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin protein family that binds a broad range of microorganisms and activates\\u000a the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with an increased risk for various infections\\u000a and arises from five polymorphisms in the promoter and first exon of the MBL gene in humans. In this study, three novel single-nucleotide

Jianbo Liu; Zhihua Ju; Qiuling Li; Jinming Huang; Rongling Li; Jiangbin Li; Lijuan Ma; Jifeng Zhong; Changfa Wang

76

Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The somatic cell score (SCS) is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18). In the present study, we report a

Bodo Brand; Christine Baes; Manfred Mayer; Norbert Reinsch; Christa Kuehn

2009-01-01

77

Effect of suspension method and aging time on meat quality of Chinese fattened cattle M. Longissimus dorsi.  

PubMed

Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of suspension method and aging time on quality traits of Chinese fattened cattle M. Longissimus dorsi (LD). At the end of the slaughter line, the right sides of carcasses were re-hung from the pelvic bone obturator foramen, while the left sides remained hung by Achilles tendon suspension (AS). LD muscles were aged for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days and were then evaluated for quality index. Pelvic suspension (PS) significantly decreased the WBSF of beef muscle at 1 d and 7 d postmortem compared with AS. The tenderness with PS at 7 d postmortem was similar with that of AS at 14 d. Moreover, PS increased sarcomere length and decreased purge loss of LD significantly. In addition, aging time had a significant effect on pH, meat color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and myofibril fragmentation index of LD muscle. To conclude, PS is valuable to be introduced to the beef industry in China for rapid (within 7 days) improvement of beef tenderness and decreased aging time of Chinese fattened cattle. PMID:24056407

Hou, Xu; Liang, Rongrong; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Wang, Renhuan; Liu, Chenglong; Liu, Yuqing; Luo, Xin

2014-01-01

78

Association analysis of bovine Foxa2 gene single sequence variant and haplotype combinations with growth traits in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) has been recognized as one of the most potent transcriptional activators that is implicated in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, similar researches about the effects of genetic variations of Foxa2 gene on growth traits are lacking. Therefore, this study detected Foxa2 gene polymorphisms by DNA pool sequencing, PCR-RFLP and PCR-ACRS methods in 822 individuals from three Chinese cattle breeds. The results showed that four sequence variants (SVs) were screened, including two mutations (SV1, g. 7005 C>T and SV2, g. 7044 C>G) in intron 4, one mutation (SV3, g. 8449 A>G) in exon 5 and one mutation (SV4, g. 8537 T>C) in the 3'UTR. Notably, association analysis of the single mutations with growth traits in total individuals (at 24months) revealed that significant statistical difference was found in four SVs, and SV4 locus was highly significantly associated with growth traits throughout all three breeds (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Meanwhile, haplotype combination CCCCAGTC also indicated remarkably associated to better chest girth and body weight in Jiaxian Red cattle (P<0.05). We herein described a comprehensive study on the variability of bovine Foxa2 gene that was predictive of molecular markers in cattle breeding for the first time. PMID:24333857

Liu, Mei; Li, Mijie; Wang, Shaoqiang; Xu, Yao; Lan, Xianyong; Li, Zhuanjian; Lei, Chuzhao; Yang, Dongying; Jia, Yutang; Chen, Hong

2014-02-25

79

An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus) using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus). We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in beef

Sean MacEachern; Ben Hayes; John McEwan; Mike Goddard

2009-01-01

80

Identification of four novel alleles of the BoLA-DRB3 upstream regulatory region in Chinese yellow cattle.  

PubMed

The sequence of upstream regulatory region (URR) of BoLA-DRB3 gene was amplified with polymerase chain reaction followed by DNA sequencing from six animals of Chinese yellow cattle. A total of five alleles including four newly identified ones, named BoLA-DRB3*R-03-U2, BoLA-DRB3*R-06-U2, BoLA-DRB3*R-07-U and BoLA-DRB3*R-12-U for the BoLA-DRB3 URR were found. Result of sequence analysis showed that the regulatory elements W, X, Y, CCAAT and TATA-like boxes existed in such URRs and 16 polymorphic sites (11 transitions, 3 transversions, 1 deletion and 1 insertion) located in the spacers between the conserved consensus boxes and 1 insertion within X box, while no new polymorphic site within the consensus boxes. PMID:22486735

Wang, K; Sun, D-X; Li, K-Y; Wang, X-Q; Zhang, F

2012-07-01

81

Visualization of the transmission of direct genomic values for paternal and maternal chromosomes for 15 traits in US Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cattle.  

PubMed

Haplotypes are available for 220,671 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in August 2012. Differences in least squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosomes 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lifetime net merit were significant in all but one case. Those chromosomes were chosen to represent cases with and without known quantitative trait loci, and other chromosomes may differ as well. Paternal haplotypes had higher DGV than maternal haplotypes in most cases, and differences were larger when quantitative trait loci were present. Longer chromosomes generally accounted for more variance than shorter chromosomes, and differences among breeds were consistent with known mutations of large effect. For example, Bos taurus autosome 18 accounted for 2.5, 7, and 2.6% of the variance in lifetime net merit for Brown Swiss (BS), Holsteins, and Jerseys, respectively. Distributions of the number of positive DGV inherited from sires and dams were negatively skewed in all breeds, and modes were slightly higher for paternally than maternally derived haplotypes in Holsteins and BS (22 vs. 20 and 22 vs. 21, respectively) and slightly lower in BS (17 vs. 19). Graphical representations of DGV are available to all users through a query on the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD) web site. Query results were also used to illustrate several quantitative genetic principles using genotype information from real animals. For example, offspring DGV can be compared with parental DGV to demonstrate that a parent transmits the average value of its 2 chromosomes to its progeny. The frequency of DGV with positive and negative values in animals of different ages can be used to show how selection affects allele frequencies. The effect of selection for alleles with large effects versus those with small effects is demonstrated using an animal with undesirable alleles for a marker with a large effect but many desirable alleles for markers with small effects. Strategies for the use of those data in selection programs are being studied, and work is underway to add data on conformation traits to the system. PMID:23375973

Cole, J B; Null, D J

2013-04-01

82

Haplotype determination of the upstream regulatory region and the second exon of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms of the BoLA-DRB3 gene are located primarily in the second exon [antigen binding site (ABS)] and, to a lesser extent, in the upstream regulatory region (URR). It can be hypothesised that exon 2 and the URR are under different types of natural selection. The aim of this work was to determine the URR-exon 2 haplotypes; 34 Holstein samples were genotyped by direct sequencing. A total of 7 URR alleles and 23 exon 2 alleles were detected, and 3 of the URR alleles were novel. Our results may suggest that no relationship exists between the URR and exon 2 of the BoLA-DRB3 gene (linkage disequilibrium P value?>?0.05), most likely due to recombination over time. Our results also suggest that both regions of class II genes may be included in the development of new genotyping methods based on next-generation DNA sequencing technologies. PMID:24499032

Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Takeshima, S-N; Baltian, L; Aida, Y; Giovambattista, G

2014-03-01

83

Polymorphisms in the 5' upstream region of the CXCR1 chemokine receptor gene, and their association with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle in Canada.  

PubMed

Identification of regulatory elements in 5' regions of chemokine genes is fundamental for understanding chemokine gene expression in response to infection diseases. The CXCR1 receptor is expressed on the surface of neutrophils and interacts primarily with CXCL8 (IL-8), the most potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. The aim of this study was to characterize the 5' upstream region (2.1 kb) of the bovine CXCR1 chemokine receptor gene for polymorphism content and to identify in silico potential transcription-factor binding sites. The 5' flanking region was found by mining the NCBI GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). A DNA sequence from the whole genome shotgun sequence project with reference number AC150887.4 contained the CXCR1 5' flanking sequence. Computer analysis revealed potential binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), binding factor GATA-1, barbiturate inducible element (Barbie), nuclear factor of activated T-cells, and activator protein 1. Polymorphism discovery in this region was conducted by constructing an inclusive DNA pool including 2 phenotypic extreme groups, 20 bulls with high estimated breeding values (EBV) for somatic cell score (SCS), and 20 bulls with low EBV for SCS. Independent amplicons along the 5' flanking region of bovine CXCR1 were generated for polymorphism discovery by sequencing. Three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), CXCR1c.-344T>C, CXCR1c.-1768T>A, and CXCR1c.-1830A>G, and a previously identified SNP in the coding region, CXCR1c.777G>C, were identified. The 4 SNP were genotyped in Canadian Holstein bulls (n = 338) using tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR. Average allele substitution effects were estimated to investigate associations between the 4 SNP and EBV for SCS in first, second, and third and later lactations. Multiple trait analysis revealed that the SNP CXCR1c.-1768T>A was associated with EBV for SCS in the first and second lactations and over all 3 lactations. Haplotype analysis substantiated this association with EBV for SCS in the first lactation. Given the location of SNP CXCR1c.-1768T>A and the surrounding potential binding recognition sequences for NF-kappaB, GATA-1, and Barbie transcription-factors, this SNP may be implicated in gene regulation and warrants further research. PMID:18096965

Leyva-Baca, I; Schenkel, F; Martin, J; Karrow, N A

2008-01-01

84

Association of HSL gene E1-c.276C>T and E8-c.51C>T mutation with economical traits of Chinese Simmental cattle.  

PubMed

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is responsible for the decomposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue to release free fatty acids, and it is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and decomposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine HSL gene and carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two novel SNPs were genotyped and the 47 traits of carcass and meat quality traits were measured in the population studied. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNPs of HSL gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The individuals with TT genotypes of E1-276C>T showed significant higher dressing percentage, net meat rate, hind legs circumference, fat coverage rate, mesenteric fat and kidney fat (p < 0.05). E8-51C>T (P17S) also showed a significant association with the pH of beef and fatty acids content in Chinese Simmental cattle (p < 0.01). Our findings indicated that polymorphisms in HSL might be one of important genetic factors that influence carcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production. PMID:24213829

Fang, X B; Zhang, L P; Yu, X Z; Li, J Y; Lu, C Y; Zhao, Z H; Yang, R J

2014-01-01

85

Imputation of genotypes with low-density chips and its effect on reliability of direct genomic values in Dutch Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Genomic selection using 50,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (50k SNP) chips has been implemented in many dairy cattle breeding programs. Cheap, low-density chips make genotyping of a larger number of animals cost effective. A commonly proposed strategy is to impute low-density genotypes up to 50,000 genotypes before predicting direct genomic values (DGV). The objectives of this study were to investigate the accuracy of imputation for animals genotyped with a low-density chip and to investigate the effect of imputation on reliability of DGV. Low-density chips contained 384, 3,000, or 6,000 SNP. The SNP were selected based either on the highest minor allele frequency in a bin or the middle SNP in a bin, and DAGPHASE, CHROMIBD, and multivariate BLUP were used for imputation. Genotypes of 9,378 animals were used, from which approximately 2,350 animals had deregressed proofs. Bayesian stochastic search variable selection was used for estimating SNP effects of the 50k chip. Imputation accuracies and imputation error rates were poor for low-density chips with 384 SNP. Imputation accuracies were higher with 3,000 and 6,000 SNP. Performance of DAGPHASE and CHROMIBD was very similar and much better than that of multivariate BLUP for both imputation accuracy and reliability of DGV. With 3,000 SNP and using CHROMIBD or DAGPHASE for imputation, 84 to 90% of the increase in DGV reliability using the 50k chip, compared with a pedigree index, was obtained. With multivariate BLUP, the increase in reliability was only 40%. With 384 SNP, the reliability of DGV was lower than for a pedigree index, whereas with 6,000 SNP, about 93% of the increase in reliability of DGV based on the 50k chip was obtained when using DAGPHASE for imputation. Using genotype probabilities to predict gene content increased imputation accuracy and the reliability of DGV and is therefore recommended for applications of imputation for genomic prediction. A deterministic equation was derived to predict accuracy of DGV based on imputation accuracy, which fitted closely with the observed relationship. The deterministic equation can be used to evaluate the effect of differences in imputation accuracy on accuracy and reliability of DGV. PMID:22281352

Mulder, H A; Calus, M P L; Druet, T; Schrooten, C

2012-02-01

86

Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility  

PubMed Central

The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

2014-01-01

87

Haplotype combination of polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene promoter is associated with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Adiponectin modulates lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissues and is also related to bone metabolism. Polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene likely have an impact on growth traits in cattle. In this study, we examined the relationship between ADIPOQ polymorphisms and body measurement parameters in Chinese beef cattle. First, we sequenced ADIPOQ and 1.2 kb of DNA upstream of its promoter, and we found 14 polymorphisms. With the luciferase reporter assay, we showed that the two polymorphisms SNP PR_-135 A>G and PR_-68 G>C, which are located in the core region of promoter, influence promoter activity of ADIPOQ. Second, we identified three haplotypes involved in these two polymorphic sites: A (A-135/C-68), B (A-135/G-68), and C (G-135/G-68). Haplotypes B and C are major haplotypes in five Chinese populations of cattle (Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jiaxian, Hazakh, and Chinese Holstein). We studied the effects of these three haplotypes on body measurements, gene expression, and promoter activity, and we found that the genotypes are associated with body measurement parameters in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with genotype BC (AG/GG) had significantly higher body height and heart girth than others, and this result may be interpreted by the following two observations. The promoter activity with haplotype B (A/G) is significantly higher than those with A (A/C) and C (G/G) in driving reporter gene transcription; the ADIPOQ mRNA level in cattle with genotype BC (AG/GG) is relatively lower than that in cattle with genotype BB (AA/GG). PMID:24099391

Zhang, Liangzhi; Li, Mijie; Lai, Xinsheng; Yang, Mingjuan; Xu, Yao; Hua, Liushuai; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

2013-07-01

88

Professor Bjrn Holstein Tiltrdelsesseminar  

E-print Network

Universitet 14.10-15.00: "Mesurement of social class and social inequalities in health and behaviors in childProfessor Bjørn Holstein Tiltrædelsesseminar "Social inequalities in health and behaviors in child.00-15.45: "Social Disadvantage, Perceived Social Status, and Social Inequalities in Adolescent Health." v. Elizabeth

Michelsen, Claus

89

Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.  

PubMed

Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 °C to achieve core temperature of 0 °C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 °C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 °C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 °C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. PMID:22857853

Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

2012-12-01

90

The Effect of Manual Forestripping on Milking Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forestripping as a premilking stimulation technique on milk yield, milking unit attachment time, and milk flow rates in Holstein dairy cattle. Multiparous Hol- stein cows (n = 24) were divided into two groups (HPE, high producing, early lactation; LPL, low producing, late lactation) based on prestudy milk yield and

A. M. Wagner; P. L. Ruegg

2002-01-01

91

Interacting-Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of the Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) models on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtained clear-cut bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the F2H model. Composite bipolarons are formed above a critical electron-phonon coupling strength, which can survive the finite Hubbard U effect. We have constructed the phase diagram of F2H polarons and bipolarons, and discussed the phase separation in terms of the formation of composite bipolarons.

Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

2014-01-01

92

Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populations.  

PubMed

The possibility of profitable cooperation between dairy cattle populations depends on several factors. Among these factors is the similarity of breeding goals, for example, as measured by the correlations between selection indices. Correlations between selection indices less than unity can usually be explained by differences in economic values, trait definitions, national genetic evaluation procedures, and genotype x environment interactions. The objective of this study was to test whether uniform definitions of the female fertility traits would increase the exchange of genes across populations, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. A second objective was to test whether a more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations would increase the exchange of genes across populations, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. This was done in a stochastic simulation study of the Nordic and US Holstein populations. Uniform definitions of the female fertility traits did not increase total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The standardization did not seem to affect selection across populations either. However, the results were sensitive to the assumptions made in the simulation study, especially the genetic correlations between traits. A more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations did not change total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The possibility of exchanging genetic material with the US Holstein population led to significantly higher progress in the aggregate genotype in the Nordic Holstein population compared with a situation in which exchange was not possible. Hence, importation of US Holstein genetics for use in the Nordic Holstein population is recommended. In addition, results indicated that population size is of greater importance than differences in trait definitions and relative weighting of the index traits for the advantage of exchanging genetic material between the Nordic and the US Holstein populations. The possibility of exchanging genetic material with the Nordic Holstein population did not change progress in the aggregate genotype in the US Holstein population compared with a situation in which exchange was not possible, but it tended to result in lower genetic progress in protein yield and greater genetic progress or smaller genetic declines in the functional traits. Thus, importation of genetic material from Nordic Holsteins may slow down the deterioration of animal health and reproduction in US Holsteins. PMID:19620686

Buch, L H; Sørensen, A C; Lassen, J; Berg, P; Christensen, L G; Sørensen, M K

2009-08-01

93

Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus x Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus?×?Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2?×?2?×?2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

2014-01-01

94

Effect of a Probiotic Compound in Rumen Development, Diarrhea Incidence and Weight Gain in Young Holstein Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proven that early establishment of microbial flora in digestive tract of ruminants, has a beneficial effect on their health condition and productivity. A probiotic compound, made from five bacteria isolated from adult bovine cattle, was dosed to 15 Holstein newborn calves in order to measure its capacity of improving body weight gain and reduce diarrhea incidence. The

Camilo Aldana; Sara Cabra; Carlos A. Ospina; Fredy Carvajal; Fernando Rodríguez

2009-01-01

95

Albinism in US Charolais cattle U. JAYASEKERA H.W. LEIPOLD  

E-print Network

Albinism in US Charolais cattle U. JAYASEKERA H.W. LEIPOLD Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, U.S.A. Summary Complete albinism or incomplete albinism have been reported in many breeds of cattle such as Holsteins, Guernseys and Aryshires

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Identification of splice variants, expression analysis and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the PRMT2 gene in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2), also named HRMT1L1, belongs to the Bovine Protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) genes which are involved in the immune response. To explore the variability of the PRMT2 gene and resistance to mastitis in cows, splice variant (SV), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in this study. A SV (PRMT2-SV) lacking exon 7 (98-bp) of the PRMT2 gene was found in healthy and mastitis-infected mammary gland tissues. Two of four SNPs were significantly associated with bovine milk yield and protein content. Further, we estimated the relative expression of PRMT2-SV in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cattle by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that expression of the PRMT2-SV mRNA was significantly upregulated 4.02-fold (p<0.05) in infected mammary tissues (n=5) compared to healthy tissues (n=5). Our findings reveal that PRMT2-SV may play an important role in mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. The SNPs may be used as a possible candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection and management in Chinese Holstein cattle. PMID:24502989

Li, Zhixiong; Zhai, Mengxing; Wang, Hongliang; Chen, Ling; Wang, Lijun; Ru, Caixia; Song, Ailong; Liu, Xiaolin

2014-04-10

97

A study based on records taken at time of hoof trimming reveals a strong association between the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) gene and sole hemorrhage in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Feet and leg problems have a major effect on the well-being and lifespan of the dairy cow and thus are economically important to the dairy farmer. Apart from approaches using genetic selection for classical traits from conformation scoring, attempts for genetic improvement can be based either on records of individual disease cases or on records of disorder status at time of hoof trimming. In this study, 1,962 first-lactation cows were subjected to hoof trimming with an assessment of disorder status for sole hemorrhage as a binary trait. Cows were from 7 large commercial herds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (northeastern Germany) that had similar housing with cubicles, slatted flooring, little use of straw for bedding, and total mixed ration feeding. Cows were trimmed and assessed once, focusing on cows in the first half of the lactation. Herds were visited at intervals to enable recording of cohorts at a similar stage of lactation. Each cohort or herd-visit included between 31 and 165 cows. Additional measurements included body weight, back fat thickness, and body condition at time of trimming. Further data on dairy production, conformation scores, and reproductive performance were merged after collection of records had finished. The DNA extracted from blood of 1,183 cows was used for analysis with a custom-made array of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The SNP were selected according to results from the literature for effects in classical conformation traits, from biochemical pathway analysis, and from comparative analysis of putative candidate genes in cattle, pigs, and sheep. Selection of cohorts of cows for SNP chip analysis was such that cohorts with extreme frequencies of disorders and cohorts with slightly deviating housing systems were excluded in this first step. The results from a mixed threshold model analysis with genotype included as a fixed effect and accounting for relationships among animals revealed that the intronic SNP rs29017173 (A/G) within the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, Bos taurus autosome 21) was significantly associated with disorder status. Back-transformed means of disorder status for the 3 genotypes were 0.37 (AA), 0.52 (AG), and 0.56 (GG). Using the full data set of 1,962 cows, including the less-suitable cohorts, gave back-transformed means of 0.51 (AA), 0.58 (AG), and 0.62 (GG). As SNP rs29017173 is included on the Illumina BovineSNP50 DNA Analysis BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), a sample of 2,394 artificial insemination sires from the German calibration sample for genomic selection from birth years 1998 to 2003 was studied for possible correlated effects. The A/G polymorphism of SNP rs29017173 studied here was also associated with substantial effects for feet and leg traits from the classical conformation score system. Selection using this polymorphism will be facilitated by the fact that the same allele is favored for all traits with substantial effects. PMID:24237756

Swalve, H H; Floren, C; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Schöpke, K; Pijl, R; Wimmers, K; Brenig, B

2014-01-01

98

Relationship of polymorphisms within ZBED6 gene and growth traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

ZBED6 is a novel transcription factor that was identified and shown to act as a repressor of IGF2 transcription in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the ZBED6 polymorphism with growth traits in beef cattle breed. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the bovine ZBED6 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (Forced PCR-RFLP) methods. Overall, we reported one mutation (SNP1) in the promoter region and two missense mutations (SNP2 and 3) in the coding region (single exon) within the bovine ZBED6 gene, and the haplotype variability and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 1522 individuals representing four main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, NY; Qinchuan, QC; Jiaxian, JX; and Chinese Holstein, CH). We also investigated haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium coefficients for three SNPs in all study populations. LD and haplotype structure of ZBED6 were different between breeds. The result of haplotype analysis of three SNPs showed that eight different haplotypes were identified in all breeds. The wild-type haplotype (Hap 1: GCA) and mutant-type haplotype (Hap 8: AGG) shared by all four populations accounted for 15.1, 29.8, 21.7, 57.5% and 9.5, 8.6, 16.7, 0% of all haplotypes were observed in NY, QC, JX and CH, respectively. The statistical analyses indicated that three SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits in NY cattle population (P<0.05 or P<0.01) at five different ages. The results of this study suggest that the ZBED6 gene possibly is a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:23644023

Huang, Yong-Zhen; He, Hua; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Sun, Yu-Jia; Li, Ming-Xun; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Chen, Hong

2013-09-10

99

The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological\\u000a functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot\\u000a cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8?±?15.5 kg, n?=?8) and heavy (737.1?±?15.8 kg,

Serdal Dikmen; Hakan Ustuner; Abdulkadir Orman

2011-01-01

100

Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.  

PubMed

This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472

Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

2013-11-01

101

[Variation of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in dairy cattle and its effect on the viability parameters].  

PubMed

Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3 alleles was performed in dairy cattle of Krasnodar krai and Holstein stud bulls. Loss of heterozygosity, which decreased the reproductive parameters, was observed. It was proposed that stud bulls be selected on the basis of their genotyping at the BoLA-DRB3 gene to prevent further decay of cattle viability. PMID:23035547

Kovaliuk, N V; Satsuk, V F; Volchenko, A E

2012-08-01

102

Cattle Husbandry in Ethiopia Is a Predominant Factor Affecting the Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis and Gamma Interferon Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis is a major economic problem and a potential public health risk. Improved diagnostics like the gamma interferon (IFN-?) test with ESAT6 and/or CFP10 could contribute to the control program. We assessed IFN-? responses in zebu (Ethiopian Arsi breed) and Holstein cattle kept indoors or in a pasture to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) and an ESAT6-CFP10 protein cocktail. Furthermore, the intensity and distribution of pathology of bovine tuberculosis were compared between the two breeds. Our data demonstrated significantly (all P < 0.02) higher IFN-? responses to avian PPD, bovine PPD, and the ESAT6-CFP10 protein cocktail in Holstein than in zebu cattle, while lesion severities in infected animals and tuberculin skin test responses did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the two breeds. Holstein cattle that were kept indoors produced significantly (all P < 0.01) higher IFN-? levels in response to avian PPD, bovine PPD, and the ESAT6-CFP10 protein cocktail than did Holstein cattle kept in a pasture. Moreover, lesion severity was significantly higher in Holstein cattle kept indoors (P = 0.001) than in those kept in the pasture. Lesions were localized predominantly in the digestive tract in cattle kept in a pasture, while they were localized in the respiratory tract in cattle kept indoors. In conclusion, in Holstein cattle, husbandry was a dominant factor influencing the severity of tuberculosis lesions and IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens compared to breed. A difference in the cellular immune response between zebu and Holstein cattle was observed, while tuberculosis lesion severities were identical in the two breeds, when both were kept in a pasture. PMID:16960115

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2006-01-01

103

Conformation of hind legs and lameness in Danish Holstein heifers.  

PubMed

Lameness causes major financial losses and welfare problems in dairy herds. Prevention of foot lesions may suffice in the majority of lameness cases. The objectives of this longitudinal study were to describe the dynamics and associations between abnormal hind leg conformation, asymmetric claws, lameness, and foot lesions in 122 Danish Holstein heifers from an average of 41 d before first calving until dry off or culling. The cattle were housed either in a free-stall system with cubicles or in deep-bedded straw yard. The claws of all cattle were examined on up to 5 occasions. The associations between foot lesions, lameness, symmetry of the claws, shape of the dorsal toe-wall, and the conformation of the hind legs were examined statistically using mixed models. A large proportion (81%) of the heifers had cow-hocked conformation, with wide-based stance, hocks together, and lateral rotation of the foot before calving, and 25% of the heifers had locomotion scores above 2, indicating signs of lameness, before calving. Our results indicate that lameness, abnormal conformation, and lesions acquired precalving persist throughout the first lactation. Thinner cows were more cow-hocked, and cow-hocked cows had a higher frequency of sole hemorrhages. Increased severity of white line lesion was associated with greater claw asymmetry. More severe lameness and sole hemorrhages were found in symmetric claws. PMID:18420640

Capion, N; Thamsborg, S M; Enevoldsen, C

2008-05-01

104

Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle  

E-print Network

Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan 466000, Henan, China In a recent experiment with beef cattle, three types of straw were used : a 5 % urea head of Simmental-Chinese Yellow cross beef cattle, approximately 122 months old and weighing 200 kg

Boyer, Edmond

105

The Effect of Protozoa on the Composition of Rumen Bacteria in Cattle Using 16S rRNA Gene Clone Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the presence of protozoa on the composition of rumen bacteria was investigated in cattle. Seven castrated Holstein cattle were divided into two groups: four faunated and three unfaunated, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) clonal libraries were constructed. A total of 312 clones were sequenced across 1,500 bp. The 151 sequences of the faunated cattle were classified

Yuhei OZUTSUMI; Kiyoshi TAJIMA; Akio TAKENAKA; Hisao ITABASHI

2005-01-01

106

Cattle Vaccines  

E-print Network

Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

Faries Jr., Floron C.

2005-11-11

107

Effects of Age, Temperature-Season, and Breed on Blood Characteristics of Dairy Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred twenty four dairy cattle (6 mo to second calving) representing four breeds (169 Holstein, 24 Guernsey, 19 Jersey, 12 Brown Swiss) were used to determine effects of age, temperature- season, and breed on blood characteristics. A total of 1183 blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture in the middle of each temperature-season. Covariate age affected blood profile except

L. Shaffer; J. D. Roussel; K. L. Koonce

1981-01-01

108

Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Milk Production and Ketosis of Dairy Cattle[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments with Holstein cows effects of dietary supplementation of niacin to periparturient cattle on subsequent milk production and ketosis were examined. In Experiment 1, 20 cows were assigned to two groups. The treatment group received niacin at 6 g per head per day for 2 wk prepartum and 12 g per head per day for 4 wk postpartum.

G. S. Dufva; E. E. Bartley; A. D. Dayton; D. O. Riddell

1983-01-01

109

Composition of the rumen ciliate population in experimental herds of cattle and sheep in Lethbridge, Alberta, Western Canada.  

PubMed

Rumen ciliate populations were surveyed in 11 Holstein cattle and 6 sheep in Lethbridge (Alta., Canada) to determine species distribution in this Western Canadian environment. A total of 28 ciliate species were identified in cattle and 17 in sheep. The average total number of ciliates per millilitre of rumen content was 6.9 X 10(4) in cattle and 1.9 X 10(5) in sheep. The average number of species per host was 20.5 in cattle and 13.8 in sheep. Of the ciliate species detected, species of Entodinium appeared most frequently both in cattle and in sheep. Diplodinium polygonale, Eodinium lobatum, Eo. monolobum, Eremoplastron rostratum, Ostracodinium clipeolum, Os. mammosum, and Ophryoscolex purkynjei were not detected in sheep. In contrast, Ophryoscolex caudatus was not found in cattle. These data indicate that the ciliate faunas of cattle and sheep in this Western Canadian environment are similar to those found in Japan. PMID:2504472

Imai, S; Han, S S; Cheng, K J; Kudo, H

1989-07-01

110

Independent Polled Mutations Leading to Complex Gene Expression Differences in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Remy; Thaller, Georg; Drogemuller, Cord

2014-01-01

111

Independent polled mutations leading to complex gene expression differences in cattle.  

PubMed

The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord

2014-01-01

112

Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due to a longer production life. However, a reduced milk yield was detected in the end of the production life in Danish Red. The study supports that BRL is inherited autosomal recessively in the Danish Red breed and Danish Holsteins, but with incomplete penetrance of the genotype in Danish Holsteins. PMID:19216753

Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

2009-01-01

113

Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that ultracold polar molecules trapped on an optical lattice can be used for quantum simulation of the Holstein polaron model. Rotational excitation of molecules on the lattice produces excitons that are coupled to lattice phonons due to long-range dipole - dipole interactions. We show that the properties of the excitons and the phonons as well as the exciton-phonon couplings can be controlled by applying a dc electric field and by varying the intensity of the trapping laser field. We discuss the application of polar molecules on an optical lattice for quantum simulation of non-Markovian open quantum systems. We also explore the possibilty of realizing a transition from the strongly coupled Holstein polaron limit to the polaron regime described by the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Reference: F. Herrera and R. V. Krems, Phys. Rev. A 84, 051401(R) (2011)

Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V.

2012-06-01

114

YIELD AND QUALITY OF HOLSTEIN BEEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef derived from Holstein steers is a significant source of the U. S. beef supply. The nation's 9.1 million dairy cows in 2003 were 22% of the U. S. cow herd (NASS, 2005). Given the typical breed distribution of dairy cows, calving interval, full-term pregnancy rate, peri-natal calf death loss (NAHMS, 2002), gender distribution, dairy beef placement (80%) and survival

Daniel M. Schaefer

115

Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel  

PubMed Central

Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds.

Makina, Sithembile O.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; van Marle-Koster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

2014-01-01

116

Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel.  

PubMed

Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds. PMID:25295053

Makina, Sithembile O; Muchadeyi, Farai C; van Marle-Köster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

2014-01-01

117

The effect of manual forestripping on milking performance of Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forestripping as a premilking stimulation technique on milk yield, milking unit attachment time, and milk flow rates in Holstein dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) were divided into two groups (HPE, high producing, early lactation; LPL, low producing, late lactation) based on prestudy milk yield and stage of lactation. Within the production group, cows were randomly assigned into treatment (n = 6) and control groups (n = 6) in a switchback design. Cows were milked twice daily and treatments were switched after 20 milkings. Premilking udder preparation for the treatment group was as follows: forestripping, predipping with 0.5% iodine, and drying with paper towels followed by unit attachment. Udder preparation for the control group was identical except forestripping was not performed. Data were analyzed by using the PROC Means and PROC Mixed models described by SAS. During the study, cows in the HPE group produced significantly more milk and had longer milking unit attachment times compared with cows in the LPL group. The milk flow rate was 0.36 kg/min faster for the HPE cows compared with the LPL cows. There was no significant effect of order of treatment administration on any outcome variable. There were no significant differences in milk yield, milk unit attachment time, or milk flow for animals that were forestripped compared with animals that were not forestripped. In this study, the addition of forestripping to an otherwise acceptable premilking udder preparation routine did not increase milking performance of multiparous Holstein dairy cows. PMID:12018426

Wagner, A M; Ruegg, P L

2002-04-01

118

Chinese Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

Hsu, Kai-yu

119

Teaching Chinese through Chinese Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems involved in teaching the Chinese language through literature include: the difficulty of the language; the lack of good anthologies of Chinese literature for classroom use; the question of original works vs. abridgements; lack of good critical introductions and studies and Chinese approaches to philosophy and literary construction. (CHK)

Yang, Winston L. Y.

1976-01-01

120

Two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay of electron-phonon coupling and strong electronic correlations is studied in the frame of the two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein model. Static and dynamic properties are determined by quantum Monte Carlo simulations and by Migdal-Eliashberg theory. The comparison allows us to assess the diagrammatic approach. The competition between the phonon-mediated electron-electron attraction and the local Coulomb repulsion leads to a rich phase diagram, which we study in detail for a wide range of parameters. We address the question, to which extent the systems can be described by an effective negative-U Hubbard model.

Berger, E.; Valášek, P.; von der Linden, W.

1995-08-01

121

Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules  

SciTech Connect

We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2011-11-15

122

Chinese Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews Scotland offers this website on the history of Chinese Mathematics. Key features highlighted in the overview include: a discussion of the Chinese version of Pythagoras's theorem, a famous Chinese mathematics book commonly known as the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, and the work of several Chinese mathematicians. Visitors to the website can also browse a chronological listing of several Chinese mathematicians and read about their careers. Other features of the website include a section summarizing each chapter from the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a section highlighting ten other mathematical classics, a review of the Chinese numeral system, and a collection of Chinese problems, which are extracted from various articles in their archive.

123

Digestibility And Nitrogen Balance Of High And Low Quality Forages Supplemented With High And Low Protein Concentrates Fed To Two Bredds Of Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to compare the digestibility and nitrogen balance of local Red Chittagong (RC) and Holstein cross (Hx) cattle with high and low quality forages supplemented with high and low quality protein concentrates. The diets were; high digestibility German grass with high protein soybean meal (A), high digestibility German grass with low protein wheat bran (B), low

Masuma Habib; Geoff Pollott; David Leaver

2011-01-01

124

Texas Adapted Genetic Strategies for Beef Cattle--07: Sire Types for Commercial Herds  

E-print Network

classification (Bos taurus, humpless cattle, or Bos indicus, Indian or humped) and by breed averages for body size, milking potential and body composition. There are six functional groups: ? British Beef?Angus, Hereford, Red Angus, Shorthorn ? Continental... Beef?Charolais, Chianina, Limousin ? Continental Dual Purpose?Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine-Anjou, Salers, Simmental ? Dairy?Holstein, Jersey ? Bos indicus?Brahman ? American (generally part Brahman)? Beefmaster, Braford, Brangus, Red Brangus...

Hammack, Stephen P.

2009-03-30

125

The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

2012-03-01

126

A molecular study of congenital erythropoietic porphyria in cattle.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) in cattle is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) encoded by the UROS gene. In this study, we have established the pedigree of an extended Holstein family in which the disease is segregating in a manner consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Biochemical analyses demonstrated accumulation of uroporphyrin, thus confirming that it is indeed insufficient activity of UROS which is the cause of the disease. We have therefore sequenced all nine exons of UROS in affected and non-affected individuals without detecting any potential causative mutations. However, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within the spliceosome attachment region in intron 8 of UROS is shown to segregate with the disease allele. Our study supports the hypothesis that CEP in cattle is caused by a mutation affecting UROS; however, additional functional studies are needed to identify the causative mutation. PMID:22404357

Agerholm, J S; Thulstrup, P W; Bjerrum, M J; Bendixen, C; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M

2012-04-01

127

Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances  

E-print Network

of their partici- pating cattle. Although the number of head currently slaughtered under alliance programs is a very small portion of the total slaughter, most alliance marketing managers report that the number of cattle enrolled in their programs is increasing... of their partici- pating cattle. Although the number of head currently slaughtered under alliance programs is a very small portion of the total slaughter, most alliance marketing managers report that the number of cattle enrolled in their programs is increasing...

Sartwelle III, James D.; Davis, Ernest E.; Mintert, James R.; Borchardt, Rob

2000-09-13

128

Chinese Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

Kane, Tony

129

Glandless cottonseed flour in preweaning diets for holstein bull calves  

E-print Network

GLANDLESS COTTONSEED FLOUR IN PRENEANING DIETS FOR HOLSTEIN BULL CALVFS A Thesis by RICARDO CERRON SILVA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1979 Major Subject: Dairy Science GLANDLESS COTTONSEED FLOUR IN PREWEANING DIETS FOR HOLSTEIN HULL CALVES A Thesis by RICARDO CERRON SILVA Approved as to style and content by: ~rv '. V- ~J Ag, ~= Chairman of Committee Member ember , n...

Silva, Ricardo Cerron

2012-06-07

130

A new coastal defence master plan for Schleswig-Holstein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schleswig-Holstein has a coastline of 1,190 km and about 3,800 km 2 of flood-prone coastal low- lands. In these lowlands, which represent almost 25% of total surface area, 345,000 people live and economic assets worth of 46 billion Euros are concentrated. In the year 2001, the State Government of Schleswig-Holstein adopted a new master plan: \\

Jacobus Hofstede

131

Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth rates, feed conversion, and carcass traits in calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). A 3-d withdrawal was maintained immediately before slaughter. Cattle within an experiment were fed to a common number of days on feed. During the last 120 d before slaughter, ADG was not enhanced by feeding ZH for 20 d (P = 0.33 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.79 in Exp. 2). Gain-to-feed conversion was increased by feeding ZH for all durations in Exp. 1 (P < 0.05). Feeding ZH increased HCW by 9.3 (Exp. 2) to 11.6 (Exp. 1) kg at 20 d compared with the control groups. Across both experiments, dressing percent was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). Although skeletal maturity score, liver integrity, lean color, fat thickness, and KPH were not affected by feeding ZH for 20 d in either experiment (P >or= 0.6), LM area was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). The percentage of carcasses identified as USDA Choice was reduced (P < 0.01) for all durations of feeding ZH in Exp. 1. This effect was not observed in Exp. 2. Holstein steers clearly respond to the beta-agonist ZH, and 20 d of feeding ZH with a 3-d withdrawal significantly increased carcass weights, muscling, and carcass leanness. PMID:19717762

Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Duff, G C; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N

2009-12-01

132

Determining the value of Mexican cattle vs. sale barn cattle  

E-print Network

Feedyard managers are faced with cattle purchasing decisions almost daily. In making these decisions, they must be able to accurately estimate the performance, death loss, and a medicine charges of the cattle being considered. Sale barn cattle...

Horn, Shelby W.

2012-06-07

133

Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g

N. E. Leonard

2005-01-01

134

Heritability estimates for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis status of German Holstein cows tested by fecal culture.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic manifestation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in German Holstein cows. Incorporated into this study were 11,285 German Holstein herd book cows classified as MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals using fecal culture results and originating from 15 farms in Thuringia, Germany involved in a paratuberculosis voluntary control program from 2008 to 2009. The frequency of MAP-positive animals per farm ranged from 2.7 to 67.6%. The fixed effects of farm and lactation number had a highly significant effect on MAP status. An increase in the frequency of positive animals from the first to the third lactation could be observed. Threshold animal and sire models with sire relationship were used as statistical models to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability estimates of fecal culture varied from 0.157 to 0.228. To analyze the effect of prevalence on genetic parameter estimates, the total data set was divided into 2 subsets of data into farms with prevalence rates below 10% and those above 10%. The data set with prevalence above 10% show higher heritability estimates in both models compared with the data set with prevalence below 10%. For all data sets, the sire model shows higher heritabilities than the equivalent animal model. This study demonstrates that genetic variation exists in dairy cattle for paratuberculosis infection susceptibility and furthermore, leads to the conclusion that MAP detection by fecal culture shows a higher genetic background than ELISA test results. In conclusion, fecal culture seems to be a better trait to control the disease, as well as an appropriate feature for further genomic analyses to detect MAP-associated chromosome regions. PMID:22541503

Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

2012-05-01

135

Plasma gh, igf-i, and conception rate in cattle treated with low doses of recombinant bovine gh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood and uterine concentrations of GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I are correlated with improved fertility in cattle. We tested incremental doses of a 14-d sustained release recombinant bovine GH (rbGH) to increase blood GH and IGF-I (Experiments 1 and 2). Conception rate after administration of an optimized rbGH dose was also tested (Experiment 3). In Experiment 1, lactating Holstein

C. R. Bilby; J. F. Bader; B. E. Salfen; R. S. Youngquist; C. N. Murphy; H. A. Garverick; B. A. Crooker; M. C. Lucy

1999-01-01

136

Linseed suppresses enteric methane emissions from cattle fed barley silage, but not from those fed grass hay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated potential effects of feeding ground linseed on enteric CH4 production, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in cattle when it was added to diets containing grass hay or barley silage. Twelve non-lactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin Square design experiment with four diets and four 21d periods. Experimental diets (500:500 forage to

Y.-H. Chung; M. L. He; S. M. McGinn; T. A. McAllister; K. A. Beauchemin

2011-01-01

137

The influence of cattle breed on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic livestock such as cattle is an economically important disease with zoonotic potential, particularly in countries with emerging economies. We discuss the findings of recent epidemiological and immunological studies conducted in Ethiopia on host susceptibility differences between native zebu and the exotic Holstein–Friesian cattle that are increasingly part of the Ethiopian National herd, due to the drive to increase milk yields. These findings support the hypothesis that native Zebu cattle are more resistant to bovine tuberculosis. We also summarise the results of experimental infections that support the epidemiological data, and of laboratory experiments that suggest a role for the innate immune response, and in particular interleukin-6, in the outcome of bovine tuberculosis infection. PMID:22304898

Vordermeier, Martin; Ameni, Gobena; Berg, Stefan; Bishop, Richard; Robertson, Brian D.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas B.

2012-01-01

138

Chinese microelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the status of microelectronics in China as of the end of 1987. The information pertains only to silicon integrated circuits (ICs) and not to other semiconducting materials or microelectronic technologies and devices. There is a brief review of the Chinese effort before 1980, followed by chapters that focus on computer-aided design; silicon devices and circuits; integrated circuit processes, equipment and manufacturing; applications of integrated circuits; amorphous silicon; and policy choices in Chinese microelectronics.

Spencer, William J.; Chen, John Y.; Chiang, Anne; Frieman, Wendy; Kuh, Ernest S.; Moll, John L.; Pease, R. Fabian; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Sluzar, Natalie; McGrain, Moira M.

1989-04-01

139

Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) profile of Holstein-Friesian cows as compared to dual-purpose and beef cows.  

PubMed

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are produced by mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells in the ruminant placenta. PAG appears in maternal blood and, from approximately 4 weeks after fertilization onward, may serve as a reliable means of diagnosing pregnancy. A range of factors are said to affect plasma PAG concentrations, such as number and sex of foetus, mass of calf and placenta, level of milk production and genetic constitution. In this study, PAG pregnancy profiles of a dual-purpose (Simmental) and two beef breeds (Uckermark and Aubrac) are compared with the profile of the specialized dairy breed Holstein-Friesian. Holstein-Friesian cows were sampled weekly; the levels of the other breeds were presented at 3-week intervals. The overall significant breed difference (p = 0.013) was founded on deviations during the initial 3 weeks of pregnancy and from 23 weeks onward. During the period critical for the detection of pregnancy, between four and 22 weeks, agreement between PAG levels of various breeds was close (p > 0.05). No significant effect of body mass of cow or calf (relative to mass of dam) was detected. These findings imply that the PAG pregnancy test may be executed uniformly irrespective of breed or type of cow, affirming the suitability of the test as a valuable asset for the cattle industry. PMID:24888733

Shahin, M; Friedrich, M; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

2014-08-01

140

Changes in conception rate, calving performance, and calf health and survival from the use of crossbred Jersey x Holstein sires as mates for Holstein dams.  

PubMed

Differences in conception rates in matings of Holstein sires or F1 Jersey x Holstein sires to Holstein dams in the University of Wisconsin-Madison experimental herd were evaluated, as were differences in birth weight, dystocia, serum protein, serum IgG, fecal consistency, respiratory disease, and perinatal and pre-weaning mortality among the resulting calves. When mated to randomly chosen, lactating Holstein cows, Holstein sires (n = 74) and crossbred sires (n = 7) did not differ in male fertility. Calves from Holstein sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 99) were 1.9 kg heavier than calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 211), leading to greater likelihood (odds ratio of 1.24) of dystocia. Furthermore, calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams had higher serum protein and serum IgG levels between 24 and 72 h of age, as well as lower rates of perinatal and preweaning morality than calves from Holstein sires and multiparous or primiparous Holstein dams. Mean fecal consistency scores from birth to 7 d of age and number of days with scours also tended to be lower among calves from crossbred sires, compared with calves from Holstein sires. No differences were observed in the incidence or severity of respiratory disease. Results of this study suggest that introduction of Jersey genes via crossbreeding may lead to a reduction in dystocia and improvements in calf health and survival in Holstein herds. Future studies should address other traits related to dairy farm profitability, including milk composition, female fertility, longevity, feed efficiency, and resistance to infectious and metabolic diseases. PMID:16772594

Maltecca, C; Khatib, H; Schutzkus, V R; Hoffman, P C; Weigel, K A

2006-07-01

141

Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

Cheng, Richard

1984-01-01

142

Postnatal development of antral ovarian follicles in Holstein heifers  

E-print Network

Committee: O. W. Forrest Holstein heifers were used to determine age-related changes in ovarian function during the postnatal period. Thirteen neonatal Holstein heifers were ovariectomized at 3 wk (20-22 d; n=5; Group 1), 6 wk (39-42 d; n=4; Group 2...) and 9 wk (59-61 d; n=4; Group 3) of age. One wk prior to ovariectomy, blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for 8 h via indwelling jugular cannulae for estradiol-178 (EZ) and estrone (Et) analysis by radioimmunoassay. Prior to and at 30...

Goff, Bradley Alan

2012-06-07

143

Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in Danish Holstein milk.  

PubMed

Small components and metabolites in milk are significant for the utilization of milk, not only in dairy food production but also as disease predictors in dairy cattle. This study focused on estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in bovine milk. For this purpose, milk samples were collected in mid lactation from 371 Danish Holstein cows in first to third parity. A total of 31 metabolites were detected and identified in bovine milk by using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cows were genotyped using a bovine high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Based on the SNP data, a genomic relationship matrix was calculated and used as a random factor in a model together with 2 fixed factors (herd and lactation stage) to estimate the heritability and breeding value for individual metabolites in the milk. Heritability was in the range of 0 for lactic acid to >0.8 for orotic acid and ?-hydroxybutyrate. A single SNP association analysis revealed 7 genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci [malonate: Bos taurus autosome (BTA)2 and BTA7; galactose-1-phosphate: BTA2; cis-aconitate: BTA11; urea: BTA12; carnitine: BTA25; and glycerophosphocholine: BTA25]. These results demonstrate that selection for metabolites in bovine milk may be possible. PMID:23497994

Buitenhuis, A J; Sundekilde, U K; Poulsen, N A; Bertram, H C; Larsen, L B; Sørensen, P

2013-05-01

144

Chinese Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

Skilling, William C.

2012-01-01

145

Association of BoLA-DRB3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.  

PubMed

Tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. Selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. The objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of DRB3.2 alleles in Thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. Specific primers to Anaplasma marginale (AM), Babesia bigemina (BG) and Babesia bovis (BB) were used to detect the infections by PCR. The results showed that the high proportion of infections were found in Bos indicus (Sahiwal, n=95) and crossbred Holstein × Zebu (75:25 Holstein:Zebu, n=101), compared to high Holstein fraction crossbreed (? 87.5% Holstein, n=187). The proportion of triple infections was also highly found in high Holstein fractions crossbreed. This study confirmed that Zebuine (Bos indicus) had a higher degree of tolerance, even when infected by tick-borne pathogens, compared to high Holstein fraction crossbred. The associated alleles of DRB3.2 for tick-borne pathogen infection tolerance were found: DRB3*14 and *41 were found to be tolerant to A. marginale; *14 to B. bovis; and *10 and *51 to B. bigemina. These tolerance alleles could be used as potential markers for selection in dairy genetic evaluation. The associated alleles for susceptibility were also found: *2 was found to be susceptible to A. marginale; *3 and *16 to B. bovis; and *20 to B. bigemina. These susceptibility alleles could be used as markers for culling, and selection favoring susceptibility alleles should be considered to maintain heterozygote advantage and pathogen-specific memories in the herd. PMID:23571121

Duangjinda, M; Jindatajak, Y; Tipvong, W; Sriwarothai, J; Pattarajinda, V; Katawatin, S; Boonkum, W

2013-09-23

146

Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.  

PubMed

The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

2013-12-01

147

A Body Condition Scoring Chart for Holstein Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chart for body condition scoring of freely moving Holstein dairy cows was developed using an iterative process consisting of literature review, interviews with experts, field testing, statistical analysis, and comments from chart users. The chart consists of text and diagrams that detail changes in con- formation with body condition change for eight body locations identified as important in body

A. J. Edmonson; I. J. Lean; L. D. Weaver; T. Farver; G. Webster

1989-01-01

148

Genetic Relationship between Birth Weight and Adult Weight in Holsteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of body weight for 1026 Holstein females from two herds included birth weight and all available subsequent calving weights for the first six parities. Birth weight differed between herds and between sires within herds. Years also differed; however, partial nesting of sires within years could account for part of this. Month of birth had no influence on birth weight.

R. C. Lamb; B. O. Barker

1975-01-01

149

Congenital enlargement of the suburethral diverticulum in a Holstein calf  

PubMed Central

A 3-month-old, female Holstein calf was examined because of marked perineal swelling and tenesmus of 4-days duration. A congenitally enlarged urethral diverticulum was diagnosed using fluoroscopic and ultrasonographic imaging techniques. The urethral diverticulum was surgically resected and the perineal area was reconstructed. PMID:21532825

Vogel, Susan R.; Dore, Elizabeth; Breteau, Gaelle; Desrochers, Andre; Babkine, Marie; Nichols, Sylvain

2011-01-01

150

Incidence and Genetic Characterization of Gongylonema pulchrum in Cattle Slaughtered in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, is a thread-like spirurid nematode found in a variety of mammals worldwide. Its incidences in Iranian cattle of different breed or age have not been reported. The aims of the present study are to disclose the infection status of G. pulchrum in cattle slaughtered in northern region of Iran. Methods Full-length esophagi of cattle of 97 native dairy breed and 41 Holstein-Friesian breed were collected at four local abattoirs in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, from March 2006 to August 2007, and were examined parasitologically. Eight overlapping segments of the small- and large-subunits of rDNA were amplified by PCR, and the obtained nucleotide sequences were characterized. Results The incidences of G. pulchrum in female and male native dairy breed were 38.9% and 24.0%, respectively, whereas those in female and male Holstein-Friesian breed were 4.2% and 0%, respectively. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of G. pulchrum rDNA showed an intra-individual variation in the sequence and length, and the variation was ascribed to some unstable repeats of "A" or "CA". Conclusion Distinct incidences of G. pulchrum infection in native dairy breed and Holstein-Friesian breed might be ascribed to different animal husbandry manners for each breed in Iran; the former breed grazes freely in the pasture, but the latter breed is usually held in a pen. The rDNA sequence of Iranian G. pulchrum, obtained for the first time by us, might facilitate a reliable species identification of the parasite with a wide spectrum of morphological variations. PMID:22347239

Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Salehi, N; Ashrafi-Helan, J; Sato, H

2010-01-01

151

Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

Lipman, Jonathan

2010-01-01

152

Synchronizing Estrus in Cattle  

E-print Network

Cattle producers can synchronize estrus (heat) to breed fertile females rapidly. The manipulation of the reproductive process reduces the need to detect estrus, creates a more uniform calf crop, and shortens the breeding and calving seasons...

Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2007-04-13

153

Vaccenic Acid and cis -9, trans -11 CLA in the Rumen and Different Tissues of Pasture and Concentrate-Fed Beef Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of present study was the comparison of trans-11 18:1 (VA) and cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations in the rumen and different tissues in beef cattle, and to examine the diet and breed effects on the\\u000a compound concentration and deposition. Sixty-four German Holstein and German Simmental bulls were randomly assigned to two\\u000a dietary treatments, based on concentrate or pasture. The concentration

Xiangzhen Shen; Karin Nuernberg; Gerd Nuernberg; Ruqian Zhao; Nigel Scollan; Klaus Ender; Dirk Dannenberger

2007-01-01

154

Digestibility and nitrogen balance of high- and low-quality forages supplemented with high- and low-protein concentrates fed to two breeds of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to compare the digestibility and nitrogen balance of local Red Chittagong (RC) and Holstein cross (Hx) cattle with high- and low-quality forages supplemented with high- and low-quality protein concentrates. The diets were high digestibility German grass with high-protein soybean meal (SBM) (A), high digestibility German grass with low-protein wheat bran (WB) (B), low digestibility rice

Masuma Habib; Geoff Pollott; David Leaver

2011-01-01

155

Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association studies were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBV in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBV within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multibreed reference population. Therefore, a multibreed reference population is a useful resource to find SNP with a greater than average association with RFI in 1 breed and use them to estimate GEBV in another breed. PMID:25074450

Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

2014-08-01

156

Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds.  

PubMed

BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India. PMID:17495349

Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S

2007-01-01

157

Narthecium asiaticum Maxim. Poisoning of grazing cattle: observations on spontaneous and experimental cases.  

PubMed

A total of 39 Holstein cattle were grazed in tracts of wild grassland on account of shortage in pasture grass. Twenty-nine cattle were affected and 26 of them died during a 21-day period. The main signs were depression, anorexia, ascites, and oliguria. There was elevated serum urea nitrogen and sugar and protein in the urine. Pathological examination revealed turbid swelling of the kidney, an increase in the amount of fluid in the body cavity, edema in the perirenal adipose tissue and hemorrhage in various visceral organs and tissues. Histologically, acute tubular necrosis in the kidney, hypoplasia of the erythroblast series in the bone marrow, atrophy and degeneration of the lymphatic tissue and focal necrosis of the liver were observed in many of the cattle. Among cows experimentally fed Narthecium asiaticum Maxim., Polygonum sachalinense Fr. Schum., and Vitis coignetiae Pulliat which were presumed to have been ingested in large amounts by grazing cattle in the field, the cows fed N. asiaticum revealed the clinical, biochemical and pathological changes similar to those noticed in naturally affected cattle. Cows fed P. sachalinense and V. coignetiae showed no distinct systemic symptoms except transient anorexia and hypothermia. PMID:3987297

Suzuki, K; Kobayashi, M; Ito, A; Nakgawa, M

1985-04-01

158

Milk production and energy efficiency of Holstein and Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows offered diets containing grass silage.  

PubMed

Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows (all primiparous) were used in a repeated 2 (genotype) × 2 (concentrate level) factorial design study involving a total of 4 periods (each of 6-wk duration), designed to examine the effect of cross-breeding on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. The 4 periods began at 5, 11, 27, and 33 wk of lactation, respectively. Animals were offered a completely mixed diet containing grass silage and concentrates, with the level of concentrate in the diet either 30 or 70% of dry matter (DM). During the final 10 d of each period, ration digestibility and energy use was measured, the latter in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeters. No significant interaction existed between cow genotype and dietary concentrate level for feed intake, milk production, or any of the energy use parameters measured. Across the 2 genotypes, total DM intake, milk yield, and milk protein and lactose concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrate level. Thus, cows offered the high-concentrate diet had a higher gross energy (GE) intake, and a higher energy output in feces, urine, milk as heat, and a higher metabolizable energy (ME) intake as a proportion of GE intake and as a proportion of digestible energy intake. Across the 2 levels of concentrates, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher total DM intake and body condition score, and produced milk with higher fat, protein, and energy concentrations, compared with those of the Holstein cows. In addition, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher GE intake and energy output in urine, methane, and milk. However, crossbreeding had no significant effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, energy partitioning between milk and body tissue, or the efficiency of ME use for lactation. Relating ME intake to milk energy output and heat production indicated that crossbreeding did not influence ME requirement for maintenance or energy efficiencies. The energy metabolism data were also used to compare energy efficiencies between "early" (data pooled for the first 2 periods) and "late" (data pooled for the second 2 periods) stages of lactation. Stage of lactation had no effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, whereas increasing stage of lactation increased the rate of energy partitioning into body tissue and reduced the rate of energy partitioning into milk, irrespective of cow genotype. In conclusion, crossbreeding of Holstein dams with Jersey sires had no adverse effects on the overall production efficiency of Holstein dairy cows in terms of milk production, efficiency of ME use for lactation, and energy partitioning between milk and body tissue. PMID:21338810

Xue, B; Yan, T; Ferris, C F; Mayne, C S

2011-03-01

159

Chinese Dinosaurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's "Jurassic Park" in Mandarin? That isn't easy to say, but if you're interested in Chinese dinosaurs, then you will love the new online (and real) exhibit hosted by the Australian Museum in Sydney. A vast land containing many of the world's best-preserved dinosaur specimens, China offers remnants of many species not commonly available in Western exhibits. With lots to explore, the site features a readily accessible list of dinosaurs, each arranged under its Chinese-derived species name. Not like anything most of us have ever heard, many of the specimens look and seem familiar, at least as members of the dinosaur family. While generally well-executed, particularly worthy of note is the site's presentation of China's celebrated feathered dinosaurs, Caudipteryx zoui and Protarchaeopteryx, two curious figures believed to represent part of the great reptilian leap from land to air.

2002-01-01

160

Comparative digestibility of low-quality grass hay by two breeds of cattle differing in mature live weight.  

PubMed

The digestive capacity of the Portuguese native breed of Barrosão cattle and the Holstein-Friesian breed was measured when fed meadow hay (72-74 g CP and 641-671 g NDF/kg dry matter), offered either alone or supplemented with soya bean meal (150 g/kg dry matter), at maintenance level. Four mature cows of each breed were used. Average initial live weight (LW) was 457 and 635 kg for the Barrosão and the Holstein-Friesian cows respectively. The organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the meadow hay was higher in Holstein-Friesian than in Barrosão cows (p < 0.08) whether supplemented or not. The neutral detergent fibre digestibility of the hay was also higher in Holstein-Frisian when the hay was fed alone (p < 0.08). The soya bean meal supplementation increased the OMD and the NDFD digestibility of the total diet (p < 0.05), but not the OMD digestibility of the hay (p > 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest a higher ability to digest fibre in the large dairy breed than in the small native breed. This suggestion is also supported by previous findings with sheep breeds largely differing in mature live weight. PMID:23746083

Lourenço, A L; Dias-da-Silva, A; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Cone, J W; Ferreira, L M M

2014-06-01

161

Grid Pricing of Fed Cattle  

E-print Network

There are several value-based fed cattle pricing systems, including formula pricing, price grids and alliances. This publication describes the different cattle pricing methods and helps you decide which is best for you....

Schroeder, Ted C.; Hogan, Robert J.; Anderson, David P.

2009-03-02

162

Organic Beef Cattle Grazing Demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in grass-fed organic beef. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of conventional feedlot-based cattle finishing with organically acceptable cattle finishing.

Mark S. Honeyman; Russ Bredahl; Dallas L. Maxwell

2006-01-01

163

Comparison of joining and constant ?-light chain regions in different cattle breeds.  

PubMed

A comparative transcription analysis of Ig ?-light chains (IGK) of the cattle breeds Holstein Friesian (HF), German Black Pied (GBP), German Simmental (GS) and Aubrac (A) revealed three alleles coding for two putative allotypic variants of IGKC. The amino acid residues p.Asp100Asn and p.Thr116Ala were located at the outer edge of the constant domain as demonstrated by homology-based modelling. Alleles were distributed in unequal frequencies within the breeds examined. While cattle breeds HF, GS, and A possessed all alleles and allotypic variants, GBP exhibited alleles encoding allotypic variant IGKC(a) . All three IGKJ segments were detected in 320 sequences analysed. IGKJ1 was combined predominantly with IGKC. The ORF2 of IGKJ2 was detected for the first time on transcriptional level. PMID:22497300

Stein, S K; Diesterbeck, U S; Aboelhassan, D M; Czerny, C-P

2012-12-01

164

Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

Mammadova, Nazira

2013-01-01

165

Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

2013-01-01

166

Estimating Grazeable Acreage for Cattle  

E-print Network

some of the major plant species, especially grasses. Grasses such as threeawn (Aristida spp.), red grama (Bouteloua trifida) and Texas grama (Bouteloua rigidiseta) are very unpalatable to cattle. Cattle will avoid areas dominated by these species... some of the major plant species, especially grasses. Grasses such as threeawn (Aristida spp.), red grama (Bouteloua trifida) and Texas grama (Bouteloua rigidiseta) are very unpalatable to cattle. Cattle will avoid areas dominated by these species...

Hohlt, Jason C.; Lyons, Robert K.; Hanselka, C. Wayne; McKown, David

2009-04-17

167

Some rigorous results on the Holstein-Hubbard model  

E-print Network

The Holstein model has been widely accepted as a model of electrons interacting with the phonons. Analysis of its ground states was accomplished decades ago. However obtained results did not completely take account of the repulsive Coulomb interactions. Recent progress has made it possible to treat such interactions rigorously. In this paper, we study the Holstein-Hubbard mdoel with the repulsive Coulomb interactions. Ground state properties of the model are investigated. Especially, the ground state of the Hamiltonian is proven to be unique for an even number of electrons on bipartite connected lattice. In addition, an infrared bound on the two-point function is given. The effects of the repulsive Coulomb interaction induce several technical difficulties.

Tadahiro Miyao

2014-02-21

168

Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR) is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison. Results Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves. Conclusions The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females. PMID:22472123

2012-01-01

169

Localization of large polarons in the disordered Holstein model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the disordered Holstein model via the density-matrix renormalization group method to investigate the combined roles of electron-phonon coupling and disorder on the localization of a single charge or exciton. The parameter regimes chosen, namely the adiabatic regime, ?? /4t0=?'<1, and the large polaron regime, ? <1, are applicable to most conjugated polymers. We show that as a consequence of the polaron effective mass diverging in the adiabatic limit (defined as ?'?0 subject to fixed ?) self-localized, symmetry-breaking solutions are predicted by the quantum Holstein model for infinitesimal disorder, in complete agreement with the predictions of the Born-Oppenheimer Holstein model. For other parts of the (?', ?) parameter space, however, self-localized Born-Oppenheimer solutions are not expected. If ?' is not small enough and ? is not large enough, then the polaron is predominately localized by Anderson disorder, albeit more than for a free particle, because of the enhanced effective mass. Alternatively, for very small electron-phonon coupling (? ?1) the disorder-induced localization length is always smaller than the classical polaron size, 2/?, so that disorder always dominates. We comment on the implication of our results on the electronic properties of conjugated polymers.

Tozer, Oliver Robert; Barford, William

2014-04-01

170

Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.  

PubMed

The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

McGrann, J M; Leachman, L

1995-07-01

171

Novel Glycoside Hydrolases Identified by Screening a Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow Rumen-Derived Metagenome Library ? †  

PubMed Central

One clone encoding glycoside hydrolases was identified through functional screening of a rumen bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Of the 68 open reading frames (ORFs) predicted, one ORF encodes a novel endo-?-1,4-xylanase with two catalytic domains of family GH43 and two cellulose-binding modules (CBMs) of family IV. Partial characterization showed that this endo-xylanase has a greater specific activity than a number of other xylanases over a wide temperature range at neutral pH and could be useful in some industrial applications. PMID:20709844

Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Liu, Kailang; Zhu, Yaxin; Dong, Zhiyang; Yu, Zhongtang

2010-01-01

172

Innate immune gene variation and differential susceptibility to uterine diseases in Holstein cows.  

PubMed

An immune response is mounted after binding of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The primary objective of this study was to test for the associations between bovine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion (indel) mutations occurring in seven bovine TLR genes (TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10) that are known to recognize bacterial ligands and the most significant uterine diseases in dairy cows, including metritis (MET), clinical endometritis (CE), and cytologic endometritis (CYE). Custom allele-specific genotyping assays derived from multiple bovine TLR sequencing studies were utilized. Genotypes for 110 loci (SNPs and indels) that are known to be variable in domestic cattle were determined, resulting in 46 monomorphic loci, 64 loci with two alleles, and 35 loci that did not meet our inclusion criterion for minor allele frequency (?0.10). The association between specific TLR genotypes and each of the uterine diseases (MET, CE, CYE) was evaluated by logistic regression with correction for confounding variables. Collectively, seven SNPs produced uncorrected P values ?0.05 with respect to three different uterine diseases investigated, but none of the SNP associations endured correction for multiple testing (P values ? 0.05). Several confounding variables, including parity, dystocia, and ketosis before 17 DIM, remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Our analysis of these data suggest that some bovine TLR SNPs (i.e., TLRs 2, 4, 6, 9) may potentially elicit relatively small effects on uterine health in Holstein dairy cows and that some confounding variables are actually more predictive for the incidence of disease than any genetic markers evaluated herein. PMID:23768650

Pinedo, P J; Galvão, K N; Seabury, C M

2013-09-01

173

Genetic parameters for milk urea concentration and milk traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

Milk urea concentration (MU) used by dairy producers for management purposes can be affected by selection for milk traits. To assess this problem, genetic parameters for MU in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle were estimated for the first three lactations. The genetic correlation of MU with milk production traits, lactose percentage, fat to protein ratio (FPR) and somatic cell score (SCS) were computed with two 5-trait random regression test-day models, separately for each lactation. Data used for estimation (159,044 daily observations) came from 50 randomly sampled herds. (Co)variance components were estimated with the Bayesian Gibbs sampling method. The coefficient of variation for MU in all three parities was high (40-41 %). Average daily heritabilities of MU were 0.22 for the first parity and 0.21 for the second and third lactations. Average genetic correlations for different days in milk in the first three lactations between MU and other traits varied. They were small and negative for protein percentage (from -0.24 to -0.11) and for SCS (from -0.14 to -0.09). The weakest genetic correlation between MU and fat percentage, and between MU and lactose percentage were observed (from -0.10 to 0.10). Negative average genetic correlation with the fat to protein ratio was observed only in the first lactation (-0.14). Genetic correlations with yield traits were positive and ranged from low to moderate for protein (from 0.09 to 0.33), fat (from 0.16 to 0.35) and milk yield (from 0.20 to 0.42). These results suggest that the selection on yield traits and SCS tends to increase MU slightly. PMID:23934506

Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Strabel, Tomasz

2013-11-01

174

Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

2013-01-01

175

Chinese Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fascinating site, brought to fruition by Dutch Sinologist Stefan R. Landsberger, seeks to provide âÂÂa visual chronicle of the history of modern Chinaâ through the exhibition of over 5,000 PeopleâÂÂs Republic of China propaganda posters. Viewers may want to start with the Gallery of Chinese Propaganda Posters â an overview of 200 highlights from the collection. A visit to Our Most Visited Theme Pages and Recently Added Posters also pays intellectual dividends (Iron Women and Foxy Ladies is an especially great find). But perhaps the true gem of the site is the 200 theme presentations found under the Themes link, where readers can explore categories such as Before the PeopleâÂÂs Republic, Campaigns â 1949-1965, Models and Martyrs, and Mao Zedong.

176

Forages for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Pasture forages for beef cattle are of five types--warm-season perennials, warm-season annuals, cool-season annuals, cool-season perennials and legumes. This publication discusses the five types and proposes a year-round forage management system...

Bade, David H.; Dorsett, Donald J.

2002-09-05

177

Methane Emissions from Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing atmospheric concentra- tions of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many

K. A. Johnson; D. E. Johnson

2010-01-01

178

Inbreeding trends and pedigree analysis of Irish dairy and beef cattle populations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the inbreeding levels and to analyze the pedigree of Irish purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Hereford, Angus, and Simmental beef cattle, as well as the Holstein-Friesian dairy breed. Pedigree analyses included quantifying the depth of known pedigree, average generation intervals, effective population size, the effective number of founders, ancestors, and founder genomes, as well as identifying the most influential animals within the current population of each breed. The annual rate of increase in inbreeding over the past decade was 0.13% (P < 0.001) in the Hereford, 0.06% (P < 0.001) in the Simmental, and 0.10% (P < 0.001) in the Holstein-Friesian breeds. Inbreeding in the other breeds remained relatively constant over the past decade. Herefords had the greatest mean inbreeding in 2004, at 2.19%, whereas Charolais had the lowest, at 0.54%. Over half of each purebred population in 2004 was inbred to some degree; the population with the greatest proportion of animals inbred was the Hereford breed (85%). All 6 breeds displayed a generation interval of approximately 6 yr in recent years. In the pure-bred females born in 2004, the 3 most influential animals contributed between 11% (Limousin) and 24% (Hereford) of the genes. Effective population size was estimated for the Hereford, Simmental, and Holstein-Friesian only, and was 64, 127, and 75, respectively. The effective number of founders varied from 55 (Simmental) to 357 (Charolais), whereas the effective number of ancestors varied from 35 (Simmental and Hereford) to 82 (Limousin). Thus, despite the majority of animals being inbred, the inbreeding level across breeds is low but rising at a slow rate in the Hereford, Simmental, and Holstein-Friesian. PMID:17040944

Mc Parland, S; Kearney, J F; Rath, M; Berry, D P

2007-02-01

179

Thermal characteristics of Metarhizium anisopliae isolates important for the development of biological pesticides for the control of cattle ticks.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine if Metarhizium anisopliae isolates which are capable of growth at cattle surface temperatures could produce pathogenicity to Boophilus microplus in laboratory and field studies. The diurnal temperature fluctuation on the surface of cattle was monitored. The temperature tolerance of M. anisopliae isolates (ARSEF3297 and IMI386697) was determined and their pathogenicity to B. microplus compared at a standard bioassay temperature (28 degrees C) and at a temperature similar to the cattle surface (31-35 degrees C). The effect of the two isolates on the B. microplus population on cattle under field conditions was determined. The temperature of the fore udder, rear udder, ribs and neck regions of the mixed Holstein cattle fluctuated between 30 and 35 degrees C, in a similar pattern to the prevailing environmental temperature. However, wider fluctuations were obtained on the ears (28-35 degrees C) and spine (30-41 degrees C). The colony radius of both isolates declined as temperature increased, however, the growth of IMI386697 was five times greater than ARSEF3297 at 34 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, the pathogenicity of both isolates to B. microplus was similar, however, at 31-35 degrees C, IMI386697 was more pathogenic than ARSEF3297. Both isolates reduced the B. microplus population on cattle in comparison to the control formulation. However, IMI386697 (8.5+/-0.64 ticks/animal) produced a greater reduction in tick numbers than ARSEF3297 (19.1+/-0.64 ticks/animal). M. anisopliae was re-isolated from 8.9% of the ticks collected from IMI386697 treated cattle as compared to 2.8% of ticks from ARSEF3297 treated cattle. PMID:16099103

Polar, Perry; de Muro, Marilena Aquino; Kairo, Moses T K; Moore, Dave; Pegram, Rupert; John, Sally-Ann; Roach-Benn, Cheryl

2005-11-25

180

Magnetic and lattice polaron in the Holstein t-J model E. Cappelluti1  

E-print Network

polaron, i.e., the case of an electron moving together with a phonon cloud, which represents the latticeMagnetic and lattice polaron in the Holstein t-J model E. Cappelluti1 and S. Ciuchi2 1 Dipartimento in the antiferromagnetic background. We present an exact analytical solution of the Holstein t-J model in infinite

Cappelluti, Emmanuele

181

Genetic analyses of early-expressed reproduction traits of Boran and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey in Central Highlands of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess early-expressed reproductive traits of Boran cattle and their crosses with Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF). The traits studied were age at first services (AFS), number of services for first conception, age at first calving (AFC), first dry period (FDP), first calving interval (FCI), and first service period (FSP). Genetic group and period of birth/calving had a significant (p?cattle were inferior to HF or Jersey crosses. First crosses (F 1) for Jersey and Boran (50 % Jersey: 50 % Boran) showed a significantly (p?cattle. The F 1 for Jersey and Boran (50 % Jersey: 50 % Boran) crosses showed better performance than the F 1 for HF and Boran (50 % HF: 50 % Boran). Heritability values for AFS and AFC were the highest and were estimated at 0.51?±?0.10 and 0.49?±?0.13, respectively, and lowest heritability was recorded for FDP (0.02?±?020) and FSP (0.10?±?0.29). The genetic correlation was highest (0.10?±?0.20) between AFS and AFC and was lowest (-0.01?±?0.66) between FCI and FSP. The breed additive for Jersey was only significant (p?cattle has desirably reduced 9.16?±?2.88 months in AFS; the corresponding reduction in AFS was 3.49?±?3.59 months by crossing with Jersey. The performance comparisons and genetic and crossbreeding parameters indicated that crossbreeding of Boran with HF or Jersey can improve reproductive performance. PMID:24162873

Belay, Berhanu; Chakravarty, Ashim Kumar

2014-01-01

182

Characterization of hsp70 gene promoter for cis- acting elements in Indian zebu cattle of Hariana breed.  

PubMed

The promoter region of hsp70 gene was characterized for cis-acting elements in zebu cattle of Hariana breed. The basal regulatory domain of CAAT box identified as CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) and CAAT binding transcription factor (CTF) binding sites, as well as GC box identified as sp1 binding site, were localized in at least two regions in the hsp70 gene promoter. A highly conserved heat shock element was found between position -108 to -95, which exactly matched at all eight positions with the consensus sequence. These cis-acting elements were found to be conserved between Holstein-Friesian and studied zebu breed. PMID:24669866

Behl, Rahul; Behl, Jyotsna; Sadana, D K; Vijh, R K; Tantia, M S; Joshi, B K

2014-01-01

183

Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p?cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits. PMID:24655368

2014-01-01

184

Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle. PMID:25049602

Matsui, T.

2012-01-01

185

Traumatic flexor tendon injuries in 27 cattle.  

PubMed

Information for all cattle with a diagnosis of tendon injury entered into the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) was retrieved and selected medical records reviewed. The proportional morbidity rate for tendon disruption was 0.89 cattle/1,000 cattle admissions and 95 of 99 cattle survived. Female and dairy cattle had a greater risk of tendon disruption than male or beef cattle, respectively. Also, cattle 6 months to 7 years old had a greater risk than cattle younger than 6 months old. Complete medical records were examined for 27 cattle. Affected cattle were 2.5 +/- 1.8 years old and weighed 593.6 +/- 315.6 kg. Injuries were most commonly caused by accidents involving farm machinery (72%). Unilateral superficial digital flexor tendon injury occurred in 8 cattle (30%); multiple tendon injury occurred in the other 19 cattle (70%). A single limb was involved in 25 cattle, a rear limb was involved in 24 cattle, and an open wound was associated with the injury in 26 cattle. Wounds were identified most commonly at the mid (13 cattle) and proximal metatarsus (4 cattle). Treatment of tendon disruption included tenorrhaphy and casting (9 cattle), external coaptation, alone, (14 cattle), stall confinement, alone, (1 cow), and euthanasia or salvage (3 cattle). External coaptation was maintained for 74.4 +/- 34.3 days, and total confinement period was 88.3 +/- 59.5 days. Short-term complications included severe tendon laxity (one cow) and fatal septic peritonitis (one bull). Twenty-two of 24 cattle treated for tendon disruption survived. Follow-up information was available for 16 cattle; 14 cattle (87%) returned to productivity and 11 of 15 cattle with long-term follow-up (73%) were considered productive. Long-term complications included persistent lameness (56%) and persistent hyperextension of the digits (19%). PMID:8810022

Anderson, D E; St-Jean, G; Morin, D E; Ducharme, N G; Nelson, D R; Desrochers, A

1996-01-01

186

Ancient Chinese Kitchens  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Few people don't love Chinese food: The delicate flavors; the bite size pieces; the flavorful sauces; the healthful spices. Well, here's at least one reason why Chinese food is so good: they've been ...

Hacker, Randi

2012-06-04

187

SNP-based association mapping of the polled gene in divergent cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Naturally, hornless cattle are called polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a c. 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. Here, an association mapping design was set up to refine the candidate region of the polled trait for subsequent high-throughput sequencing. The case group comprised 101 homozygous polled animals from nine divergent cattle breeds, the majority represented by Galloway, Angus, Fleckvieh and Holstein Friesian. Additionally, this group included some polled individuals of Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey and Limousin breeds. The control group comprised horned Belgian Blue, Fleckvieh, Holstein Friesian and Illyrian Buša cattle. A genome-wide scan using 49,163 SNPs was performed, which revealed one shared homozygous haplotype block consisting of nine neighbouring SNPs in all polled animals. This segment defines a 381-kb interval on BTA1 that we consider to be the most likely location of the POLL mutation. Our results further demonstrate that the polled-associated haplotype is also frequent in horned animals included in this study, and thus the haplotype as such cannot be used for population-wide genetic testing. The actual trait-associated haplotype may be revealed by using higher-density SNP arrays. For the final identification of the causal mutation, we suggest high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, because the identification of functional candidate genes is difficult owing to the lack of a comparable model. PMID:22497248

Seichter, D; Russ, I; Rothammer, S; Eder, J; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

2012-10-01

188

The effect of incremental levels of dietary nitrate on methane emissions in Holstein steers and performance in Nelore bulls.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to study effects of dietary nitrate on enteric methane production, blood methemoglobin concentration, and growth rate in cattle. In Exp. 1, 36 Holstein steers (288 ± 25 kg BW) were fed increasing levels of dietary nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 3.0% of feed DM) in corn silage-based total mixed rations. Nitrate was introduced gradually in a 25-d adaptation period before methane production was determined in environmentally controlled rooms. In the rooms, feed intake was restricted and similar among all treatments. Methane production (g/d) decreased linearly as dietary nitrate concentration increased (P < 0.01). The apparent efficiency (measured methane reduction divided by potential methane reduction) with which enteric methane was mitigated was 49%. Blood methemoglobin levels increased with increasing nitrate dose. In Exp. 2, 300 Nelore bulls (392 ± 28 kg) were fed increasing levels of nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 2.4% of feed DM) in high-concentrate total mixed rations offered ad libitum. Feed intake decreased linearly with increasing level of dietary nitrate (P < 0.01). However, ADG was not affected by nitrate dose (P = 0.54), resulting in a linear improvement in G:F (P = 0.03) as dietary nitrate level increased. Carcass dressing percentage showed a quadratic response to incremental dietary nitrate, reaching the highest value at 0.96% of NO3/kg DM (P = 0.04). PMID:25349351

Newbold, J R; van Zijderveld, S M; Hulshof, R B A; Fokkink, W B; Leng, R A; Terencio, P; Powers, W J; van Adrichem, P S J; Paton, N D; Perdok, H B

2014-11-01

189

Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Holstein steers (n = 2,275) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no ?-agonists, 2) a diet that contained zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal period before harvest, and 3) a diet that contained ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 30.1 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 28 d before harvest. No differences (P ? 0.18) were detected between treatments for initial BW, BW at d 28, or DMI. Final BW, BW gain for the last 28 d, total BW gain, ADG for the last 28 d, and overall ADG were greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed ZH or RH than for steers fed the control diet. Additionally, G:F for the last 28 d and G:F for the entire trial was increased (P < 0.02) for steers fed ZH (0.147, 0.147) or RH (0.153, 0.151) compared to steers fed the control diet (0.134, 0.143), respectively. Steers fed ZH or RH had HCW that were 15.5 and 8.2 kg heavier (P ? 0.01) and LM areas that were 7.1 and 2.3 cm(2) larger (P < 0.01) than control cattle. Steers fed ZH also had dressed carcass yields that were 1.3% to 1.5% greater and USDA calculated yield grades that were decreased 0.16 to 0.23 units compared to RH and control steers. No differences (P ? 0.39) were found between treatments for marbling score, fat thickness, and percentage KPH. Steers fed ZH had an increased (P ? 0.04) percentage of yield grade 1 and 2 carcasses (15.1, 55.0) and a reduced (P ? 0.02) percentage of yield grade 3 carcasses (27.1) compared with those fed RH (10.5, 49.1, 36.1) or the control diet (9.0, 47.4, 36.4), respectively. Additionally, ZH-fed steers had a decreased (P ? 0.04) percentage of yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses (2.8) compared with steers fed the control diet (6.9). Steers fed ZH had an increased (P ? 0.01) percentage of USDA Select grading carcass (31.0%) and a decreased (P ? 0.01) percentage of USDA Choice grading carcasses (65.0%) compared with steers fed RH (25.8%, 70.2%) and no ?-agonist (24.8%, 72.0%), respectively. Feeding either ?-agonist to calf-fed Holstein steers increased live performance through increased BW, BW gain, and ADG. Furthermore, supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with ZH provides greater improvements in HCW, LM area, and yield grade components, with a slight decrease in quality grade when compared to calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with RH. PMID:25006068

Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

2014-09-01

190

UNIVERSITET CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD  

E-print Network

as the overall impact of student migration on Chinese society. WE INVITE PAPERS EXPLORING - how studying abroad experience, networks and ideas of these students impact upon the future of Chinese society AbstractsAARHUS UNIVERSITET CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD Reflections, Strategies and Impacts of a Global

191

Teaching Business Chinese Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a comprehensive approach to teaching business Chinese online that is beng developed in the language learning laboratory at the University of Illinois. The courseware consists of two complementary parts: a business Chinese workbook and a business Chinese simulation. (Author/VWL)

Zhang, Hang

2002-01-01

192

IMPACT OF GRAIN PROCESSING AND QUALITY ON HOLSTEIN STEER PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of grain processing for feeding ruminants has been reviewed extensively (Nocek and Tamminga, 1991; Huntington, 1997; Theurer et al., 1999; Rowe et al., 1999; Harmon and McLeod, 2001, 2005; Firkins et al., 2001; Harmon et al., 2004; Owens and Zinn, 2005). This review outlines results from trials with feedlot cattle irrespective of breed, with emphasis on digestibility of

Fred Owens

193

December 6, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady com-  

E-print Network

December 6, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 49 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady com surge when green grass begins to return. Feedlots continue to maintain interest in heavier feeder cattle. Steady cattle prices are not necessarily a bad thing if they maintain this level for cattle feeders

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

194

The influence of foraging benefits on association of cattle egrets ( Bubulcus ibis ) with cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of association between cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and cattle was studied during one summer on Saint Catherines Island, Georgia, USA. Previous work by Grubb (1976) and others indicated that cattle egrets foraging with cattle require fewer steps and less time to catch prey than egrets foraging without cattle and single egrets catch prey at a higher rate than

Charles F. Thompson; Scott M. Lanyon; Karen M. Thompson

1982-01-01

195

ADAPTIVENESS OF CATTLE EGRET'S (BUBULCUS IBIS) FORAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) feeding in close association with cattle catch insect prey at a significantly higher rate and expend less energy than do those foraging alone. Cattle Egrets once had a strong association with grazing cattle, but have now shifted themselves behind tractors specially in inundated agricultural fields. Captures per minute were 2.06 for the egrets feeding near the

Aeshita Mukherjee

2000-01-01

196

INTEGRATING CATTLE AND WILDLIFE IN SOUTH TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central theme of this paper is that cattle and wildlife are compatible on South Texas ranges. The diversity of soils and native plants in South Texas makes the region inherently productive for both cattle and wildlife. The key to integrating cattle and wildlife on South Texas rangelands is proper habitat management, and good cattle-range management can be compatible with

D. LYNN DRAWE

197

Determining Pregnancy in Cattle  

E-print Network

in the sexual cycle. Figure 2 is a general diagram of the reproductive tract. The vulva is the external portion of the repro- ductive tract and can be seen as two prominent lips. Its size may vary with the animal?s age and be- tween breeds. Brahman...-influenced females usually have a larger vulva than do cattle of English and European breeds. Figure 2 (right to left) shows the next portion of the tract: the vagina. It serves as a receptacle for se- men during natural mating, is a thin-walled structure...

Beverly, John R.; Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2008-12-16

198

Molasses for Fattening Cattle.  

E-print Network

of this experiment are reported on page 17, of Bulletin 7G. SOURCE OF FEEDING ~fo~~ss~s.--The cane molasses sold for feecl- ing purposes is the refuse after all the crystalized sugar obtainable has been taken from the concentratecl juice of the cane. "It is a... of this molasses. Of this amount 3,000 ~rrels were solcl to the cattle feeders of this State. COST OF IIOLASSES.-T~~ sugar refining companies offer feeding molasses in barrels at 6 cents per gallon. A barrel contains on an aver- age 50 gallons or 600 pounds...

Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

1906-01-01

199

Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle.  

PubMed

The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes project, we sequenced the whole genomes of 234 cattle to an average of 8.3-fold coverage. This sequencing includes data for 129 individuals from the global Holstein-Friesian population, 43 individuals from the Fleckvieh breed and 15 individuals from the Jersey breed. We identified a total of 28.3 million variants, with an average of 1.44 heterozygous sites per kilobase for each individual. We demonstrate the use of this database in identifying a recessive mutation underlying embryonic death and a dominant mutation underlying lethal chrondrodysplasia. We also performed genome-wide association studies for milk production and curly coat, using imputed sequence variants, and identified variants associated with these traits in cattle. PMID:25017103

Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert; Stothard, Paul; van Binsbergen, Rianne; Brøndum, Rasmus F; Liao, Xiaoping; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Grohs, Cécile; Esquerré, Diane; Bouchez, Olivier; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fritz, Sébastien; Eggen, André; Bowman, Phil J; Coote, David; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Anderson, Charlotte; VanTassell, Curt P; Hulsegge, Ina; Goddard, Mike E; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Veerkamp, Roel F; Boichard, Didier A; Fries, Ruedi; Hayes, Ben J

2014-08-01

200

Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.  

PubMed

In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

2010-11-01

201

Neosporosis as a cause of abortion in dairy cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Forty-six aborted bovine fetuses submitted to the Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Clinical Pathology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, were examined histopathologically. Non-suppurative inflammation was observed mainly in the brain and heart of 22 fetuses. Brain lesions consisted primarily of mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates with occasional foci of necrosis. Protozoa that reacted with Neospora caninum antisera were seen in 18 of the 22 (81.8%) brain specimens from fetuses with encephalitis. Blood samples collected from 223 Holstein cows on five dairy herds were tested for N. caninum antibodies by an immunofluorescent antibody technique. These samples were obtained from aborting cattle and normally calving cattle (control group). Overall, 11.2% of cows sampled had N. caninum antibodies at a dilution of 1:200. Seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.0053) in aborting (23.3%) than in non-aborting cows (8.3%). Association between seropositivity to N. caninum and abortion was found, with seropositive cows being 3.3 times more likely to abort than seronegative cows (OR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.38, 8.062). Additionally, N. caninum antibodies were detected in sera from seven cows that had aborted fetuses with lesions suggestive of protozoal infection. These results suggest that N. caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:11750112

Corbellini, L G; Driemeier, D; Cruz, C F E; Gondim, L F P; Wald, V

2002-01-28

202

Expressional Analysis of Immunoglobulin D in Cattle (Bos taurus), a Large Domesticated Ungulate  

PubMed Central

For decades, it has remained unknown whether artiodactyls, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, express immunoglobulin D (IgD), although the ? gene was identified in these species nearly 10 years ago. By developing a mouse anti-bovine IgD heavy chain monoclonal antibody (13C2), we show that secreted bovine IgD was present mainly as a monomer in serum and was heavily glycosylated by N-linked saccharides. Nonetheless, IgD was detectable in some but not all of the Holstein cattle examined. Membrane-bound IgD was detected in the spleen by western blotting. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IgD-positive B cells constituted a much lower percentage of B cells in the bovine spleen (?6.8% of total B cells), jejunal Peyer's patches (?0.8%), and peripheral blood leukocytes (?1.2%) than in humans and mice. Furthermore, IgD-positive B cells were almost undetectable in bovine bone marrow and ileal Peyer's patches. We also demonstrated that the bovine ? gene can be expressed via class switch recombination. Accordingly, bovine ? germline transcription, which involves an I? exon and is highly homologous to I?, was confirmed. However, we could not identify an I? promoter, despite bovine E? demonstrating both enhancer and promoter activity. This study has answered a long-standing question in cattle B cell biology and significantly contributes to our understanding of B cell development in this species. PMID:23028592

Xu, Beilei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhiguo; Sun, Yi; Tao, Qiqing; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

2012-01-01

203

High incidence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the prion protein gene of native Brazilian Caracu cattle.  

PubMed

Different alleles of the human and ovine prion protein gene correlate with a varying susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the pathogenic implications of specific polymorphisms in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) are only poorly understood. Previous studies on the bovine PRNP gene investigated common European and North American cattle breeds. As a consequence of decades of intensive breeding for specific traits, these modern breeds represent only a small fraction of the bovine gene pool. In this study, we analysed PRNP polymorphisms in the native Brazilian Caracu breed, which developed in geographical isolation since the 16th century. A total of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered in the coding region of the Caracu PRNP gene. Eight of the SNPs occurred at high frequencies in Caracu cattle (variant allele frequencies = 0.10-0.76), but were absent or only rarely observed in European and North American breeds. One of the Caracu SNPs was associated with an amino acid exchange from serine to asparagine (f = 0.17). This SNP was not detected in Holstein-Friesian, Simmental and German Gelbvieh and was only rarely detected in beef cattle (f = 0.01). We found 17 haplotypes for PRNP in the Caracu breed. PMID:16965405

Kues, W A; Ollhoff, R D; Carnwath, J W; de Souza, F P; Madeira, H M F; Niemann, H

2006-10-01

204

Sequencing and annotated analysis of the Holstein cow genome.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to create a high-quality Holstein cow genome reference sequence and describe the different types of variations in this genome compared to the reference Hereford breed. We generated one fragment and three mate-paired libraries from genomic DNA. Raw files were mapped and paired to the reference cow (Bos taurus) genome assemblies bosTau6/UMD_3.1. BioScope (v1.3) software was used for mapping and variant analysis. Initial sequencing resulted in 2,842,744,008 of 50-bp reads. Average mapping efficiency was 78.4 % and altogether 2,168,425,497 reads and 98,022,357,422 bp were successfully mapped, resulting in 36.7X coverage. Tertiary analysis found 5,923,230 SNPs in the bovine genome, of which 3,833,249 were heterozygous and 2,089,981 were homozygous variants. Annotation revealed that 4,241,000 of all discovered SNPs were annotated in the dbSNP database and 1,682,230 SNPs were considered as novel. Large indel variations accounted for 48,537,190 bp of the entire genome and there were 138,504 of them. The largest deletion was 18,594 bp and the largest insertion was 13,498 bp. Another group of variants, small indels (n = 458,061), accounted for the total variation of 1,839,872 nucleotides in the genome. Only 92,115 small indels were listed in the dbSNP and therefore 365,946 small indels were novel. Finally, we identified 1,876 inversions in the bovine genome. In conclusion, this is another description of the Holstein cow genome and, similar to previous studies, we found a large amount of novel variations. Better knowledge of these variations could explain significant phenotypic differences (e.g., health, production, reproduction) between different breeds. PMID:23893136

Kõks, Sulev; Lilleoja, Rutt; Reimann, Ene; Salumets, Andres; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle

2013-08-01

205

[Establishment of the detection method for two causative genes of cattle arachnomelia syndrome].  

PubMed

Arachnomelia syndrome (AS) is a recessive inherited disease in cattle. Although the arachnomelia phenotypes are virtually identical in Brown Swiss and Simmental cattle, the causative mutation are different, which are a 1 bp insertion c.363-364insG in the sulfite oxidase (SUOX) gene and a 2 bp deletion c.1224_1225delCA in the molybdenum cofactor syn-thesis step 1 (MOCS1) gene, respectively. In the current study, combining fluorescence PCR with capillary electrophoresis technology, an automatic fluorescence method was established, which could detect the two causative loci rapidly and cor-rectly with a single reaction. Samples from 51 Simmental bulls, 80 cows mated artificially using semen of Simmental bulls and their resulted 106 progeny, together with 55 Xinjiang Brown were collected and used for validation of the newly de-signed methods. Our results have laid a foundation for screening AS disease causing mutations in Chinese cattle. PMID:23732669

Chu, Qin; Jiao, Shi-Hui; Wang, Ya-Chun; Liu, Lin; Liu, Ai-Rong; Wu, Hong-Jun; Xie, Zhen-Quan; Hou, Shi-Yu; Geng, Fan-Jun; Wang, Cong-Yong; Huang, Xi-Xia; Tan, Shi-Xin; Tan, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yuan

2013-05-01

206

The effect of chilled drinking water on heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF CHILLED DRINKING WATER ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER CHARLES BAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 5 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECT OF CHILLED DRINKING WATER ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER CHARLES BAKER Approved as to style and content: Carl E. Coppock (Chair of Committee...

Baker, Christopher Charles

2012-06-07

207

Effect of body condition score on dynamics of hemogram in periparturient Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to show the effect of body condition score (BCS) on dynamics of hemogram in periparturition\\u000a Holstein cows in a dairy environment. Sixty-seven Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were allocated in three—under,\\u000a moderate, and over condition—groups. They were sampled and were hematologically analyzed every 10 days from 30 days to calving\\u000a until 30 days postpartum.

Saman Rafia; Taghi Taghipour-Bazargani; Zohreh Khaki; Saied Bokaie; Saied Sattari Tabrizi

208

Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle in Korea between 2010 and 2011  

PubMed Central

A total of 156 Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from fecal samples of Korean native (100/568, 18%) and Holstein dairy cattle (56/524, 11%) in Korea between September 2010 and July 2011. Fifty-two STEC isolates (33%) harbored both of shiga toxin1 (stx1) and shiga toxin2 (stx2) genes encoding enterohemolysin (EhxA) and autoagglutinating adhesion (Saa) were detected by PCR in 83 (53%) and 65 (42%) isolates, respectively. By serotyping, six STEC from native cattle and four STEC from dairy cattle were identified as O-serotypes (O26, O111, O104, and O157) that can cause human disease. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns highlighted the genetic diversity of the STEC strains and difference between strains collected during different years. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the multidrug resistance rate increased from 12% in 2010 to 42% in 2011. Differences between isolates collected in 2010 and 2011 may have resulted from seasonal variations or large-scale slaughtering in Korea performed to control a foot and mouth disease outbreak that occurred in early 2011. However, continuous epidemiologic studies will be needed to understand mechanisms. More public health efforts are required to minimize STEC infection transmitted via dairy products and the prevalence of these bacteria in dairy cattle. PMID:23820205

Kang, Eun; Hwang, Sun Young; Kwon, Ka Hee; Kim, Ki Yeon; Kim, Jae Hong

2014-01-01

209

Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shedding in Cattle by Addition of Chitosan Microparticles to Feed ?  

PubMed Central

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a significant human pathogen that resides in healthy cattle. It is thought that a reduction in the prevalence and numbers of EHEC in cattle will reduce the load of EHEC entering the food chain. To this end, an intervention strategy involving the addition of chitosan microparticles (CM) to feed in order to reduce the carriage of this pathogen in cattle was evaluated. Experiments with individual Holstein calves and a crossover study found that the addition of CM to feed decreased E. coli O157:H7 shedding. In the crossover study, CM resulted in statistically significant reductions in the numbers recovered from rectal swab samples (P < 0.05) and the duration of shedding (P < 0.05). The effects of feeding CM to calves differed, indicating that the optimal levels of CM may differ between animals or that other factors are involved in the interaction between CM and E. coli O157:H7. In vitro studies demonstrated that E. coli O157:H7 binds to CM, suggesting that the reduction in shedding may result at least in part from the binding of positively charged CM to negatively charged E. coli cells. Additional studies are needed to determine the impact of CM feeding on animal production, but the results from this study indicate that supplementing feed with CM reduces the shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. PMID:21335379

Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Kang, Min Young; Kang, Jihun; Baumler, David J.; Kaspar, Charles W.

2011-01-01

210

Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.  

PubMed

This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle. PMID:22444040

Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

2010-04-01

211

Isolation, prevalence, and risk factors for infection by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Rectal swabs of 198 Holstein × Gir crossbred beef cattle from 34 milk farms in the central west of Brazil were analyzed from August 2010 to February 2011. Strains of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from 72.73% (144/198) of the animals, on over 97% of the surveyed properties. The molecular characterization indicated the most common toxin gene stx1 in 70.88% of the animals (202/285), followed by 18.95% (54/285) stx1/sxt2, and 10.18% (29/285) stx2. The presence of STEC in animals together with the probable risk factors based on a questionnaire was evaluated in the owners of the evaluated animals. Results showed that the animal category "calves" and production/technification scale "low" of the farm were related to high STEC prevalence in cattle. The season did not significantly affect the presence of STEC in cattle. The STEC strains are considered a major pathogen, causing severe and potentially lethal diseases in humans such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. This high prevalence of STEC in dairy cattle poses a significant risk to public health, since these microorganisms can contaminate products intended for human consumption, e.g., water, raw and pasteurized milk, meat products, dairy products, and/or products of plant origin. PMID:24510196

Ferreira, Marcos Roberto Alves; Freitas Filho, Edismauro Garcia; Pinto, Jefferson Fernando Naves; Dias, Márcia; Moreira, Cecília Nunes

2014-04-01

212

Learn Chinese Characters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zhongwen.com is a valuable online resource for individuals just beginning to learn Chinese, as well as those who want to learn more. The site contains the complete on line text of "Chinese Character: A Genealogy and Dictionary". All the Chinese characters are hyperlinked so that users of the site can quickly decipher new and unfamiliar characters in English. Additionally, the site has readings about Chinese culture written in Chinese such as the "Art of War" and "Mao Sayings". Finally, for those who may just have basic questions about the Chinese language there is a frequently asked questions section that addresses common questions such as "Why are characters so complicated?" and "Are they pictures?"

Harbaugh, Rick

2007-02-04

213

The Chinese hospital.  

PubMed

The Chinese hospital serves three separate but overlapping functions. Like Western hospitals, the Chinese hospital provides patient care in a wide range of settings and with various levels of facilities. The Chinese hospital is also a danwei or work unit, that employs not only health care personnel, but also day-care teachers, builders, drivers, repairmen, and other auxiliary personnel. The third function is political and organizational. Hospital leaders act as local representatives of the Chinese Communist Party and the state, with jurisdiction over personal, professional, legal, and political activities of the workers in the hospital. PMID:6625391

Cohen, M S; Henderson, G E

1983-10-01

214

Protecting Cattle from Horn Flies  

E-print Network

Horn flies are the most damaging insect to cattle in Texas. This publication explains biological, cultural and chemical methods of controlling horn flies. Various insecticides used to suppress horn flies are listed...

Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

2004-05-24

215

Managing Beef Cattle for Show  

E-print Network

This publication gives advice on raising beef cattle to exhibit at shows. Topics include animal selection, feeding, general health management, disease prevention, calf handling, and preparing for the show....

Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.

2001-11-16

216

Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.  

PubMed

Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals. PMID:1554771

Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G

1992-01-01

217

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers.  

PubMed

Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds-Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black-are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan

2014-11-01

218

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan

2014-01-01

219

Efficacy of amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of experimentally induced foot rot in cattle.  

PubMed

Twenty holstein heifers were intradermally inoculated in the interdigital skin with a suspension containing Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus to induce acute foot rot. Lesions, lameness, and swelling were evaluated during the study, using a subjective scoring system. Rectal temperature, species and number of bacteria isolated, and change in body weight were monitored throughout the study. Ten heifers (treated) were given amoxicillin trihydrate (10 mg/kg of body weight, IM) for 5 days, beginning at the onset of lameness. The remaining 10 heifers (controls) were given physiologic saline solution IM. Treated heifers had less severe lesions and greater weight gain than did control heifers. Rectal temperatures of treated heifers did not differ significantly from those of control heifers. It was concluded that administration of amoxicillin trihydrate early in the course of acute foot rot may reduce the severity of lesions associated with foot rot in cattle. PMID:2893570

Braun, R K; Bates, D B; Shearer, J K; Tran, T Q; el Keiey, M

1987-12-01

220

Comparative infectivity of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia divergens-like parasite in cattle.  

PubMed

Babesia divergens-like parasites identified in human babesiosis cases in Missouri and Kentucky and in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, share identical small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This sequence is 99.8% identical to that of Babesia divergens, suggesting that the U.S. parasite may be B. divergens, a causative agent of human and bovine babesiosis in Europe. Holstein-Friesian calves were inoculated with cultured Nantucket Island Babesia sp. (NR831) and B. divergens parasites and monitored by clinical signs, Giemsa-stained blood films, PCR, and culture. The NR831 recipients did not exhibit clinical signs of infection and remained negative for all assays. The B. divergens recipients developed clinical infections and became positive by all assays. NR831 recipients were fully susceptible upon challenge inoculation with B. divergens. This study confirms that the Nantucket Island Babesia sp. is not conspecific with B. divergens based on host specificity for cattle. PMID:16282295

Holman, Patricia J; Spencer, Angela M; Telford, Sam R; Goethert, Heidi K; Allen, Andrew J; Knowles, Donald P; Goff, Will L

2005-11-01

221

Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.

1987-09-01

222

Biosecurity for Beef Cattle Operations  

E-print Network

:Susceptibleanimalsconsumedisease-causing By Jason Cleere, Assistant Professor and Extension Beef Cattle Specialist Ron Gill, Professor and Extension Livestock Specialist Angela Dement, Extension Assistant, Veterinary Medicine The Texas A&M System Improving Lives. Improving Texas. Biosecurity...:Susceptibleanimalsconsumedisease-causing By Jason Cleere, Assistant Professor and Extension Beef Cattle Specialist Ron Gill, Professor and Extension Livestock Specialist Angela Dement, Extension Assistant, Veterinary Medicine The Texas A&M System Improving Lives. Improving Texas. Biosecurity...

Cleere, Jason; Gill, Ronald J.; Dement, Angela

2008-10-06

223

Characterization of bovine MHC DRB3 diversity in Latin American Creole cattle breeds.  

PubMed

In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for diseases and immunological traits. However, none of the highly adapted Latin American Creole breeds have been characterized for BoLA gene polymorphism by high resolution typing methods. In this work, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 179 cattle (113 Bolivian Yacumeño cattle and 66 Colombian Hartón del Valle cattle breeds) using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified 36 previously reported alleles and three novel alleles. Thirty-five (32 reported and three new) and 24 alleles (22 reported and two new) were detected in Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds, respectively. Interestingly, Latin American Creole cattle showed a high degree of gene diversity despite their small population sizes, and 10 alleles including three new alleles were found only in these two Creole breeds. We next compared the degree of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels and the genetic distance in the two breeds with those previously reported in five other breeds: Holstein, Japanese Shorthorn, Japanese Black, Jersey, and Hanwoo. Both Creole breeds presented gene diversity higher than 0.90, a nucleotide diversity higher than 0.07, and mean number of pairwise differences higher than 19, indicating that Creole cattle had similar genetic diversity at BoLA-DRB3 to the other breeds. A neutrality test showed that the high degree of genetic variability may be maintained by balancing selection. The FST index and the exact G test showed significant differences across all cattle populations (FST=0.0478; p<0.001). Results from the principal components analysis and the phylogenetic tree showed that Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds were closely related to each other. Collectively, our results suggest that the high level of genetic diversity could be explained by the multiple origins of the Creole germplasm (European, African and Indicus), and this diversity might be maintained by balancing selection. PMID:23333729

Giovambattista, Guillermo; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Ripoli, Maria Veronica; Matsumoto, Yuki; Franco, Luz Angela Alvarez; Saito, Hideki; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

2013-04-25

224

The current status and future of commercial embryo transfer in cattle.  

PubMed

A commercially viable cattle embryo transfer (ET) industry was established in North America during the early 1970s, approximately 80 years after the first successful embryo transfer was reported in a mammal. Initially, techniques for recovering and transferring cattle embryos were exclusively surgical. However, by the late 1970s, most embryos were recovered and transferred nonsurgically. Successful cryopreservation of embryos was widespread by the early 1980s, followed by the introduction of embryo splitting, in vitro procedures, direct transfer of frozen embryos and sexing of embryos. The wide spread adoption of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant has simplified the thaw-transfer procedures for frozen embryos. The number of embryos recovered annually has not grown appreciably over the last 10 years in North America and Europe; however, there has been significant growth of commercial ET in South America. Within North America, ET activity has been relatively constant in Holstein cattle, whereas there has been a large ET increase in the Angus breed and a concomitant ET decrease in some other beef breeds. Although a number of new technologies have been adopted within the ET industry in the last decade, the basic procedure of superovulation of donor cattle has undergone little improvement over the last 20 years. The export-import of frozen cattle embryos has become a well-established industry, governed by specific health regulations. The international movement of embryos is subject to sudden and dramatic disturbances, as exemplified by the 2001 outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Great Britain. It is probable that there will be an increased influence of animal rights issues on the ET industry in the future. Several companies in North America are currently commercially producing cloned cattle. The sexing of bovine semen with the use of flow cytometry is extremely accurate and moderate pregnancy rates in heifers have been achieved in field trials, but sexed semen currently is available in only a few countries and on an extremely limited basis. As of yet, all programs involving the production of transgenic cattle are experimental in nature. PMID:14643107

Hasler, John F

2003-12-15

225

Polymorphism of exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 gene and its relationship with somatic cell score in Beijing Holstein cows.  

PubMed

In the present study, the exon 2 and 3' end sequence of intron 1 of BoLA-DRB3 gene of 211 Beijing Holstein cows was amplified and a uniform fragment of 284 bp was obtained. The genetic polymorphism was investigated by PCR-RFLP using two restriction endonucleases HaeIII and BstYI. Seven genotypes were detected by digesting the PCR products with HaeIII. The frequency of AA, AB, AC, AD, BB, BC and BF genotypes was 0.4638, 0.0193, 0.0193, 0.3478, 0.0290, 0.0386 and 0.0822, respectively. Three genotypes were found by digesting the PCR products with BstYI. The frequency of AA, AB and BB genotypes was 0.0569, 0.2844 and 0.6587, respectively. The relationship between the polymorphisms in exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 gene and somatic cell score (SCS) in Beijing Holstein cows was analyzed by least squares linear model. No significant difference was detected among least squares means of SCS for seven HaeIII-RFLP genotypes (P > 0.05). As for BstYI-RFLP analysis, least squares mean of SCS for AA was significantly lower than that for AB (P < 0.05) or BB (P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected between AB and BB genotypes (P > 0.05). BstYI AA was the most favorable genotype and BstYI BB was the most unfavorable genotype for mastitis resistance. The information found in the present study is very important for improving mastitis resistance in dairy cattle by marker assisted selection. PMID:21687974

Chu, M X; Ye, S C; Qiao, L; Wang, J X; Feng, T; Huang, D W; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, G H

2012-03-01

226

Genetic characterization of a herd of the endangered Danish Jutland cattle.  

PubMed

In this paper we present results from a genetic characterization of a herd of the Danish Jutland cattle breed named the Kortegaard herd (n = 135; 57 males and 78 females). The herd is genotyped on the Bovine HD BeadChip microarray with 697,548 evenly spaced SNP across the bovine genome. The aim of the study was to characterize the genetic profile of the Kortegaard herd, which has been closed for several generations, by quantifying the degree of genetic homogeneity within the herd and to compare its genetic profile to that of other cattle breeds. A total of 868 animals from the Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Holstein-Friesian crosses, Limousin, and Simmental breeds was used for genetic profile comparisons. The level of genetic variation within the breeds were quantified by the expected heterozygosity (H(E)), observed heterozygosity (H(O)), average minor allele frequency (MAF), the degree of polymorphism, and runs of homozygosity (ROH), which are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes of varying length. Interestingly, the Kortegaard herd had the lowest within-breed genetic variation (lowest H(E), H(O), and MAF), showed moderate levels of short ROH (<5 Mb), and had the highest mean long ROH (>5 Mb) compared to all the other breeds. This is possibly due to recent consanguineous matings, a strong founder effect, and a lack of gene flow from other herds and breeds. We further examined whether the observed genetic patterns in the Kortegaard herd can be used to design breeding strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool by focusing on a subset of SNP outside homozygote regions. By calculating the pairwise identical-by-state between all possible matings, we designed a breeding plan that maximized heterozygosity in the short term. The benefits and limitations of such a breeding strategy are discussed. PMID:24671594

Pertoldi, C; Purfield, D C; Berg, P; Jensen, T H; Bach, O S; Vingborg, R; Kristensen, T N

2014-06-01

227

Ancient Chinese mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a timeline and examples of early Chinese mathematics. Included are the Chinese version of the Pythagorean Theorem, a method of solving a system of linear equations, Pascals triangle, permutations and combinations, rule of false position, rule of three, magic squares, and puzzles. Other terms: fractions, algebra, negative numbers, scholars. (Includes 11 references)

Tommasina Tripodi, Joint C.

2007-12-12

228

Chinese Language Learning Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 77 Asian and Asian-American university students enrolled in first- and second-year Chinese language courses investigated the students' motivations for studying the language and their expectations of what they will gain from studying it. Results indicate two factors accounting for beginning Chinese language study: interest in cultural…

Wen, Xiaohong

229

Chinese Business Law Postgraduate  

E-print Network

writing · Methodologies · Methodologies for comparative legal research China's legal system 4 1 · Legal-Operate-Transfer) & variants · Entry modes Chinese tax law 6 2 · Corporate taxation · Individual taxation · VAT Chinese customs to unexpected circumstances. ** ECTS: European Credit Transfer and accumulation System *** SEM: Semester #12

Einmahl, Uwe

230

Reliability of genomic evaluations in Holstein-Friesians using haplotypes based on the BovineHD BeadChip.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to make subsets of high-density (HD) loci based on localized haplotype clusters, without loss of genomic information, to reduce computing time compared with the use of all HD loci and to investigate the effect on the reliability of the direct genomic value (DGV) when using this HD subset based on localized haplotype clusters in the genomic evaluation for Holstein-Friesians. The DNA was isolated from semen samples of 548 bulls (key ancestors) of the EuroGenomics Consortium, a collaboration between 4 European dairy cattle breeding organizations and scientific partners. These bulls were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip [~777,000 (777K) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA] and used to impute all 30,483 Holstein-Friesians from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip [~50,000 (50K) SNP; Illumina Inc.] to HD, using the BEAGLE software package. The final data set consisted of 30,483 animals and 603,145 SNP. For each locus, localized haplotype clusters (i.e., edges of the fitted graph model) identifications were obtained from BEAGLE. Three subsets [38,000 (38K), 116,000 (116K), and 322,000 (322K) loci] were made based on deleting obsolete loci (i.e., loci that do not give extra information compared with the neighboring loci). A fourth data set was based on 38K SNP, which is currently used for routine genomic evaluation at the Cattle Improvement Cooperative (CRV, Arnhem, the Netherlands). A validation study using the HD loci subsets based on localized haplotype clusters was performed for 9 traits (production, conformation, and functional traits). Error of imputation from 50K to HD averaged 0.78%. Three thresholds (0.17, 0.05, and 0.008%) were used for the identification of obsolete HD loci based on localized haplotype clusters to obtain a desired number of HD loci (38K, 116K, and 322K). On average, 46% (using threshold 0.008%) to 93% (using threshold 0.17%) of HD loci were eliminated. The computing time was about 9 d for 38K loci, 15.5d for 116K loci, 21d for 322K loci, and 7.5 d for 38K SNP. The increase in reliability of DGV compared with pedigree-based estimated breeding values for kilograms of protein was similar for 322K and 116K loci (30.7%), but was 1.5 to 2% higher compared with 38K loci and 38K SNP. Averaged over 9 traits, subset 116K loci resulted in a higher increase in reliability compared with 38K loci and 38K SNP. Eliminating obsolete loci enormously decreased the amount of data to be analyzed for genomic evaluations. The more HD loci used in a genomic evaluation, the higher the increase in reliability of DGV. It is possible to increase the reliability of DGV by 1 to 2% compared with the SNP currently used for routine genomic evaluation. PMID:24140319

Schopen, G C B; Schrooten, C

2013-12-01

231

Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

Lau, Sing, Ed.

232

Determinants of estrous behavior in lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine factors that affect the expression of estrus. Thirteen lactating Holstein cows were ovariectomized about 4 to 6 wk postpartum and then challenged repeatedly with progesterone and estradiol benzoate to induce estrus six times during the postpartum period. Each challenge included 5 d when the cow was primed with progesterone through insertion of a progesterone-impregnated, foam rubber pessary. Estradiol benzoate (1 mg) was injected intramuscularly 36 h after removal of the pessary. Groups of two to three cows each began the experiment at 3-mo intervals to avoid confounding treated simultaneously. Observations for estrous behavior were at 8-h intervals following each challenge. A minimum of three sexually active cows were always observed together to avoid differences in estrous behavior caused by having too few sexually active animals in the group. Observations for estrous behavior were at 8-h intervals following each challenge. During each observation, cows were observed for 30 min on dirt and for 30 min on concrete. Standing behavior was not influenced by postpartum interval, season of year, or milk yield. Mounting behavior increased from the first to the sixth postpartum challenge, but it was not affected by season of year or milk yield. Duration of estrus, mounting activity, and standing activity were greater on dirt than on concrete. These results indicate that the surface on which cows were observed had a profound effect on sexual behavior; however, postpartum interval, season of year, and milk yield were of minor importance. PMID:3760306

Britt, J H; Scott, R G; Armstrong, J D; Whitacre, M D

1986-08-01

233

The effects of manger shades and manger sprinklers on heat-stressed lactating Holstein dairy cattle in Texas  

E-print Network

in milk = 225) producing an average of 27. 7 kg of 3. 5 fat corrected milk (FCM) on the previous test day were used in a randomized design beginning August 9, 1990. Experiment 1 evaluated the effects of three treatments 1) NO (no shade/sprinklers), 2...& and cortisol concentration responses were also studied. Following an 8 d adjustment and a 5 d standardization period, the cows were independently blocked on FCM milk and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. A 10 d adjustment...

Fourdraine, Windi Anne

2012-06-07

234

7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated...

2012-01-01

235

7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.  

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated...

2014-01-01

236

7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated...

2011-01-01

237

7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated...

2013-01-01

238

Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ? 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

2010-01-01

239

Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland.  

PubMed

The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and 8 breeds of sire commonly found in the Irish cattle population. These 8 breeds were Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, and Simmental. A multivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters within the Holstein sire breed group. Univariate analyses were used to estimate variance components for the remaining 7 sire breed groups. Multivariate sire models were used to formally test differences in genetic variances in sire breed groups. Field data on 64,443 animals, which were slaughtered in commercial abattoirs between the ages of 300 and 875 d, were analyzed in 8 analyses. Carcass fat class and carcass conformation class were measured using the European Union beef carcass classification system (EUROP) scale. For all 3 traits, the sire breed group with the greatest genetic variance had a value of more than 8 times the sire breed group with least genetic variance. Heritabilities ranged from zero to moderate for carcass fatness class (0.00 to 0.40), from low to moderate for carcass conformation class (0.04 to 0.36), and from low to high for carcass weight (0.06 to 0.65). Carcass weight was the most heritable (0.26) of the 3 traits. Carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class were equally heritable (0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive in the Holstein sire breed group. The genetic correlations varied from 0.11 for the relationship between carcass weight and carcass fatness class to 0.44 for the relationship between carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class. Carcass weight and classification data collected in Irish abattoirs are useful for the purposes of genetic evaluation for beef traits of Irish cattle. There were significantly different variance components across the sire breed groups. PMID:17235018

Hickey, J M; Keane, M G; Kenny, D A; Cromie, A R; Veerkamp, R F

2007-02-01

240

Clostridium botulinum in Cattle and Dairy Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and

Miia Lindström; Jan Myllykoski; Seppo Sivelä; Hannu Korkeala

2010-01-01

241

Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2  

PubMed Central

The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10?4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

Fritz, Sebastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurelia; Grohs, Cecile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerre, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

2013-01-01

242

Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2.  

PubMed

The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10(-4)) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

2013-01-01

243

EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN-ENERGY INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON HOLSTEIN STEER PERFORMANCE AND RUMINAL BACTERIAL FERMENTATION IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo and in vitro 3 x 2 factorial experiments were conducted concurrently to evaluate the incorporation of 0, 15, or 30% sugar beet pulp (SBP) as an energy source in diets fed to growing Holstein steers with either soybean meal (SBM) or alcohol-treated, defatted soybean flakes (ATSBF) as primary supplemental protein sources. Three groups of 42 Holstein steers each

H. Chester-Jones; M. D. Stem; H. M. Metwallf; J. G. Lh; D. M. Ziegler

2010-01-01

244

Fatty Acid and Triglyceride Composition of Milk Fat from Lactating Holstein Cows in Response to Supplemental Canola Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the influence of di- etary lipid on total and sn-2 fatty acid composition and triglyceride structure of milk fat in lactating Holstein cows. Five primiparous Holstein cows surgically fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 × 5 incomplete Latin square. All cows received a basal diet. Treatments consisted of a basal

E. J. DePeters; J. B. German; S. J. Taylor; S. T. Essex; H. Perez-Monti

2001-01-01

245

A genome-wide scan for signatures of differential artificial selection in ten cattle breeds  

PubMed Central

Background Since the times of domestication, cattle have been continually shaped by the influence of humans. Relatively recent history, including breed formation and the still enduring enormous improvement of economically important traits, is expected to have left distinctive footprints of selection within the genome. The purpose of this study was to map genome-wide selection signatures in ten cattle breeds and thus improve the understanding of the genome response to strong artificial selection and support the identification of the underlying genetic variants of favoured phenotypes. We analysed 47,651 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). Results We set the significance thresholds using the maximum XP-EHH values of two essentially artificially unselected breeds and found up to 229 selection signatures per breed. Through a confirmation process we verified selection for three distinct phenotypes typical for one breed (polledness in Galloway, double muscling in Blanc-Bleu Belge and red coat colour in Red Holstein cattle). Moreover, we detected six genes strongly associated with known QTL for beef or dairy traits (TG, ABCG2, DGAT1, GH1, GHR and the Casein Cluster) within selection signatures of at least one breed. A literature search for genes lying in outstanding signatures revealed further promising candidate genes. However, in concordance with previous genome-wide studies, we also detected a substantial number of signatures without any yet known gene content. Conclusions These results show the power of XP-EHH analyses in cattle to discover promising candidate genes and raise the hope of identifying phenotypically important variants in the near future. The finding of plausible functional candidates in some short signatures supports this hope. For instance, MAP2K6 is the only annotated gene of two signatures detected in Galloway and Gelbvieh cattle and is already known to be associated with carcass weight, back fat thickness and marbling score in Korean beef cattle. Based on the confirmation process and literature search we deduce that XP-EHH is able to uncover numerous artificial selection targets in subpopulations of domesticated animals. PMID:24359457

2013-01-01

246

Carrion odor and cattle grazing  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been proposed on theoretical grounds that carrion odor from flowers may not only attract pollinators, but also repel mammalian herbivores. Two grazing experiments involving 16 to 26 cattle heads per year, one for eight years (1982–1989) and the other for seven (1994–2000), in a region with no large carnivores that could influence cattle behavior, show that cattle avoid areas where dead cattle have recently been dumped. They grazed much less in these unfenced plots that were used to dump dead cattle each year. In the first experiment, with an area of ca. 20,000 m2 per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 124.6 gr/m2 for the regular grazing area, whereas it was 236.5 gr/m2 for the carcass dumping area. In the second experiment, with a higher stocking level, with ca. 9,000 m2 per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 61.7 gr/m2 for the regular grazing area, and 153.7 gr/m2 for the carcass dumping area. These significant differences existed throughout the 15 y of the experiments. We propose that these results are clear evidence of necrophobia in cattle, a character that might defend them from both pathogenic microbes and predators. This in turn demonstrates that carrion odor, primarily used by plants to attract pollinators, can simultaneously defend plants from herbivory by mammals as proposed.

Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gutman, Mario

2013-01-01

247

Chinese Medical Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: High tibial osteotomy; An investigation of digoxin radioimmunoassay; Comparative studies on the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-gossypol in 4 animal species; Maldimelsu antimicrobial activities; Pharmacognostic study of the Chinese...

1980-01-01

248

Chinese Air Quality  

Chinese Air Quality Project Title:  GTE Discipline:  ... Ground based Instrument:  in situ Location:  North Western Pacific Spatial Coverage:  ... Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Air Pollution Index Order Data:  Data Pool:  Order Data ...

2014-07-23

249

Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

250

Fluid therapy in mature cattle.  

PubMed

Fluid therapy for mature cattle differs from that for calves because the common conditions that result in dehydration and the metabolic derangements that accompany these conditions are different. The veterinarian needs to know which problem exists, what to administer to correct the problem, in what quantity, by what route, and at what rate. Mature cattle more frequently suffer from alkalosis; therefore, acidifying solutions containing K(+) and Cl(-) in concentrations greater than that of plasma are frequently indicated. The rumen provides a large-capacity reservoir into which oral rehydration solutions may be administered, which can save time and money. PMID:24980730

Roussel, Allen J

2014-07-01

251

Normal Growth of Range Cattle.  

E-print Network

of pasture weights of cattle during the 1 grazing season from about June 1st to about October 1st on summer range at the Salina Station in Utah. No records were kept for the remainder of the year. The animals were mostly loaned from the neigh- boring... of pasture weights of cattle during the 1 grazing season from about June 1st to about October 1st on summer range at the Salina Station in Utah. No records were kept for the remainder of the year. The animals were mostly loaned from the neigh- boring...

Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

1930-01-01

252

Registration Announcement for HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test) The UO Confucius Institute is sponsoring the Chinese HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test)  

E-print Network

Registration Announcement for HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test) The UO Confucius Institute is sponsoring the Chinese HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test) (http The deadline for "HSKK or Chinese Speaking Test" on-line registration is March 15

Oregon, University of

253

Das Landesmodul Schleswig-Holstein im Rahmen des Kinder und Jugendgesundheitssurveys (KiGGS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung\\u000a   Von August 2004 bis Juni 2005 fhrte das Robert Koch-Institut im Rahmen des Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurveys (KiGGS) die\\u000a Feldarbeit fr das Schleswig-Holstein-Modul durch. Die KiGGS-Studie ist ein bundesweit reprsentativer Survey zum Gesundheitszustand\\u000a von Kindern und Jugendlichen im Alter von 0–17 Jahren. Die Modul-Studie ermglicht durch eine Stichprobenaufstockung in Schleswig-Holstein\\u000a bei den 11- bis 17-Jhrigen reprsentative Aussagen fr dieses Bundesland.

P. Kamtsiuris; M. Lange; A. Schaffrath Rosario; B.-M. Kurth

2007-01-01

254

Relationships of milk yield and season of calving with ovarian cyclicity of Holstein and Jersey cows  

E-print Network

Holsteins but not Jezseys. Intervals to fizst two ovulations increased . 68+. 33 to 1. 00+. 47 days/100 kg 60- day milk yield or . 31+. 19 to . 53t. 27 days/100 kg of 90-day milk yield, but the antagonism decreased with advancing lactation (b=. 18+. 10... Holsteins but not Jezseys. Intervals to fizst two ovulations increased . 68+. 33 to 1. 00+. 47 days/100 kg 60- day milk yield or . 31+. 19 to . 53t. 27 days/100 kg of 90-day milk yield, but the antagonism decreased with advancing lactation (b=. 18+. 10...

Gonzalez Sanchez, Andres

2012-06-07

255

Signatures of selection in five Italian cattle breeds detected by a 54K SNP panel.  

PubMed

In this study we used a medium density panel of SNP markers to perform population genetic analysis in five Italian cattle breeds. The BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to genotype a total of 2,935 bulls of Piedmontese, Marchigiana, Italian Holstein, Italian Brown and Italian Pezzata Rossa breeds. To determine a genome-wide pattern of positive selection we mapped the F st values against genome location. The highest F st peaks were obtained on BTA6 and BTA13 where some candidate genes are located. We identified selection signatures peculiar of each breed which suggest selection for genes involved in milk or meat traits. The genetic structure was investigated by using a multidimensional scaling of the genetic distance matrix and a Bayesian approach implemented in the STRUCTURE software. The genotyping data showed a clear partitioning of the cattle genetic diversity into distinct breeds if a number of clusters equal to the number of populations were given. Assuming a lower number of clusters beef breeds group together. Both methods showed all five breeds separated in well defined clusters and the Bayesian approach assigned individuals to the breed of origin. The work is of interest not only because it enriches the knowledge on the process of evolution but also because the results generated could have implications for selective breeding programs. PMID:24442315

Mancini, Giordano; Gargani, Maria; Chillemi, Giovanni; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel Luis; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine

2014-02-01

256

Lumpy skin disease of cattle: an emerging problem in the Sultanate of Oman.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus belonging to the Capripoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. The purpose of this study is to place on record the first confirmation of LSD in the Sultanate. The disease was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy and serum neutralization testing. The epizootic occurred in 2009 involving a large number of animals and covering a wide area including Nezwa, Alqabel, Sohar, Saham and Burimi. Morbidity and mortality rates of 29.7 and 26.3 %, and 13.6 and 15.4 % were observed at Nezwa and Sohar, respectively. The clinical signs were much more severe in Holstein-Friesian cattle compared to indigenous breeds and were characterized by multiple skin nodules covering the neck, back, perineum, tail, limbs and genital organs. Affected animals also exhibited lameness, emaciation and cessation of milk production. Oedema of limbs and brisket, and superficial lymph node enlargement were highly prominent. It is not known from where the virus originated, or how it spread to the Sultanate. The disease has become endemic in the country and is liable to extend to other Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and cause a pandemic. It is of major concern to the Omani dairy industry. Due to the widespread presence of screw worm, serious economic losses can follow outbreaks. PMID:24097247

Tageldin, Mohamed Hassan; Wallace, David Brian; Gerdes, Gertruida Hermanna; Putterill, John Fraser; Greyling, Roelf Rudolph; Phosiwa, Maanda Noaxe; Al Busaidy, Rashied Mohammed; Al Ismaaily, Sultan Issa

2014-01-01

257

Mango tree pruning hay in substitution of elephant grass in cattle diet.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 %) of elephant grass by hay of mango tree pruning (HMTP) on intake and digestibility in cattle and on the in vitro gas production. Moreover, the effect of tannin in HMTP on the gas production and in vitro degradability of the dry matter was evaluated, using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The intake and digestibility were evaluated in a double 4 × 4 square Latin design, using eight Holstein intact bulls. To evaluate the gas production and degradability, in vitro semi-automated gas production technique was used. The substitution of elephant grass by HMTP decreased the intake (P<0.05) and the digestibility (P<0.05) of the nutrients and also the gas production (P<0.05). Furthermore, the utilization of PEG as a tannin-complexing agent increased the gas production and degradability of the HMTP (P<0.05). It was concluded that the high cell wall lignification and the presence of tannin limit the use of HMTP as the only source of roughage in cattle diets. PMID:23212837

de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Fernando Santos; de Souza Wanderley, Carlos Wagner; Neto, Alvaro Santos Lisboa

2013-04-01

258

Milk fatty acid profiles in Holstein dairy cows fed diets based on corn stover or mixed forage.  

PubMed

In this study the influence of modulated concentrate-to-roughage ratio on the fatty acid profile of milk fat was investigated in dairy cows. Therefore, corn stover was compared with better-quality roughages. Two groups of in total 24 Holstein dairy cows (136 ± 37 days in milk) received either a high-forage diet (Diet MF, forage-to-concentrate ratio [F:C] = 60:40) with alfalfa hay, corn silage and Chinese wild rye as forage sources, or a low-forage diet with corn stover as forage source (Diet CS, F: C = 40:60) for an experimental period of nine weeks. During the study, milk yield as well content and fatty acid profiles of milk fat were examined. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield and milk fat content, whereas dry matter intake (p < 0.01) and milk fat yield (p < 0.05) were higher for Diet MF than for Diet CS. Compared with Diet CS, feeding Diet MF increased the daily intake of total unsaturated fatty acids and the C18:0 and C18:3 contents (p < 0.01) in milk fat, whereas the total content of fatty acids <16C was decreased (p < 0.05). No influence on total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk was observed. The ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat to its daily intake was substantially lower for Diet MF compared with Diet CS, suggesting that the high proportion of roughage resulted in a high rate of biohydrogenation in the rumen. PMID:24422608

Han, Rongwei; Zheng, Nan; Zhang, Yangdong; Zhao, Xiaowei; Bu, Dengpan; An, Pengpeng; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shimin; Wang, Jiaqi

2014-01-01

259

T-Cell and Antibody Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens in Tuberculin Skin-Test-Positive Bos indicus and Bos taurus Cattle in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Higher IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens were observed in Bos taurus (Holsteins) than in Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle which could due to differences in antigen recognition profiles between the two breeds. The present study was conducted to evaluate mycobacterial antigen recognition profiles of the two breeds. Twenty-three mycobacterial antigens were tested on 46 skin test positive (24 Zebu and 22 Holstein) using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and multiple antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Herds from which the study cattle obtained were tested for Fasciola antibody. The T cells from both breeds recognized most of the mycobacterial antigens at lower and comparable frequencies. However, antigens such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv0287, Rv0288, MPB87, Acr-2, Rv3616c, and Rv3879c were recognized at higher frequencies in zebu while higher frequencies of T cell responses were observed to Hsp65 in both breeds. Furthermore, comparable antibody responses were observed in both breeds; MPB83 being the sero-dominant antigen in both breeds. The prevalence of Fasciola antibody was 81% and similar in both breeds. This piece of work could not lead to a definitive conclusion if there are differences in mycobacterial recognition profiles between the two breeds warranting for further similar studies using sound sample size from the two breeds. PMID:22685689

Ameni, Gobena; Cockle, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Vordermeier, Martin

2012-01-01

260

Sustainability in cattle production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle production has the potential of being an important component of sustainable agriculture globally. The ability to transform feed not suitable for humans into high-quality food will be of great importance in the long-term for feeding a growing population. Other aspects such as preservation of landscape values and maintenance of rural communities are highly appreciated values, especially in the industrialized

C. J. C. Phillips; J. Tind Sorensen

1993-01-01

261

Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

262

Aphosphorosis in north Yemen cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syndrome of unthriftiness, stiffness, anorexia, recumbency and pica in cattle of the Yemen Arab Republic was investigated for the first time. The condition is virtually confined to cows in the Central and Northern Highlands where they are housed continuously and hand fed fresh lucerne and dried sorghum stalks frequently supplemented with domestic scraps. Affected cows had a low mean

A. G. Hunter; P. J. Heath

1982-01-01

263

Short communication: hair cortisol concentrations in Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers by analysis of the cortisol concentrations in hair samples. Cortisol, the primary hormone of the HPA axis, is the biological endpoint for the investigation of the HPA response. The study was conducted on 290 prepubertal heifers; 142 heifers were pure Holstein-Friesian and 148 were crossbreed F1 heifers obtained from the 3-way rotational system with Swedish Red and Montbéliarde breeds. Extraction was performed on the hair using methanol, and cortisol concentrations were determined by a radioimmunoassay method. Cortisol concentrations measured in regrown hair of crossbreed F1 heifers were significantly lower than those in hair of Holstein-Friesian heifers. This result helps us to better understand the differences in HPA activity and allostatic load between Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers and allows us to better assess the adaptability of these animals to the environment and the importance of crossbreed traits for profitability in dairy farming. PMID:23522680

Peric, T; Comin, A; Corazzin, M; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Campanile, G; Prandi, A

2013-05-01

264

Induction of twinning in Holstein and Japanese black cows by ipsilateral frozen embryo transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of twinning by ipsilateral nonsurgical transfer of two frozen-thawed Japanese Black bovine embryos to each of 20 Holstein and 26 Japanese Black cows, that had been kept under a stable in private farm conditions, was examined. The cows were monitored every 20 days from Day 25 to Day 65 of gestation for pregnancy and fetus survival (estrus is Day

H. Sakakibara; H. Kudo; A. Boediono; T Suzuki

1996-01-01

265

Effects of chromium supplementation on early lactation performance of Holstein cows  

E-print Network

Effects of chromium supplementation on early lactation performance of Holstein cows WZ Yang, A Subiyatno DN Mowat University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 21N1, Canada Recently, chromium (Cr) supplementation and 4 cows. Chromium requirements are well-known to increase during periods of stress including late

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Fertility in New York Artificially Inseminated Holstein Herds in Dairy Herd Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a field study to gain informa- tion on fertility of New York dairy herds and factors influencing it. Data were from 125 Dairy Herd Improvement Holstein herds with 9,750 cows. All breedings to milking cows were by artificial insemina- tion. Herds were further selected with equal numbers of small and large herds and free-stall and conventional (stan- chion)

R. W. Spalding; R. W. Everett; R. H. Foote

1975-01-01

267

Variation in Serum Concentrations of Immunoglobulins G, A, and M in Canadian Holstein-Friesian Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial immunodiffusion was used to quantify Ig concentrations (mg\\/100 ml) in the sera of 74 male and 82 female Holstein calves and in whole colostrum from their dams. Calves were the progeny of 15 AI bulls. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture from calves at birth, 24 to 36 h post first colostrum ingestion, and then weekly from 3

Jeanne L. Burton; B. W. Kennedy; E. B. Burnside; B. N. Wilkie; J. H. Burton

1989-01-01

268

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and associated risk factors in intensive or semi-intensively managed dairy and breeding cattle of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of Neospora caninum infection was conducted in major milksheds of Ethiopia. Cattle (n=2334) from 273 farms were bled and the sera screened for antibodies against N. caninum using a commercial ELISA kit. Herd and individual animal level data were collected from farm records and a semi-structured questionnaire format. The overall animal level seroprevalence was 13.3%, while the prevalence at farm level was 39.6%. In urban and peri-urban smallholder dairy farms, the seroprevalence was 14.9%, while 12.9% and 9.8% reactors were found among commercial dairy farms and breeding cattle, respectively. At farm level, 35.7% of urban and peri-urban farms, 47.5% of the commercial farms and five of the breeding farms were found to have at least one infected animal. Purchased cows (OR: 2.3) and cows with history of maternal reproductive disorders (OR: 2.1) were associated with seropositivity at the individual animal level. Crossbred cattle (Holstein-Friesian crossed with indigenous zebu) were associated with lower risk than pure breeds (OR: 0.6). A trend of prevalence increment was observed for large herd sizes (OR: 1.8). Other factors that were associated with seropositivity were: presence of farm dogs for more than 5 years (OR: 1.9), access to farm by wild carnivores (OR: 3.1) and compromised farm hygienic status (OR: 3.4). Abortion, retention of foetal membrane and metritis were the most frequently reported clinical reproductive disorders among seropositive cattle. Together, these finding indicate that N. caninum infection is highly prevalent, widely distributed and clinically important in dairy and breeding cattle of Ethiopia. N. caninum should be considered an important infectious cause of reproductive disorders in Ethiopian cattle, and the risk factors for exposure identified here should be used as basis for implementing control measures that could limit the transmission of this infection. PMID:23261087

Asmare, K; Regassa, F; Robertson, L J; Skjerve, E

2013-03-31

269

The Early Chinese Canadians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bilingual website offered by the Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) explores Canada's early Chinese immigrants, covering the period 1858 to 1947. To learn why the Chinese immigrated to Canada, visitors should click on "The History" on the far left side of the page. Once there, visitors can choose from several specific sections to read about, including "Working in B.C.: Gold, Railway, Mining and Salmon", "Racism and Law in Society", and "Communities for Canada and China". Additionally, each contains suggestions for further reading on the subject for both adults and children. Visitors who desire to browse photos and documents can click on "Historical Photographs and Documents" on the far left side of the page. There are three sections, "Research Guide", "Gallery of Documents", and "Gallery of Photographs". The Research Guide provides a thorough explanation on how to research the "photographs, artwork, published books, personal archives, and, in particular, government records" of Chinese Canadians, which are dispersed throughout the LAC collection. The documents and photographs galleries allow visitors to view, and even order, a print or digital copy of the historic materials. Finally, the "Head Tax Records" link located on the far left side of the page, allows visitors to search for Chinese immigrants to Canada that were recorded in the General Registers of Chinese Immigration. Visitors can search these registers online by the person's name, arrival year, or certificate number. [KMG

270

Chinese Cultural Studies: Bibliographical Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a number of references of use to Asian Studies scholars. Created by Paul Halsall (formerly of Brooklyn College), it is organized by subject, including Classic Chinese Sources in Translation, Gender, Chinese Women, Philosophy and Religion, and Movies Addressing Chinese History and Culture. Historical texts are divided into periods, from the Zhou Dynasty to Post-Mao China. A Guide to Chinese Philosophical Texts for Inclusion in Introductory Courses is also featured.

Halsall, Paul.

1997-01-01

271

Prediction of breed composition in an admixed cattle population.  

PubMed

Swiss Fleckvieh was established in 1970 as a composite of Simmental (SI) and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF) cattle. Breed composition is currently reported based on pedigree information. Information on a large number of molecular markers potentially provides more accurate information. For the analysis, we used Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip data for 90 pure SI, 100 pure RHF and 305 admixed bulls. The scope of the study was to compare the performance of hidden Markov models, as implemented in structure software, with methods conventionally used in genomic selection [BayesB, partial least squares regression (PLSR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variable selection)] for predicting breed composition. We checked the performance of algorithms for a set of 40 492 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), subsets of evenly distributed SNPs and subsets with different allele frequencies in the pure populations, using F(ST) as an indicator. Key results are correlations of admixture levels estimated with the various algorithms with admixture based on pedigree information. For the full set, PLSR, BayesB and structure performed in a very similar manner (correlations of 0.97), whereas the correlation of LASSO and pedigree admixture was lower (0.93). With decreasing number of SNPs, correlations decreased substantially only for 5% or 1% of all SNPs. With SNPs chosen according to F(ST) , results were similar to results obtained with the full set. Only when using 96 and 48 SNPs with the highest F(ST) , correlations dropped to 0.92 and 0.90 respectively. Reducing the number of pure animals in training sets to 50, 20 and 10 each did not cause a drop in the correlation with pedigree admixture. PMID:23061480

Frkonja, A; Gredler, B; Schnyder, U; Curik, I; Sölkner, J

2012-12-01

272

Identification of bovine leukocyte antigen class II haplotypes associated with variations in bovine leukemia virus proviral load in Japanese Black cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) is strongly involved in the subclinical progression of BLV infections. Recent studies show that the BoLA-DRB3 gene might play a direct role in controlling the number of BLV-infected peripheral B lymphocytes in vivo in Holstein cattle. However, the specific BoLA class II allele and DRB3-DQA1 haplotypes determining the BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle are yet to be identified. In this study, we focused on the association of BLV proviral load and polymorphism of BoLA class II in Japanese Black cattle. We genotyped 186 BLV-infected, clinically normal cattle for BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1 using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method. BoLA-DRB3*0902 and BoLA-DRB3*1101 were associated with a low proviral load (LPVL), and BoLA-DRB3*1601 was associated with a high proviral load (HPVL). Furthermore, BoLA-DQA1*0204 and BoLA-DQA1*10012 were related to LPVL and HPVL, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed the correlation between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and BLV proviral load. Two haplotypes, namely 0902B or C (DRB3*0902-DQA1*0204) and 1101A (DRB3*1101-DQA1*10011), were associated with a low BLV proviral load, whereas one haplotype 1601B (DRB3*1601-DQA1*10012) was associated with a high BLV proviral load. We conclude that resistance is a dominant trait and susceptibility is a recessive trait. Additionally, resistant alleles were common between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, and susceptible alleles differed. This is the first report to identify an association between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and variations in BLV proviral load. PMID:23216331

Miyasaka, T; Takeshima, S-n; Jimba, M; Matsumoto, Y; Kobayashi, N; Matsuhashi, T; Sentsui, H; Aida, Y

2013-02-01

273

Traditional Chinese drug therapy.  

PubMed

More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

Borchardt, John K

2003-12-01

274

9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

2013-01-01

275

9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

2011-01-01

276

9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

2010-01-01

277

9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

2012-01-01

278

9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals...Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only...

2011-01-01

279

9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals...Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only...

2010-01-01

280

9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals...Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only...

2013-01-01

281

9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals...Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only...

2012-01-01

282

9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals...Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only...

2014-01-01

283

Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

Ip, Po Keung

2011-01-01

284

Chinese Movie Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An English version of the Chinese Movie Database has recently been made available. Edited by Lu Pin, the database covers Chinese movies made in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other countries/regions from 1905 to the present. Users can search by movie title or by individual's name or select movie titles from the Movie Index Page. Search returns for individuals include films they have starred in, directed, or written. Returns for film titles include region, language, and hyperlinked production and acting credits.

1996-01-01

285

Chinese Foreign Policy Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.

286

Bibliographies for Chinese Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Dr. Barend ter Haar, an instructor in the social and economic history of China at the Sinologisches Seminar (Sinological Institute) at Heidelberg University, offers this collection of regularly updated (with one exception) bibliographies on various aspects of Chinese culture and history. Topics include violence in Chinese culture, literacy, writing and education, the study of Yao religion, Shamanism in China, and religious culture in China. Each bibliography varies in length, but most are prefaced by some helpful remarks on the field and/or the secondary literature. Suggestions are welcome.

287

Distribution of Chinese names  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

Huang, Ding-wei

2013-03-01

288

Ancient Chinese constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

Xu, Junjun

2011-06-01

289

Genetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models.  

PubMed

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a data set including 33 155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf × age of dam classes × group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd × year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was approximately 8% with linear models and approximately 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were approximately 2 and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85 118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17 and 23% greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. PMID:24965920

Vanderick, S; Troch, T; Gillon, A; Glorieux, G; Gengler, N

2014-12-01

290

Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle  

E-print Network

E-567 05-09 Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle I t is very important to administer medications to dairy cattle in the proper way. That means using the correct drug, dosage and injection technique; handling animals... labeled for use in dairy ? cattle. Refer to the vaccine label for this information. Using a vaccine in an animal species for which it is not labeled is illegal. Give the proper dosage as indicated on the label. ? Always give an injection in the body...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04

291

Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

Leonard, N. E.

2005-05-01

292

Lungworm of cattle in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus is highly endemic in temperate regions. However, the occurrence of the lungworm has not been reported in any South East Asian country. The main aim of the present study was to detect the presence of lungworm in cattle in peninsular Malaysia and to examine the morphology of the parasite. A cross-sectional study was carried out in which 602 animals from four large scale government cattle farms and one dairy smallholder farm were sampled. In addition, 283 lungs from 11 abattoirs around the country were examined. Faecal samples were examined using the Baermann technique while post-mortem examination was performed on the lungs. Approximately 5% of faecal samples and 1% of lungs were positive for lungworm. Based on the morphology of adult lungworm, eggs and first stage larvae, Malaysian bovine lungworms were D. viviparus. PMID:20962721

Lat-Lat, H; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Sheikh-Omar, A R; Jeyabalan, S; Hishammfariz, M; Rohani, K; Azlan, E; Ramli, P

2010-08-01

293

Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

. The supplemental feed- ing strategy required for each is different. Forage intake and diet crude protein Ruminal requirements Microbial fermentation in the rumen supplies most of the energy and protein metabolized by cattle. As in the host animal, microbes... in the rumen require a balanced supply of energy and nitrogen to function efficiently. The National Research Council (1984) proposed that ruminal microbes can synthesize about 113 grams of bacterial crude pro- tein from 1 kilogram of Total Digestible Nutrients...

McCollum III, Ted

1997-11-03

294

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

295

Prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, perinatal calf mortality in pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

Recent publications indicate that the prevalence of perinatal mortality has increased in some dairy industries and an increased proportion of this loss is not associated with the traditional risk factors for perinatal mortality. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of perinatal mortality (calf death within 24 h of calving) in Irish dairy herds and to determine the current significance of putative risk factors in pasture-based management systems. A total of 182 026 records of full-term calvings from Holstein-Friesian dams served by artificial insemination (AI) sires of seven breeds in herds of 20 calvings or more per year were available from the Irish national breeding database over 4 years (2002 to 2005). The prevalence of perinatal mortality was 4.29% (7.7% in primiparae and 3.5% in pluriparae). The likelihood of perinatal mortality increased between 2002 and 2005 and was greatest in June and in winter. There was an interaction (P < 0.001) between the effect of calving assistance and parity with the effect of dystocia on perinatal mortality being greater in primiparae. The odds of perinatal mortality were greater in male (OR = 1.12; P < 0.001) and in twin calves (OR = 5.70-13.36; P < 0.001) and in dams that had perinatal mortality at the previous calving (OR = 4.21; P < 0.001). The logit of the probability of perinatal mortality increased by 0.099 per unit increase in sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for direct perinatal mortality. The probability of perinatal mortality increased at an increasing rate in primiparae as animals calved at a younger age relative to the median age at first calving. The only herd-level factor examined, herd size did not affect the odds of perinatal mortality. These data indicate that the prevalence of perinatal mortality in this cattle population is similar to that in other pasture-based dairy systems worldwide. The putative exposures and attributes traditionally associated with perinatal mortality were associated with perinatal mortality in this pasture-based dairy cow population. The practical implication of these results is that as many of the significant risk factors are largely not under management control (year of calving, month of calving, twin calving, primiparity, previous perinatal mortality and foetal gender), herd owners must focus on the significant determinants under their control (age at first calving, sire genetic merit for direct perinatal mortality and both the extent of calving supervision and the degree of assistance), in order to reduce the prevalence of perinatal mortality and improve perinatal welfare. PMID:22443578

Mee, J F; Berry, D P; Cromie, A R

2008-04-01

296

The Chinese House Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

Lee, James R.

1989-01-01

297

Chinese Festivals and Customs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

Green, Sandra Aili

298

The Imperative in Chinese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

Hashimoto, Anne Yue

299

Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

Bell, Daniel A.

2008-01-01

300

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

301

Mid-piece length of spermatozoa in different cattle breeds and its relationship to fertility.  

PubMed

Recently positive correlation has been found between oxygen consumption (ZO2) in bull spermatozoa and non-return rates and concluded that an increase in ZO2, characteristic of the freeze/thaw process, was possibly associated with mitochondrial membrane damage during this procedure: alternatively, sperm may be hyperactivated through the capacitation-like effects of freezing/thawing. We speculated that the morphology of spermatozoa may be associated with their rate of ZO2 and fertility: for example, sperm mid-piece length where mitochondria are located. Such a relationship has not been investigated before, particularly in context of commercial cattle breeding programmes and bull fertility characteristics. Sperm biometry was performed on ejaculates obtained from 34 bulls representing six breeds: Holstein (yearlings and mature), Friesian, Belgian Blue, Aberdeen Angus, Charolais and Limousin. Five ejaculates were collected from every bull and from each sample a semen smear was fixed and stained with eosin/nigrosin: the mid-piece length of 40 sperm with normal morphology was measured in every sample. Data were analysed by breed, age and within each bull. Significant differences (p<0.01) between ejaculates in 9/34 bulls was found, as well as differences (p<0.001) between individual bulls within the same breed. The average mid-piece length for Aberdeen Angus was 13.35 microm, for Belgian Blues and Limousin around 13.8 microm and for Charolais 13.68 microm: for dairy breeds such as Holstein and Friesian it was about 13.4 microm. The mean value of mid-piece length for breed was compared with their 49 day non-return rate; a negative correlation (r = -0.53) was found in black and white dairy breeds. PMID:21850930

Shahani, S K; Revell, S G; Argo, C G; Murray, R D

2010-08-15

302

Comparative effects of beta-adrenergic agonist supplementation on the yield and quality attributes of selected subprimals from calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Mechanical portioning tests were performed on beef rib, strip loin, tenderloin, and top sirloin subprimals obtained from calf-fed Holstein steers to characterize the influence of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH), or no ?-adrenergic agonist (?AA; CON) on subprimal and steak yield. In addition, ?AA effects on tenderness, composition, and raw and cooked color of steaks from the aforementioned strip loin subprimals were characterized. At 14 to 15 d (ribs, tenderloins, and top sirloin) or 16 d (strip loin) postmortem, subprimals were portioned into steaks using a mechanical portioning machine. The appropriate variables were measured before and after portioning to determine ?AA influence on trimmed and untrimmed subprimal weight, subprimal length (rib only), steak weight and yield, and steak thickness (rib only). Steaks obtained from the strip loin subprimals were subjected to analysis of raw instrument color (L*, a*, b*), proximate composition, and pH. In addition, strip steaks were aged (16 or 23 d) before analysis of cooked internal color, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and slice shear force (SSF). Briefly, ZH supplementation increased (P < 0.01) the weight of all subprimals when compared to CON. Furthermore, subprimals from CON animals consistently had fewer and lighter steaks (P ? 0.04) than subprimals from ZH-fed steers. Additionally, raw steaks from ZH cattle were a less vivid red (lower a* and saturation index values; P < 0.01) when compared to CON and RH steaks, which did not differ (P > 0.05). There was no interaction between ?AA treatment and postmortem aging length for WBSF or SSF (P > 0.10). However, CON steaks (3.25 kg) had lower WBSF values (P < 0.05) than ZH or RH steaks (3.68 and 3.67 kg, respectively). Regardless, aging for 23 d vs. 16 d resulted in decreased WBSF and SSF (P < 0.01) for all ?AA treatments. Although differences were numerically small, evaluations indicated the internal cooked surfaces of ZH and RH steaks were less red (P < 0.05) than CON steaks. Overall, these data reemphasize increased subprimal weights due to ?AA supplementation, particularly ZH. However, the data are not indicative of increased steak yield due to ?AA supplementation. Furthermore, the data demonstrate ?AA supplementation increases the shear force of calf-fed Holstein strip steaks regardless of postmortem aging period. However, no differences in shear force between the ?AA treatments (ZH or RH) were noted. PMID:25006060

Martin, J N; Garmyn, A J; Miller, M F; Hodgen, J M; Pfeiffer, K D; Thomas, C L; Rathmann, R J; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Brooks, J C

2014-09-01

303

Influence of Cracked, Coarse Ground or Fine Ground Corn on Digestion, Dry Matter Intake and Milk Yield in Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plascencia, A., González-Vizcarra, V.M., López-Soto, M.A., May, D., Pujol, L.C., Ruiz, G.F. and Vega, S.H. 2009. Influence of cracked, coarse ground or fine ground corn on digestion, dry matter intake and milk yield in Holstein cows. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 35: 149–154.Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (526±41 kg) with 112 d in milk were used in a 4x4 Latin square

A. Plascencia; V. M. González-Vizcarra; M. A. López-Soto; D. May; L. C. Pujol; G. F. Ruiz; S. H. Vega

2009-01-01

304

Immunohistochemical evaluation of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) concentrations in erythrocytes of dairy cattle and farm-raised deer by a computer-assisted analysis of microscopic images.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of the immunohistochemical method in determining Cu/Zn SOD concentrations in red blood cells of dairy cattle and farm-raised deer was evaluated by a computer-assisted analysis of microscopic images and scanning technique. Superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) concentrations in erythrocytes were determined in smears of whole blood samples collected from 16 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows and 22 farm-raised deer in spring. Mouse anti-bovine SOD (Cu-Zn) monoclonal antibodies (2F5, Serotec) were used in 1:50 dilution. The degree of immunostaining for SOD in red blood cells was determined with the use of the MIDI 3DHistech Panoramic Scanner (Hungary) and 3DHistech Panoramic Viewer, NuclearQuant and MembraneQuant software. Our findings indicate that the immunohistochemical method is a useful technique for evaluating Cu/Zn SOD concentrations in red blood cells of cattle and deer. PMID:24988853

Pa?dzior-Czapula, K; Gesek, M; Rotkiewicz, T; Kluci?ski, W; Ko?odziejska, J; Kleczkowski, M; Fabisiak, M

2014-01-01

305

Assistant Professor Beef Cattle Nutrition/Management  

E-print Network

Assistant Professor Beef Cattle Nutrition/Management Department of Animal Science University Beef Cattle Nutrition/Management, 12-month, tenure track position (100% Research) in the Department and to the recently established University of Tennessee Beef and Forage Center in the area of ruminant nutrition

Tennessee, University of

306

People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

Crain, Robert L.

307

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2013-01-01

308

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2012-01-01

309

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2011-01-01

310

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2014-01-01

311

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2010-01-01

312

Original article Nematode genera diversity in cattle  

E-print Network

Original article Nematode genera diversity in cattle: similarity of between-sire progenies Enrique (Received 25 August 1997; accepted I6December 1997) Abstract - Breeding cattle for resistance to nematode of the nematodes involved. Unless we know whether the selected resistance is directed against one or several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

COMPOSITION OF BISON AND CATTLE BLOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of ration and season of sampling markedly affectedthe composition of blood in six tamed bison (Bison bison) steers and eight Hereford cattle (Bos taurus) steers. Observed values extended reported ranges for albumin, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in bison serum. There were several differencesbetween speciesin blood composition.In particular,erythrocyticand BUN values were higher in bison than in cattle. Overall

ALEX W. L HAWLEYEU; G. PEI

314

Abortions in Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB  

E-print Network

Abortions in Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension Veterinarian University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Abortion is the premature expulsion of the fetus from the dam and usually have died in-utero due to disease and was expelled. Depending upon the cause of "abortion" a cow may

Watson, Craig A.

315

[Fujian oversea Chinese and Chinese traditional pharmacist in Southeast Asia].  

PubMed

Hakka from Yongding and southern part of Fujian, engaged in Chinese traditional medicine enterprise in south - east Asia, make up the majority of overseas from Fujian. They played an important part in the development of traditional Chinese medicine and insurance of people's health, in planting Chinese herbs, opening pharmaceutical factory, organizing pharmaceutical company and associations of medicine etc. They made great contributions to the communication and cooperation of medicine between PR China and other countries, especially Fujian and south - east Asia. PMID:11871437

Hua, B; Du, J

2000-10-01

316

Pit1 Gene Polymorphism, Milk Yield, and Conformation Traits for Italian Holstein-Friesian Bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth hormone factor-1\\/pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is responsible for the expres- sion of growth hormone in mammals. Mutations in Pit-1 have been found in growth hormone disorders of mice and humans. We studied the eventual associa- tion between Pit-1 polymorphism using the HinfI en- zyme and the milk yield and conformation traits of 89 Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls. A strategy

R. Renaville; N. Gengler; E. Vrech; A. Prandi; S. Massart; C. Corradini; C. Bertozzi; F. Mortiaux; A. Burny; D. Portetelle

1997-01-01

317

Evaluation of Calf Starters Containing Different Amounts of Crude Protein for Growth of Holstein Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Holstein calves (n = 110) were used to evaluate the effect of calf starters con- taining 15, 16.8, 19.6, or and .79 kg\\/d for A, B, and D, respectively). Overall BW gains from d 4 to 56 aver- aged .54, .56, .62, and .61 kg\\/d for A, B, C, and D, respectively. Throughout the experiment, starter consumption tended to

J. M. Akayezu; J. G. Linn; D. E. Otterby; W. P. Hansen; D. G. Johnson

1994-01-01

318

Holstein model and Peierls instability in one-dimensional boson-fermion lattice gases  

SciTech Connect

We study an ultracold Bose-Fermi atomic mixture in a one-dimensional optical lattice. When boson atoms are heavier then fermion atoms the system is described by an adiabatic Holstein model, exhibiting a Peierls instability for commensurate fermion filling factors. A bosonic density wave with a wave number of twice the Fermi wave number will appear in the quasi-one-dimensional system, due to the opening of a gap at the Fermi energy in the fermion spectrum.

Pazy, E.; Vardi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2005-09-15

319

Effects of Slowrelease Insulin on Production, Liver Triglyceride, and Metabolic Profiles of Holsteins in Early Lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to determine whether there is a dose of slow-release insulin (SRI) that decreases concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver triglyceride (TG) without decreasing plasma glucose concentration, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Forty-three Holsteins weighing 765 ± 70 kg with body condition score of 3.29 ± 0.25 (mean ± SD)

A. Hayirli; S. J. Bertics; R. R. Grummer

2002-01-01

320

Incidence and economics of clinical mastitis in five Holstein herds in the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on clinical mastitis (CM) collected between 1996 and 2003 on five Holstein dairy farms in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Lactational incidences of CM, averaged across farms and calculated only from cows with complete lactations, were 0.35, 0.45 and 0.57 for the first, second and third plus subsequent lactations, respectively. The mean numbers of CM cases per cow and

Marie Wolfová; Miloslava Štípková; Jochen Wolf

2006-01-01

321

Cooling and forage supplementation of grass-fed Holstein cows during hot conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment (108 days) was conducted to examine effects of cooling and forage supplementation on the performance of grass-fed,\\u000a early lactation Holstein cows in a coastal, subtropical environment during summer. When the temperature–humidity index (THI)\\u000a between 09:00 and 14:00 was < 72, cows grazed pastures containing shade. When THI reached 72 during this time, the following\\u000a treatments were imposed: pasture

B. C. Granzin

2006-01-01

322

Kleinflächen und Meßstellen zur Kalkulation großflächiger Brutvogelbestände: Buteo buteo und Accipiter gentilis in Schleswig-Holstein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Großflächige Bestandszahlen vieler Vogelarten sind nur über Teilerfassungen zu erhalten. Quantitative Gitterfeldkartierung mit Konfidenzintervallberechnung ermöglicht, Bestandsgrößen ohne Schätzanteile zu ermitteln und die Größen der Stichproben zu disponieren (Abb. 2). Die Kalkulation des Mäusebussard-Bestandes für Schleswig-Holstein mit 15 % an Probefläche beträgt 2891 Paare (Intervall 88–112 %), mit 6 % Probefläche nur geringfügig abweichend 3048 (oder gerundet 2400–3700) Paare innerhalb

Giinther Busche

1989-01-01

323

Effect of plane of nutrition on growth and mammary gland development in Holstein heifers.  

PubMed

Forty-one Holstein and 6 Holstein crossbred heifers, 6 to 8 mo of age, were used to determine the effect of plane of nutrition on growth and mammogenesis prior to and during puberty. Animals were fed to gain 611 g (low), 737 g (medium), and 903 g (high) by a diet of cracked corn and chopped alfalfa-grass hay. Mammary biopsies were carried out in vivo to determine if they provide acceptable information on mammary composition (based upon morphometric evaluation) in comparison with dissected glands. Results indicated that NRC (1978) recommendations for average daily gain of Holstein heifers between 6 and 16 mo may be too generous. At puberty (first estrus), age and wither height decreased linearly with increasing plane of nutrition, whereas body weight and hip height were not affected by plane of nutrition. Five heifers were slaughtered at the beginning and 18 at the conclusion of the trial. Increasing plane of nutrition resulted in fatter mammary glands with decreased concentration of DNA, whereas total mammary DNA did not differ among treatment groups. In this study, morphometric evaluation of mammary tissue obtained through biopsies did not yield useful information in comparison to chemical analysis of dissected glands. PMID:2258482

Stelwagen, K; Grieve, D G

1990-09-01

324

Chinese Biographical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Marilyn A. Levine, Professor of Asian History at Lewis-Clark State College, this site is an effort to develop new ways to access historical database materials via the Internet. Visitors can query the database of better and lesser-known historical Chinese figures using 22 searches for specific or aggregate data questions. General search areas are: Biographical Information, Birth Year, Career, and Origin Searches; Alternate Names, Education, Family, and Youth Searches; Affiliations, Positions, and Historical Events Searches. More detailed information on individuals is available in the Reports section, which includes nine forms: Biographical Information and Career Report; Sources Report; Alternate Names Report, Education Report, Family Report, Youth Activities Report, Affiliations Report, Positions Report, and Historical Events Report. Instructions for using the site in Chinese are also provided.

1998-01-01

325

British Museum: Chinese Jade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of jade is utterly fascinating, and those captivated by this material will have a field day here. This online tour is part of the British Museum's commitment to broadening access to their vast array of items that might not normally be visible to the general public. Here, visitors can learn about the Chinese fascination with jade through 21 slides that profile unique and valuable items constructed of jade. The tour illustrates the development of Chinese jade from around 5000 BC to the modern period. The items here include lovely, long, and smooth Neolithic blades to later plaques, ornaments, dragons, animal and human sculptures. First-time visitors simply must start by looking at the magnificent coiled dragon that offers smooth contours and compelling details.

2003-01-01

326

Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.  

PubMed

While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30-0.86) in comparison to other herding methods. This study indicates that a substantial proportion of cattle-related injuries are associated with work activities related to handling practices and cattle restraining equipment. PMID:23600168

Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

2013-01-01

327

Chinese foot binding.  

PubMed

Chinese foot binding embraced several modern principles of brace treatment. It was initiated in childhood while the foot was cartilaginous and moldable. Culturally, the practice attempted to shape the foot into a pointed lotus flower. The resultant cavus foot deformity was dysfunctional and crippling. This curious custom, outlawed by the Communist party, is ironically analogous in some ways to high-heel shoe wear. PMID:7567086

Berg, E E

1995-01-01

328

Chinese Spacesuit Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

Croog, Lewis

2010-01-01

329

Singapore Chinese Health Study  

Cancer.gov

The current research project continues support for a residential cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older (45 to 74 years of age) Singapore Chinese men and women accrued between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, each study participant was interviewed in person by a trained interviewer using a structured questionnaire that emphasized current diet assessed via a validated, 165-item food frequency questionnaire.

330

Chinese Space Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China will soon make history by sending the first Chinese man to space. Scheduled for sometime in 2003, it will be the first step toward China's highly ambitious plans for space exploration.The China National Space Administration Web site (1) has a detailed description of the country's space policy. Aerospace China, a journal published online by the administration, has information on space development plans and other issues. The history of China's space program is recounted by the online Encyclopedia Astronautica (2). Several influential scientists and their contributions to Chinese rocketry and satellite technology are highlighted. The China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (3) sent the first Chinese satellite into space. Its home page showcases eight launch vehicles and offers an extensive technical description of the LM-3C model. The work of various research groups at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (4) deals with topics ranging from satellite dynamics to stellar astronomy. Some of the groups have details of their projects and facilities online. Another observatory studies molecular clouds and star formation (5). A large collection of its research papers are provided on its Web site. A news article from Space.com (6) discusses the forthcoming launch of the Shenzhou IV spacecraft, scheduled for later this year. It is generating considerable interest, since it is said to be identical to China's first manned spacecraft, expected to launch in 2003. Another article (7) considers China's rapidly developing space program. With the tremendous effort and lofty goals for moon bases and Mars missions, the author argues that China could eventually rival the US. Many more news stories about the Chinese space program can be found on the Dragon Space Web site (8).

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

331

In vivo indices for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle: Comparison with in vitro methods.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) used in the feed industry to estimate the potential for grains to increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. The existing NIRS calibration was developed from in sacco and in vitro measures in cattle and grain chemical composition measurements. To evaluate the existing model, 20 cultivars of 5 grain types were fed to 40 Holstein heifers using a grain challenge protocol and changes in rumen VFA, ammonia, lactic acids, and pH that are associated with acidosis were measured. A method development study was performed to determine a grain feeding rate sufficient to induce non-life threatening but substantial ruminal changes during grain challenge. Feeding grain at a rate of 1.2% of BW met these criteria, lowering rumen pH (P = 0.01) and increasing valerate (P < 0.01) and propionate concentrations (P = 0.01). Valerate was the most discriminatory measure indicating ruminal change during challenge. Heifers were assigned using a row by column design in an in vivo study to 1 of 20 grain cultivars and were reassigned after a 9 d period (n = 4 cattle/treatment). The test grains were dry rolled oats (n = 3), wheat (n = 6), barley (n = 4), triticale (n = 4), and sorghum (n = 3) cultivars. Cattle were adapted to the test grain and had ad libitum access to grass silage 11 d before the challenge. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge feeding with 0.3 kg DM of silage followed by the respective test grain fed at 1.2% of BW. A rumen sample was taken by stomach tube 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after grain consumption. The rumen is not homogenous and samples of rumen fluid obtained by stomach tube will differ from those gained by other methods. Rumen pH was measured immediately; individual VFA, ammonia, and D- and L-lactate concentrations were analyzed later. Rumen pH (P = 0.002) and all concentrations of fermentation products differed among grains (P = 0.001). A previously defined discriminant score calculated at 200 min after challenge was used to rank grains for acidosis risk. A significant correlation between the discriminant score and the NIRS ranking (r = 0.731, P = 0.003) demonstrated the potential for using NIRS calibrations for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle. The overall rankings of grains for acidosis risk were wheat > triticale > barley > oats > sorghum. PMID:23482574

Lean, I J; Golder, H M; Black, J L; King, R; Rabiee, A R

2013-06-01

332

among Chinese adults  

E-print Network

Objectives: To study the dietary behavior and knowledge about dental erosion and self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Chinese adults aged 25-45 years were randomly selected from a list of registered telephone numbers generated by computer. A telephone survey was administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, dietary habits, dental visits, and knowledge of and presence of self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Results: A total of 520 participants were interviewed (response rate, 75%; sampling error, ± 4.4%) and their mean age was 37. Most respondents (79%) had ever had caries, and about two thirds (64%) attended dental check-ups at least once a year. Respondents had a mean of 5.4 meals per day and 36 % had at least 6 meals per day. Fruit (89%) and lemon tea/water (41%) were the most commonly consumed acidic food and beverage. When asked if they ever noticed changes in their teeth, most respondents (92%) said they had experienced change that can be related to erosion. However, many (71%) had never heard about dental erosion and 53 % mixed up dental erosion with dental caries. Conclusion: Hong Kong Chinese adults have frequent intake of food and many have experienced symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Their level of awareness of and knowledge about dental erosion is generally low, despite

Ch Chu; Karie Kl Pang; Edward Cm Lo

333

Dermatoglyphs of Chinese Children with Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A dermatoglyphic study of a group of 314 Chinese controls and 53 Chinese patients with the clinical and cytogenetic diagnosis of Down's syndrome has been presented, and results compared with other studies of European groups. The Chinese patient group had ...

J. I. Bryant, I. Emanuel, S. W. Huang, R. Kronmal, J. Lo

1970-01-01

334

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

medicinal plants and their products. 2. Learn the methods of Chinese herbal classification;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D

335

Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of ?13C and ?D of emitted CH4 and rumen water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted ?13CH4, ?13CO2, and ?D-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of ?D-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in ?13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in ?13C between emitted gases and diet. The average ?13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of ?D-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These ?D measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

2001-07-01

336

A first genotyping assay of French cattle breeds based on a new allele of the extension gene encoding the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r)  

PubMed Central

The seven transmembrane domain melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) encoded by the coat color extension gene (E) plays a key role in the signaling pathway of melanin synthesis. Upon the binding of agonist (melanocortin hormone, ?-MSH) or antagonist (Agouti protein) ligands, the melanosomal synthesis of eumelanin and/or phaeomelanin pigments is stimulated or inhibited, respectively. Different alleles of the extension gene were cloned from unrelated animals belonging to French cattle breeds and sequenced. The wild type E allele was mainly present in Normande cattle, the dominant ED allele in animals with black color (i.e. Holstein), whereas the recessive e allele was identified in homozygous animals exhibiting a more or less strong red coat color (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolaise, Limousine and Salers). A new allele, named E1, was found in either homozygous (E1/E1) or heterozygous (E1/E) individuals in Aubrac and Gasconne breeds. This allele displayed a 4 amino acid duplication (12 nucleotides) located within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor, a region known to interact with G proteins. A first genotyping assay of the main French cattle breeds is described based on these four extension alleles. PMID:14736379

Rouzaud, François; Martin, Juliette; Gallet, Paul François; Delourme, Didier; Goulemot-Leger, Valérie; Amigues, Yves; Ménissier, François; Levéziel, Hubert; Julien, Raymond; Oulmouden, Ahmad

2000-01-01

337

A first genotyping assay of French cattle breeds based on a new allele of the extension gene encoding the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r).  

PubMed

The seven transmembrane domain melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) encoded by the coat color extension gene (E) plays a key role in the signaling pathway of melanin synthesis. Upon the binding of agonist (melanocortin hormone, alpha-MSH) or antagonist (Agouti protein) ligands, the melanosomal synthesis of eumelanin and/or phaeomelanin pigments is stimulated or inhibited, respectively. Different alleles of the extension gene were cloned from unrelated animals belonging to French cattle breeds and sequenced. The wild type E allele was mainly present in Normande cattle, the dominant E(D) allele in animals with black color (i.e. Holstein), whereas the recessive e allele was identified in homozygous animals exhibiting a more or less strong red coat color (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolaise, Limousine and Salers). A new allele, named E1, was found in either homozygous (E1/E1) or heterozygous (E1/E) individuals in Aubrac and Gasconne breeds. This allele displayed a 4 amino acid duplication (12 nucleotides) located within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor, a region known to interact with G proteins. A first genotyping assay of the main French cattle breeds is described based on these four extension alleles. PMID:14736379

Rouzaud, F; Martin, J; Gallet, P F; Delourme, D; Goulemot-Leger, V; Amigues, Y; Ménissier, F; Levéziel, H; Julien, R; Oulmouden, A

2000-01-01

338

SHORT-PERIOD PRICING MODELS FOR FED CATTLE AND IMPACTS OF WHOLESALE CARCASS BEEF AND LIVE CATTLE FUTURES MARKET PRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattlemen have expressed concern about variation among transaction prices for fed cattle, wholesale beef and fed cattle pricing and have and to determine the impacts of wholesale car- antitrust lawsuits pending against supermarkets, cass beef prices and live cattle futures market meatpackers, trade associations, and a meat prices on fed cattle prices. price reporting firm. Lawsuits allege manipula- tion of

Clement E. Ward

1981-01-01

339

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immunity-related genes and their association with mastitis in Chilean dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Mastitis remains a major cattle disease with great global economic implications. Various approaches are currently employed in attempts to improve understanding of mastitis resistance and develop phenotypic markers for use in breeding programs (e.g., somatic cell score), including QTL discovery, wide-genome association studies, and identification of candidate genes related to immune function. This study evaluated three single nucleotide polymorphisms contained in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and lactoferrin (LF) genes associated with mastitis traits: TLR4 P-226, TLR4 2021, and LF P-28. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting quantitative PCR from genomic DNA of four dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Jersey, Montbeliarde, and Overo Colorado) previously classified as healthy, with clinical or with subclinical mastitis. The high-resolution melting quantitative PCR allowed genotyping of each locus and resulted in allele frequencies indicating that all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The TT genotype of TLR4 2021 was significantly associated with the healthy condition, but no associations with somatic cell score were evident. Further studies are therefore necessary in order to confirm the results of this investigation. PMID:23979895

Carvajal, A M; Huircan, P; Lepori, A

2013-01-01

340

Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) excretion in humans and cattle as an index of exposure to lead.  

PubMed

Disposable ion-exchange chromatographic columns were used to determine delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in 11 bovine and 184 human urine samples. The mean urinary ALA concentrations in persons working as battery charges, autopainters, automechanics, and urban first-grade pupils were 11.61 +/- 14.23, 6.51 +/- 3.31, 6.48 +/- 3.36, and 5.71 +/- 2.91 micrograms/ml respectively. These values were higher than those found in urine from gasoline station attendants, university students and laboratory assistants, rural adult farmers, and rural first-grade pupils, which were 4.90 +/- 1.95, 4.93 +/- 1.76, 4.40 +/- 1.79 and 4.51 +/- 2.65 micrograms/ml respectively. In cattle (Holstein Friesian/White Fulani cross) the mean urinary ALA concentration was 1.84 +/- 0.04 micron/ml. The data indicates that persons working around automobile, lead batteries and leaded gasoline had elevated ALA concentrations in urine. Rural humans and cattle did not have significant elevations of urinary ALA. PMID:7210469

Adaudi, A O; Aliu, Y O

1980-12-01

341

Health Information in Chinese - Traditional (????): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Bilingual PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Dietary Fiber Fiber -- Are You Getting Enough? - English ????????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center High Fiber Foods - English ????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese ...

342

Anaplasmosis in cattle in Italy.  

PubMed

Bovine anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a disease transmitted by ticks belonging to the Ixodidae family. Southern Italy is considered an endemic zone but environmental and social factors are changing the epidemiology of the disease to expand to previously anaplasmosis-free regions. The available data of published reports of anaplasmosis in Italy together with the data obtained by the National Centre of Reference for Anaplasma, Babesia, Rickettsia and Theileria (C.R.A.Ba.R.T.), allowed to report A. marginale infection in different Italian regions (Lazio, Marche, Campania, Puglia, Basilicata, Calabria, Lombardy, Tuscany, Umbria and Sicily). Cattle are also subject to infection with the related Ixodes ricinus-transmitted pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum that results in reduced milk production in cattle. A. phagocytophilum infect also small ruminants, domestic and wild animals and causes the human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Different studies have been conducted on the presence of A. phagocytophilum in Italy both in the tick vectors and in the wild and domestic reservoirs. Contrary to A. marginale, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum embraces the whole Italian territory from the Alps to the southern and insular regions. PMID:17682850

Torina, A; Caracappa, S

2007-08-01

343

Leadership Studies of Chinese, Chinese-Americans and American Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of leadership effectiveness were conducted in three different cultural settings: Hong Kong Chinese, Chinese-Americans who have been born and reared in Hawaii but whose parents grew up in China, and American Indians of the Pacific Northwest. In Hon...

R. D. Meade

1970-01-01

344

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation  

E-print Network

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation By Tansa Musa. Evidence of rampant deforestation around the globe points in one direction: booming demand in China, where buy from Amazon. com. POPULAR PAGES Rainforests Rain forests Amazon deforestation Deforestation

345

Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

346

Low Stress Cattle Handling in Dairy Environments  

E-print Network

E-568 05-09 Low-stress cattle handling in dairy environments L ow-stress animal handling methods contribute to the well being of the animals and also increase their productivity. This translates to lower rates of illness and mortality... experiences with specific sounds. For example, she links the sound of the tractor bringing feed with the positive experience of being fed. She may tie some sounds to pain or fear. Moving cattle Unlike other types of cattle, the dairy cow becomes...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04

347

Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo infection of cattle.  

PubMed

A survey of normal cattle in the Southern Victorian statistical divisions revealed that microscopic agglutination titres to L. hardjo occur at high frequency and are distributed throughout the cattle population. These titres are difficult to interpret as they may represent recent or old exposure, with or without disease. L. hardjo infection of dairy cattle was studied in 4 herds using the microscopic agglutination and complement-fixation tests. Statistical comparisons of individual titres obtained indicated that the sensitivity of the complement-fixation test was satisfactory for diagnostic purposes, but the test was unable to differentiate between current or past infections. PMID:435201

Gordon, L M

1979-01-01

348

Stocker/feeder cattle standardized performance analysis.  

PubMed

The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for stocker/feed cattle is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the grazing, growing, and finishing phases of beef cattle production. Guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA), Extension Specialists, and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordination Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. The NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Stocker/Feeder Guidelines. PMID:7584818

McGrann, J M; McAdams, J

1995-07-01

349

Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and association analysis of the promoter region of the STAM2 gene in Wuchuan Black cattle.  

PubMed

The STAM protein plays an important role in the cytokine-related JAK/STAT pathway. We selected the STAM2 gene as a candidate gene that could be linked to growth performance in analysis of a Chinese cattle breed (Wuchuan Black cattle). We examined genetic variants in the promoter region of the STAM2 gene and their associations with eight growth traits in 159 individuals. Seven SNPs, which included six new SNPs for the SNP database, were found. The core promoter region was identified with a bioinformatic software. This analysis also showed that the SNPs have a significant influence on the function and structure of the STAM2 promoter in terms of RNA secondary structure, CpG island, and transcription factor binding sites. Association analysis demonstrated that G-102A is significantly associated with withers height, heart girth, cannon circumference, chest width, and hip height in this population, which leads us to suggest that G-102A is a useful SNP marker for cattle growth performance. Animals with the genotype AA had higher mean values for withers height, cannon circumference, chest width, and hip height than those with GG and AG genotypes. This SNP of the STAM2 gene could be applied in marker-assisted selection for improving growth performance in cattle. PMID:24085429

Yang, Y-Q; Hui, Y-T; Liu, R-Y; Jiao, R-G; Gong, Y; Zhang, Y-Y; Xie, H-Q

2013-01-01

350

Homeland, Gender and Chinese Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan and Hong Kong represent areas of rapid industrial development and the attenuation of traditional Chinese attitudes toward drinking. To measure the influence of the different homelands on alcohol consumption, a survey of 150 foreign Chinese students (94 males and 56 females) was conducted. In terms of homeland, 95 participants (63.3%) were from mainland China, 29 (19.3%) were from Taiwan,

Israel Colón; Cindy A. Wuollet

1994-01-01

351

CHINESE-MANDARIN, LEVEL II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESIGNED FOR USE BY 10TH GRADE STUDENTS AFTER COMPLETION OF THE LEVEL I TEXT, THIS VOLUME ALSO COMPRISES 15 LESSON UNITS PLUS APPENDED INDEXES AND A SECTION ON WRITING NEW CHINESE CHARACTERS. THESE MATERIALS WERE DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CHINESE LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IN CALIFORNIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS. ACCORDING TO THEIR…

HSU, KAI-YU; AND OTHERS

352

Chinese American Manpower and Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…

Sung, Betty Lee

353

The Chinese-American Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors

Nissen

1990-01-01

354

The Anxiety of Chinese Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to better understand and counsel Chinese students in the United States, the trait anxiety and test anxiety of 67 Chinese graduate students in education attending two universities in Taiwan were measured. Normative assessments for the total group showed that the sample fell within the normal range of U.S. students as defined in Test…

MacDougall, Mary Ann; Corcoran, Miriam D.

355

Emergy analysis of Chinese agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an ecological analysis of Chinese agriculture for the period from 1980 to 2000, on the basis of Odum's well-known concept of emergy in ecological economy. Emergy analysis methods are explained, illustrated and used to diagram the agro-ecosystem, to evaluate environmental and economic inputs and harvested yield, and to assess the sustainability of the Chinese agriculture as a

G. Q. Chen; M. M. Jiang; B. Chen; Z. F. Yang; C. Lin

2006-01-01

356

The search for valved conduit tissue grafts for adults (>22 mm): an ultrasonographic study of jugular vein diameters of horses and cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Natural heterologous valved conduits with a diameter greater than 22 mm that can be used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in adults are not commercially available. The purpose of this study was to measure by ultrasonography the maximum diameter of the distended jugular veins of horses and cattle, respectively, to identify a population of animals that would be suitable for post-mortem collection of jugular veins at sizes greater than 22 mm. Methods The study population included 60 Warmblood horses, 25 Freiberger horses, 20 Brown Swiss cows, and 20 Holstein cows (including 10 Holstein and 10 Red Holstein). The maximum cross-sectional diameter of the distended jugular veins was measured at a location half-way between the mandibular angle and the thoracic inlet. The thoracic circumference (heart girth length) was used as a surrogate of body size. The jugular vein diameters of the different populations were compared by analysis of variance and the association between heart girth length and jugular vein diameter was determined in each of the four study populations by linear regression analysis. Results There was considerable individual variation of jugular vein diameters within each of the four study populations. There was no statistically significant relationship between thoracic circumference and jugular vein diameter in any of the populations. The jugular vein diameters of Brown Swiss cows were significantly larger than those of any of the other populations. Warmblood horses had significantly larger jugular vein diameters compared to Freiberger horses. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the production of bovine or equine xenografts with diameters of greater than 22 mm would be feasible. Differences between species and breeds need to be considered. However, prediction of the jugular vein diameter based on breed and heart girth length in an individual animal is inaccurate. PMID:19678940

Schwarzwald, Colin C; Jenni, Rolf

2009-01-01

357

Measuring value added characteristics in feeder cattle  

E-print Network

over seven years from regular and special feeder cattle sales at Joplin Regional Stockyards were used. The effects of explanatory variables on sale price were analyzed using ordinary least squares regression hedonic model. Type of sale, seasonality...

Mathews, Crystal Dawn

2009-05-15

358

Hedging Cattle with an LRP Policy  

E-print Network

Livestock Risk Protection policies offer price risk insurance to cattle producers. Hedging with an LRP policy is one way to secure an acceptable price now for a commodity that will be produced or marketed some time in the future....

Thompson, Bill; Bevers, Stan; Pena, Jose G.

2008-12-05

359

Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

360

Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

Galey, F.D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M.A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.

2000-01-01

361

A toxicokinetic comparison of two species of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle.  

PubMed

Low larkspurs have different toxic potentials to livestock due to variation in the individual alkaloids present in the plants. Two species, Delphinium nuttallianum and Delphinium andersonii were dosed to 10 Holstein steers at 10mg and 12 mg toxic alkaloids/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected periodically for 96 h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated for 16-deacetylgeyerline, 14-deacetylnudicauline, methyllycaconitine and geyerline/nudicauline which co-eluted in the serum analysis. The maximum serum alkaloid concentrations and area under the curve values for 16-deacetylgeyerline and geyerline/nudicauline were significantly different between the two groups due to the concentrations of the alkaloids in each larkspur species. The alkaloid elimination half-lives were similar for the two larkspur species. These results suggest the elimination rates of norditerpene alkaloids from different larkspur species in cattle are similar regardless of plant alkaloid composition. The determining factor for larkspur toxicity is the individual alkaloid composition of the plant. PMID:23664180

Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Lee, Stephen T

2013-10-01

362

Ulcerative and papillomatous digital dermatitis of the pastern region in dairy cattle: clinical and histopathological studies.  

PubMed

The study was carried out on a single herd of 500 Holstein breed dairy cattle. Only 50 dairy cows (10%) were found to be suffering from focal ulcerative and papillomatous digital dermatitis of the pastern region. The cows were subjected to clinical and histopathological examinations. Early ulcerative stage was seen in 30 cows and late papillomatous stage was observed in 20 cows. The topical application of oxytetracycline solution or benzathine penicillin powder appeared to be effective for the treatment of the ulcerative lesions. The histopathological findings showed signs of epidermopoiesis and papilloma formation. The dermal reaction revealed signs of fibroplasia and perivascular aggregation of inflammatory cells. Silver stained sections indicated the presence of longer filamentous spiral spirochetes, cocci and large-sized anaerobic bacilli invading the stratum spinosum. In conclusion it can be said that bovine digital dermatitis was observed in ulcerative and papillomatous form at the pastern region bordering the dewclaws. Spirochetes are frequently associated with and may be responsible for pathological changes in the lesion. PMID:11417382

el-Ghoul, W; Shaheed, B I

2001-05-01

363

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

364

Nutritional value of ensiled grocery food waste for cattle.  

PubMed

Assessment of nutrient variability, feed value, ensiling capability, intake, and digestibility of grocery food waste recycled from large retail stores was conducted in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, 115 proximate nutrient analyses of grocery byproduct feed (GBP) from stores in the southern United States from April 8, 2011, to November 18, 2012, were evaluated for variation in nutrient concentration. Grocery byproduct feed was characterized as being a readily fermentable, high-moisture energy feed with an average DM content of 17.5 ± 3.7% and TDN of 89.8 ± 7.1%. In Exp. 2 and 3, grocery food waste consisting of fruit, vegetables, and bakery items from large retail stores in the Atlanta, GA, area was used for ensiling and feeding studies. The GBP material for Exp. 2 was processed on farm into homogenous slurry and treated to reduce its moisture content and preserved in experimental silos. Drying treatments included 3 levels of citrus pulp substitution (8, 16, and 24% as-fed basis), or passively removing liquid as seepage after stacking for 24 h, or oven drying (24 h at 80°C). All GBP mixtures effectively ensiled after 28 d, as determined by changes in pH, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation acids. Ensiled GBP was moderately stable during 72-h aerobic exposure. In Exp. 3, a feeding/digestibility trial, 8 yearling Holstein steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square and fed 4 incremental levels of ensiled GBP in total mixed rations (TMR). Steers were fed 0, 18, 36, and 54% ensiled GBP as part of a TMR containing 68% wheat silage and 32% concentrate on a DM basis. The rations averaged 35.9, 30.7, 26.8, and 23.8% DM with incremental levels of GBP. Steers increased DM intake and digestibility when fed increasing GBP (P < 0.5). Digestible energy and TDN were linearly related to the level of GBP fed (P < 0.01). The TDN content of GBP was 82.7% (DM basis) and similar to predicted TDN values from commercial feed analyses of GBP. The feeding and nutritive value of ensiled GBP indicates it can be priced to be used effectively as an energy supplement in TMR for cattle. PMID:25349356

Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L; Azain, M J; Michot, P; Rekaya, R

2014-11-01

365

Perinatal outcomes in native Chinese and Chinese-American women.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial. PMID:21470259

Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu

2011-05-01

366

EFFECTS OF IMPLANTS ON LIVE PERFORMANCE CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF GLUCOSE AND NEFA FOR LONG-FED HOLSTEIN STEERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate ,the effects ofincreasingly aggressive implant programs,for long-fed Holstein steers on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum metabolite concentrations. Nineteen Holstein steers (initial BW = 182 kg) were randomly,assigned to one of four implant treatment regimens including control (no implant; n = 5); 36 mg zeranol (Ralgro) on d 0, 20 mg estradiol benzoate plus 200

R. C. Cheatham; G. C. Duff; C. R. Bailey; S. R. Sanders

367

Ultrasonography in gastrointestinal disease in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for investigating gastrointestinal disorders in cattle. It is performed on standing non-sedated cattle using a 3.5MHz linear transducer. In animals with traumatic reticuloperitonitis, inflammatory fibrinous changes, and abscesses can be imaged; however, magnets and foreign bodies are difficult to visualize because of the gas content of the reticulum. Ultrasonography can be used to assess

U. Braun

2003-01-01

368

Decision analysis for fracture management in cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine fractures are common and each bovine patient is unique, presents innumerable challenges, and requires careful judgment. In cattle the fracture repair usually should be of acceptable quality to not cause a decrease in milk or meat production or interfere with natural breeding. The decision to treat a fracture in cattle is made by evaluating the cost and success rates of the treatment, the value of the animal, and the location and type of fracture. PMID:24534657

St Jean, Guy; Anderson, David E

2014-03-01

369

Biotech's Chinese connection  

SciTech Connect

Hong Kong last month opened the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology (HKIB), a nonprofit R and D center. By combining Chinese expertise in medicinal compounds and cell culturing with Western technical and marketing skills, the institute hopes to develop products that could be licensed to Hong Kong or Western films. The institute is also developing experimental cell lines and making genetically engineered versions of promising compounds, taking advantage of the cell-culturing and cloning skills that are highly developed on the mainland. The Shanghai contingent is already involved in one of the institute's projects, an effort to transfer human genes into mouse fibroblasts to create cell lines for research on the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Other Chinese researchers are taking part in HKIB's joint venture with Syntex, which was signed last April. The mainland researchers extract candidate medicinal compounds from plants and microorganisms. In Hong Kong, the compounds are tested for their effects on neurotransmitter receptors, while Syntex scientists in Palo Alto study how the same compounds affect enzyme activity and whole cells.

Hodgson, G.

1992-03-27

370

Reciprocal translocations in cattle: frequency estimation.  

PubMed

Chromosomal anomalies, like Robertsonian and reciprocal translocations, represent a big problem in cattle breeding as their presence induces, in the carrier subjects, a well-documented fertility reduction. In cattle, reciprocal translocations (RCPs, a chromosome abnormality caused by an exchange of material between non-homologous chromosomes) are considered rare as to date only 19 reciprocal translocations have been described. In cattle, it is common knowledge that the Robertsonian translocations represent the most common cytogenetic anomalies, and this is probably due to the existence of the endemic 1;29 Robertsonian translocation. However, these considerations are based on data obtained using techniques that are unable to identify all reciprocal translocations, and thus, their frequency is clearly underestimated. The purpose of this work is to provide a first realistic estimate of the impact of RCPs in the cattle population studied, trying to eliminate the factors that have caused an underestimation of their frequency so far. We performed this work using a mathematical as well as a simulation approach and, as biological data, we considered the cytogenetic results obtained in the last 15 years. The results obtained show that only 16% of reciprocal translocations can be detected using simple Giemsa techniques, and consequently, they could be present in no <0.14% of cattle subjects, a frequency five times higher than that shown by de novo Robertsonian translocations. This data is useful to open a debate about the need to introduce a more efficient method to identify RCP in cattle. PMID:22963362

De Lorenzi, L; Morando, P; Planas, J; Zannotti, M; Molteni, L; Parma, P

2012-10-01

371

Phylogenetic relationships of Northeast Asian cattle to other cattle populations determined using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships of Northeast Asian cattle to various other cattle breeds including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bison bison were assessed using mtDNA D-loop sequences. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed using sequences determined for 4 Cheju Black, 4 Cheju Yellow, 4 Korean Yellow cattle (Bos taurus), and 2 American Brahman cattle (Bos indicus), and also published sequences for 31 Japanese Black cattle, 45 European breed cattle, 6 African zebus, 2 African taurines, and 6 Indian zebus. Five American bisons (Bison bison) were used as an outgroup. The neighbor-joining tree showed that American bisons and Indian zebus are clearly separate from other cattle breeds, respectively, and African cattle clustered together, although with a low bootstrap probability (< 50%). Results indicate that cattle in Northeast Asia, Europe, and Africa are closely related to each other-suggesting their recent divergence, but are separate from Indian zebus. PMID:12670023

Kim, Kyu-Il; Lee, Jun-Heon; Lee, Sung-Soo; Yang, Young-Hoon

2003-04-01

372

Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, 75.26 cm2, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. PMID:25049722

Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

2013-01-01

373

Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

Huang, Ying

2012-01-01

374

Theatricality and Cultural Critique in Chinese Cinema  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will look at the interplay between the theatrical 1 and the cinematic in Chinese fi lm. In its fl edgling stage, Chinese cinema was inseparable from traditional Chinese theatre. The earliest Chinese fi lmmakers and actors had been trained in various theatrical disciplines. Thus, for them, the transposition of theatrical performances from stage to screen was a natural

Luo Hui

2008-01-01

375

Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.  

PubMed

There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

2014-09-15

376

Feedlot Cattle with Calm Temperaments Have Higher Average Daily Gains Than Cattle with Excitable Temperaments1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental × Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise ×

B. D. Voisinet; T. Grandin; J. D. Tatum; S. F. O'Connor; J. J. Struthers

2009-01-01

377

Depletion of gentamicin in the milk of Holstein cows after single and repeated intramammary and parenteral treatments.  

PubMed

Twenty-four healthy Holstein cows, 2.72 +/- 0.64 (mean +/- SD) years old, weighing 603.96 +/- 73.22 kg (mean +/- SD), and representing various levels of milk production, were used to determine the depletion of gentamicin (GT) in milk. The cows had not received antibiotics or other drugs that could interfere with study for at least 60 days before the beginning of the investigation. The cows were divided into six groups (n = 4) and treated with single (treatments A, B and C) or repeated (treatments D, E and F) doses of GT. Cows were acclimated for 7 days before administration of GT and milked twice a day at 12-h intervals (06.00 hours, 18.00 hours) throughout the duration of the study. Control milk samples were obtained after the arrival of the cows and assayed to establish their GT free status. On day 1 of each treatment, a baseline milk sample was collected from the milk produced (06.00 hours) by each cow. A single dose of GT was administered intramammarily (A, i.m.m. left front quarter, 500 mg), intravenously (B, i.v., 5 mg/kg body weight) or intramuscularly (C, i.m., 5 mg/kg body weight). Cows in treatments D (i.m.m., 500 mg), E (i.v., 5 mg/kg body weight) and F (simultaneous i.m.m. 500 mg plus i.v. 5 mg/kg body weight) were treated twice a day for 5 consecutive days just after the morning and evening milkings. Milk samples from individual cows were collected every day after each milking during and after dosing until GT concentration in the milk was below the safe level of < or = 30 ng/mL. The concentration of GT in milk was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. Depletion of GT to a concentration < or = 30 ng/mL occurred at the seventh (84 h), third (36 h), third (36 h), eleventh (132 h) third (36 h) and nineteenth (228 h) post-dosing milking, for cows in treatments A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. The highest mean +/- SEM) concentrations of GT were 14 710 +/- 1213.89, 167.87 +/- 46.94 and 91.62 +/- 14.55 ng/mL measured in the first milking post dosing (12 h) for cows in treatment A, B and C respectively; for cows in treatments D, E and F, during the dosing period, they were 14067.50 +/- 2989.09, 446.07 +/- 100.92, and 22900 +/- 2843.66 ng/mL and occurred at the seventh, third and eighth milking respectively. Because GT is not approved for use in dairy cattle and because of the long depletion time associated with some possible treatments, illegal and extra-label use is likely to cause residues in milk. PMID:8789700

Pedersoli, W M; Jackson, J; Frobish, R A

1995-12-01

378

Chinese Scrabble : a web-based speech-enabled game for Chinese vocabulary building  

E-print Network

The subject of this thesis is a web-based language game Chinese Scrabble, whose main objective is to help students of Chinese to practice speaking, to learn and review vocabulary both in pinyin and in Chinese characters. ...

Trnovcova, Zuzana

2010-01-01

379

Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge. PMID:23031138

Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

2013-03-01

380

Chinese Military Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource from the Commonwealth Institute's Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA) (reviewed in the January 12, 1999 Scout Report for Social Sciences) offers a gateway to "online analysis and research tools essential to understanding China's military policy, capabilities, and potential." The full-text offerings are accessed through links to a variety of English-language sources, and are grouped by topic, such as Commentary, Military Analyses, Political and Economic Conditions, Regional Context, and US Policy Toward China, among others. In addition, online resources on several special topics (China and the RMA, Arms Trade and Proliferation, Taiwan Confrontation, Cox Report and Aftermath, and China Arsenal) are also provided. Other resources include a bibliography, links to selected research sites, and contact information for a number of specialists in the field. If the site remains regularly updated as promised, it should become a useful current awareness tool for researchers and students studying Chinese military policy and US-China military relations.

381

Chinese Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archaeological digs can tell us much about ancient civilizations, but what about more recent periods of human habitation? This fine collection from the USC Digital Library presents over 1,100 images of artifacts excavated from two sites in Southern California. The Chinatown section features 1,040 color images of artifacts from the original Los Angeles Chinatown. These items were recovered during the construction of the Metro Rail Red Line by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The online collection includes photos of wine bowls, ink stone boxes, and other fragments of items from daily household life. The second segment includes items excavated in 1992 from an old adobe structure in Santa Barbara that housed a Chinese laundry from the mid 1880s to 1905. The collection can be searched via keyword, and it is quite a resource for historians, archaeologists, and others.

2012-02-03

382

Chinese Rubbings Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several scholars and collectors, such as Langdon Warner and Lawrence Sickman, have presented their extensive East Asian rubbings collection to Harvard University, and these materials have remained a valuable resource for decades. Persons working in the fields of Chinese history, biography, epigraphy, calligraphy, and fine arts have come to Cambridge to consult the rubbings, and now many of them are available on this site. Visitors can browse the rubbings by title, name, subject, or genre for starters, and then move on to perform detailed searches as well. Some of the more notable rubbings in the collection include those from Xiaotangshan stone chamber, Wu Liang Shrine, and the Buddhist grotto sites in Gongxian and Longmen in Henan Province.

383

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran  

PubMed Central

The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05). Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05). Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05). Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI) = 1.1(1.08–1.11). Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23), 3.16 (0.80) and 6.52 (1.01) kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

2012-01-01

384

Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management  

PubMed Central

To determine the effects of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13) and DP-20 (n = 12) dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA) compared with cows in DP-20 (p?0.05). Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS), body weight (BW), complete blood count (CBC) and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25049832

Safa, S.; Soleimani, A.; Heravi Moussavi, A.

2013-01-01

385

Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

Song, D. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Q.; Peng, H.; Bu, D. P.

2014-01-01

386

Block and Tub Supplements for Grazing Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Block supplements offer cattle producers a means of supplementing the diets of their grazing beef cattle. This publication discusses the types of blocks available and recommendations for the use of each....

Machen, Richard V.

2003-03-19

387

Isolation, identification, and complete genome sequence of a bovine adenovirus type 3 from cattle in China  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological investigations for BVA-3 infection might be carried out in cattle in China. This report will be a good beginning for further studies on BAV-3 in China. PMID:22188676

2011-01-01

388

The Chinese Cult of Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

Krebs, Sylvia H.

1996-01-01

389

Chinese culture and fertility decline.  

PubMed

Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self-reliance, education and cultivation of moral character, and atheism. Confucian beliefs that interfere with fertility decline are the advocacy of self-sufficient livelihood, the emphasis on family and lineage, autocracy, patriarchy and feudal rule, the 5 constant virtues, contempt for labor and working people, science and technology, and a closed-door policy. Socialism hindered fertility decline by promoting population growth as a symbol of the superiority of socialism and by lack of recognition of population or environmental problems in socialist countries. The goal is to accept Westernization, reduce obstacles, develop economically, and use cultural influence positive to fertility decline. PMID:12317926

Wu, C; Jia, S

1992-01-01

390

Beef Cattle Investigations in Texas, 1888-1950.  

E-print Network

.......................................................................... deficiency, symptolns of 59 .................................................................... depletion period, length of 61 gains and finish of fattening cattle, effect of vitamin A deficiency on 62... of a method to immunize cattle against tick or "Texas fever" by the late Dr. Mark Francis, the grand old man of Texas veterinary science, paved the way for the improvement of the quality of Texas cattle. The injection of blood from native cattle...

1950-01-01

391

Classifying traditional Chinese painting images  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more traditional Chinese painting art images are digitalized and exhibited on the Internet. Effective browsing and retrieving them is an imperative problem need to be addressed. This paper proposes a scheme to classify traditional Chinese paintings. The algorithm uses three low-level features to achieve such a high-level classification: Ohta histogram, color coherence vector and auto-correlation. An accuracy of

Shuqiang Jiang; Wen GaolZ; Weiqiang Wang

2003-01-01

392

Paratyphoid in Man and Cattle  

PubMed Central

Salmonella paratyphi B, phage type Taunton, caused generalized subclinical infection of cows and cases of human enteric fever at a dairy farm. The cattle were probably infected from a stream receiving the sewage effluent of a village in which a chronic carrier lived. At the same time as the farm outbreak a water-borne outbreak of human paratyphoid fever occurred in villages several miles away. The water supply was chlorinated and no failure of its treatment had been detected. S. paratyphi B, type Taunton, was isolated from the septic tank of a cottage near the water source and from soil over a break in the effluent pipe. Several inhabitants of the cottage worked at the infected dairy farm and one showed serological evidence of infection. Attention is drawn to the lack of statutory powers which could be applied to prevent the spread of the disease from the dairy herd and to the hazards of simple chlorination in the absence of additional safeguards of a water supply liable to pollution by surface water. PMID:4625191

George, J. T. A.; Wallace, J. G.; Morrison, H. R.; Harbourne, J. F.

1972-01-01

393

Cattle producers' perceptions of biosecurity  

PubMed Central

Background The limited use of biosecurity practices by many in the farming community is likely to be due to a range of factors; further understanding of this issue is required. In this study, attitudes and behaviours of producers relating to selected biosecurity practices and the farming industry were studied by interviewing cattle farmers within a 100 km2 study area in north-west England using an interview-based questionnaire. Results Most producers appeared to be familiar with the broad concept of the term biosecurity, although risks due to indirect contacts, rather than direct (animal) contacts, were more frequently highlighted. Most producers felt the nominated biosecurity practices were in some way useful, however there was not always agreement between the usefulness of a practice and it being undertaken, and vice versa. In agreement with other studies conducted in the UK, farmers most preferred to obtain information and advice on biosecurity from private veterinarians, but also highlighted DEFRA as a source. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of understanding the motivators and barriers behind the uptake of biosecurity practices on farms, as perceptions are variable. Further understanding of these issues is needed in order to more effectively communicate information in regards to herd health and disease prevention. By identifying differences in producers’ attitudes, programs can be tailored specifically to individuals’ needs. PMID:23574789

2013-01-01

394

Informations Twenty years of research in beef cattle breeding  

E-print Network

Informations Twenty years of research in beef cattle breeding in France (1956-1976) B. VISSAC.2. - Crossbreeding systems 3.3. - Optimal use of vegetable land resources by beef cattle q. - Conclusion 5. - References 1. - Introduction Interest for French research work in the field of beef cattle breeding is quite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

Original article Uterine collagen during pregnancy in cattle  

E-print Network

; Uteri were collected at the slaughter of non-pregnant dairy cattle and cattle at various stages AND METHODS Bovine uteri Thirty uteri were obtained from adult dairy cattle slaughtered at various stages up and Food Research Council, Institute for Research on Ani- mal Diseases, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire, UK

Boyer, Edmond

396

Physiological and cellular adaptations of zebu cattle to thermal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their separate evolution from Bos taurus, zebu cattle (Bos indicus) have acquired genes that confer thermotolerance at the physiological and cellular levels. Cattle from zebu breeds are better able to regulate body temperature in response to heat stress than are cattle from a variety of B. taurus breeds of European origin. Moreover, exposure to elevated temperature has less deleterious

P. J. Hansen

2004-01-01

397

Vitamin A for Beef Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB  

E-print Network

Vitamin A for Beef Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine irsikm@ufl.edu Vitamin A needs special attention in beef cattle rations. Vitamin A is the vitamin of most practical importance in cattle feed. Vitamin A does not occur as such in plant material; however its

Watson, Craig A.

398

The Texas- Oklahoma Cattle Feeding Industry: Structure and Operational Characteristics.  

E-print Network

December 1968 I The Texas-Oklahoma 1 Cattle Feeding Industry Structure I and Operational 1 Characteristics TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Texas Agricultural Experiment Station H. 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas In Cooperation... and Shifts in Cattle Feeding 6 Organizational Characteristics of the ........... Texas-0 klahoma Cattle Feeding Industry ,., 7 ................................ Longevity of Present Feedlots 7 .................................... Legal Form of Ownership 8...

Dietrich, Raymond A.

1968-01-01

399

Can recycled manure make a safe bed for cattle?  

PubMed

The use of recycled manure solids for cattle bedding was among the subjects considered at the British Cattle Veterinary Association's congress last month. Both cattle and sheep vets gathered in Hinckley, Leicestershire, from October 16 to 18 to discuss a range of clinical and political issues. Suzanne Jarvis reports. PMID:25395564

2014-11-15

400

Do cattle egrets gain information from conspecifics when foraging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether individual cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) base their decisions of where to forage, and how long to stay in a patch, on the behavior of other flock members. Cattle egrets commonly forage in flocks associated with cattle and capture prey at higher rates when they do not share a cow with another egret. Foraging egrets provide cues of

Karen J. Metz; Kent A. Prior; Mark L. Mallory

1991-01-01

401

Effect of timing of first clinical mastitis occurrence on lactational and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of this study were to determine the influence of timing of first clinical mastitis case occurrence on lactational and reproductive performance in high producing lactating dairy cows during the first 320 days in milk (DIM). Holstein cows, 1001, from two commercial dairy farms in California were retrospectively divided into four treatment groups according to timing of first clinical mastitis

J. E. P Santos; R. L. A Cerri; M. A Ballou; G. E Higginbotham; J. H Kirk

2004-01-01

402

EFFECTS OF UNILATERAL CASTRATION AND UNILATERAL CRYPTORCHIDISM OF THE HOLSTEIN BULL ON IN VITRO LEYDIG CELL RESPONSE 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of unilateral castration (UC) and induced unilateral cryptorchidism (CR) on in vitro Leydig cell function were determined utilizing 36 Holstein bulls altered at either 3, 6 or 9 mo of age. Testes were removed 11 mo after gonadal manipulation and Leydig cells were dispersed in media containing 0 or 75 ng luteinizing hormone (LH). After incubation for

F. R. Boockfor; M. A. Barnes; J. F. Dickey

2010-01-01

403

Salty groundwater flow in the shallow and deep aquifer systems of the Schleswig–Holstein area (North German Basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Schleswig–Holstein area, salty groundwaters are not always spatially related to the presence of shallow sat structures. Furthermore, hydrochemical data point to instable salinity profiles and to the occurrences of deep brines close to the surface. Therefore, complex interaction between shallow and deep solute migration must occur.Numerical simulation of fluid flow, mass and heat transport have been carried out

Fabien Magri; Ulf Bayer; Asaf Pekdeger; Roland Otto; Claudia Thomsen; Ulrike Maiwald

2009-01-01

404

The Effects of Metaphylaxis and Milk Replacer Additives on Health and Growth of Neonatal Holstein Bull Calves  

E-print Network

A study evaluating the effects of metaphylaxis antibiotics and milk replacer additives on the health and development of Holstein bull calves (n=52; mean body weight=42.28 kg + 3 kg; starting age <3 days) was conducted. The calves were placed into a...

Dehaan, Katherine G.

2010-07-14

405

Phylogenetic Relationships of Northeast Asian Cattle to Other Cattle Populations Determined Using Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Sequence Polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships of Northeast Asian cattle to various other cattle breeds including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bison bison were assessed using mtDNA D-loop sequences. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed using sequences determined for 4 Cheju Black, 4 Cheju Yellow, 4 Korean Yellow cattle (Bos taurus), and 2 American Brahman cattle (Bos indicus), and also published sequences for 31 Japanese

Kyu-Il Kim; Jun-Heon Lee; Sung-Soo Lee; Young-Hoon Yang

2003-01-01

406

Health Information in Chinese - Simplified (????): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ???? (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Power Outages ?? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health ... Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Memory Memory Power - English ???? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community ...

407

Enhanced Expression of Interleukin-1? and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Protein 1 in Ileal Tissues of Cattle Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is associated with high levels of morbidity, decreased production, and early culling in dairy cattle. Clinical symptoms of Johne's disease include persistent diarrhea, inappetence, and resultant weight loss due to chronic inflammation of the small intestine. Although the presence or absence of intestinal lesions cannot be used as a definitive indicator of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, most infected cattle exhibit significant changes to intestinal mucosa, with the focus of pathology surrounding the ileal cecal junction. Typical pathology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection includes inflammation, thickening of the lumenal wall, and hyperplasia in draining lymph nodes. To further understand the pathology of Johne's disease, we compared the gene expression profiles of ileal tissues from Johne's disease-positive (n = 6), and Johne's disease-negative (n = 5) Holstein cattle. Gene expression profiles were compared with a bovine total leukocyte (BOTL-3) cDNA microarray. Genes that were expressed at significantly higher levels (>1.5-fold; P < 0.05) in tissues from Johne's disease-infected animals relative to noninfected animals included those encoding tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAF1), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), MCP-2, N-cadherin, and ?1 integrin (CD29). Dramatic upregulation of IL-1? (21.5-fold) and TRAF1 (27.5-fold) gene expression in tissues of Johne's disease-positive cows relative to tissues from control cows was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot analysis confirmed that IL-1? and TRAF1 mRNA levels resulted in increased protein expression in tissues of Johne's disease-positive cattle relative to tissues from control cattle. High levels of IL-1? can produce symptoms similar to those found in clinical Johne's disease. Taken together, the data presented in this report suggest that many outward symptoms of Johne's disease may be due to IL-1? toxicity. In addition, enhanced levels of TRAF1 could result in cells within the lesions of Johne's disease-positive cattle that are highly resistant to TNF-?-induced signaling. PMID:14573670

Aho, Abraham D.; McNulty, Amanda M.; Coussens, Paul M.

2003-01-01

408

Induction of hyperlipidemia by intravenous infusion of tallow emulsion causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The objective was to test whether the induction of elevated blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by i.v. infusion of a tallow emulsion altered glucose tolerance and responsiveness to insulin in Holstein cows. Six non-lactating, nongestating Holstein cows were assigned to a crossover design. One cow was excluded before initiation of the experiment because of complications from mastitis. Treatments consisted of 11-h i.v. infusions of saline (control) or a 20% (wt/vol) triacylglycerol (TG) emulsion derived from tallow (tallow) to elevate plasma NEFA. Each period consisted of two 11-h infusions (INF1 and INF2), separated by 1 d in which cows were not infused. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed 8 h after initiation of INF1 and INF2, respectively. The infusion of treatments continued during the 3 h of sampling for IVGTT and IC. Cows were fed every 4 h at a rate to meet energy requirements for 5 d prior to each period, and every 2 h during the first 8 h of infusions. Infusion of tallow induced hyperlipidemia by increasing plasma NEFA (295 +/- 9 vs. 79 +/- 7 microEq/L), serum TG (41.0 +/- 6 vs. 11.4 +/- 4.4 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.81 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.1 mg/dL) concentrations during INF1. During INF2, tallow treatment increased plasma NEFA (347 vs. 139 +/- 18 microEq/L), serum TG (20.8 +/- 4.6 vs. 13.1 +/- 2.3 mg/dL), and glycerol (0.88 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 mg/dL) concentrations. Induction of hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IVGTT, despite the greater endogenous insulin response to the glucose infusion, leading to a lower insulin sensitivity index [0.29 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.31 x 10(-4) min(-1)/(microIU/mL)]. Accordingly, hyperlipidemia impaired glucose clearance during IC (1.58 vs. 2.72 %/min), reflecting lower responsiveness to insulin. These data show that induction of hyperlipidemia causes insulin resistance in Holstein cows by impairing both sensitivity and maximum responsiveness to insulin. The induction of insulin resistance by TG, NEFA, or both may increase the availability of glucogenic nutrients to the periparturient dairy cow. Yet excessive elevation of NEFA may potentially lead adipocytes to become more insulin resistant, further increasing plasma NEFA concentration and the risk of metabolic disorders. PMID:17517713

Pires, J A A; Souza, A H; Grummer, R R

2007-06-01

409

Diseases of yearling feedlot cattle in Colorado.  

PubMed

During all of 1974 we surveyed, for illnesses and deaths, about 407,000 yearling feedlot cattle. The morbidity was 5.1%, with a case mortality of 18.9% and a population mortality of 1.0%. Both morbidity and mortality were higher during fall and winter than during spring and summer. Of the 3,943 dead cattle, 1,988 were necropsied. The most prevalent diseases were: pneumonia, 48%; diphtheria, 6%; brisket disease, 6%; hemorrhagic colitis, 5%; riding injury, 4%; bloat, 3%; calculosis, 2%; endocarditis, 2%; abomasal ulcers, 2%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; embolic pulmonary aneurysm, 1%; and pulmonary edema, 1%. PMID:956027

Jensen, R; Pierson, R E; Braddy, P M; Saari, D A; Lauerman, L H; England, J J; Horton, D P; McChesney, A E

1976-09-01

410

Toxicity of Saskatoon Serviceberry to Cattle  

PubMed Central

Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) twigs were administered to cattle in feed rations and by intraruminal dosing to determine the toxicity of the cyanogenic shrub. When chopped twigs were fed as 75% of the diet, cattle exhibited restlessness, shivering, loss of weight, scours and shortness of breath. Low level dosing experiments indicated a rapid turnover of hydrogen cyanide in the rumen. When potential doses were increased to 5 mg hydrogen cyanide/kg (body weight) progressive stages of poisoning developed rapidly, rumen hydrogen cyanide levels were elevated for at least three hours and the increase in heart rate correlated with the rise in blood hydrogen cyanide concentration. PMID:6244889

Majak, W.; Udenberg, T.; Clark, L. J.; McLean, A.

1980-01-01

411

Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

2007-07-01

412

Economic Trends of Texas Cattle Feeding.  

E-print Network

. Lnauiulcd in detail to provide additional informn. tion for the industry to use in their decision-making I 1870 I880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 I940 1950 1960 Year Figure 1. Number of Texas cattle and calves, January 1. (See Appendix Table 2) . Crop..., it is exceeded by Iowa, Califor~lia and Nebraska in number of cattle com- mercially slaughtered. Such slaughter represents all kill of animals except those slaughtered on farms "for p~i\\;tte use". Consumption of beef and calf in Texas, lio.rre~er, has been...

Uvacek, Edward Jr.

1966-01-01

413

Toxicity of Saskatoon serviceberry to cattle.  

PubMed

Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia) twigs were administered to cattle in feed rations and by intraruminal dosing to determine the toxicity of the cyanogenic shrub. When chopped twigs were fed as 75% of the diet, cattle exhibited restlessness, shivering, loss of weight, scours and shortness of breath. Low level dosing experiments indicated a rapid turnover of hydrogen cyanide in the rumen. When potential doses were increased to 5 mg hydrogen cyanide/kg (body weight) progressive stages of poisoning developed rapidly, rumen hydrogen cyanide levels were elevated for at least three hours and the increase in heart rate correlated with the rise in blood hydrogen cyanide concentration. PMID:6244889

Majak, W; Udenberg, T; Clark, L J; McLean, A

1980-03-01

414

Using a Slide in Beef Cattle Marketing  

E-print Network

this agreement is $488.36 per head. 6.17 cwt (617 lbs.) x $79.15/cwt = $488.36 L-5063 8-98 Using a Slide in Beef Cattle Marketing Rick Machen and Ronald Gill* *Extension Livestock Specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Down Slide A down slide is exercised... this agreement is $488.36 per head. 6.17 cwt (617 lbs.) x $79.15/cwt = $488.36 L-5063 8-98 Using a Slide in Beef Cattle Marketing Rick Machen and Ronald Gill* *Extension Livestock Specialists, The Texas A&M University System. Down Slide A down slide is exercised...

Machen, Richard V.; Gill, Ronald J.

1998-08-21

415

Financing the future of beef cattle production  

E-print Network

& Appendix 7 VITA 50 51 52 VII LIST QF TABLES Table Page 1. Effect of Various Calf Crop Percentages on Break-even Prices 2. Estimates of Amounts of Keterosis Expressed for Certain Traits in Cattle lichen a Crossbred Sgstem of Mating is Followed...& Appendix 7 VITA 50 51 52 VII LIST QF TABLES Table Page 1. Effect of Various Calf Crop Percentages on Break-even Prices 2. Estimates of Amounts of Keterosis Expressed for Certain Traits in Cattle lichen a Crossbred Sgstem of Mating is Followed...

Cockerline, Mary Catherine

2012-06-07

416

Implanting Beef Calves and Stocker Cattle  

E-print Network

site. Cattle performance Suckling calves: Implanting suck- ling calves once with zeranol or estra- diol-progesterone type implants will in- crease daily weight gains an average of 0.10 pound per day for steer calves and 0.12 pound per day for heifer... site. Cattle performance Suckling calves: Implanting suck- ling calves once with zeranol or estra- diol-progesterone type implants will in- crease daily weight gains an average of 0.10 pound per day for steer calves and 0.12 pound per day for heifer...

McCollum III, Ted

1998-04-24

417

The Chinese Educational Resources Information Centre Project (Chinese ERIC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, this site features a database of Chinese and English journal article abstracts and educational documents. According to the providers, one of the main objectives of the project is "to use the American Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system as a reference (and) to provide a bibliographic search of individual words of document resumes (citation abstracts) to users." The database covers authors' names, titles of journal articles, and abstracts in Chinese and/or English. It also provides abstracts of local educational masters' theses and doctoral dissertations. Users can search by keyword or free-text. A list of the academic journals used in the database is also provided.

418

Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

2008-01-01

419

Management practices of Chinese managers in Chinese MNCs operating in Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze Thai and Chinese national characteristics based on Hofstede' s cultural dimensions, Chinese human resource management approaches, and Thai and Chinese social concepts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data for the analysis were obtained by surveying MBA students currently working in Chinese multinational companies and studying in public and private universities in Bangkok,

Chanchai Bunchapattanasakda; Pisit Wong

2010-01-01

420

Assessment of Chinese Students' Experience with Foreign Faculty: A Case Study from a Chinese University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…

Ho, Raymond

2010-01-01

421

Predictors of Beginning Reading in Chinese and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety Chinese children were tested once at age 4 and again 22 months later on phonological-processing and other reading skills. Chinese phonological-processing skills alone modestly predicted Chinese character recognition, and English letter-name knowledge uniquely predicted reading of both Chinese and English 2 years later. Furthermore,…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Suk-Han Ho, Connie

2005-01-01

422

Iconicity of simple Chinese characters.  

PubMed

The iconicity of a Chinese character, or the degree to which it looks like the concept that it represents, has been suggested as affecting the learning and processing of the character. However, previous studies have not provided good empirical information on the iconicity of specific characters. To fill this gap, 40 U.S. adults with no knowledge of Chinese were given an English word or short phrase together with two Chinese characters and were asked which character matched the meaning of the English word. The right and wrong answers had the same number of strokes, and different wrong answers were used for different participants. We examined all 213 simple-structure Chinese characters that occur in textbooks for elementary school children. The overall percentage of correct responses was 53.6%, slightly but significantly higher than would be expected by chance. Using a false discovery rate procedure, we found that 15 of the 213 characters were guessed at a level higher than chance. The proportion of correct responses to each character, which can be taken as an indicator of its degree of iconicity, should be useful to researchers studying Chinese character reading and writing. The full database, showing the proportion of correct guesses and other psycholinguistic variables for each character, can be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental . PMID:22399244

Xiao, Wen; Treiman, Rebecca

2012-12-01

423

The Chinese-American Workforce  

SciTech Connect

The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Nissen, S.H.

1990-05-01

424

Acoustics of Chinese traditional theatres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal performance since ancient times. Pavilion stages that are small in area, open on three sides, and thrusting into the audience area are commonly found in traditional theatres, both the courtyard type and auditorium type. The pavilion stage is backed with a wall and a low ceiling (flat or domed). The stage functions as a reflecting shell, which enhances the sound to the audience and provides self-support to the singer. Numerous theatres of this kind exist and function in good condition to the present time. Acoustical measurements show that the sound strength and clarity in audience areas is satisfactory in moderate size courtyard traditional theatres. [Work supported by NSF.

Wang, J. Q.

2002-11-01

425

Teaching With Documents: Chinese Exclusion Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of Chinese immigration to the United States and provides a facsimilie of a form used to document immigrants under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Teaching suggestions are included. (JDH)

Simmons, Linda, Ed.

1986-01-01

426

Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs in New England area  

E-print Network

More and more Chinese immigrants came to the U.S. to start a whole new life. Some of them became entrepreneurs. This study focused on Chinese new immigrant entrepreneurs in New England area, and analyzed what factors have ...

Zhou, Joe Xiongwei

2008-01-01

427

Mid-America Chinese Resource Guide  

E-print Network

The Mid-America Chinese Resource Guide is an Internet project of the Midwest Chapter Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA) which began in October 1997. The goal of this project is to create an online reference ...