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Sample records for chinese holstein cattle

  1. Effect of polymorphisms in the CSN3 (?-casein) gene on milk production traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Alim, M A; Dong, T; Xie, Y; Wu, X P; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shengli; Sun, D X

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and milk composition and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. Six SNPs were identified in the ?-casein gene using pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNPs were genotyped by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods from 507 individuals. Out of six, we identified three non-synonymous SNPs (g.10888T>C, g.10924C>A and g.10944A>G) that changed in the protein product. SIFT (Sorting_Intolerant_From_Tolerant) prediction score (0.01) demonstrated that protein changed Isoleucine>Threonine (g.10888T>C) will affect the phenotypes. Significant associations between identified SNPs and three yield traits (milk, protein and fat) and two composition traits (fat and protein percentages) were found whereas it did not reach significance for fat percentage in haplotypes association. Importantly, the significant SNPs in our results showed a large proportion of the phenotypic variation of milk protein yield and concentration. Our results suggest that CSN3 is an important candidate gene that influences milk production traits, and identified polymorphisms and haplotypes could be used as a genetic marker in programs of marker-assisted selection for the genetic improvement of milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:25091943

  2. A Multiple-SNP Approach for Genome-Wide Association Study of Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Fu, Weixuan; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-SNP analysis has been studied by many researchers, in which the effects of multiple SNPs are simultaneously estimated and tested in a multiple linear regression. The multiple-SNP association analysis usually has higher power and lower false-positive rate for detecting causative SNP(s) than single marker analysis (SMA). Several methods have been proposed to simultaneously estimate and test multiple SNP effects. In this research, a fast method called MEML (Mixed model based Expectation-Maximization Lasso algorithm) was developed for simultaneously estimate of multiple SNP effects. An improved Lasso prior was assigned to SNP effects which were estimated by searching the maximum joint posterior mode. The residual polygenic effect was included in the model to absorb many tiny SNP effects, which is treated as missing data in our EM algorithm. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to validate the proposed method, and the results showed that compared with SMMA, the new method can dramatically decrease the false-positive rate. The new method was also applied to the 50k SNP-panel dataset for genome-wide association study of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Totally, 39 significant SNPs and their nearby 25 genes were found. The number of significant SNPs is remarkably fewer than that by SMMA which found 105 significant SNPs. Among 39 significant SNPs, 8 were also found by SMMA and several well-known QTLs or genes were confirmed again; furthermore, we also got some positional candidate gene with potential function of effecting milk production traits. These novel findings in our research should be valuable for further investigation. PMID:25148050

  3. Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Results Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P < 0.05), and 2 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1 and SNP Ex12-3 with protein yield (P < 0.05). Furthermore, our haplotype-based association analyses indicated that haplotypes G-C-C, formed by SNP Ex12-2-SNP Int11-1-SNP Ex11-1, T-G, formed by SNP Int9-3-SNP Int9-2, and C-C, formed by SNP Int5-1-SNP Int3-1, are significantly associated with protein percentage (F=4.15; P=0.0418) and fat percentage (F=5.18~7.25; P=0.0072~0.0231). Finally, by using an in vitro expression assay, we demonstrated that the A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1of UGDH significantly decreases the expression of UGDH by 68.0% at the RNA, and 50.1% at the protein level, suggesting that SNP Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 represent two functional polymorphisms affecting expression of UGDH and may partly contributed to the observed association of the gene with milk production traits in our samples. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits. PMID:23122059

  4. [Polymorphism of POU1F1 gene and PRL gene and their combined effects on milk performance traits in Chinese Holstein cattle].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Chang-Fa; Yang, Gui-Wen; Huang, Jin-Ming; Li, Qiu-Ling; Zhong, Ji-Feng

    2011-12-01

    Three novel SNPs were found by DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and CRS-PCR methods were used for genotyping in 979 Chinese Holstein cattle. One SNP, G1178C, was identified in exon 2 of POU1F1 gene. Two novel SNPs, A906G and A1134G, were identified in 5'-flanking regulatory region (5'-UTR) of PRL gene. The association between polymorphisms of the two genes and milk performance traits were analyzed with PROC GLM of SAS. The results showed that GC genotype at 1178 locus of POU1F1 gene was advantageous for milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk fat yield. AG genotype at 906 locus was advantageous for milk yield. There was no significant difference between 1134 locus and milk performance traits of 5'-UTR of PRL gene. Analysis of genotype combination effect on milk production traits showed that the effect of combined genotype was not simple sum of single genotypes and the effects of gene pyramiding seemed to be more important in molecular breeding. PMID:22207382

  5. Association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in JAK2 and STAT5B genes and their differential mRNA expression with mastitis susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Usman, T; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wang, X; Zhang, Y; Yu, Y

    2015-08-01

    The JAK-STAT pathway plays a key role in mediating immune responses. The genetic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in JAK2 and STAT5B were investigated for serum cytokines, mastitis indicators and productions traits in a population of 468 Chinese Holstein cattle. Pooled DNA sequencing revealed one SNP (BTA8:g.39645396A>G) in JAK2 and two SNPs (BTA19:g.43673888A>G and BTA19:g.43660093T>C) in STAT5B. A fixed effect model considering the effects of SNPs, parity, herd, season and year of calving was used by way of the general linear model procedure of sas. Genotype frequencies of these SNPs in the population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). A novel SNP (g.39645396A>G) in JAK2 was predicted to change the amino acid from lysine to asparagine and was significantly associated with the somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS), whereas g.43673888A>G in STAT5B was significantly associated with SCC, SCS and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (P < 0.05). The dominant effect of g.39645396A>G in JAK2 was significant for SCS, and its additive effect was significant for SCC, whereas the dominant effect of g.43673888A>G in STAT5B was significant for SCS and IL-4 (P < 0.05). The combination of g.39645396A>G in JAK2 and g.43673888A>G in STAT5B showed a significant effect on SCC, SCS, IL-4 and TNF-α (P < 0.05). As for mRNA expression analysis, the AA genotype g.39645396A>G and GG genotype g.43673888A>G indicated higher mRNA expression level and were significantly different from other genotypes (P < 0.05). The results imply that JAK2 and STAT5B genes could be useful candidate genes, and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis development. PMID:26154111

  6. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  7. Reliability of Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...

  8. Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada Utilizing MACE Proofs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States are collaborating to develop and integrate genomic evaluations into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. There are substantially more genotyped Holstein bulls with MACE proofs than with domestic Canadian proofs in Canada. The use of...

  9. Origin and phylogeographical structure of Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Lei, C Z; Chen, H; Zhang, H C; Cai, X; Liu, R Y; Luo, L Y; Wang, C F; Zhang, W; Ge, Q L; Zhang, R F; Lan, X Y; Sun, W B

    2006-12-01

    Complete mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 231 samples were used to explore the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese cattle. Phylogenetical analysis of these sequences revealed both Bos taurus and Bos indicus mitochondrial types in Chinese cattle. Four of the previously identified mitochondrial DNA lineages (T1-T4) were identified in the Bos taurus type, including lineage T1, which was found for the first time in Chinese cattle. Two lineages (I1 and I2) were identified in the Bos indicus type. Our results support the suggestion that the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau is the domestication site of Chinese zebu. We also found evidence that Tibetan cattle originated from taurine and zebu cattle. The distribution pattern of Chinese cattle breeds was closely related to the geographical and climatic background. It was possible to divide Chinese cattle in this study into two major groups: northern and southern cattle. PMID:17121603

  10. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population. PMID:22958243

  11. Selection signature analysis in Holstein cattle identified genes known to affect reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using direct comparison of 45,878 SNPs between a group of Holstein cattle unselected since 1964 and contemporary Holsteins that on average take 30 days longer for successful conception than the 1964 Holsteins, we conducted selection signature analyses to identify genomic regions associated with dair...

  12. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  13. Signature of forty years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle identified by long-range frequency analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of U.S. Holstein cattle were analyzed for selection signature of artificial selection since 1964 using long-range frequency measures. The three groups included Holsteins unselected since 1964, contemporary Holsteins, and an elite line of contemporary Holsteins. Long-range frequencies in...

  14. Seasonal meningoencephalitis in Holstein cattle caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Daft, Barbara M; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Read, Deryck H; Kinde, Hailu; Uzal, Francisco A; Manzer, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is a fulminant infection of the human central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that thrives in artificially or naturally heated water. The infection usually is acquired while bathing or swimming in such waters. The portal of entry is the olfactory neuroepithelium. This report describes fatal meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in Holstein cattle that consumed untreated surface water in an area of California where summer temperatures at times exceed 42 degrees C. In the summers of 1998 and 1999, severe multifocal necrosuppurative hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis was observed in brain samples from nine 10-20-month-old heifers with clinical histories of acute central nervous system disease. Olfactory lobes and cerebella were most severely affected. Lesions were also evident in periventricular and submeningeal neuropil as well as olfactory nerves. Naegleria fowleri was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain and olfactory nerve lesions and was isolated from one brain. Even though cultures of drinking water did not yield N. fowleri, drinking water was the likely source of the amoeba. The disease in cattle closely resembles primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Naegleria meningoencephalitis should be included among differential diagnoses of central nervous system disease in cattle during the summer season in areas with high ambient temperatures. PMID:16475525

  15. Forty Years Of Artificial Selection In U.S. Holstein Cattle Had Genome-wide Signatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of 40 years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle were identified by comparing allele frequencies and extended haplotype homozygosity in a Holstein resource population composed of a contemporary group, a group born in 1975-1985, and a group unselected since 1964. Results ...

  16. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND BACKGROUND LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM IN NORTH AMERICAN HOLSTEIN CATTLE POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to (i) identify highly heterozygous Holstein bulls that are least related as possible and widely used in the US dairy industry; (ii) quantify the level of genetic diversity in US Holstein cattle; and (iii) determine the extent of background linkage disequilibrium (B...

  17. Genome Signature of Artificial Selection for High Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holstein cattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...

  18. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Garca-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-Lpez, Felipe de J; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Montaldo, Hugo H; Huson, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) ) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO JE and HO BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire's country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures. PMID:25709615

  19. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-Lpez, Felipe de J.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Montaldo, Hugo H.; Huson, Heather J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO JE and HO BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sires country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures. PMID:25709615

  20. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96?h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  1. A Post-GWAS Replication Study Confirming the PTK2 Gene Associated with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Julong; Xu, Jingen; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated that two SNPs (ARS-BFGL-NGS-33248, UA-IFASA-9288) within the protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) gene were significantly associated with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein dairy cattle. To further validate if the statistical evidence provided in GWAS were true-positive findings, a replication study was performed herein through genotype-phenotype associations. The two tested SNPs were found to show significant associations with milk production traits, which confirmed the associations observed in the original study. Specifically, SNPs lying in the PTK2 gene were also detected by sequencing 14 unrelated sires in Chinese Holsteins and a total of thirty-three novel SNPs were identified. Thirteen out of these identified SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with milk production traits in an independent resource population. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, twelve SNPs were statistically significant for more than two milk production traits. Analyses of pairwise D measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between all SNPs were also explored. Two haplotype blocks were inferred and the association study at haplotype level revealed similar effects on milk production traits. In addition, the RNA expression analyses revealed that a non-synonymous coding SNP (g.4061098T>G) was involved in the regulation of gene expression. Thus the findings presented here provide strong evidence for associations of PTK2 variants with dairy production traits and may be applied in Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:24386238

  2. Breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Moradi-Shahrbabak, M; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Amer, P R

    2012-06-01

    Trait-by-trait and multiple trait bioeconomic modeling were used to derive farm-specific economic weights (EW) for a wide range of traits under different production and economic circumstances to define breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran. Production parameters and economic data were gathered on 10 dairy farms from March 2008 to February 2010. The EW (economic values multiplied by gene expressions, in US dollars per unit of trait per calf born from sires of self-replacing females in planning horizon of 20 yr) were estimated to be $0.15 per kilogram of milk yield; $1.36 per kilogram of fat yield; -$1.02 per kilogram of protein yield; $4.59 per month of longevity; -$1.22 per kilogram of mature cow weight; -$105.67 for combined somatic cell score and clinical mastitis; -$1.35 and -$0.28 for percentage direct and maternal calving difficulties, respectively; -$3.98 for percentage direct stillbirth; -$0.76 per day of age at first calving; -$0.72 per calving interval day; and $0.91 for percentage 56-d nonreturn rate on averages across investigated farms. The coefficient of variation of economic weights across the 10 farms was lowest for direct calving difficulty and highest for calving interval. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of major countries exporting semen to Iran. Average relative emphasis for production, durability, and health and reproduction, across all exporter countries, was 41, 37.5, and 21.5%, respectively, whereas the respective values were 50, 14, and 36% for the Iranian index. Significant differences in selection indices may potentially decrease the utility of importation of semen as a means of achieving sustainable genetic progress in Iran. Results obtained in this study provide important information about economic values of traits that can be used to improve the Iranian national progeny testing program as well as importation rules for semen to Iran. PMID:22612975

  3. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (? > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location. PMID:26514650

  4. Effect of artificial selection on runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of artifical selection in U.S. Holstein cattle were identified by comparing changes in estimated haplotype homozygosity in a resource population born between 1953 and 2008. The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination have increased simil...

  5. Principal milk components in buffalo, holstein cross, indigenous cattle and red chittagong cattle from bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Alam, M K; Islam, M N; Khan, M A S; Ekeberg, D; Rukke, E O; Vegarud, G E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

  6. Improved cellular thermotolerance in cloned Holstein cattle derived with cytoplasts from a thermotolerant breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and Bcell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P<0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P<0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine ear fibroblasts. PMID:26534825

  7. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, β-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of αs2-, κ-CN and α-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in β-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in β-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of αs1-, αs2-, β- and κ-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

  8. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  9. A Clinical Case of an SRY-Positive Intersex/Hermaphrodite Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Bresciani, Carla; Parma, Pietro; De Lorenzi, Lisa; Di Ianni, Francesco; Bertocchi, Mara; Bertani, Valeria; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    A single-born, 15-month-old Holstein cattle, diagnosed as hermaphrodite, was investigated for estrous cycle, hormonal profiles, karyotype, presence of SRY, as well as anatomopathological and histological aspects. Normal continuous estrous cycles and basal testosterone levels were reported. Necropsy showed the presence of a female genital tract that mismatched a vulvar opening and a male pelvic urethra continued within a penis. Moreover, we observed islands of seminiferous tubules with the presence of germline cells, 2 pampiniform plexi, the corpus cavernosum, the penile urethra, the corpus spongiosum and the glans. Cytogenetic analyses of the blood cells showed an XX karyotype, while the molecular analyses revealed the presence of the SRY gene in several tissues, including blood. This is the first report in the scientific literature of an SRY-positive hermaphrodite Holstein cattle with continuous ovarian cycles. PMID:26418730

  10. Fitting and validating the genomic evaluation model to Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Szyda, Joanna; Zarnecki, Andrzej; Suchocki, Tomasz; Kami?ski, Stanis?aw

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to fit the genomic evaluation model to Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. A training data set for the estimation of additive effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) consisted of 1227 Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls. Genotypes were obtained by the use of Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping BeadChip. Altogether 29 traits were considered: milk-, fat- and protein- yields, somatic cell score, fourfemale fertility traits, and 21 traits describing conformation. The prediction of direct genomic values was based on a mixed model containing deregressed national proofs as a dependent variable and random SNP effects as independent variables. The correlations between direct genomic values and conventional estimated breeding values estimated for the whole data set were overall very high and varied between 0.98 for production traits and 0.78 for non return rates for cows. For the validation data set of 232 bulls the corresponding correlations were 0.38 for milk-, 0.37 for protein-, and 0.32 for fat yields, while the correlations between genomic enhanced breeding values and conventional estimated breeding values for the four traits were: 0.43, 0.44, 0.31, and 0.35. This model was able to pass the interbull validation criteria for genomic selection, which indicates that it is realistic to implement genomic selection in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:21553085

  11. A genome-wide association study reveals a QTL influencing caudal supernumerary teats in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Joerg, H; Meili, C; Ruprecht, O; Bangerter, E; Burren, A; Bigler, A

    2014-12-01

    Supernumerary teats represent a common abnormality of the bovine udder. A genome-wide association study was performed based on the proportion of the occurrence of supernumerary teats in the daughters of 1097 Holstein bulls. The heritability of caudal supernumerary teats without mammary gland in this study was 0.604. The largest proportion of the heritability was attributable to BTA 20. The strongest evidence for association was with five SNPs on chromosome 20, referred to as a QTL. The mode of inheritance at this QTL was dominant. These findings reveal that the occurrence of caudal supernumerary teats without mammary gland in Holstein cattle is influenced by a QTL on chromosome 20 and a polygenic part. The data support the high potential of the SNPs in the QTL region as markers for breeding against caudal supernumerary teats. PMID:25204440

  12. Validation of associations for female fertility traits in Nordic Holstein, Nordic Red and Jersey dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results obtained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often show pronounced disagreements. Validation of association studies is therefore desired before marker information is incorporated in selection decisions. A reliable way to confirm a discovered association between genetic markers and phenotypes is to validate the results in different populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker associations to female fertility traits identified in the Nordic Holstein (NH) cattle population in the Nordic Red (NR) and Jersey (JER) cattle breeds. In the present study, we used data from 3,475 NH sires which were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 Beadchip to discover associations between SNP markers and eight female fertility-related traits. The significant SNP markers were then tested in NR and JER cattle. Results A total of 4,474 significant associations between SNP markers and eight female fertility traits were detected in NH cattle. These significant associations were then validated in the NR (4,998 sires) and JER (1,225 sires) dairy cattle populations. We were able to validate 836 of the SNPs discovered in NH cattle in the NR population, as well as 686 SNPs in the JER population. 152 SNPs could be confirmed in both the NR and JER populations. Conclusions The present study presents strong evidence for association of SNPs with fertility traits across three cattle breeds. We provide strong evidence that SNPs for many fertility traits are concentrated at certain areas on the genome (BTA1, BTA4, BTA7, BTA9, BTA11 and BTA13), and these areas would be highly suitable for further study in order to identify candidate genes for female fertility traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24428918

  13. Sequence variants in the bovine PRDM16 gene associated with body weight in Chinese cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Wang, C; Tian, R; Huang, Y-Z; Lai, X-S; Lan, X-Y; Wang, J-Q; Chen, H

    2012-01-01

    As a zinc-finger protein, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) controls brown fat determination by stimulating brown fat cell production while suppressing the expression of genes for production of white fat cells; mutations in this domain are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemogenesis. In our study, polymorphisms in exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 of the PRDM16 gene were detected by PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and CRS-PCR-RFLP methods in 1031 cattle of the Chinese breeds: Jiaxian, Nanyang, Qinchuan, and Chinese Holstein. Three mutations (NC_007314.3: g.577 G>T, 614 T>C, 212237 T>C) were detected. Animals with the homozygote genotype had lower body weight and average daily gain than those with the other genotypes. PRDM16 gene-specific SNPs may be useful markers for growth traits for marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:22576833

  14. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. PMID:24996281

  15. CARD15 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Chinese Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Tu, Wenji; Li, Wengui; Dong, Guodong; Xu, Cong; Qin, Bo; Liu, Kaihua; Yang, Jie; Chai, Jun; Shi, Xianwei; Zhang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, have been reported in several species. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CARD15 gene with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. DNA samples from 201 Chinese Holstein cows (103 cases and 98 controls) were collected from Kunming City, Yuxi City, and Dali City in China. SNPs in the CARD15 gene were assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Case-control association testing and statistical analysis identified six SNPs associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. The frequency of genotypes C/T, A/G, A/G, A/G, C/T, and A/G in E4 (-37), 208, 1644, 1648, 1799, and E10 (+107), respectively, was significantly higher in cases than in controls, and also the alleles C, A, A, G, T, and A, respectively, were associated with a greater relative risk in cases than in controls. The distribution of two haplotypes, TGGACA and CAGACA, was significantly different between cases and controls. Overall, this case-control study suggested that E4 (-37)(C/T), 208(A/G), 1644(A/G), 1648(A/G), 1799(C/T), and E10 (+107)(A/G) in the CARD15 gene were significantly associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows and that haplotypes TGGACA and CAGACA could be used as genetic markers in marker-assisted breeding programs for breeding cows with high resistance to BTB. PMID:26244859

  16. Relationship of bovine NOS2 gene polymorphisms to the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Yafen; HUANG, ChenShen; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS which is encoded by the NOS2 gene) plays a key role in the immunological control of a broad spectrum of infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variations in the promoter of the NOS2 gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. In this study, the NOS2 genes of 74 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy controls were genotyped using PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Polymorphisms at rs207692718, rs109279434, rs209895548, rs385993919, rs433717754, rs383366213, rs466730386, rs715225976, rs525673647, rs720757654 and g.19958101T>G in the promoter region of the NOS2 gene were detected. The g.19958101T>G SNP produced two different conformation patterns (TT and TG) and the TG genotype was over-represented in the bTB group (20.27%) compared with the control group (2.22%). The TG genotype frequency of the g.19958101T>G variant was significantly higher in bTB cattle than in healthy controls (OR, 11.19; 95% CI, 2.47–50.73; P=0.0002). The G allele of the g.19958101T>G polymorphism was more frequent in bTB group when compared to control group (10.14% versus 1.11%). Furthermore, the G allele was a risk factor for bTB susceptibility (OR, 10.04; 95% CI, 2.26–44.65; P=0.0002). In conclusion, the g.19958101T>G polymorphism of the NOS2 gene may contribute to the susceptibility of Holstein cattle to bTB. PMID:26468216

  17. Haplotype analysis of TLR4 gene and its effects on milk somatic cell score in Chinese commercial cattle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing Ping; Luoreng, Zhuo Ma; Gao, Shu Xin; Guo, Dong Sheng; Li, Jun Ya; Gao, Xue; Xu, Shang Zhong; Li, Feng; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin Ren

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a very complex and common disease of dairy cattle and a major source of economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the bovine TLR4 was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. This study aimed to analyze the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype and somatic cell score (SCS) in 404 Chinese commercial dairy cattle including Chinese Holstein, Sanhe cattle and Chinese Simmental breeds. The polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods were used for detecting genotype and allele frequency distribution of the two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064), statistical results showed that T allele at rs8193062 and C allele at rs8193064 were the predominate alleles. Moreover, six SNPs, including two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064) and four SNPs (rs8193060, rs8193069, rs29017188, rs8193046) which were chosen according the polymorphism level for the same cattle populations in previous studies, were used for haplotype analysis, the results revealed that twenty-one haplotypes were found in the mentioned animals, of which, Hap1 (30.5 %) and Hap2 (30.4 %) were the most common haplotypes. Hap2, Hap4 and Hap12 might negatively effect on milk SCS, whereas Hap13 might positively effect on milk SCS. The results in this study might assist in marker assisted selection and provided some reference to be implemented in breeding programs to improve the mastitis resistance of dairy cattle. PMID:24415303

  18. Joint genome-wide association study for milk fatty acid traits in Chinese and Danish Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Li, C; Sun, D; Zhang, Q; Poulsen, N A; Su, G

    2015-11-01

    The identification of causal genes or genomic regions associated with fatty acids (FA) will enhance our understanding of the pathways underlying FA synthesis and provide opportunities for changing milk fat composition through a genetic approach. The linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 486,464 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Bonferroni corrections were applied to adjust the significance thresholds for multiple testing at the genome- and chromosome-wide levels. According to the analysis of either the Chinese or Danish data individually, the total numbers of overlapping SNP that were significant at the chromosome level were 94 for C14:1, 208 for the C14 index, and 1 for C18:0. Joint analysis using the combined data of the 2 populations detected greater numbers of significant SNP compared with either of the individual populations alone for 7 and 10 traits at the genome- and chromosome-wide significance levels, respectively. Greater numbers of significant SNP were detected for C18:0 and the C18 index in the Chinese population compared with the joint analysis. Sixty-five significant SNP across all traits had significantly different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA. A large region (14.9-24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97-73.69 Mbp) on BTA9 showed a significantly different effect on C18:0 between the 2 populations. Detection of these important SNP and the corresponding QTL regions will be helpful for follow-up studies to identify causal mutations and their interaction with environments for milk FA in dairy cattle. PMID:26364108

  19. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-01-01

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil. PMID:26782564

  20. A transposable element insertion in APOB causes cholesterol deficiency in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Menzi, F; Besuchet-Schmutz, N; Fragnière, M; Hofstetter, S; Jagannathan, V; Mock, T; Raemy, A; Studer, E; Mehinagic, K; Regenscheit, N; Meylan, M; Schmitz-Hsu, F; Drögemüller, C

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol deficiency, a new autosomal recessive inherited genetic defect in Holstein cattle, has been recently reported to have an influence on the rearing success of calves. The affected animals show unresponsive diarrhea accompanied by hypocholesterolemia and usually die within the first weeks or months of life. Here, we show that whole genome sequencing combined with the knowledge about the pedigree and inbreeding status of a livestock population facilitates the identification of the causative mutation. We resequenced the entire genomes of an affected calf and a healthy partially inbred male carrying one copy of the critical 2.24-Mb chromosome 11 segment in its ancestral state and one copy of the same segment with the cholesterol deficiency mutation. We detected a single structural variant, homozygous in the affected case and heterozygous in the non-affected carrier male. The genetic makeup of this key animal provides extremely strong support for the causality of this mutation. The mutation represents a 1.3kb insertion of a transposable LTR element (ERV2-1) in the coding sequence of the APOB gene, which leads to truncated transcripts and aberrant splicing. This finding was further supported by RNA sequencing of the liver transcriptome of an affected calf. The encoded apolipoprotein B is an essential apolipoprotein on chylomicrons and low-density lipoproteins, and therefore, the mutation represents a loss of function mutation similar to autosomal recessive inherited familial hypobetalipoproteinemia-1 (FHBL1) in humans. Our findings provide a direct gene test to improve selection against this deleterious mutation in Holstein cattle. PMID:26763170

  1. Polymorphism of the bovine POU1F1 gene: allele frequencies and effects on milk production in three Iranian native breeds and Holstein cattle of Iran.

    PubMed

    Zakizadeh, S; Reissmann, M; Rahimi, G; Javaremi, A Nejati; Reinecke, P; Mirae-Ashtiani, S R; Shahrbabak, M Moradi

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the allele frequencies in polymorphic site of exon six of POU1F1 gene in three Iranian native and Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3 Iranian native cattle breeds, including 97 Mazandarani, 87 Sarabi, 112 Golpaygani and also 110 Holstein cattle. A 451 bp fragment of intron 5 and exon 6 were amplified and digested with HinfI restriction enzyme. Frequencies of allele A were 0.37, 0.27, 0.34 and 0.21 for Mazandarani, Sarabi, Golpaygani and Holstein cattle, respectively. Significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Mazandarani or Golpaygani and Holstein cattle. No significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Sarabi and Holstein cattle. Transition A to G in nucleotide 1256 is responsible for HinfI(-) allele. No significant association was observed between POU1F1 polymorphism and milk production. Differences in allelic frequency between native Bos indicus breeds (Mazandarani, Golpaygani) and Holstein at the present study might be due to differences in origin breeds, low number of samples and/or as the effect of natural selection in native breeds. PMID:19070133

  2. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined. PMID:25501190

  3. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rsb) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  4. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rs(b)) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5' regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  5. Association of milk protein genes with fertilization rate and early embryonic development in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Peagaricano, Francisco; Khatib, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Concomitant with intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined in the last decades, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship between these traits. Given that the six main milk protein genes (i.e. whey proteins and caseins) are directly involved in milk production and hence have been a target of the strong selection aimed at improving milk yield in dairy cattle, we hypothesized that these genes could show selection footprints associated with fertility traits. In this study, we used an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) system to test genetic association between 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four caseins (?S1-casein, ?S2-casein, ?-casein and ?-casein) and the two whey protein genes (?-lactalbumin and ?-lactoglobulin) with fertilization rate and early embryonic development in the Holstein breed. A total of 6893 in-vitro fertilizations were performed and a total of 4661 IVF embryos were produced using oocytes from 399 ovaries and semen samples from 12 bulls. Associations between SNPs and fertility traits were analysed using a mixed linear model with genotype as fixed effect and ovary and bull as random effects. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs due to linkage disequilibrium. After correction, polymorphisms in the LALBA and LGB genes showed significant associations with fertilization success and blastocyst rate. No significant associations were detected between SNPs located in the casein region and IVF fertility traits. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between whey protein genes and fertility have not yet been characterized, this study provides the first evidence of association between these genes and fertility traits. Furthermore, these results could shed light on the antagonistic relationship that exists between milk yield and fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:22008563

  6. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frédéric; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W

    2009-01-01

    Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position. PMID:19254385

  7. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Tacoma, Rinske; Fields, Julia; Ebenstein, David B; Lam, Ying-Wai; Greenwood, Sabrina L

    2016-03-01

    Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016) [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software. PMID:26937459

  8. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Tacoma, Rinske; Fields, Julia; Ebenstein, David B.; Lam, Ying-Wai; Greenwood, Sabrina L.

    2016-01-01

    Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016) [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software. PMID:26937459

  9. Three novel SNPs of the bovine Tf gene in Chinese native cattle and their associations with milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Ju, Z H; Li, Q L; Huang, J M; Hou, M H; Li, R L; Li, J B; Zhong, J F; Wang, C F

    2011-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a ?-globulin protein that transports iron ions in mammalian cells. It contributes to innate immunity to microbial pathogens, primarily by limiting microbial access to iron. Thus, polymorphisms present in bovine Tf could potentially underlie inherited differences in mastitis resistance and milk production traits. We detected three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the Tf gene in Chinese native cattle by screening for genetic variation of Tf in 751 individuals of three Chinese cattle breeds, namely China Holstein, Luxi Yellow and Bohai Black, using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing techniques. The three new SNPs, g.-1748G>A ss250608649, g.13942T>C ss250608650, and g.14037A>G ss250608651, had allele frequencies of 85.9, 86.3 and 92.5%, 64.5, 73.3 and 65.0%, and 67.6, 73.7 and 60.0%, respectively. SNP g.-1748G>A was located in the 5' flanking region of Tf. SNP g.14037A>G was located in intron 8 of Tf. SNP g.13942T>C, located in exon 8 of Tf, was a synonymous mutation (TTA > CTA), encoding a leucine (326 aa) in the Tf protein. Associations of the Tf SNPs with milk traits were also analyzed. Significant (P < 0.05) relationships among the Tf polymorphisms, somatic cell scores (SCS), and milk productive traits were observed. Cows with genotypes TT (g.13942T>C), GG (g.-1748G>A) and AG (g.14037A>G) had a lower SCS and higher protein levels and 305-day milk yield. Nineteen combinations of different haplotypes from the three SNPs were identified in Chinese Holstein cattle. The haplotype combination ATA/GCA, GCA/GCA and GCG/ GTA was dominant in cows with a lower SCS, a higher protein level and a higher 305-day milk yield, respectively. Moreover, the gene expression level of Tf was higher in mastitis-affected mammary tissues than in normal mammary tissues. These results suggest that the Tf gene affects milk production, as well as mastitis-resistance traits, in Chinese Holsteins. PMID:21365550

  10. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zielke, Lea G; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Reissmann, Monika; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO) gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans. PMID:23691044

  11. Genome-wide association study for calving traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Purfield, D C; Bradley, D G; Kearney, J F; Berry, D P

    2014-02-01

    Dystocia and perinatal mortality are quantitative traits that significantly impact animal productivity and welfare. Their economic importance is reflected by their inclusion in the national breeding goals of many cattle populations. The genetic architecture that influences these traits, however, has still yet to be thoroughly defined. Regions of the bovine genome associated with calving difficulty (direct and maternal) and perinatal mortality were detected in this study using a Bayesian approach with 43 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on up to 1970 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Several SNPs on chromosomes 5, 6, 11, 12, 17,18 and 28 were detected to be strongly associated with these calving performance traits. Novel genomic regions with previously reported associations with growth, stature, birth weight and bone morphology were identified in the present study as being associated with the three calving performance traits. Morphological abnormalities are a known contributor to perinatal mortality and the most significantly associated SNP for perinatal mortality in the present study was located in a region in linkage disequilibrium with the gene SLC26A7. This gene, SLC26A7, has similarities and colocalises with SLC4A2, which has previously been associated with osteoporosis and mortality in cattle populations. The HHIP gene that is known to be associated with stature in humans was strongly associated with direct calving difficulty in the present study; large calves are known to, on average, have a greater likelihood of dystocia. A stemloop microRNA, bta-mir-1256, on chromosome 12, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression was associated with maternal calving difficulty. Previously reported quantitative trait loci associated with calving performance traits in other populations were again identified in this study; with one genomic region on chromosome 18 supporting very strong evidence of an underlying causative mutation and accounting for 2.1% of the genetic variation in direct calving difficulty. Overlapping genomic regions associated with one or more of the calving traits were also detected substantiating the known genetic covariances existing between these traits. Moreover, some genomic regions were only associated with one of the calving traits implying the selective genomic breeding programs exploiting these regions could help resolve genetic antagonisms. PMID:24256561

  12. Heritability estimates for enteric methane emissions from Holstein cattle measured using noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritability of enteric methane emissions from dairy cattle. Methane (CH4) and CO2 were measured with a portable air-sampler and analyzer unit based on Fourier transform infrared detection. Data were collected on 3,121 Holstein dairy cows from 20 herds using automatic milking systems. Three CH4 phenotypes were acquired: the ratio between CH4 and CO2 in the breath of the cows (CH4_RATIO), the estimated quantified amount of CH4 (in g/d) measured over a week (CH4_GRAMSw), and CH4 intensity, defined as grams of CH4 per liter of milk produced (CH4_MILK). Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight data were also derived for the analysis. Data were analyzed using several univariate and bivariate linear animal models. The heritability of CH4_GRAMSw and CH4_MILK was 0.21 with a standard error of 0.06, and the heritability of CH4_RATIO was 0.16 with a standard error of 0.04. The 2 CH4 traits CH4_GRAMSw and CH4_RATIO were genetically highly correlated (rg=0.83) and they were strongly correlated with FPCM, meaning that, in this study, a high genetic potential for milk production will also mean a high genetic potential for CH4 production. The genetic correlation between CH4_MILK and FPCM and live weight showed similar patterns as the other CH4 phenotypes, although the correlations in general were closer to zero. The genetic correlations between the 3 CH4 phenotypes and live weight were low and only just significantly different from zero, meaning there is less indication of a genetic relationship between CH4 emission and live weight of the cow. None of the residual correlations between the ratio of CH4 and CO2, CH4 production in grams per day, FPCM, and live weight were significantly different from zero. The results from this study suggest that CH4 emission is partly under genetic control, that it is possible to decrease CH4 emission from dairy cattle through selection, and that selection for higher milk yield will lead to higher genetic merit for CH4 emission/cow per day. PMID:26805978

  13. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  14. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  15. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P < 0.05). PCR-RFLP analysis leads to three banding patterns for CXCR1c.735C>G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations. PMID:26126595

  16. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TO ASSESS THE VALIDITY OF BONNIER'S EQUATION FOR ESTIMATING THE FREQUENCY OF MONOZYGOUS TWINNING IN A POPULATION OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holstein cattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...

  17. In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Han; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Wei, Hongyang; Zhou, Linyun; Li, Fadi; Loor, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. Methodology Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. Principal Findings The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n?=?60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing ?-casein (CSN2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-? (ACACA) and butyrophilin (BTN1A1). An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. Conclusions The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs). PMID:19888476

  18. Association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CXCR1 gene with the milk performance traits of Chinese native cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Wang, H M; Ju, Z H; Zhang, Y; Huang, J M; Qi, C; Hou, M H; An, L G; Zhong, J F; Wang, C F

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is an economically devastating disease affecting the dairy industry. Dairy cows with mastitis give reduced milk yield and produce milk that is unfit for consumption. The chemokine receptor CXCR1 is an excellent prospective genetic marker for mastitis resistance in cattle because it regulates neutrophil migration, killing, and survival during infection. We detected 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CXCR1 gene in Chinese native cattle and analyzed their associations with milk traits. Screening for genetic variations in CXCR1 among 648 Chinese Holstein, Luxi Yellow, and Bohai Black cattle by created restriction site polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, and DNA sequencing revealed 4 new SNPs with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.676 to 0.821, 0.706 to 0.803, 0.647 to 0.824, and 0.558 to 0.581. All four CXCR1 gene SNPs were located in exon II. Two SNPs, c.337A>G and c.365C>T, were nonsynonymous mutations [ATC (Ile) > GTC (Val) and GCC (Ala) > GTC (Val)], whereas two, c.291C>T and c.333C>T, were synonymous mutations [TTC (Gly) > TTT (Gly) and GGC (Phe) > GGT (Phe)]. Statistical analyses revealed the significant association of c.337A>G and c.365C>T with the somatic cell score, which suggests the possible role of these SNPs in the host response against mastitis. Our data suggest that combined genotypes CCAC/CCGC, CCAC/CTAT, and CCAT/CTAT (lowest somatic cell scores); CTAC/CTAT (highest protein rate); CCAC/CTGC (highest fat rate); and CCAT/CTAT (highest 305-day milk yield) can be used as possible candidates for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:23979897

  19. Genetic variation of mitochondrial D-loop region and evolution analysis in some Chinese cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shangang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Guixiang; Wang, Zhigang; Lei, Chuzhao; Yao, Ru; Han, Xu

    2007-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial D-loop region from 123 individuals in 12 Chinese cattle breeds and two individuals in Germany Yellow cattle breed was sequenced and analyzed. The results were shown as follows: 93 variations and 57 haplotypes were detected, and the average number of nucleotide difference was 22.708, nucleotide diversity (d) was 0.0251 +/- 0.00479, and haplotype diversity (Hd) was 0.888 +/- 0.026, indicating very high genetic diversity in Chinese cattle breeds. In the Neighbor-Joining tree, 13 cattle breeds were divided into two main clades, Bos taurus and Bos indicus; new Clade ? had only one sequence from Apeijiaza cattle breed in Tibet, which was similar to that of yak at a higher level than other cattle breeds, proving the introgression of genes from the yak. The proportions of Bos taurus and Bos indicus were 64.3% and 35.7% respectively in Xigaz Humped cattle breed, and 50.0% and 50.0% respectively in Apeijiaza cattle breed, which revealed that Tibet cattle included Bos indicus haplotypes. The importance of Yunnan cattle in the origin of Chinese cattle was also confirmed based on their abundant haplotypes. Then, a very special haplotype i1 discovered in 27 Chinese cattle breeds, including 11 breeds in this study and 16 breeds in the GenBank, played the role of a nucleus in Chinese zebu and was further discussed. At the same time, the construction of Chinese zebu core group based on haplotype i1 validated the distinct origin of Bos indicus in Tibet, which was different from that of the other cattle breeds with zebu haplotypes in China. PMID:17601610

  20. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...

  1. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SHEDDING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cows to determine the influence of time of day (AM vs PM), parity, and lactation phase [ 60 d in milk (DIM)] on shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), Escherichia coli (EC),...

  3. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P < 0.05) were developed for prediction of N (g/d) and OM (kg/d) excretion in feces and urine. The present data were also used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve national inventories of manure N output and greenhouse gas emissions and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies for young Holstein cattle. PMID:24879759

  4. Effect of Artificial Selection on Runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B.; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Crooker, Brian A.; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S.

    2013-01-01

    The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins. PMID:24348915

  5. Detection of functional polymorphisms influencing the promoter activity of the SAA2 gene and their association with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Li, C; Xie, Y; Cui, X; Li, X; Wei, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, S; Zhang, Q; Sun, D

    2015-12-01

    Our previous RNA sequencing experiment showed that the serum amyloid A2 (SAA2) gene was one of the most promising candidates for milk protein and fat traits in dairy cattle. The SAA2 gene encodes an apolipoprotein related to high-density lipoproteins. To further validate its genetic effects, genotype-phenotype associations were performed in this study. Through resequencing of the entire coding region and the 5'-regulatory region of the SAA2 gene using pooled DNA of 12 unrelated sires, one novel 3-bp insertion-deletion and five previously reported SNPs were detected. These identified SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with five milk production-related traits in 717 Chinese Holstein cows. After Bonferroni correction for multiple t-tests, five of them were found to be statistically significant for milk yield, fat yield and protein yield (P < 0.0001~0.0053). Haplotype-based association analysis revealed a similar effect on fat yield and protein yield (P = 0.0005, P = 0.0032 respectively). Then, using luciferase report assay, the regulatory effect of the three SNPs located in the promoter region (c.-22G>A; c.17G>C; c.114G>A) was evaluated on transcriptional activity. In HEK-293 cell lines, we found that constructs GCG and AGG showed higher luciferase activity compared with GCA (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 respectively). Meanwhile, the prediction of the putative differential transcription factor binding site revealed that c.17G>C and c.114G>A caused the alteration in the transcription factor. Overall, the findings presented here provide the first evidence for associations of the SAA2 gene with milk fat and protein traits, which appears to be a key candidate for milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:26373797

  6. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems). This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input). Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework upon which to identify the causal mechanisms underlying the various milk production traits and somatic cell score. Consequently this will deepen our understanding of how these traits are expressed. PMID:22449276

  7. Identification of copy number variable gene families in Holstein and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variants (CNV) represent a large proportion of genetic variation within the cattle genome that has yet to be accurately characterized by SNP genotyping arrays. While significant progress has been made in the identification of CNVs within individual animals using next generation sequence ...

  8. PRNP haplotype associated with classical BSE incidence in European Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the pro...

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Susceptibility to Infection by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H.; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  10. Using a family-based structure to detect the effects of genomic inbreeding on embryo viability in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Coburn, A D; Wilson, R D

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that some of the decline in reproductive ability in dairy cattle has been caused by embryonic death. The current study compared expected genomic inbreeding from sire-dam mating pairs to genomic inbreeding from live progeny in an attempt to determine how embryonic inbreeding may affect fertility. A total of 11,484 Holstein cattle with 43,485 SNP markers and pedigree information were available for analysis. A total of 412 sire-dam-progeny trios in which all animals had reliable genotypes were discovered. After removal of trios because of parentage errors, 374 remained for analysis. Additionally, a total of 3,031 animals comprising 3,906 genotyped full-sibling pairs were available for comparison. Expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated by predicting homozygosity independently per SNP (FPHE) in sire-dam mating pairs and by simulating progeny using phased haplotype information (FROHE and FPHE). Actual genomic inbreeding measures were calculated using the percent homozygosity of all SNP (FPH) and using runs of homozygosity (FROH). Average FPHE values (62.80.78%) were slightly lower than FPH (63.11.12%), when considering each SNP independently. After phasing haplotypes, FPHE (62.50.83%) was again slightly lower than FPH (62.71.16%), and FROHE (3.461.54%) was slightly lower than FROH (3.532.17%). Results suggest increases in expected genomic inbreeding do not explain a large effect on embryo viability at average levels of expected inbreeding. Higher variation in FROH values was present with sire-dam mating pairs exhibiting high FROHE, which may suggest high levels of genomic inbreeding are required for a noticeable effect on overall embryo viability. Genomic inbreeding between full siblings was also compared with moderate correlations (0.47-0.52) present. Overall, expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated, but results did not suggest a large effect of expected inbreeding on embryo viability. PMID:25958282

  11. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility to infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E; Collins, Michael T; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  12. Effect of LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1 gene polymorphisms on reproductive traits in the Iranian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Asadollahpour Nanaei, H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Edriss, M-A

    2014-10-01

    During the last decades, genetic selection for milk production traits has led to increased fertility and health problems in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three polymorphisms located in the ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes on reproductive traits and somatic cell count (SCC). The analysis was conducted on 408 randomly selected cows. The SNPs within the genes (LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1) were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. All three possible genotypes were observed for SCD1-T878C and LEPR-T945M SNPs, but not for ABCG2-Y581S SNP. LEPR-T945M and ABCG2-Y581S SNPs had no statistically significant effect on the studied reproductive traits and SCC. However, SCD1-T878C SNP were negatively and significantly related to pregnancy length, dry days and open days (p<0.05), which lead to decreased profitability in dairy herds. The results suggest that the T878C SNP of SCD1 might be useful as a DNA marker to decrease reproductive problems and improve production traits in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25130486

  13. Novel harmful recessive haplotypes identified for fertility traits in Nordic Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Goutam; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Aamand, Gert Pedersen; Lund, Mogens Sand; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Using genomic data, lethal recessives may be discovered from haplotypes that are common in the population but never occur in the homozygote state in live animals. This approach only requires genotype data from phenotypically normal (i.e. live) individuals and not from the affected embryos that die. A total of 7,937 Nordic Holstein animals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 BeadChip and haplotypes including 25 consecutive markers were constructed and tested for absence of homozygotes states. We have identified 17 homozygote deficient haplotypes which could be loosely clustered into eight genomic regions harboring possible recessive lethal alleles. Effects of the identified haplotypes were estimated on two fertility traits: non-return rates and calving interval. Out of the eight identified genomic regions, six regions were confirmed as having an effect on fertility. The information can be used to avoid carrier-by-carrier mattings in practical animal breeding. Further, identification of causative genes/polymorphisms responsible for lethal effects will lead to accurate testing of the individuals carrying a lethal allele. PMID:24376603

  14. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Arajo; Costa, Cludio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (?0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

  15. Genome Wide Analysis of Fertility and Production Traits in Italian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Alessandra; Biffani, Stefano; Negrini, Riccardo; Lazzari, Barbara; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Williams, John L .

    2013-01-01

    A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits. PMID:24265800

  16. High prevalence and increased severity of pathology of bovine tuberculosis in Holsteins compared to zebu breeds under field cattle husbandry in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

    2007-10-01

    A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either zebus (22.2% versus 11.6%, chi(2) = 61.8; P < 0.001) or crosses (22.2% versus 11.9%, chi(2) = 50.7; P < 0.001). Moreover, the severity of pathology in Holsteins (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM], 6.84 +/- 0.79) was significantly higher (P = 0.018) than the severity of pathology in zebus (5.21 +/- 0.30). In addition, the risk of TB in Holsteins was more than twice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89, 2.85) that in zebus. Animals between 5 and 9 years of age were at higher (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.80, 3.12) risk of bovine TB than those 2 years of age or below. A significant difference (chi(2) = 351; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of TB lesions in lymph nodes was recorded; the mesenteric lymph node (mean pathology score +/- SEM, 1.95 +/- 0.08) was most severely affected, followed by the retropharyngeal (0.80 +/- 0.05) and caudal mediastinal (0.8 +/- 0.06) lymph nodes. Fifty-six percent (n = 145) of the animals with gross TB lesions were culture positive; the lowest culture positivity was recorded in the skin lesions (27.3%) and the lesions of the mesenteric lymph node (31.5%). Both the skin test response and the postmortem findings suggested a higher susceptibility to bovine TB in Holsteins than zebus under identical field husbandry conditions (on pasture). In the light of increased numbers of Holstein cattle introduced into this area to raise milk production to satisfy the needs of Addis Ababa's growing population, these findings highlight the need for a control program in these herds. PMID:17761523

  17. A whole genome scan for QTL affecting milk protein percentage in Italian Holstein cattle, applying selective milk DNA pooling and multiple marker mapping in a daughter design.

    PubMed

    Russo, V; Fontanesi, L; Dolezal, M; Lipkin, E; Scotti, E; Zambonelli, P; Dall'Olio, S; Bigi, D; Davoli, R; Canavesi, F; Medugorac, I; Fster, M; Slkner, J; Schiavini, F; Bagnato, A; Soller, M

    2012-07-01

    We report on a complete genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk protein percentage (PP) in the Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle population, applying a selective DNA pooling strategy in a daughter design. Ten Holstein-Friesian sires were chosen, and for each sire, about 200 daughters, each from the high and low tails of estimated breeding value for PP, were used to construct milk DNA pools. Sires and pools were genotyped for 181 dinucleotide microsatellites covering all cattle autosomes. Sire marker allele frequencies in the pools were obtained by shadow correction of peak height in the electropherograms. After quality control, pool data from eight sires were used for all subsequent analyses. The QTL heterozygosity estimate was lower than that of similar studies in other cattle populations. Multiple marker mapping identified 19 QTL located on 14 chromosomes (BTA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 27). The sires were also genotyped for seven polymorphic sites in six candidate genes (ABCG2, SPP1, casein kappa, DGAT1, GHR and PRLR) located within QTL regions of BTA6, 14 and 20 found in this study. The results confirmed or excluded the involvement of some of the analysed markers as the causative polymorphic sites of the identified QTL. The QTL identified, combined with genotype data of these candidate genes, will help to identify other quantitative trait genes and clarify the complex QTL patterns observed for a few chromosomes. Overall, the results are consistent with the Italian Holstein population having been under long-term selection for high PP. PMID:22742505

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rectal Temperature during Heat Stress in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Dikmen, Serdal; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Hansen, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress compromises production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One mitigation strategy is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of either physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature or adverse consequences of failure to regulate body temperature. Thus, selection for regulation of body temperature during heat stress could increase thermotolerance. The objective was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for rectal temperature (RT) during heat stress in lactating Holstein cows and identify SNPs associated with genes that have large effects on RT. Records on afternoon RT where the temperature-humidity index was ?78.2 were obtained from 4,447 cows sired by 220 bulls, resulting in 1,440 useable genotypes from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip with 39,759 SNP. For GWAS, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 adjacent SNP were averaged to identify consensus genomic regions associated with RT. The largest proportion of SNP variance (0.07 to 0.44%) was explained by markers flanking the region between 28,877,547 and 28,907,154 bp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 24. That region is flanked by U1 (28,822,883 to 28,823,043) and NCAD (28,992,666 to 29,241,119). In addition, the SNP at 58,500,249 bp on BTA 16 explained 0.08% and 0.11% of the SNP variance for 2- and 3-SNP analyses, respectively. That contig includes SNORA19, RFWD2 and SCARNA3. Other SNPs associated with RT were located on BTA 16 (close to CEP170 and PLD5), BTA 5 (near SLCO1C1 and PDE3A), BTA 4 (near KBTBD2 and LSM5), and BTA 26 (located in GOT1, a gene implicated in protection from cellular stress). In conclusion, there are QTL for RT in heat-stressed dairy cattle. These SNPs could prove useful in genetic selection and for identification of genes involved in physiological responses to heat stress. PMID:23935954

  19. Sire effect on early and late embryonic death in French Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D; Ponsart, C; Grimard, B; Gatien, J; Deloche, M C; Fritz, S; Lefebvre, R; Humblot, P

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effect of maternal sire on early pregnancy failure (between D0, day of insemination and D90) in their progeny during the first and second lactations (n=3508) in the Holstein breed. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for cow fertility of 12 bulls (reliability?0.95) was used to create the following three groups: low, medium and high EBV (EBV from -0.7 to 1 expressed as genetic standard deviation relative to the mean of the breed). In their daughters (93 to 516 per bull), progesterone measurement was carried out on the day of artificial insemination (AI; D0) to check whether the cows were in the follicular phase and on D18 to 25 to assess non-fertilisation-early embryonic mortality (NF-EEM). Late embryonic mortality (LEM) and early foetal death (FD) were determined by ultrasonography on D45 and D90 and by the return to oestrus after the first AI. Frequencies of NF-EEM, LEM, FD and pregnancy were 33.3%, 11.7%, 1.4% and 48.5% and incidences were 35.1, 19.0, 2.7 and 51.1, respectively. Sire EBV was significantly related to the incidences of pregnancy failure between D0 and D90, fertilisation failure-early embryonic mortality (FF-EEM) and LEM but not to the incidence of FD between D45 and D90 of pregnancy. The relative risk (RR) of FF-EEM was significantly higher (RR=1.2; P<0.05) for the progeny group of low EBV bulls when compared with high EBV bulls. The same effect was observed when comparing LEM of the progeny groups from the low EBV bulls to those from moderate and high EBV bulls (RR, respectively, of 1.3 and 1.4; P<005). The incidence of FF-EEM was significantly higher when cows were inseminated before 80 days postpartum compared with later, and for the extreme values of the difference between milk fat and protein content measured during the first 3 months of lactation. FF-EEM was also significantly related to the year of observation. The incidence of LEM was higher for the highest producing cows and was influenced by interaction between milk yieldlactation rank and milk yieldmilk protein content. In conclusion, this study showed large differences in early pregnancy failure between progeny groups and highlights the interest of accurate characterisation of embryonic death in order to identify potential candidate genes for female fertility. PMID:25544038

  20. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater predisposition to embryo loss. Despite the overall antagonistic relationship between reproductive performance and both milk and carcass traits, not all detailed aspects of reproduction performance exhibited an antagonistic relationship. PMID:26709166

  1. Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.

    PubMed

    Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2 3.0 vs. 21.3 2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1 1.4 vs. 11.7 1.3 h), mounting period (6.9 2.7 vs. 18.2 2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2 2.8 vs. 17.5 2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1 4.0 vs. 17.6 4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6 1.3 vs. 5.5 1.3) with longer average duration (0.42 0.04 vs. 0.20 0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3 6.2 vs. 18.1 6.3) and per hour (2.6 0.4 vs. 1.5 0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4 5.0 vs. 18.5 5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1.6 0.3 vs. 0.6 0.3) per hour than did NRF during mount estrus. A significant effect of milk yield was demonstrated only on this behavior. For other estrous signs, HF cows initiated chase-up (2.0 0.5 vs. 0.5 0.4) and anogenital sniff (3.7 0.6 vs. 2.0 0.5) more frequently (counts per hour), whereas NRF expressed more total head butt behavior (32.3 4.7 vs. 14.2 4.8) during mount estrus. Body condition score had a significant effect on receptive behavior. Measures of estrus duration, sexually active group activity, and behavior related to estrus should be subjected to larger studies for improved heat detection and possible implementation in breeding programs. PMID:25622876

  2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5? promoter, intronic, and 3? regulatory regions, encompassing ~5?kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P?cattle. PMID:22303302

  3. An SduI polymorphism at intron 20 of the Chinese Holstein cow STAT4 gene and its effect on milk performance traits.

    PubMed

    Song, X M; Zhang, L; Jiang, J F; Shi, F X; Jiang, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) genes are responsive to a wide range of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones, and thus control important biological processes. In humans, STAT4 mutations have been identified as genetic markers for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and primary Sjgren's syndrome, whereas little research has been conducted on bovine STAT4 mutations and their potential effects. Herein, 585 Chinese Holstein cows were used to investigate STAT4 mutations and their effects on milk performance traits. One haplotype block, containing g.95879G>A, g.96013G>C, was identified in intron 20 of the bovine STAT4 gene by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with milk yield at 305 days (P < 0.05), and with protein percentage (P < 0.05). Chinese Holstein cows with the haplotype GGGG had higher milk yields at 305 days and lower protein percentages. These results suggest that the 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms of STAT4 could be used as genetic markers for milk performance traits in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:23765966

  4. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene.

    PubMed

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sllman Almn, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  5. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S.; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  6. Fatty acid profile of back fat and intramuscular fat from yak and Chinese yellow cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) and Chinese Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus) are important human dietary components in Northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid (FA) composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor, flavor, and nutritiona...

  7. Genome Wide Association Studies for Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peipei; Ding, Xiangdong; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Qin

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on high throughput SNP genotyping technologies open a broad avenue for exploring genes associated with milk production traits in dairy cattle. Motivated by pinpointing novel quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) across Bos Taurus genome, the present study is to perform GWAS to identify genes affecting milk production traits using current state-of-the-art SNP genotyping technology, i.e., the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. In the analyses, the five most commonly evaluated milk production traits are involved, including milk yield (MY), milk fat yield (FY), milk protein yield (PY), milk fat percentage (FP) and milk protein percentage (PP). Estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 2,093 daughters from 14 paternal half-sib families are considered as phenotypes within the framework of a daughter design. Association tests between each trait and the 54K SNPs are achieved via two different analysis approaches, a paternal transmission disequilibrium test (TDT)-based approach (L1-TDT) and a mixed model based regression analysis (MMRA). In total, 105 SNPs were detected to be significantly associated genome-wise with one or multiple milk production traits. Of the 105 SNPs, 38 were commonly detected by both methods, while four and 63 were solely detected by L1-TDT and MMRA, respectively. The majority (86 out of 105) of the significant SNPs is located within the reported QTL regions and some are within or close to the reported candidate genes. In particular, two SNPs, ARS-BFGL-NGS-4939 and BFGL-NGS-118998, are located close to the DGAT1 gene (160bp apart) and within the GHR gene, respectively. Our findings herein not only provide confirmatory evidences for previously findings, but also explore a suite of novel SNPs associated with milk production traits, and thus form a solid basis for eventually unraveling the causal mutations for milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:21048968

  8. Genetic diversity and origin of Chinese cattle revealed by mtDNA D-loop sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Song-Jia; Liu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Yan-Xing; Li, Xue-Wei; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2006-01-01

    To determine the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese cattle, we analyzed the complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of 84 cattle from 14 breeds/populations from southwest and west China, together with the available cattle sequences in GenBank. Our results showed that the Chinese cattle samples converged into two main groups, which correspond to the two species Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Although a dominant lineage was clearly discerned in both B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNAs, network analysis of the lineages in each of the two species further revealed multiple clades that presented regional difference. The B. taurus samples in China could be grouped into clades T2, T3, and T4, whereas B. indicus harbored two clades I1 and I2. Age estimation of these discerned clades showed a time range of 14,100-44,500 years before present (YBP). The phylogenetic pattern of Chinese cattle was consistent with the recently described cattle matrilineal pool from northeast Asia, but suggested that B. indicus contributed more to the cattle from south and southwest China. The genetic diversity of Chinese cattle varied among the breeds studied. PMID:16054846

  9. The hunt for a functional mutation affecting conformation and calving traits on chromosome 18 in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequence data from 11 US Holstein bulls were analyzed to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. The SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-109285 at 57,589,121 bp (UMD 3.1 assembly) on BTA18 has large effects on 4 measures of body shape and size, 2 measures of dystocia, longev...

  10. Ex-situ conservaton of Holstein-Friesian cattle comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve as much genetic diversity as possible for this breed. Genetic variability of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in ...

  11. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low- heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (>= 1.7; n=288) or low (<= -2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was geno...

  12. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  13. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  14. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Bodo; Baes, Christine; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Khn, Christa

    2009-01-01

    Background The somatic cell score (SCS) is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18). In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833) in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A). Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9) to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) with SCS. For this purpose, higher marker density and multiple-trait and multiple-QTL models are required to narrow down the position of the causal mutation or mutations affecting SCS in German Holstein cattle. PMID:19725965

  15. Comparison of longissimus dorsi Fatty Acids Profiles in Gansu Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle Steers and Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. G.; Liu, T.; Brown, M. A.; Wu, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat in Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle were evaluated in 44 Black Yak and 41 Chinese Yellow Cattle of both genders. Interactions of species with gender were observed for total saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations, as well as PUFA/SFA ratio in the longissimus dorsi (p<0.05). The SFA percentage was greater in yellow cattle than yak in both genders but the species difference in heifers was greater than in steers (p<0.05). Yak had greater UFA, MUFA and PUFA percentages than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05) but the difference between yak and yellow cattle heifers was greater than yak and yellow cattle steers. The percentages of inolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid; and PUFA/SFA were greater in yak than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05). In addition, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in yak was lesser than in yellow cattle (p<0.05). These results indicated that FA composition generally differed between yak and yellow cattle but the differences were not the same in heifers as compared to steers. Results also suggested that species differences in FA composition tended to favor Black Yak over Chinese Yellow Cattle, indicating that the longissimus dorsi of Black Yak may have a higher nutritive value than that of Chinese Yellow Cattle and potential for development as a desirable natural product. PMID:26761841

  16. Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

    2013-10-15

    Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

  17. Genome-wide identification of copy number variations in Holstein cattle from Baja California, Mexico, using high-density SNP genotyping arrays.

    PubMed

    Salomn-Torres, R; Gonzlez-Vizcarra, V M; Medina-Basulto, G E; Montao-Gmez, M F; Mahadevan, P; Yaurima-Basalda, V H; Villa-Angulo, C; Villa-Angulo, R

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are an important source of genomic structural variation, and can be used as markers to investigate phenotypic and economic traits. CNVs also have functional effects on gene expression and can contribute to disease susceptibility in mammals. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays (SNP chips) are the technology of choice for identifying CNV variations. Microarray technologies have recently been used to study the bovine genome. The objective of the present study was to develop CNVs in Holstein cows from the Northwest of Mexico using the Affymetrix Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array, which assays 648,315 SNPs and provides a wide coverage for genome-wide studies. We applied the two most widely used algorithms for the discovery of CNVs (PennCNV and QuantiSNP) and found 56 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing 0.33% of the bovine genome (8.46 Mb). These CNVRs ranged from 1.5 to 970.8 kb with an average length of 151 kb. They involved 103 genes and showed a 28% overlap with CNVRs already reported. Of the 56 CNVRs found, 20 were novel. In this study we present the first genomic analysis of CNVs in Mexican cattle using high-density SNP data. Our results provide a new reference basis for future genomic variation and association studies between CNVs and phenotypes, especially in Mexican cattle. PMID:26436509

  18. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Sren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise; Kostoulas, Polychronis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the primary routes of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is pivotal to manage the pathogen in cattle herds. MAP is transmitted both vertically and horizontally, and both the dam's stage of infection and the prevalence in the population are therefore potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used to correct for the effect of age. The results showed that both the within-herd test-prevalence and the dam's infection progress were significant predictors, while the dams that had tested positive when giving birth and up to 0.7 years after were more likely to have offspring that would test positive. The odds of testing positive were about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for these offspring, compared to offspring of dams that never tested positive. Furthermore, offspring born in high (>5% ELISA-positive) and medium (2.5 to 5% ELISA-positive) prevalence herds had 9 and 3, respectively, times higher odds of testing positive, compared to animals born in a low prevalence herd. The variance heterogeneity reduced 81% through the included predictors. The results of this study suggest that irrespective of the prevalence, offspring of dams with MAP specific antibodies should be considered as high-risk animals when managing the infection in cattle herds, but both the prevalence and the dam's infection status are important in MAP control. PMID:26795463

  19. Association of BoLA-DRB3.2 Alleles with BLV Infection Profiles (Persistent Lymphocytosis/Lymphosarcoma) and Lymphocyte Subsets in Iranian Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Brujeni, Gholamreza; Ghorbanpour, Reyhaneh; Esmailnejad, Atefeh

    2016-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best-characterized genetic region associated with resistance and susceptibility to a wide range of diseases. In cattle, the most important example of the relationship between the MHC and infectious diseases has been established by the resistance to Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection. The association of the bovine MHC class II BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles with BLV infection profiles was examined. BoLA-DRB3.2 allelic diversity was determined in 190 Iranian Holstein cattle using direct sequencing method. Association of the DRB3.2 alleles with BLV infection profiles was found as the odds ratio. Effects of the alleles on lymphocyte subsets were also evaluated by multivariate regression analysis and GLM procedures. The studied cattle were categorized into three groups: BLV seronegative, BLV seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis (PL), and BLV seropositive with lymphosarcoma (LS). The PL profile was significantly associated with the BoLA-DRB3.2*0101, *1101 and *4201 alleles, although the *3202 allele mediating resistance to PL was observed. Significant association was found between the BoLA-DRB3.2*1802, *3202, and *0901 alleles and susceptibility to LS, while the *0101 and *1101 alleles were associated with resistance to LS. BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles also showed a significant correlation with CD4, CD8, CD21 cells and CD4/CD8 ratio. Allelic differences influence the immune response to BLV infection and developing the disease profile. These differences also have important consequences for tumor resistance. PMID:26782666

  20. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. PMID:26679804

  1. Differentiation dynamics of mammary epithelial stem cells from Korean holstein dairy cattle under ECM-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neelesh; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Luong, Do Huynh; Kim, Sung-Woo; Oh, Sung Jong; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-12-01

    The "stem cells" are commonly defined as "cells capable of self-renewal through replication and differentiating into specific lineages". The mammary gland contains functional stem/progenitor cells. The current study was planned with the objectives to study the differentiation dynamics of Korean Holstein mammary epithelial stem cells (KHMESCs) under the optimum culture conditions. Lineage negative KHMESCs isolated from mammary tissue of lactating cows have shown the typical differentiation dynamics with formation of lobulo-alveolar structures in in vitro culture. This suggests the existence of bipotential mammary epithelial stem cells in the mammary gland. The strong mRNA expression of pluripotency factors indicates stemness, whereas expression of milk protein genes and epithelial cell-specific gene indicate their differentiation capabilities. Further, immunostaining results have shown the differentiation capabilities of KHMESCs into both luminal and basal lineages under the extracellular matrix (ECM, matrigel) free environment. However, under matrigel, the differentiation process was comparatively higher than without matrigel. Immunostaining results also suggested that differentiated cells could secrete milk proteins such as β-casein. To our knowledge, these data represent the first report on the differentiation dynamics and establishment of mammary epithelial stem cells from Korean Holstein with typical stemness properties. It was observed that isolated KHMESCs had normal morphology, growth pattern, differentiation ability, cytogenetic and secretory activity even without ECM. Therefore, it is concluded that established KHMESCs could be used for further studies on Korean Holstein dairy cows related to lactation studies, as non-GMO animal bioreactors and stem cell-based management of bovine mastitis including post-mastitis damage. PMID:25759113

  2. Genetic effects on coat colour in cattle: dilution of eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments in an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Wiener, Pamela; Williams, John L

    2007-01-01

    Background In cattle, the gene coding for the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) is known to be the main regulator of the switch between the two coat colour pigments: eumelanin (black pigment) and phaeomelanin (red pigment). Some breeds, such as Charolais and Simmental, exhibit a lightening of the original pigment over the whole body. The dilution mutation in Charolais (Dc) is responsible for the white coat colour of this breed. Using an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population which includes animals with both pigment backgrounds, we present a linkage mapping study of the Charolais dilution locus. Results A Charolais × Holstein crossbred population was investigated for genetic effects on coat colour dilution. Three different traits representing the dilution of the phaeomelanin, eumelanin, and non-pigment-specific dilution were defined. Highly significant genome-wide associations were detected on chromosome 5 for the three traits analysed in the marker interval [ETH10-DIK5248]. The SILV gene was examined as the strongest positional and functional candidate gene. A previously reported non-synonymous mutation in exon 1 of this gene, SILV c.64A>G, was associated with the coat colour dilution phenotype in this resource population. Although some discrepancies were identified between this mutation and the dilution phenotype, no convincing recombination events were found between the SILV c.64A>G mutation and the Dc locus. Further analysis identified a region on chromosome 28 influencing the variation in pigment intensity for a given coat colour category. Conclusion The present study has identified a region on bovine chromosome 5 that harbours the major locus responsible for the dilution of the eumelanin and phaeomelanin seen in Charolais crossbred cattle. In this study, no convincing evidence was found to exclude SILV c.64A>G as the causative mutation for the Charolais dilution phenotype, although other genetic effects may influence the coat colour variation in the population studied. A region on chromosome 28 influences the intensity of pigment within coat colour categories, and therefore may include a modifier of the Dc locus. A candidate gene for this effect, LYST, was identified. PMID:17705851

  3. Genome-wide association mapping for identification of quantitative trait loci for rectal temperature during heat stress in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively affects the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One strategy to reduce the magnitude of heat stress is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of eit...

  4. Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for BSE-resistance polymorphisms from healthy U.S. holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. Two regulatory region polymorphisms in the bovine prion gene are associated with resistance to classical BSE disease: a 23 bp region in the promoter that contains a binding si...

  5. A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

  6. TNP1 Functional SNPs in bta-miR-532 and bta-miR-204 Target Sites Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Chunhong; Zhang, Wei; Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-06-01

    Transition nuclear proteins (TNPs), major proteins found in the chromatin of condensing spermatids, have been implicated in spermatogenesis and male fertility. In this study, DNA samples were collected from 404 Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced to identify genetic variants in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TNP1 and to investigate genetic variations in the TNP1 gene and their common haplotypes. This study was also conducted to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and expression levels by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, bioinformatics analyses, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and fluorescence assay. Results showed that one new single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g. 528 G>A, ss1388116558) and one reported SNP (g. 442 A>G, rs110469441) were found in the 3'-UTR of the TNP1 gene. Bioinformatics analysis results revealed that both loci were located in bta-miR-532-binding and bta-miR-204-binding regions, respectively. Association studies revealed that bulls with H1H1 (AGAG) and H1H3 (AGGG) haplotype combinations exhibited a lower deformity rate than those with other haplotype combinations (P < 0.05). The qPCR results showed that the relative mRNA expression of TNP1 in bulls with H1H1 haplotype combination was significantly higher than that in bulls with H4H4 haplotype combination (P < 0.05). MicroRNA qPCR results suggested that bta-miR-532 expression was downregulated by 5-fold in adult bull testicular tissues compared with that in fetal bull testicular tissues; by contrast, bta-miR-204 expression was downregulated by 1.6-fold. Luciferase assay results also indicated that TNP1 expression was directly targeted by bta-miR-532 and bta-miR-204 in murine Leydig tumor cell lines. These results provide the first indication of g. 442 A>G-mediated and g. 528 G>A-mediated translational suppression in which SNPs altered the binding of bta-miR-204 and bta-miR-532 to the 3'-UTR of TNP1; the mediated translational suppression could be involved in the regulation of TNP1 expression and may influence the morphological characteristics of Chinese Holstein bull sperm. We propose that SNPs on the TNP1 3'-UTR may help select semen quality trait in Chinese Holstein bulls in the dairy industry. PMID:25904013

  7. Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 2 (WNT2) gene is associated with resistance to MAP in faecal culture and antibody response in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Kpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Iannuzzi, L; Erhardt, G

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for the lethal Johne's disease in cattle. So far, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out to identify chromosomal regions highly associated with Johne's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability within a pool of seven genes (LAMB1, DLD, WNT2, PRDM1, SOCS5, PTGER4 and IL10) indicated by former GWAS/RNA-Seq studies as putatively associated with MAP infections and to achieve a confirmation study of association with paratuberculosis susceptibility in a population of 324 German Holstein cattle (162 cases MAP positive and 162 controls MAP negative) using ELISA and fecal cultural tests. SNP validation and genotyping information are provided, quick methods for allelic discrimination were set up and transcription factor binding analyses were performed. The rs43390642:G>TSNP in the WNT2 promoter region is associated with paratuberculosis susceptibility (P = 0.013), suggesting a protective role of the T allele (P = 0.043; odds ratio 0.50 [0.25-0.97]). The linkage disequilibrium with the DLD rs134692583:A>T might suggest a combined mechanism of action of these neighboring genes in resistance to MAP infection, which is also supported by a significant effect shown by the haplotype DLD(T) /WNT2(T) (P = 0.047). In silico analysis predicted rs43390642:G>T and rs134692583:A>T as essential parts of binding sites for the transcription factors GR, C/EBP? and GATA-1, hence suggesting a potential influence on WNT2 and DLD gene expression. This study confirmed the region on BTA 4 (UMD 3.1: 50639460-51397892) as involved in tolerance/resistance to Johne's disease. In addition, this study clarifies the involvement of the investigated genes in MAP infection and contributes to the understanding of genetic variability involved in Johne's disease susceptibility. PMID:25643727

  8. [Genetic diversity and origin of mitochondria DNA D-loop region of some Chinese indigenous cattle breeds].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Zheng, You-Min; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Han, Xu; Jia, Shan-Gang; Chen, Hong

    2009-02-01

    The complete D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA from 206 individuals in 16 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds was sequenced and analyzed to detect variability of D-loop region of mitochondria DNA for those breeds. The results showed as follows: 101 variations and 99 haplotypes were found, in which 73 haplotypes were of Bos taurus and the other 26 haplotypes were of Bos indicus, and the average number of nucleotide differences was 22.6920, haplotype diversity was 0.9320, and nucleotide diversity was 0.0227, indicating high genetic diversity in Chinese indigenous cattle breeds. According to the NJ phylogenetic tree, 16 cattle breeds were divided into two clades, Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Based on the Network graphics, the 73 haplotypes of Bos taurus were classified into 3 groups and the 26 haplotypes of Bos indicus were classified into 5 groups. It was inferred that cattle breeds of Bos indicus in China had experienced at least 4 population expansions during their movement. There was only 16% of H3 haplotype sequences similar to the sequence of Nellore, and 84% of those sequences had purine C variation in Chinese indigenous cattle breeds through the analysis on their common H3 haplotypes. It was concluded that those purine C decrease was possibly originated in Chinese Bos indicus. PMID:19273424

  9. Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2012-08-01

    The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration. PMID:21862090

  10. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabao, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

    2013-07-01

    A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This component of fertility adds another dimension to selection for fertility that can be used to change the negative genetic progress of reproductive performance presented in this population of Holstein cows. The use of a reaction norm model should allow producers to obtain more robust cows for maintenance of fertility levels along the whole productive life of the cows. PMID:23664344

  11. Genetic diversity of MYH3 gene associated with growth and carcass traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fubiao; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Hongliang; Yang, Jing; Liu, Yu; Chen, Ling

    2013-10-01

    MYH3, whose function is to convert chemical energy to mechanical energy through ATP hydrolysis, is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle at various stages and is indispensable in the procedure of development of skeletal muscle and heart. In the study, genetic variations and genotypes of MYH 3 gene in a total of 365 Qinchuan cattles were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, as well as verified the effect on growth and carcass traits. After PCR products were digested by restriction enzymes, eight SNPs were identified and individuals were genotyped. It showed that the SNPs at nucleotides were all in low linkage disequilibrium, therefore no dominated haplotype was found in the population. The result of statistic analysis indicated seven SNPs were significantly associated with growth and carcass traits (P < 0.05, N = 365) except locus G13791A. To sum up, the result of the study proved that polymorphisms in MYH3 gene are associated with the growth performance of Chinese Qinchuan cattle, so the variations of the gene could be used as possible molecular assisted-makers in the beef cattle breeding program and management. PMID:24065521

  12. ZBTB38 gene polymorphism associated with body measurement traits in native Chinese cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Xin, Yaping; Tian, Wanqiang; Li, Linqiang; Wang, Hongcheng

    2013-01-25

    Body measurement traits, influenced by genes and environmental factors, play numerous important roles in the value assessment of productivity and economy. In this study, we investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms of the zinc finger and BTB domain containing 38 gene (ZBTB38) and body measurement traits in native Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 423 individuals of 8 different cattle subpopulations, 9 novel polymorphisms were identified for genotyping within 647 bp region of exon 1 of ZBTB38. Linkage disequilibrium and association analysis revealed that two coding exon polymorphisms (2323 G>A and 2325 C>T polymorphisms), missense mutations valine GTC(T) to isoleucine ATC(T), were associated with body length (BL), withers height (WH) and rump length (RL). Furthermore, the analysis of 2323 G>A and 2325 C>T SNP markers shows that there are significant effects on the BL (P=0.0488), WH (P=0.0044) and RL (P=0.0314) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that the ZBTB38 gene is among the target genes for body measurement traits in bovine breeding, and provide data for establishment of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type. PMID:23137638

  13. Analysis of copy number variations in Mexican Holstein cattle using axiom genome-wide Bos 1 array

    PubMed Central

    Salomon-Torres, Ricardo; Villa-Angulo, Rafael; Villa-Angulo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recently, for copy number variation (CNV) analysis, bovine researchers have focused mainly on the use of genome-wide SNP genotyping arrays. One of the highest densities commercially available SNPchips for cattle is the Affymetrix axiom genome-wide Bos 1, which assays 648,315 informative SNPs across the whole bovine genome. Here, we describe the microarray data, quality controls and validation implemented in a study published in Genetics and Molecular Research Journal in 2015 [1]. The microarray raw data has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus under accession #GSE54813. PMID:26981375

  14. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  15. Efficacy of a single intramuscular injection of porcine FSH in hyaluronan prior to ovum pick-up in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Castro Netto, A; Guerreiro, B M; Silveira, C R A; Freitas, B G; Bragança, L G M; Marques, K N G; Sá Filho, M F; Bó, G A; Mapletoft, R J; Baruselli, P S

    2016-03-15

    Plasma FSH profiles, in vitro embryo production (IVP) after ovum pickup (OPU), and establishment of pregnancy with IVP embryos were compared in untreated Holstein oocyte donors and those superstimulated with multiple injections or a single intramuscular (IM) injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) in hyaluronan (HA). Plasma FSH profiles were determined in 23 heifers randomly allocated to one of four groups. Controls received no treatment, whereas the F200 group received 200 mg of pFSH in four doses, 12 hours apart. The F200HA and F300HA groups received 200- or 300-mg pFSH in 5 mL or 7.5 mL, respectively of a 0.5% HA solution by a single IM injection. Plasma FSH levels were determined before the first pFSH treatment and every 6 hours over 96 hours. All data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Circulating FSH area under curve (AUC) in pFSH-treated animals was greater than that in the control group (P = 0.02). Although the AUC did not differ among FSH-treated groups (P = 0.56), the total period with elevated plasma FSH was greater in the F200 group than in the HA groups (P < 0.0001). However, the F300HA group had a greater AUC than the F200HA group (P = 0.006), with a similar total period with elevated plasma FSH (P = 0.17). The IVP was performed in 90 nonlactating Holstein cows randomly allocated to one of the four treatment groups as in the first experiment. A greater proportion of medium-sized (6-10 mm) follicles was observed in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group (P < 0.0001). Also, numbers of follicles (P = 0.01), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (P = 0.01) and matured (P = 0.02), cleavage rates (P = 0.002), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) were greater in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group. Cows in the F200HA group had a greater recovery rate (P = 0.009), number of COCs cultured (P = 0.04), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) than cows in the F300HA group. Similar pregnancy rates were observed 50 to 60 days after transferring IVP embryos from donors in the different treatment groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, a single IM injection of pFSH combined in 0.5% HA resulted in similar plasma FSH profiles as twice-daily pFSH treatments. Treatment of nonlactating donors with pFSH, with or without HA, resulted in increased IVP over untreated controls. A single dose of 200 mg of pFSH in 0.5% HA resulted in greater IVP than 300-mg pFSH in HA. Finally, pregnancy rates with IVP embryos were similar, regardless donor treatment. PMID:26639640

  16. A whole genome association analysis identifies loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in US holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Settles, M; Zanella, R; McKay, S D; Schnabel, R D; Taylor, J F; Whitlock, R; Schukken, Y; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Neibergs, H

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont enrolled in longitudinal herd studies between January 1999 and November 2007 were assessed for the presence of Map in both faecal and tissue samples. An animal was considered tissue infected if any sample contained at least one colony forming unit of Map per gram of tissue (CFU/g) and the same definition was employed for faecal samples. Each animal was genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and after quality assurance filtering, 218 animals and 45 683 SNPs remained. We sought to identify loci associated with four different case/control classifications: presence of Map in the tissue, presence of Map in faeces, presence of Map in both tissue and faeces and presence of Map in tissue but not faeces. A case-control genome wide association study was conducted to test the four different classifications of Map infection status (cases) when compared with a Map-negative control group (control). Regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 16, 21 and 23 were identified with moderate significance (P < 5 x 10(-5)). Two regions, one on chromosome 3 (near EDN2) and another on chromosome 9 (no positional gene candidates), were identified with a high level of association to the presence of Map in tissue and both tissue and faeces respectively (P < 5 x 10(-7), genome-wide Bonferonni P < 0.05). PMID:19422364

  17. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  18. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low-heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (≥ 1.7; n = 288) or low (≤ −2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was genotyped for 434 candidate SNPs using the Sequenom MassARRAY® system. Three types of SNPs were evaluated: SNPs previously reported to be associated with reproductive traits or physically close to genetic markers for reproduction, SNPs in genes that are well known to be involved in reproductive processes, and SNPs in genes that are differentially expressed between physiological conditions in a variety of tissues associated in reproductive function. Eleven reproduction and production traits were analyzed. Results A total of 40 SNPs were associated (P < 0.05) with DPR. Among these were genes involved in the endocrine system, cell signaling, immune function and inhibition of apoptosis. A total of 10 genes were regulated by estradiol. In addition, 22 SNPs were associated with heifer conception rate, 33 with cow conception rate, 36 with productive life, 34 with net merit, 23 with milk yield, 19 with fat yield, 13 with fat percent, 19 with protein yield, 22 with protein percent, and 13 with somatic cell score. The allele substitution effect for SNPs associated with heifer conception rate, cow conception rate, productive life and net merit were in the same direction as for DPR. Allele substitution effects for several SNPs associated with production traits were in the opposite direction as DPR. Nonetheless, there were 29 SNPs associated with DPR that were not negatively associated with production traits. Conclusion SNPs in a total of 40 genes associated with DPR were identified as well as SNPs for other traits. It might be feasible to include these SNPs into genomic tests of reproduction and other traits. The genes associated with DPR are likely to be important for understanding the physiology of reproduction. Given the large number of SNPs associated with DPR that were not negatively associated with production traits, it should be possible to select for DPR without compromising production. PMID:23759029

  19. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  20. Identification of Vaccine Candidate Peptides in the NcSRS2 Surface Protein of Neospora caninum by Using CD4+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Gamma Interferon-Secreting T Lymphocytes of Infected Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Staska, Lauren M.; Davies, Christopher J.; Brown, Wendy C.; McGuire, Travis C.; Suarez, Carlos E.; Park, Joo Youn; Mathison, Bruce A.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Baszler, Timothy V.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, our laboratory showed that Holstein cattle experimentally infected with Neospora caninum develop parasite-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that lyse infected, autologous target cells through a perforin-granzyme pathway. To identify specific parasite antigens inducing bovine CTL and helper T-lymphocyte responses for vaccine development against bovine neosporosis, the tachyzoite major surface proteins NcSAG1 and NcSRS2 were targeted. In whole tachyzoite antigen-expanded bovine T-lymphocyte lines, recombinant NcSRS2 induced potent memory CD4+- and CD8+-T-lymphocyte activation, as indicated by proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion, while recombinant NcSAG1 induced a minimal memory response. Subsequently, T-lymphocyte epitope-bearing peptides of NcSRS2 were mapped by using overlapping peptides covering the entire NcSRS2 sequence. Four experimentally infected cattle with six different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II haplotypes were the source of immune cells used to identify NcSRS2 peptides presented by Holstein MHC haplotypes. NcSRS2 peptides were mapped by using IFN-γ secretion by rNcSRS2-stimulated, short-term T-lymphocyte cell lines, IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay of rNcSRS2-stimulated effector cells. Four N. caninum-infected Holstein cattle developed NcSRS2 peptide-specific T lymphocytes detected ex vivo in peripheral blood by IFN-γ ELISPOT and in vitro by measuring T-lymphocyte IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity. An immunodominant region of NcSRS2 spanning amino acids 133 to 155 was recognized by CD4+ T lymphocytes from the four cattle. These findings support investigation of subunit N. caninum vaccines incorporating NcSRS2 gene sequences or peptides for induction of NcSRS2 peptide-specific CTL and IFN-γ-secreting T lymphocytes in cattle with varied MHC genotypes. PMID:15731029

  1. [Study on mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity of some cattle breeds in China].

    PubMed

    Lei, Chu-Zhao; Chen, Hong; Yang, Gong-She; Song, Lin-Sheng; Lei, Xue-Qin; Sun, Wei-Bin; Li, Rui-Biao; Liu, Xiao-Lin

    2004-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial D-loop sequences, 910 bp in length, in 22 individuals from 8 cattle breeds in China were analyzed. The results showed that A% + T% was about 61.65%. Comparisons of these 22 sequences revealed 66 polymorphic sites, and 5 types of mutation, transition, transversion, insertion, deletion and coexistence site of transition and transversion were observed,with the percentage of 81.82%, 6.06%, 7.57%, 3.03%, 1.52%, respectively. In reference to complete mtDNA D-loop of the European cattle as a control, eight Chinese cattle breeds were classified into 3 groups according to the average percentage of D-loop nucleotide variations. The lowest average percentage of mtDNA D-loop nucleotide variation was in Xizhen cattle, Mongolian cattle, Holstein, Qinchuan cattle with 0.37%, 0.44%, 0.52%, 0.66%, the mediate in Nanyang cattle and Jiaxian cattle with 1.91%, 2.02% and the highest in Jinnan cattle and Yueyang cattle with 4.47%, 4.73%, respectively. The average sequence divergence estimated from D-loop region within breeds and among breeds in China varied from 0.55% - 5.39% and 1.21% - 6.59%, respectively. Comparisons of these 22 sequences revealed 19 mitochondrial haplotypes, the percentage of haplotype was 86.36%, showing that abundant mitochondrial genetic diversity exists in Chinese cattle. The molecular phylogenetic tree of mtDNA D-loop of 8 Chinese cattle breeds was constructed by Neighbor-Joining method. The NJ tree indicated that these mtDNA sequences fell into 3 distinct haplotype groups, it also suggested in molecular level that there were probably 3 maternal origins, of which the main origins of Chinese cattle were from Bos taurus and Bos indicus. PMID:15468920

  2. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of the FATP1 gene and their associations with meat quality traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z D; Li, A N; Wei, S J; Wang, M M; Li, S J; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), an integral membrane protein that facilitates long-chain fatty acid influx, is involved in the genetic network for oleic acid synthesis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of FATP1 polymorphisms with live animal meat quality traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that FATP1 has a broad tissue distribution in Qinchuan cattle and is highly expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle and back fat. Using direct DNA sequencing of the FATP1 gene in 458 Qinchuan cattle, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; g.28265 G>C, g.28381 G>A, g.28470 T>C, and g.28672 G>A) were identified for genotyping within a 671-bp region, including exon 3, intron 3, exon 4, intron 4, and part of exon 5 of the FATP1 gene. Positive effects of genotypes CC (g.28470 T>C locus) and AA (g.28672 G>A locus) on meat quality traits were obtained by association analysis. These results indicate the associations of g.28470 T>C and g.28672 G>A with meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle. Thus, the FATP1 gene may be used in marker-assisted selection of beef cattle in breeding programs. PMID:26782386

  4. The effect of beta and kappa casein genes on milk yield and milk composition in different percentages of Holstein in crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Molee, Amonrat; Boonek, Lerchat; Rungsakinnin, Noppanan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the genotype, and composite genotype frequency, and the association between beta and kappa casein genes and milk yield (MY), percentage of fat (%Fat), protein (%Prot), and solids non-fat (%SNF) between two groups of crossbred Holstein: G1 ? 87.5% Holstein = 89 cows and G2 > 87.5% Holstein = 142 cows. Five genotypes of beta casein gene were observed. A1A2 and A1B were the most and rarest frequency, respectively, in both groups. Five genotypes of kappa casein gene were found. The highest and the lowest frequency were AA, and BB and BE, respectively, in both groups. Composite genotype A1A2AA was the most frequent in both groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two genes was detected. Significant differences of frequencies between both groups of both genes were not found. The association of the genes and the traits was different between G1 and G2. Negative effects on the traits were found in both groups. In addition, the stronger effect of the beta casein gene was observed in most of the traits. The conclusions were that different %Holstein caused different significant effects of these genes. A study of the association of these genes within each percentage of Holstein is strongly recommended. PMID:21794007

  5. Haplotypes and effects on growth traits of bovine Wnt7a gene in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Sun, Yujia; Guo, Wenjiao; Yang, Ziqi; Tian, Huibin; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2013-07-25

    Wnt7a is a member of the WNT gene family, which encodes secreted signaling proteins and responds to many biological processes. Specifically Wnt7a influences satellite stem cells and regulates the regenerative potential of the muscle. However, similar researches about the bovine Wnt7a gene are lacking. Therefore, in this study, polymorphisms of the bovine Wnt7a gene were detected in 488 individuals from Chinese Qinchuan cattle by DNA pooling, forced PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing methods. 3 novel SNPs were identified, two SNPs (g.T4926C and g.A21943G) were in the intron and the last one (g.C63777T) was in the exon. Five haplotypes involved in these three variant sites in the Wnt7a gene were identified and their effects on growth traits were analyzed. The results revealed that haplotype 1 had the highest haplotype frequencies and was highly significantly associated with body height (P<0.01), body weight (P<0.05), chest width (P<0.05) and height at hip cross (P<0.01) respectively. PMID:23612250

  6. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-01-01

    The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH) is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp) fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the T- or C-containing loci (designated as pGL3-T and pGL3-C) were transiently transfected into MLTC-1 to test the effect of SNP on HIBADH expression. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the pGL3-T genotype exhibited 58% higher transcriptional activity than the pGL3-C genotype (P < 0.05). The bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the methylation pattern of the core promoter presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen in high-motility and low-motility bulls. The results demonstrated for the first time that the g.-165 T>C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity. PMID:26133183

  7. Impact of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus Origins on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. PMID:26260653

  8. Impact of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus Origins on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. PMID:26260653

  9. A whole genome association analysis identified loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in U.S. Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome SNP assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont were fo...

  10. Visualization of the transmission of direct genomic values for paternal and maternal chromosomes for 15 traits in U.S. Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable haplotypes are available for 171,420 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in April 2012. Differences in least-squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lif...

  11. Congenital mastocytomas in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B I; Phillips, L A

    2001-01-01

    Congenital defects occur infrequently in cattle. In this report, a stillborn Holstein calf was presented for unusual nodules in the skin. Necropsy and histopathologic findings aided in the diagnosis of systemic mastocytoma, or mast cell tumor. The diagnosis of congenital mastocytoma in this case is extremely rare and unique. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11519274

  12. Trends in International Flow of Holstein Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein genes spread from Europe to much of the world through live cattle more than 100 yr ago. By the advent of artificial insemination, selection emphasis in North America had led to a specialized dairy strain that was in demand internationally. From 1995, genetic evaluations through Interbull mo...

  13. Effect of suspension method and aging time on meat quality of Chinese fattened cattle M. Longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xu; Liang, Rongrong; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Wang, Renhuan; Liu, Chenglong; Liu, Yuqing; Luo, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of suspension method and aging time on quality traits of Chinese fattened cattle M. Longissimus dorsi (LD). At the end of the slaughter line, the right sides of carcasses were re-hung from the pelvic bone obturator foramen, while the left sides remained hung by Achilles tendon suspension (AS). LD muscles were aged for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days and were then evaluated for quality index. Pelvic suspension (PS) significantly decreased the WBSF of beef muscle at 1 d and 7 d postmortem compared with AS. The tenderness with PS at 7 d postmortem was similar with that of AS at 14 d. Moreover, PS increased sarcomere length and decreased purge loss of LD significantly. In addition, aging time had a significant effect on pH, meat color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and myofibril fragmentation index of LD muscle. To conclude, PS is valuable to be introduced to the beef industry in China for rapid (within 7 days) improvement of beef tenderness and decreased aging time of Chinese fattened cattle. PMID:24056407

  14. A novel SNP of the C/EBPα gene associated with superior meat quality in indigenous Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zan, L S; Wang, H B; Song, F B

    2011-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is an essential transcriptional factor regulating the differentiation of adipocytes. We report a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (C271A) of the C/EBPα gene in six indigenous Chinese cattle breeds using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. Allele frequencies were investigated and evaluated by the χ(2) test in 817 individuals; all populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Gene heterozygosity, effective allele numbers and polymorphism information content of the C/EBPα locus varied from 0.50 to 0.54, 1.84 to 1.99 and 0.35 to 0.37, respectively. We also evaluated a potential association of the C/EBPα SNP with ultrasound traits in 555 individuals; individuals of the AA genotype had greater ultrasound backfat thickness than did genotype CC (0.36 versus 0.34 cm, P < 0.01); genotypes AA and CA had higher ultrasound marbling scores than did genotype CC (3.53, 3.52 versus 3.37, P < 0.05). Analysis based on meat quality data in another 204 Qinchuan cattle showed that animals with genotype AA had bigger loin eye areas than did genotype CA (87.10 versus 79.08 cm(2), P < 0.05). These results indicate that the C271A SNP of the C/EBPα gene could be used as a molecular marker for selecting beef cattle with superior carcass traits. PMID:21968624

  15. LXRα gene expression, genetic variation and association analysis between novel SNPs and growth traits in Chinese native cattle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun; Chen, Ningbo; Li, Rongrong; Xu, Yongjie; Li, Fen; Li, Junya; Gao, Shuxin; Li, Xiaofeng; Shi, Kuilin

    2014-02-01

    Liver X receptor α (LXRα) has emerged as an important regulator of lipid and energy metabolism. In this study, to better understand the effects of LXRα gene on growth traits in cattle, the mRNA tissue expression patterns and the polymorphisms of some exons of LXRα were revealed. The expression profile of the bovine LXRα gene was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 11 different Jiaxian cattle tissues and was found mainly expressed in spleen, liver, fat tissue, kidney, muscle, and lung. Meanwhile, it showed that four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), named g.1028 T>C, g.1514 T>C, g.2929G>A, and g.3493 T>C, were detected and 12 different haplotypes were constructed. Haplotype with CCGT was dominant with frequency of 40.8 %. There was a strong link between g.1028 T>C and g.1514 T>C (r (2) = 0.374). Association analysis of SNPs with growth- and body-related traits was carried out in 445 Chinese native cattle. The results displayed that the heterozygous genotypes of g.1028 T>C and g.1514 T>C showed a molecular heterosis on four performance traits related to body size: height at withers, body length, hipbone width, and hip width (P < 0.05). The multiple effects of four sites showed that the height at withers, body length, hipbone width, and hip width of individuals of TC-TC-GG-TT combined genotypes were significantly higher than other genotypes (P < 0.05). The effects of the four loci genotype combination on conformation traits were consistent with the effects of g.1028 T>C and g.1514 T>C loci. The SNPs of g.1028 T>C and g.1514 T>C of the bovine LXRα gene could be potential genetic markers for growth traits in cattle. These results suggest that LXRα gene is expressed in many tissues and may provide primary molecular information for further studies on body size traits in Chinese indigenous cattle. PMID:24114201

  16. Molecular cloning of the HGD gene and association of SNPs with meat quality traits in Chinese red cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoli; Dudgeon, Crissy; Li, Mei; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Lichun; Jin, Haiguo

    2010-01-01

    Homogentisate 1, 2 dioxygenase (HGD) is one of six enzymes required for the catabolism of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. Here we present the nucleotide sequence of transcripts of the bovine HGD gene. The full length cDNA of bovine HGD has been identified, encoding a deduced protein of 445 amino acids (Accession No. FJ515744). The bovine HGD gene comprises 14 exons and 13 introns. This is the first published cDNA bovine sequences that share high sequence similarity with other species. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the bovine HGD transcript was mainly expressed in liver and kidney tissues. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, five in the coding region and four intronic. Four of the SNPs change an amino acid in the HGD protein sequence. Genotype and allelic frequencies were determined in Chinese red cattle breeds. Ten haplotypes were determined based upon the genotype of 9 SNPs. Moreover, for the first time an association was reported between HGD gene polymorphism and meat quality traits in Chinese red cattle (n = 224). Marker-trait association analyses showed that the HGD/PvuII genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, muscle fiber diameter, and shear force (P < 0.05). The HGD DraIII genotypes showed a significant effect on muscle fiber diameter, shear force, and drip loss (P < 0.05). The HGD/AluI genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, shear force, and drip loss (P < 0.05). The HGD/DraI genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate and shear force (P < 0.05). The HGD/EcoRV genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, muscle fiber diameter, and shear force (P < 0.05). In all loci, no statistically significant differences were observed for pHu (P > 0.05). This is the first incidence where polymorphisms of a bovine HGD gene have demonstrated a correlation with meat traits in Chinese red cattle. PMID:19816789

  17. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 g/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ?6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  18. Effects of misty-fan cooling and supplemental rbST on rumen function and milk production of crossbred Holstein cattle during early, mid and late lactation in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Wilaiporn; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2010-04-01

    Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505

  19. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. PMID:20670403

  20. Genomic signatures of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection in Holstein cattle has achieved tremendous phenotypic changes over the past 40 years. However, it is unknown how selection has changed the Holstein genome and how those genome signatures of selection are associated with the phenotypic changes. To categorize genome regions either affected o...

  1. Pre-rigor temperature control of Chinese yellow cattle carcasses to 12-18 C during chilling improves beef tenderness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Liang, Rongrong; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Meng, Xianyong; Luo, Xin

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluates the effects of pre-rigor temperature control on quality traits of Chinese yellow cattle M. longissimus lumborum (LL). One stepwise chilling (SC) treatment was used on one half-carcass, involved a fast chilling (-11 1 C;0.5 m/s) for 2h, then the refrigeration was stopped to hold a core temperature of 12-18 C until 10h postmortem, followed by a 1 1 C chilling (0.5 m/s) to 48h postmortem. The other half-carcass was conventional chilled at 1 1 C (0.5 m/s) until 48h as control chilling (CC). Quality attributes were evaluated at 1, 7 and 14 days. The SC treatment resulted in decreased WBSF and increased myofibril fragmentation index compared with control. SC-treated LL at 7d postmortem had a lower WBSF than those of CC-treated at 14d. This pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a realistic alternative for the beef industry in China to ensure adequate tenderness and shorten aging time. PMID:25460117

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

  3. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    PubMed

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. PMID:26334371

  4. Copy number variations at LEPR gene locus associated with gene expression and phenotypic traits in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tao; Xu, Yao; Yang, Mingjuan; Huang, Yongzhen; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Qi, Xinglei; Yang, Xiaoming; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Current evidences show that copy number variations (CNVs) are linked to complex phenotypic traits. Leptin receptor (LEPR) gene plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and fat development and re-sequencing of the cattle genome revealed the CNV region (herein referred to as "I3 DNA") within the LEPR intron 3. In the present study, we qualified copy numbers of I3 DNA within LEPR gene in four cattle breeds (Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jinnan and Xianan) by quantitative PCR, and explored their impacts on LEPR gene expression and phenotypic traits in Qinchuan and Nanyang cattle. The results showed that more individuals in Nanyang are with loss of the I3 DNA copy number than that in the others. Additionally, I3 DNA CNVs exhibited a significant negative correlation with LEPR gene expression (P < 0.05). Association analysis showed that gain/normal copy number types performed better traits of body weight, body height and body length than the loss type in Nanyang. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of the association between LEPR CNVs and cattle traits, and this may help deep understanding of the function of CNVs which may be promising markers for beef cattle breeding and genetics. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26568073

  5. Parallel distribution of sexes within left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows: evidence that the effect of side of pregnancy on sex ratio could be breed-specific in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R

    2013-11-30

    Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (P<0.05). Incidence of right pregnancy (60.5%) was higher than hypothetical 50% incidence of right pregnancy. In conclusion, the present study revealed similar secondary sex ratio of calves between left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows. PMID:24168827

  6. Effect of suspension method on meat quality and ultra-structure of Chinese Yellow Cattle under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Liang, Rongrong; Zhang, Yimin; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Han, Guangxing; Luo, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of suspension method under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling on quality traits and ultra-structure of Chinese Yellow Cattle M. Longissimus lumborum (LL). After slaughter, the right sides of carcasses were hung by the Achilles tendon (SA), while the left sides were hung from the pelvic bone (SP). Both sides went through the 12-18°C pre-rigor muscle temperature controlled chilling. LL muscles were aged for 1, 7 or 14days and then evaluated for quality traits and ultra-structure. SP had no significant effect on myofibril fragmentation index, but significantly decreased the purge loss during aging and the Warner-Bratzler shear force values after aging for 1day. Electron microscopy and sarcomere length examination of LL showed that SP resulted in extended I-bands and sarcomere length. To conclude, applying SP under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a potential method for the Chinese beef industry to improve tenderness especially after 1day of aging. PMID:26826666

  7. NCAPG is differentially expressed during longissimus muscle development and is associated with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Chen, Si; He, Hua; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-12-01

    Based on RNA-seq analysis, we recently found that the bovine NCAPG (non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G) gene is differentially expressed during development of the longissimus muscle. In the present study, we validated this result and, using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, identified two adjacent genes, LCORL and DCAF16, that are more abundant in fetal muscle tissue; further analysis of tissue-specific expression patterns indicated high abundance of NCAPG in muscle. Since no polymorphisms were detected in a previous study of Qinchuan cattle, we extended our investigation to examine the occurrence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NCAPG gene. Three SNPs, i.e., one located in the intron region (g47747: T > G), a synonymous mutation (g52535: A > G) and a missense mutation (g53208: T > G) that leads to a change in the amino acid of interest (pIle442Met), were detected in a population of Qinchuan beef cattle (n = 300). Association analysis showed that these SNPs were significantly associated with the growth traits of Qinchuan beef cattle. Our results indicate that the bovine NCAPG gene may be involved in the development of the longissimus muscle. These polymorphisms in the NCAPG gene may be useful for marker-assisted selection of optimal body size in Qinchuan beef cattle. PMID:26692155

  8. NCAPG is differentially expressed during longissimus muscle development and is associated with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Chen, Si; He, Hua; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Based on RNA-seq analysis, we recently found that the bovine NCAPG (non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G) gene is differentially expressed during development of the longissimus muscle. In the present study, we validated this result and, using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, identified two adjacent genes, LCORL and DCAF16, that are more abundant in fetal muscle tissue; further analysis of tissue-specific expression patterns indicated high abundance of NCAPG in muscle. Since no polymorphisms were detected in a previous study of Qinchuan cattle, we extended our investigation to examine the occurrence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NCAPG gene. Three SNPs, i.e., one located in the intron region (g47747: T > G), a synonymous mutation (g52535: A > G) and a missense mutation (g53208: T > G) that leads to a change in the amino acid of interest (pIle442Met), were detected in a population of Qinchuan beef cattle (n = 300). Association analysis showed that these SNPs were significantly associated with the growth traits of Qinchuan beef cattle. Our results indicate that the bovine NCAPG gene may be involved in the development of the longissimus muscle. These polymorphisms in the NCAPG gene may be useful for marker-assisted selection of optimal body size in Qinchuan beef cattle. PMID:26692155

  9. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  10. Genome-wide detection of copy number variations using high-density SNP genotyping platforms in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in the human or animal genome and are a significant source of genetic variation, which has been demonstrated to play an important role in phenotypic diversity. Advances in technology have allowed for identification of a large number of CNVs in cattle. Comprehensive explore novel CNVs in the bovine genome would provide valuable information for functional analyses of genome structural variation and facilitating follow-up association studies between complex traits and genetic variants. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide CNV detection based on high-density SNP genotyping data of 96 Chinese Holstein cattle. A total of 367 CNV regions (CNVRs) across the genome were identified, which cover 42.74Mb of the cattle genome and correspond to 1.61% of the genome sequence. The length of the CNVRs on autosomes range from 10.76 to 2,806.42 Kb with an average of 96.23 Kb. 218 out of these CNVRs contain 610 annotated genes, which possess a wide spectrum of molecular functions. To confirm these findings, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed for 17 CNVRs and 13(76.5%) of them were successfully validated. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the high density SNP array can significantly improve the accuracy and sensitivity of CNV calling. Integration of different platforms can enhance the detection of genomic structure variants. Our results provide a significant replenishment for the high resolution map of copy number variation in the bovine genome and valuable information for investigation of genomic structural variation underlying traits of interest in cattle. PMID:23442346

  11. A global view of the transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue in Chinese Qinchuan cattle using RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue development, we constructed a transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue by RNA sequencing. Samples were collected from Chinese Qinchuan fetuses, as well as adult heifers, bulls, and steers. We unambiguously detected a substantial numb...

  12. The Slick Hair Coat Locus Maps to Bovine Chromosome 20 in Senepol Derived Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to maintain normal temperatures during heat stress is an important attribute for cattle in the subtropics and tropics. Previous studies have shown that Senepol cattle and their crosses with the Holstein, Charolais and Angus breeds are as heat tolerant as Brahman cattle. This has been att...

  13. Modeling Extended Lactations of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modeling extended lactations for the US Holsteins is useful as a majority (>55%) of the cows in the present population produce lactations longer than 305 d. In this study nine empirical and mechanistic models were compared on their suitability for modeling 305-d and 999-d lactations of US Holsteins...

  14. Retrofitting genetic-economic indexes to demonstrate responses to selection across 2 generations of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that would have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein bulls were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25 cow groups ...

  15. Response to alternative genetic-economic indices for Holsteins across 2 generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that could have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein AI bulls (106,471) were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25...

  16. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...

  17. Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 C to achieve core temperature of 0 C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. PMID:22857853

  18. Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits in Chinese beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-09-01

    The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P<0.01 for G275A and G277C, P<0.05 for G280A and C281G). Five haplotypes for the 4 SNPs were constructed and their effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle. PMID:26232928

  19. Characteristics of linkage disequilibrium in North American Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effectiveness of genomic selection and fine mapping is determined by the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. Knowledge of the range of genome-wide LD, defined as a non-random association of alleles at different loci, can provide an insight into the optimal density and location of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genome-wide association studies and can be a keystone for interpretation of results from QTL mapping. Results Linkage disequilibrium was measured by |D'| and r2 between 38,590 SNPs (spaced across 29 bovine autosomes and the X chromosome) using genotypes of 887 Holstein bulls. The average level of |D'| and r2 for markers 40-60 kb apart was 0.72 and 0.20, respectively in Holstein cattle. However, a high degree of heterogeneity of LD was observed across the genome. The sample size and minor allele frequency had an effect on |D'| estimates, however, r2 was not noticeably affected by these two factors. Syntenic LD was shown to be useful for verifying the physical location of SNPs. No differences in the extent of LD and decline of LD with distance were found between the intragenic and intergenic regions. Conclusions A minimal sample size of 444 and 55 animals is required for an accurate estimation of LD by |D'| and r2, respectively. The use of only maternally inherited haplotypes is recommended for analyses of LD in populations consisting of large paternal half-sib families. Large heterogeneity in the pattern and the extent of LD in Holstein cattle was observed on both autosomes and the X chromosome. The extent of LD was higher on the X chromosome compared to the autosomes. PMID:20609259

  20. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  1. MODELING EXTENDED LACTATIONS IN HOLSTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop an equation for predicting average yield of cows still in milk from 1 to 999 days. Test day yields (kg/d) of 903,529 lactations of 305,202 Holstein cows calved between 1997 and 2003 were used. Average daily yield (Y) for each 30-d interval of lactation wa...

  2. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...

  3. Genomic signatures reveal geographic adaption and human selection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated geographic adaptation and human selection using high-density SNP data of five diverse cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-k...

  4. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHEDDING OF E. COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors affecting fecal shedding of the foodborne pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle were evaluated. Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cattle to determine influence of time of day (morning vs late a...

  6. GENOME SIGNATURES OF ARTIFICIAL SELECTION IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection has been practiced for generations to enhance animal or plant species for specific desirable traits. However, very little is known at the molecular level about how intensive or prolonged selection affects genome sub-structure. Such investigations are typically limited by the a...

  7. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

  8. Genetic components of grey cattle in Estonia as revealed by microsatellite analysis using two Bayesian clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It was recently postulated that a few individual grey cattle still found in Estonia might be a relict of the old native cattle stock. Genotypes at 17 microsatellite loci from a total of 243 cattle from North European breeds and 11 grey cattle in Estonia were used in an attempt to clarify the genetic composition of the grey cattle. Findings We characterize the genetic components of 11 examples of the grey cattle in Estonia at the population and individual levels. Our results show that the grey cattle in Estonia are most genetically similar to the Holstein-Friesian breed and secondarily to the Estonian Red cattle. Conclusions Both Bayesian approaches gave similar results in terms of the identification of numbers of clusters and the estimation of proportions of genetic components. This study suggested that the Estonian grey cattle included in the analysis are a genetic composite resulting from cross-breeding of European dairy breeds. PMID:21314923

  9. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.

    PubMed

    Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F

    2010-03-01

    Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 0 and 20 d on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that traditionally packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins treated with ZH for 0 d had a darker lean color (P < 0.05) than steaks from ZH-treated cattle on d 1 of display, whereas the lean color scores for ZH treatments of all durations were similar on d 4 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that ZH treatment had no effect on the discoloration of traditionally packaged, nonenhanced strip steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. Therefore, feeding ZH to beef or calf-fed Holstein steers had no detrimental effect on the lean color or color stability of strip loin steaks subjected to enhancement, packaged in modified-atmosphere or traditional packaging, and displayed under simulated retail conditions. PMID:19966164

  10. A limited number of Y chromosome lineages is present in North American Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Dechow, Chad; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    Holsteins are the most numerous dairy cattle breed in North America and the breed has undergone intensive selection for improving milk production and conformation. Theoretically, this intensive selection could lead to a reduction of the effective population size and reduced genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effective population size of the Holstein Y chromosome and the effects of limited Y chromosome lineages on male reproduction and the future of the breed. Paternal pedigree information of 62,897 Holstein bulls born between 1950 and 2013 in North America and 220,872 bulls evaluated by multiple-trait across-country genetic evaluations of Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the number of Y chromosome lineages in Holsteins has undergone a dramatic decrease during the past 50 years because of artificial selection and the application of artificial insemination (AI) technology. All current Holstein AI bulls in North America are the descendants of only 2 ancestors (Hulleman and Neptune H) born in 1880. These 2 ancestral Y-lineages are continued through 3 dominant pedigrees from the 1960s; namely, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, and Penstate Ivanhoe Star, with a contribution of 48.78, 51.06, and 0.16% to the Holstein bull population in the 2010s, respectively. The Y-lineage of Penstate Ivanhoe Star is almost eliminated from the breed. The genetic variations in the 2 ancestral Y-lineages were evaluated among 257 bulls by determining the copy number variations (CNV) of 3 Y-linked gene families: PRAMEY, HSFY, and ZNF280BY, which are spread along the majority (95%) of the bovine Y chromosome male-specific region (MSY). No significant difference was found between the 2 ancestral Y-lineages, although large CNV were observed within each lineage. This study suggests minimal genetic diversity on the Y chromosome in Holsteins and provides a starting point for investigating the effect of the extremely limited number of Y-lineages on male reproduction and other traits important for the future of the Holstein breed. PMID:25660742

  11. Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector c (CIDEC/Fsp27) gene: molecular cloning, sequence characterization, tissue distribution and polymorphisms in Chinese cattles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Cao, Xiukai; Pan, Hong; Hua, Liushuai; Yang, Mingjuan; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector c (CIDEC) protein, also known as fat specific protein 27 (Fsp27), is localized to lipid droplets. CIDEC protein is required for unilocular lipid droplet formation and optimal energy storage in addition to controlling lipid metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Research found that Ad-36 could induce lipid droplets in the cultured skeletal muscle cells and this process may be mediated by promoting CIDEC expression. The content of intermuscular fat is an important index for evaluation of beef quality, so the CIDEC gene appeared to be a candidate gene for regulation of intermuscular fat, however similar research for the bovine CIDEC gene is lacking. This paper examined the tissue expression profile of CIDEC gene in cattle using real-time RT-PCR to suggest that bovine CIDEC is highly expressed in adipose tissue. In addition, the Bovine CIDEC gene was cloned and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+), whereupon recombinant bovine CIDEC protein was induced and identified by Western-blot. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the animo acid sequence of bovine CIDEC was closer to mammalian CIDEC than rasorial CIDEC. We found ten single nucleotide polymorphisms sites (SNPs) in bovine CIDEC gene, of which SNP 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9, and SNP 8 and 10 were in complete linkage disequilibrium, respectively. SNP 1, 2 and 10 were used in further haplotype studies. Eight different haplotypes were identified in 973 cattle, of which haplotype 8 predominated with frequencies ranging from 42.90 to 54.30 %. This research provides a basis for future functional studies of CIDEC in cattle. PMID:24065549

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Edward J; Nissing, Nick J; Grosz, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Findings Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR) where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP) of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. Conclusion These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins. PMID:19063733

  13. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. PMID:26779989

  14. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  15. Genetic description of factor XI deficiency in holstein semen in Western Japan.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, M E; Nishibori, M

    2009-10-01

    Factor XI deficiency was detected in Holstein cows and mummified foetuses in Japan; however, no report is available about the occurrence of Factor XI deficiency in Holstein semen in Japan. Five hundred cows in twelve dairy farms in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan were under the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cows using a commercial DNA kits and screened to Factor XI mutation. Based on the information of the carrier cows found in the cattle population, four Holstein bulls were analysed for Factor XI mutation. DNA was extracted from bull's semen using phenol chloroform method. Extracted genomic DNA of the bull's semen was typed for Factor XI using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. The resultant PCR was sequenced using big dye terminator sequencing method. The pedigree of the bulls was investigated. Furthermore, the inheritance of Factor XI mutation to next generation was estimated. Out of the 500 cows, five were heterozygous to Factor XI. Moreover, out of the four bulls, one was found to carry the mutation of Factor XI; it was also a complex vertebral malformation (CVM) carrier. In DNA sequencing, the insertion mutation of 76 bp of poly-adenine that characterizes the Factor XI deficiency was detected in the carrier bull as well as the carrier cows. Pedigree analysis of the carrier bull revealed that his father and mother ID were 2247419A and 14189172A, respectively, that originated from USA Holstein. Out of six daughter cows born to the carrier bull, one cow (16.6%) inherited Factor XI mutation, while three of them (50.0%) inherited CVM mutation. Autosomal recessive genes that affect cow's reproduction have a particular concern to dairy industry. To our knowledge this is the first report of Factor XI mutation in Holstein semen in Japan. PMID:18992095

  16. A SNP in the 3'-UTR of HSF1 in dairy cattle affects binding of target bta-miR-484.

    PubMed

    Li, Q L; Zhang, Z F; Xia, P; Wang, Y J; Wu, Z Y; Jia, Y H; Chang, S M; Chu, M X

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock transcription factor 1 gene (HSF1) plays a key role in the heat stress response. We previously found a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3'-untranslated region (g.4693G>T) of HSF1 that was related to thermo tolerance in Chinese Holstein cattle through association analysis. However, it is not known whether other SNPs also affect thermo tolerance.In this study a novel SNP, g.1451G>T, was identified by DNA sequencing and genotyped using creating restriction site-polymerase chain reaction methodology. The g.1451G>T polymorphic site met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Association analysis demonstrated that this SNP had no effect on thermo tolerance traits in Holstein cattle. Findings of the study compared to the analysis of g.4693 G>T further indicated that g.4693 G>T may play an important role in thermo tolerance, although the mechanism is not clear. RNA hybrid and Targetscan prediction showed that the minimum free energy hybridization of bta-miR-484 with HSF1 3'-UTR was -31.9 kcal/mol and g.4693 G>T was in the seed sequence of bovine HSF1 that binds to bta-miR-484. Analysis by Luciferase assay indicated that HSF1 expression was directly targeted by bta-miR-484 in HEK 293T cells, and the Rluc/luc ratio of wildtype (GG) was lower than that of the mutant (TT) (P < 0.05). These results suggest that g.4693 G>T affects binding of HSF1 to bta-miR-484. PMID:26505425

  17. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the US have been available for Brown Swiss, Holstein and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database, including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations, permitting the investigation and impleme...

  18. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  19. Cattle Differ in Ability to Adapt to Small Intestinal Digestion of Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-ruminal starch digestion on inflammatory response in dairy cattle. Six cull, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cannulated Holstein dairy cows (BW 804±101 kg) were fed a high forage diet ad libitum starting 15 d before the infusion p...

  20. Genomic evaluation and identification of haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluation of dairy cattle in the US has been available for Holstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations allowing for the evaluation of this breed. Gains ...

  1. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  2. Genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stillbirth (SB) has been associated with reduced milk yield, compromised reproductive performance, and decreased dam longevity. Genetic evaluations for stillbirth were initiated in 2006 for Holsteins (HO) in the US, but evaluations for Brown Swiss (BS) and Jersey (JE) cattle were not feasible at tha...

  3. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Rothschild, Max F.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%). Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in 11 genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for specialized adaptation when combined with methods for searching for the recent changes of haplotype frequency in an admixed population. PMID:25566325

  4. [LEP gene allelic polymorphism in a subpopulation of Ayrshire cattle].

    PubMed

    Kovaljuk, N V; Satsuk, V F; Volchenko, A E; Machulskaja, E V

    2015-02-01

    Genotyping of the leptin gene locus (LEP) (SNP: R25C, Y7F, and A80V) has been conducted in cows from two cattle droves (n = 106 and n = 34) and in bulls of Ayrshire cattle (n = 9) that are intensively used at present for artificial insemination in cows in Krasnodar krai. The absence of A80V polymorphism (C --> T at position 95691973 bp of leptin gene) has been established in the genotypes of Ayrshire cattle as compared to Holstein cattle; however, the F allele (Y7F site A --> T at position 95689996 bp of LEP gene), which is rare in Holstein cattle, was shown to be frequent in Ayrshire cows and producer bulls (with a frequency of 0.22-0.79). The heterozygosity did not exceed 0.11 in adult animals, which might be evidence of a decreased vitality in animals bearing the FF genotype. Moreover, the CC genotype (R25C site T-C at position 95690050 bp of LEP gene) was revealed to be linked to the YY genotype (Y7F site) in 97% of cases from possible combinations of the CCYY, CCYF, and CCFF genotypes, while the FF genotype (Y7F site) was observed to be linked to the RR genotype (R25C site) in 100% of cases of possible combinations of FFCC, FFRC, and FFRR genotypes. PMID:25966594

  5. Differences in the rumen methanogen populations of lactating Jersey and Holstein dairy cows under the same diet regimen.

    PubMed

    King, Erin E; Smith, Rachel P; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, Andr-Denis G

    2011-08-15

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  6. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    PubMed Central

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  7. Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-06-01

    In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p < 0.05). The AFP was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.05). Similarly, the AMH concentration was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.0001). When heifers were classified as to present high or low AFP according to the mean of the AFP within each genetic group, high-AFP heifers presented a greater (p < 0.0001) AMH concentration than low-AFP heifers, regardless of the genetic group. In conclusion, the AFP is positively correlated with plasma AMH concentration in both Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. PMID:24689827

  8. Association of TLR4 polymorphisms with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection status in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B S; Abo-Ismail, M K; Schenkel, F S; You, Q; Verschoor, C P; Pant, S D; Karrow, N A

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic enteritis in cattle that results in substantial financial losses to the cattle industry worldwide. Given that susceptibility to MAP infection is determined in part by genetics, marker-assisted selection may help in the breeding of animals that are more resistant to MAP infection. The toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) was selected as a potential candidate gene because of its role in innate immunity and its involvement in MAP recognition and infection. The objective of this study, therefore, was to identify associations between TLR4 polymorphisms and susceptibility to MAP infection in Canadian Holstein cows. Two biologically relevant SNPs, including c.-226G>C in the 5'-untranslated region and the non-synonymous SNP c.2021C>T in the potential TIR domain, were selected for an association analysis with MAP infection status in 409 Canadian Holsteins. The haplotype C-T from these combined SNPs yielded significant association with susceptibility to MAP infection, supporting the involvement of TLR4 in susceptibility to MAP infection. PMID:26360329

  9. Deleted copy number variation of Hanwoo and Holstein using next generation sequencing at the population level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variation (CNV), a source of genetic diversity in mammals, has been shown to underlie biological functions related to production traits. Notwithstanding, there have been few studies conducted on CNVs using next generation sequencing at the population level. Results Illumina NGS data was obtained for ten Holsteins, a dairy cattle, and 22 Hanwoo, a beef cattle. The sequence data for each of the 32 animals varied from 13.58-fold to almost 20-fold coverage. We detected a total of 6,811 deleted CNVs across the analyzed individuals (average length = 2732.2 bp) corresponding to 0.74% of the cattle genome (18.6 Mbp of variable sequence). By examining the overlap between CNV deletion regions and genes, we selected 30 genes with the highest deletion scores. These genes were found to be related to the nervous system, more specifically with nervous transmission, neuron motion, and neurogenesis. We regarded these genes as having been effected by the domestication process. Further analysis of the CNV genotyping information revealed 94 putative selected CNVs and 954 breed-specific CNVs. Conclusions This study provides useful information for assessing the impact of CNVs on cattle traits using NGS at the population level. PMID:24673797

  10. A complex intersex condition in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Payan-Carreira, R; Pires, M A; Quaresma, M; Chaves, R; Adega, F; Guedes Pinto, H; Colao, B; Villar, V

    2008-01-15

    A case of disrupted embryonic development of the genital tract in a newborn Holstein calf is described. The physical examination of the calf evidenced several abnormalities, like atresia ani, rudimentary external genitalia and caudal vertebral agenesis. On necropsy, the excised genitalia consisted of bilateral streak gonads, apparently normal uterine tubes, a fluid-filled uterus, a long vagina and a very narrow clitoris-like structure covered with a discrete skin-fold. The urinary tract seemed normal and the urethra's opening was at the vestibule-vaginal junction. A cytogenetic analysis was requested. Karyotype revealed the existence of Y chromosome material in the two X chromosomes. However, the search for the sex-determining region Y (SRY) showed that this was an apparently absent gene. The histological examination of the gonads revealed the existence of ovarian dysplasia. Uterine sections evidenced the absence of the uterine epithelium, with only sporadic caruncles. Under microscopic examination, the uterine tubes and vagina structure was normal. The external genitalia sections revealed the existence of a skin-fold covering an erectile structure surrounding the urethra, a structure more similar to a penis than to a clitoris. This is an unusual situation of gonadal dysplasia combined with genital tract anomalies in cattle, probably associated to a genetic defect. PMID:17517482

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  12. Multiple tarsal luxations in 2 Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Constant, Caroline; Nichols, Sylvain; Marchionatti, Emma; Lard, Hlne; Olive, Julien; Fecteau, Gilles

    2015-11-01

    Two Holstein heifers were referred for non-weight bearing lameness. The physical examination and radiographic findings were diagnostic of tarsal luxation. Treatment and outcome are reported. A closed reduction was successfully performed in 1 heifer. The second animal was euthanized after attempts to reduce and stabilize the joint. PMID:26538677

  13. Short communication: A missense mutation in the PROP1 (prophet of Pit 1) gene affects male fertility and milk production traits in the US Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Lan, X Y; Peagaricano, F; DeJung, L; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies, we reported significant associations of the POU1F1 pathway genes with reproduction and production traits in several dairy cattle populations. Polymorphisms in genes of this pathway were found to be associated with both female and male fertility traits in dairy cattle. The POU1F1 gene is a direct downstream target for the regulation of the prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) gene, also known as PROP paired-like homeobox 1. Interestingly, the position of PROP1 coincides with a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether PROP1 affects fertility and milk production traits in Holstein cattle. Using the DNA pooling sequencing approach, a missense single nucleotide polymorphism that replaces a histidine amino acid with an arginine was detected in exon 3 of PROP1. The arginine allele was found to be associated with a decrease in sire conception rate and an increase in productive life, protein yield, and net merit index in a population of 1,951 Holstein bulls. The transcription factors produced from the histidine and arginine isoforms are known to have different transcription, DNA binding, and regulation activities. As such, we propose that the association of the arginine isoform with decreased bull fertility is likely caused by reduced activity of this allele in male functions. The findings of this study suggest PROP1 polymorphisms as candidates in selection programs for fertility, health, and milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:23245960

  14. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila Mnchen; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando ( and Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  15. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  16. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; Dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used. PMID:26062817

  17. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

  18. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Segelke, D; Tubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and found a decrease of the genetic trend for the birth years 1990 to 2006. Since 2010 the genetic index has increased due to a strong increase in the polled frequency. However, further investigation is needed to better understand the biology to determine the correct time of embryo loss and the economic value of fertility disorders. PMID:26601581

  19. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jrgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Sren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due to a longer production life. However, a reduced milk yield was detected in the end of the production life in Danish Red. The study supports that BRL is inherited autosomal recessively in the Danish Red breed and Danish Holsteins, but with incomplete penetrance of the genotype in Danish Holsteins. PMID:19216753

  20. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and other dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000?mol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  1. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  2. Genome-Wide Estimates of Coancestry, Inbreeding and Effective Population Size in the Spanish Holstein Population

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia Teresa; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Delfino; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry) or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding). The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes. PMID:25880228

  3. Genome-wide estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size in the Spanish Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia Teresa; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Delfino; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry) or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding). The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes. PMID:25880228

  4. Multivariate analysis to evaluate genetic groups and production traits of crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Angelina Bossi; de Lima Silva, Fabiane; Hongyu, Kuang; Da Silva Santos, Darlim; Murphy, Thomas Wayne; Lopes, Fernando Brito

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to try to unveil the relationship between production traits and genotypic proportions of crossbred dairy cattle using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The herd consists of crossbred animals of Holstein (H) and Zebu (Z) (Gir and Guzerat) in different genotypic proportions; the composition of which varies from 12.5 to 100.0 % of the genetic group H. For this study, 834 milk production records from 257 cows from the years 1997 to 2014 were analyzed. The animals were all managed at a farm located in northeastern Brazil. The variables in the PCA were total milk yield per lactation (MY), milk yield adjusted to 305 days (MY305), lactation length (LL), and proportion of H and Z breeding. This analysis reduced the size of the sample space from the original five variables to two principal components (PCs) that together explained 89.4 % of the total variation. MY, MY305, LL, and genotypic proportion of H all contributed positively to PC1. The genotypic proportion of Z contributed negatively, which established a contrast between H and Z. Further cluster analysis identified two distinct groups when considering production performance and genotype of the animals. The high-performance group was predominantly Holstein breeding, while the lower performing group consisted mostly of Zebu. Under the environmental and management conditions in which this research was conducted, the best performances for the traits considered were achieved from cows whose genotypic proportion was between 38.0 and 94.0 % Holstein breeding. PMID:26719296

  5. The effect of manual forestripping on milking performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A M; Ruegg, P L

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forestripping as a premilking stimulation technique on milk yield, milking unit attachment time, and milk flow rates in Holstein dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) were divided into two groups (HPE, high producing, early lactation; LPL, low producing, late lactation) based on prestudy milk yield and stage of lactation. Within the production group, cows were randomly assigned into treatment (n = 6) and control groups (n = 6) in a switchback design. Cows were milked twice daily and treatments were switched after 20 milkings. Premilking udder preparation for the treatment group was as follows: forestripping, predipping with 0.5% iodine, and drying with paper towels followed by unit attachment. Udder preparation for the control group was identical except forestripping was not performed. Data were analyzed by using the PROC Means and PROC Mixed models described by SAS. During the study, cows in the HPE group produced significantly more milk and had longer milking unit attachment times compared with cows in the LPL group. The milk flow rate was 0.36 kg/min faster for the HPE cows compared with the LPL cows. There was no significant effect of order of treatment administration on any outcome variable. There were no significant differences in milk yield, milk unit attachment time, or milk flow for animals that were forestripped compared with animals that were not forestripped. In this study, the addition of forestripping to an otherwise acceptable premilking udder preparation routine did not increase milking performance of multiparous Holstein dairy cows. PMID:12018426

  6. Potential Consequences Of Selection On Gestation Length On Holstein Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper was to determine if genetic evaluations of Holstein gestation length (GL) were reliable and to assess potential consequences of selection for either shorter or longer GL by examining impact on performance in the subsequent lactation. Holstein bulls used to develop predict...

  7. Genomic imputation and evaluation using high density Holstein genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations for 161,341 Holsteins were computed using 311,725 of the 777,962 markers on the Illumina high-density (HD) chip. Initial edits with 1,741 HD genotypes from 5 breeds revealed that 636,967 markers were usable but that half were redundant. Usable Holstein genotypes included 1,510 an...

  8. Potential consequences of selection on gestation length on Holstein performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were assessed also by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls, each with...

  9. Reaction norm model to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in dairy cattle under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; El Faro, Lenira; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ayres, Denise Rocha; Machado, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvo; Santana, Mrio Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Reaction norm models have been widely used to study genotype by environment interaction (G??E) in animal breeding. The objective of this study was to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in Brazilian Holstein cows using a reaction norm approach. A total of 50,168 individual monthly test day (TD) milk yields (10 test days) from 7476 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. The statistical models for all traits (10 TDs and for 305-day milk yield) included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect), except for 305-day milk yield. A hierarchical reaction norm model (HRNM) based on the unknown covariate was used. The present study showed the presence of G??E in milk yield across first lactation of Holstein cows. The variation in the heritability estimates implies differences in the response to selection depending on the environment where the animals of this population are evaluated. In the average environment, the heritabilities for all traits were rather similar, in range from 0.02 to 0.63. The scaling effect of G??E predominated throughout most of lactation. Particularly during the first 2 months of lactation, G??E caused reranking of breeding values. It is therefore important to include the environmental sensitivity of animals according to the phase of lactation in the genetic evaluations of Holstein cattle in tropical environments. PMID:26143280

  10. Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V.

    2011-11-15

    We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

  11. Citrobacter koseri septicaemia in a holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Komine, M; Massa, A; Moon, L; Mullaney, T

    2014-11-01

    A 4-day-old male Holstein calf with dull mentation, nystagmus and blindness was humanely destroyed and subject to necropsy examination. Gross lesions included severe suppurative meningitis characterized by diffuse cloudy thickening of the meninges, bilateral hypopyon and fibrinosuppurative polyarthritis affecting the hocks. Citrobacter koseri was isolated from the meninges, ocular fluid, synovial fluid, spleen and small intestine. Microscopically, there was neutrophilic and histiocytic meningitis with intralesional bacilli, endophthalmitis, neutrophilic splenitis and multiple renal microabscesses. Failure of passive transfer of colostrum was confirmed. This appears to be the first characterization of septicaemia in a calf caused by C. koseri, with lesions comparable with those described in human neonates. PMID:25242308

  12. Things Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for

  13. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there

  14. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  15. Things Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  16. Evaluation of the Control of Pathogen Load by an Anti-Salmonella Bacterium in a Herd of Cattle with Persistent Salmonella Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To isolate an anti-Salmonella bacterium that may control pathogen load in persistently-infected cattle herds. Animals: 24 Holstein calves. Procedures: An Escherchia coli (designated as P8E5) that possesses anti-Salmonella activity was isolated from Salmonella negative bovine feces ob...

  17. [Interlocus associations and their variability in cattle].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Oblap RV; Zhuravel' EV; Glazko GV

    1997-11-01

    The results of analysis of interloci associations between two pairs of syntenic loci (transferrin and ceruloplasmin, receptor for vitamin D and kappa-casein) and two non-syntenic ones (amylase-1 and post-transferrin 2) in two cattle groups of Red Steppe breed (infected and uninfected by bovine leukosis virus) and in two groups of Black-and-White Holsteins (from relatively "pure" zone and from the 10 km zone of Chernobyl NPP) were presented. It is found that "linkage disequilibrium" between loci is observed independent of their synteny. The data obtained allowed the authors to suppose, that the interloci associations are rather controlled by different factors of artificial and natural selection than by the genetic linkages between genes.

  18. [Interlocus associations and their variability in cattle].

    PubMed

    Oblap, R V; Zhuravel', E V; Glazko, G V

    1997-01-01

    The results of analysis of interloci associations between two pairs of syntenic loci (transferrin and ceruloplasmin, receptor for vitamin D and kappa-casein) and two non-syntenic ones (amylase-1 and post-transferrin 2) in two cattle groups of Red Steppe breed (infected and uninfected by bovine leukosis virus) and in two groups of Black-and-White Holsteins (from relatively "pure" zone and from the 10 km zone of Chernobyl NPP) were presented. It is found that "linkage disequilibrium" between loci is observed independent of their synteny. The data obtained allowed the authors to suppose, that the interloci associations are rather controlled by different factors of artificial and natural selection than by the genetic linkages between genes. PMID:9591347

  19. A molecular study on Theileria and Babesia in cattle from Isfahan province, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid

    2013-10-01

    Bovine theileriosis and babesiosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. From March 2009 to July 2009, 176 blood samples of Holstein and crossbred cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from Isfahan province, Central Iran. The extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a set of primers derived from the 18s rRNA gene. 42 out of 176 blood samples (23.9%) were positive for Theileria spp. and none of them was positive for Babesia spp.. The present study showed that Theileria is detectable in cattle without any sign of infection but maintained a persistant sub-clinical state in the carrier cattle, which can serve as reservoirs of infection for ticks and cause natural transmission of the disease. PMID:24431572

  20. The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

    2012-03-01

    Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

  1. Hepatic transcriptome profiling identifies differences in expression of genes associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth between Hereford and Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, Pawel; Kościuczuk, Ewa M; Gościk, Joanna; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Rowińska, Barbara; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-04-01

    This study examined liver transcriptomic profiles of cattle distinctly different in meat and milk production capacity. It was performed on bulls of two different genetic backgrounds: Herefords (H), a meat breed, and Holstein-Friesians (HF), a dairy breed. Using bovine long oligo-microarrays and qPCR, we identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed between the two breeds. In H bulls, we observed up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism (CD36, CAT, HSD3B1, FABP1, ACAA1) and involved in insulin signaling (INSR, INSIG2, NR4A1) and down-regulation of genes involved in somatotropic axis signaling (IGF1, GHR, IGFBP3) as compared to HF. Transcriptome profiling of these two breeds allowed us to pinpoint the transcriptional differences between Holstein and Hereford bulls at hepatic level associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth. PMID:24304134

  2. Emphysematous Eosinophilic Lymphangitis in the Ruminal Submucosa of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, S

    2015-11-01

    Twenty cattle (14 Holstein-Friesian, 3 Japanese Black, 3 Aberdeen Angus) ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years exhibited, at slaughter, emphysematous thickening of the ruminal submucosa owing to the appearance of numerous, contiguous, small gas bubbles. Microscopic changes in the ruminal submucosa consisted of (1) multiple cystic (emphysematous) lymphangiectasis that was frequently lined or occluded by granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, and eosinophils; (2) intralymphatic phagocytosis by macrophages and giant cells of eosinophils that showed positive labeling with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay; and (3) an inflammatory infiltrate extending from the area of lymphangitis into surrounding tissue, as well as edema, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibroplasia, or capillary proliferation throughout the lesional submucosa. In addition, 15 (75%) of the cattle had globular leukocyte infiltrates in the mucosal epithelia of the rumen. PMID:25710949

  3. Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cows reared in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to obtain an indication on the importance of these defects in Turkish Holsteins. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from blood and the amplicons of BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID were obtained by using PCR. PCR products were digested with TaqI, AvaI and AvaII restriction enzymes for BLAD, DUMPS, and BC, respectively. These digested products and PCR product of FXID were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. CVM genotypes were detected by DNA sequencing. Additionally, all genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether there was a mutant allele or not. Results Fourteen BLAD, twelve CVM and four FXID carriers were found among the 350 Holstein cows examined, while carriers of DUMPS and BC were not detected. The mutant allele frequencies were calculated as 0.02, 0.017, and 0.006 for BLAD, CVM and FXID, respectively with corresponding carrier prevalence of 4.0% (BLAD), 3.4% (CVM) and 1.2% (FXID). Conclusion This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are present in the Turkish Holstein population, although at a low frequency. The actual number of clinical cases is unknown, but sporadic cases may appear. As artificial insemination is widely used in dairy cattle breeding, carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are likely present within the population of breeding sires. It is recommended to screen breeding sires for these defective genes in order to avoid an unwanted spread within the population. PMID:20929557

  4. Genetic structure and relationships of 16 Asian and European cattle populations using DigiTag2 assay.

    PubMed

    Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3-5). Mongolian (K=13-16) and Japanese Black (K=14-16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2-11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12-16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia. PMID:26260416

  5. Dissecting the matrilineal components of Tongjiang cattle from southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Liu, Yi-Ping; Wang, Wei; Gao, Cheng-Zhong; Yao, Yong-Gang; Lai, Song-Jia

    2008-04-01

    Tongjiang cattle are a local cattle population of Sichuan Province, China, numbering approximately half a million in 2005. They have long been grouped into the Bashan breed, although they have a unique breeding history and phenotypic characteristics, as well as a restricted geographic distribution. Morphologically, they can be divided into two groups based on the basic coat color (black and russet). In order to dissect the matrilineal components of Tongjiang cattle and to compare the body size traits of the two morphological groups, we measured five body size traits among 59 Tongjiang cattle samples and further sequenced the mtDNA D-loop sequence of 54 individuals. Among the 54 mtDNAs, 37 (68.5%) were Bos taurus types and 17 (31.5%) were Bos indicus types. Four known B. taurus haplogroups (T1-T4) and one B. indicus haplogroup (I1) were detected in these samples. Two body size traits differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the black group and the russet group, although the two groups possessed similar matrilineal genetic structure. This is the first report to identify all four B. taurus haplogroups in one local Chinese cattle population. Our results suggest that the contribution of different matrilineal lineages to Chinese cattle might be more complex than we originally thought. PMID:18246422

  6. Olfactory response of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) to cattle-derived volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Oyarzn, M P; Palma, R; Alberti, E; Hormazabal, E; Pardo, F; Birkett, M A; Quiroz, A

    2009-11-01

    In Chile, the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L., 1758), is a major pest of grazing cattle and affects livestock production during the summer. Previous studies in Europe and the United States have shown that cattle flies, including H. irritans, are differentially attracted to individual cattle within herds and that volatile semiochemicals are responsible for this phenomenon. This study provides evidence that similar differential attractiveness occurs for the interaction between Chilean Holstein-Friesian cattle herds and local H. irritans populations. Thus, Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, Bos taurus, which were of similar age and physiological condition, were shown to possess an uneven distribution of H. irritans. Heifers h6904 and h8104 were defined as low-carrier heifers and h5804, h2304 and h1404 as high-carrier heifers. Gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of samples collected from heifers revealed the presence of compounds previously reported as semiochemicals for cattle flies, including meta- and para-cresol, methylketones (C8-C11), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Other compounds identified included carboxylic acids (butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, pentanoic, and hexanoic acids), 1-hexanol, and 3-octanone. In Y-tube olfactometer studies, both m- and p-cresol attracted H. irritans at the highest doses tested (10(-6) g), as did the positive control 1-octen-3-ol. Of the other compounds tested, only 2-decanone and 2-undecanone produced a behavioral response, with significantly more flies being recorded in the control arm when the former compound was tested (at 10(-6) and 10(-8) g), and more flies being recorded in the treated arm for the latter compound (at 10(-7) g). This demonstration of behavioral activity with the identified compounds represents a first step for research into the application of semiochemicals in monitoring and control of cattle flies in Chile. PMID:19960676

  7. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress.

    PubMed

    Lomborg, S R; Nielsen, L R; Heegaard, P M H; Jacobsen, S

    2008-10-01

    Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were obtained before (0-sample) and at 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of transportation. Upon arrival the animals gave the impression of being anxious, and they appeared to have difficulty coping with isolation and with being tied on the slippery floors of the research stable. Serum concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P < 0.01 and 0.05 at 48 hours, respectively). Additionally, the animals had transient neutrophilia at 8 and 24 hours (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that SAA and haptoglobin may serve as markers of stress in adult cattle. PMID:18461465

  8. A study of relative horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), abundance on Holstein steers and steers of two Holstein crosses.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Volpogni, M M; Castro, H; Mangold, A J; Anziani, O S

    2002-10-16

    A study was performed to determine if the number of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) adults differ significantly on Holstein (black and white coat color), Holstein x Holstein Friesian (black and white coat color) and Holstein x Jersey (black coat color) steers, 10-12 months old at the onset of the study. All steers were run together on lucerne paddocks and the number of flies counted at 30-day intervals from September 2000 to August 2001. No significant differences (P > 0.05, test of Kruskal-Wallis) were found in fly numbers, even in the period April-May 2001 when the infestation reached its peak. We were unable to demonstrate that coat color influenced horn fly abundance in the present study. It appears that none of the biotypes evaluated had any advantage for natural control of H. irritans. PMID:12383633

  9. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Brndum, R F; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S

    2014-11-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions. PMID:25151887

  10. Business Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, John, Comp.; And Others

    The instructional guide to business Chinese consists of 12 two-part specially composed narrative essays on all aspects of Chinese foreign trade ranging from broad principles and policies to details of operation and procedure. Each lesson is followed by a summary of its main points, 10 questions to guide discussion or conversational practice, and a

  11. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted

  12. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  13. Genomic signatures reveal new evidences for selection of important traits in domestic cattle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P Van; Sonstegard, Tad S; Liu, George E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

  14. Genomic Signatures Reveal New Evidences for Selection of Important Traits in Domestic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M.; Cole, John B.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P. Van; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Liu, George E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

  15. Composite ?-?-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Vrv, S; Prna, K; Judu, I; Viinalass, H; Prna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite ?-?-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed ?-?-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent ?-?-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The ?-?-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of ?-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the ?-?-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively. PMID:22981570

  16. Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Braga, Fernando A; Dalton, Joseph C

    2007-10-01

    The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT< or =4 degrees C), no stress (NS=ADMnT>4 degrees C and ADMxT<29 degrees C), and heat stress (HS=ADMxT> or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH<340 kg); moderate (MD=340-365 kg); and heavy (HY>365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. PMID:17045427

  17. Lack of antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2 virus in beef and dairy cattle and horses in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; Konoby, C; West, K H; Allan, G M; Krakowka, S; McNeilly, F; Meehan, B; Walker, I

    2001-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a recently recognized agent that is consistently associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting disease in swine. There are conflicting data concerning the ability of this virus to infect and cause disease in other species. To determine if normal cattle, cattle affected with various illnesses, and normal horses in endemic areas of PCV2 infection in swine have had PCV2 infections, 100 randomly selected bovine sera, 100 equine sera, and 100 colostrum samples from clinically normal dairy cattle were examined for the presence of antibodies to porcine circoviruses by using ELISAs. All samples tested were negative for antibodies to porcine circoviruses. As well, a seronegative neonatal Holstein calf and 6 seronegative, 6-month-old beef calves that were experimentally infected with PCV2 failed to develop antibodies to the virus. These results suggest that natural infection of cattle and horses with PCV2 does not occur, or is a rare event, in western Canada. PMID:11424578

  18. Congenital multi-organ malformations in a Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Nazarizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 5-day-old female Holstein calf was necropsied because of lethargy, recumbency and anorexia. At necropsy, multiple gross defects were evident in several organs, including unclosedsutures of skull bones, asymmetrical orbits, doming of the skull bones, hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, cleft palate, brachygnathia, ventricular septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia and rudimentary lungs. On microscopic examination, pulmonary hypoplasia was characterized by reduced number of alveoli, replacement of peri-bronchiolar smooth muscles with connective tissue and small masses of undeveloped cartilage around the small airways. The present report is the first description of the congenital pulmonary hypoplasia accompanied by numerous malformations in Holstein breed. PMID:26893818

  19. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  20. Risk factors for abortion in dairy cows from commercial Holstein dairy herds in the Tehran region.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Nima; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Hanson, Timothy E

    2010-09-01

    In last decade, pregnancy loss in dairy cattle has had an upward trend bringing difficulties for breeders: the annual cost is estimated around 396 billion Rials (i.e. around 40 million US$) for the Iranian dairy industry. The present study was conducted to determine the influence of maternal factors on abortion and to predict the probability of abortion as well as the effect of these factors on the fetal lifetime in Holstein dairy cattle. Data from 44,629 established pregnancies that included 14,226 heifers and 30,403 pregnancies from 12,265 parous cows in nine industrial dairy herds around Tehran were used. Overall, 4871 pregnancies of parous cows resulted in abortion. Prediction of the probability of abortion (PPA) was estimated by a logistic regression model. Survival analysis was performed using an accelerated failure time (AFT) model assuming a multi-modal hazard function. Effective factors included age of dam at conception, gravidity, open days, number of previous abortion(s), abortion before/after 60 days of gestation in previous conception, herd and season of insemination. The PPA decreased with increasing open days, increasing gravidity and no previous abortion. In addition, the PPA was greater for cows which had been inseminated during summer versus winter. However, the difference between autumn and spring was not significant. Overall, 25 sires out of 695 from which sperm was collected for artificial insemination (AI) had significantly higher risk of abortion, with odds ratios ranging between 1.44 and 4.73 compared to the average. The survival probability increased slightly during gestation as gravidity increased for cows that had a previous abortion. Cows that had aborted before 60 days of gestation in previous conception tended to abort later in their next conceptions. PMID:20598387

  1. Successful treatment of an intrathoracic bronchogenic cyst in a Holstein-Friesian calf.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, Beat; Meylan, Mireille; Gendron, Karine; Morath, Ute; Rytz, Ulrich; Lejeune, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    A 5--month-old female Holstein-Friesian calf was presented with a history of recurring ruminal tympany and poor development. The absence of lung sounds on the right hemithorax suggested a right-sided intrathoracic pathology. Radiography and computed tomography revealed a large thin-walled cavernous lesion with a gas-fluid interface which almost completely filled the right thoracic cavity. Fluid aspirated from the lesion was clear, yellowish and odorless. These findings led to the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The cyst strongly adhered to the adjacent lung tissue. After removal of the free wall, the adjacent lung tissue was sealed using surgical stapling instruments, and the non-removable part of the wall was curetted and rinsed. The intensive postoperative management included antibiotic therapy, oxygen supplementation and regional lidocaine infusion. Anti-inflammatory drugs were administered for further pain control. The calf recovered well and was released from the clinic on postoperative day 11. Intra- or extrathoracic bronchogenic cysts result from abnormal budding during the embryonic development of the tracheobronchial system. Successful treatment of this calf despite the size of the lesion and the invasive character of the surgical intervention indicates that resection of bronchogenic cysts in cattle may be an option for valuable animals. PMID:23421871

  2. Successful treatment of an intrathoracic bronchogenic cyst in a Holstein-Friesian calf

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 5-½-month-old female Holstein-Friesian calf was presented with a history of recurring ruminal tympany and poor development. The absence of lung sounds on the right hemithorax suggested a right-sided intrathoracic pathology. Radiography and computed tomography revealed a large thin-walled cavernous lesion with a gas-fluid interface which almost completely filled the right thoracic cavity. Fluid aspirated from the lesion was clear, yellowish and odorless. These findings led to the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The cyst strongly adhered to the adjacent lung tissue. After removal of the free wall, the adjacent lung tissue was sealed using surgical stapling instruments, and the non-removable part of the wall was curetted and rinsed. The intensive postoperative management included antibiotic therapy, oxygen supplementation and regional lidocaine infusion. Anti-inflammatory drugs were administered for further pain control. The calf recovered well and was released from the clinic on postoperative day 11. Intra- or extrathoracic bronchogenic cysts result from abnormal budding during the embryonic development of the tracheobronchial system. Successful treatment of this calf despite the size of the lesion and the invasive character of the surgical intervention indicates that resection of bronchogenic cysts in cattle may be an option for valuable animals. PMID:23421871

  3. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is colloquially termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and angular limb malformations which are fo...

  4. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

  5. Prediction of parturition in Holstein dairy cattle using electronic data loggers.

    PubMed

    Titler, M; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gordon, E; McCullough, K; Federico, P; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of parturition on behavioral activity [steps, standing time, lying time, lying bouts (LB), and duration of LB] 4 d before calving using electronic data loggers. Animals (n=132) from 3 herds were housed in similar freestall barns using a prepartum pen 21 d before the expected calving date and were moved into a contiguous individual maternity pen for parturition. Electronic data loggers were placed on a hind leg of prepartum heifers (heifers, n=33) and cows (cows, n=99) at 7±3 d before the expected calving date and removed at 14±3 d in milk. Calving ease (scale 1-4), parity, calving date and time, and stillbirth (born dead or died within 24h) were recorded. The number of steps (no./d), standing time (min/d), lying time (min/d), number of LB (no./d), and duration of LB (min/b) were recorded. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS, adjusting for the herd effect. Only cows experiencing unassisted births (calving ease=1) were included in the study. An activity index was developed to predict calving time. Heifers and cows with unassisted births had significantly higher number of steps and longer standing time, decreased lying time, and more LB of shorter duration 24h before calving compared with d -4, -3, and -2. Additionally, the number of LB increased as both heifers and cows approached labor starting on d -2 and peaked at the day of calving. The time since the activity index increased over 50% to parturition did not differ between heifers and cows, and the activity index revealed the shift in activity on average 6h 14min (range from 2h to 14h 15min) before calf birth. This study provided evidence that heifers and cows approaching parturition showed a similar, but distinct, behavioral pattern that can be observed on average 6h before calf birth. The potential benefits of electronic data loggers as predictors of parturition along with proactive management practices should improve the overall survival and welfare of both the dam and calf. PMID:26074226

  6. Identification of loci associated with tolerance to Johne's disease in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease is a bacterial illness caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with genetic tolerance in cows infected with Map. Tolerance was defined as a cow's fitness at a given level of Map infection intensity. ...

  7. Genome wide scan for quantitative trait loci affecting tick resistance in cattle (Bos taurus Bos indicus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In tropical countries, losses caused by bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation have a tremendous economic impact on cattle production systems. Genetic variation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus to tick resistance and molecular biology tools might allow for the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance traits that could be used as an auxiliary tool in selection programs. The objective of this work was to identify QTL associated with tick resistance/susceptibility in a bovine F2 population derived from the Gyr (Bos indicus) Holstein (Bos taurus) cross. Results Through a whole genome scan with microsatellite markers, we were able to map six genomic regions associated with bovine tick resistance. For most QTL, we have found that depending on the tick evaluation season (dry and rainy) different sets of genes could be involved in the resistance mechanism. We identified dry season specific QTL on BTA 2 and 10, rainy season specific QTL on BTA 5, 11 and 27. We also found a highly significant genome wide QTL for both dry and rainy seasons in the central region of BTA 23. Conclusions The experimental F2 population derived from Gyr Holstein cross successfully allowed the identification of six highly significant QTL associated with tick resistance in cattle. QTL located on BTA 23 might be related with the bovine histocompatibility complex. Further investigation of these QTL will help to isolate candidate genes involved with tick resistance in cattle. PMID:20433753

  8. Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

    1994-01-01

    Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

  9. Chinese Herbalism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

  10. Alteration in clinico-biochemical profile and oxidative stress indices associated with hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes in cattle--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Padinjare Melepat; Dimri, Umesh; Jhambh, Ricky; Yatoo, Mohd Iqbal; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes mellitus in cattle by clinico-biochemical estimation and evaluation of oxidative stress indices. A total of 256 cattle exhibiting weakness, poor body condition and reduced milk yield in lactating cattle were included in the study. These animals were screened with blood glucose level, urine glucose and ketone bodies. Out of these, 32 (12.5%) cattle showed hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, of which 25% exhibited ketonuria. Diabetes was confirmed in five cattle by estimation of fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum fructosamine, intravenous glucose tolerance test and insulin level. This reports first confirmation of diabetes in cattle in India. All these five animals revealed low level of serum insulin suggestive of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in cattle. The level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was found to be increased in diabetic cattle. Oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed in hyperglycaemic cattle and five age-matched Holstein Friesian (HF) cross-bred healthy control animals. Diabetic cattle revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of erythrocytic lipid peroxides in comparison with other hyperglycaemic cattle and healthy controls whereas the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was found to be significantly lower in diabetes-affected animals in comparison to healthy controls. Reduced glutathione did not show a significant difference between hyperglycaemic and control groups. It is concluded from the present study that oxidative stress associated with diabetes in cattle is obvious compared with other hyperglycaemic cattle. PMID:25433646

  11. Association of BoLA-DRB3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Duangjinda, M; Jindatajak, Y; Tipvong, W; Sriwarothai, J; Pattarajinda, V; Katawatin, S; Boonkum, W

    2013-09-23

    Tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. Selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. The objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of DRB3.2 alleles in Thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. Specific primers to Anaplasma marginale (AM), Babesia bigemina (BG) and Babesia bovis (BB) were used to detect the infections by PCR. The results showed that the high proportion of infections were found in Bos indicus (Sahiwal, n=95) and crossbred Holstein Zebu (75:25 Holstein:Zebu, n=101), compared to high Holstein fraction crossbreed (? 87.5% Holstein, n=187). The proportion of triple infections was also highly found in high Holstein fractions crossbreed. This study confirmed that Zebuine (Bos indicus) had a higher degree of tolerance, even when infected by tick-borne pathogens, compared to high Holstein fraction crossbred. The associated alleles of DRB3.2 for tick-borne pathogen infection tolerance were found: DRB3*14 and *41 were found to be tolerant to A. marginale; *14 to B. bovis; and *10 and *51 to B. bigemina. These tolerance alleles could be used as potential markers for selection in dairy genetic evaluation. The associated alleles for susceptibility were also found: *2 was found to be susceptible to A. marginale; *3 and *16 to B. bovis; and *20 to B. bigemina. These susceptibility alleles could be used as markers for culling, and selection favoring susceptibility alleles should be considered to maintain heterozygote advantage and pathogen-specific memories in the herd. PMID:23571121

  12. A new insight into cattle's maternal origin in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shangang; Zhou, Yan; Lei, Chuzhao; Yao, Ru; Zhang, Zhiying; Fang, Xingtang; Chen, Hong

    2010-03-01

    The domestication of cattle fuelled the development of agricultural society in the history of human being. The evolution and genetic relationship of cattle can be elucidated by investigating the variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. In this study, we built a cattle phylogeny with a pool of 856 individual D-loop sequences, of which 264 Chinese cattle D-loop sequences were obtained in this study (141 ones were first analyzed, and 123 were first submitted) and the rest sequences of cattle from six Asian countries (Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, India and China) were retrieved from GenBank. Our results indicated that cattle from six Asian countries fell into three clades, Bos taurus (taurine), Bos indicus (zebu) and yak. Four main haplogroups T1A, T2, T3 (including T3A and T3B) and T5 were found in taurine, and two haplogroups I1 and I2 in zebu. Furthermore, we found that I1 and I2 haplogroups were separated by four variable sites rather than five ones and four haplogroups or sub-haplogroups of T1A, T3A, T3B and T5 were found for the first time in these Asian cattle. These data brought us a new insight into cattle's genetic structure in these six Asian countries. The geographical distribution of haplogroups was also outlined to provide systematic information on cattle genetic resources. PMID:20347826

  13. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  14. TRAIT SELECTION WHEN CULLING U.S. HOLSTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emphasis by dairy producers on milk, fat, and protein yields; somatic cell score (SCS); days open (DO) and dystocia score (DS) when culling was documented for U.S. Holstein cows that calved since 1980. Least-squares differences between cows retained for additional parities and those culled were esti...

  15. GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG FERTILITY TRAITS OF HOLSTEINS AND JERSEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy Herd Improvement data with service dates from 2,195,643 Holstein and 171,981 Jersey sire-identified lactations from 1995 through 2000 were used to assess genetic variation in and relationships among fertility traits: days to first service (D1), days to last reported service (DL), nonreturn rat...

  16. Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...

  17. Genomic imputation and evaluation using 342 high density Holstein genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations for 73,749 Holsteins were computed using 636,967 of the 777,000 markers on the Illumina high density (HD) chip. Observed data included 342 animals with HD genotypes, 54,676 animals with 42,503 marker (50K) genotypes, 17,371 animals with 2,614 marker (3K) genotypes, and 1,360 nong...

  18. Multiple trait genomic evaluation of conception rate in Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national data set of artificial inseminations in US Holsteins was used to obtain genetic evaluations for conception rate (CR). This objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and resulting accuracy from using all available phenotypic, pedigree and genomic information. Evaluations w...

  19. Potential Consequences Of Selection On Gestation Length On Holstein Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluations of Holstein gestation length (GL) were analyzed to determine their reliability and repeatability. Potential consequences of selection on GL were assessed by examining impact on performance in the subsequent lactation. Service-sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for GL was e...

  20. [Sporadic cutaneous lymphosarcoma of T-cell origin with involvement of lymph nodes and internal organs in a Holstein cow].

    PubMed

    Freick, M; Lapko, L; Neubert, M; Hardt, M; Behn, H; Passarge, O; Schniger, S

    2016-02-16

    Sporadic lymphosarcomas in adult cattle are rare entities with an unknown etiology. This case report describes the course of the disease in a 3.5-year-old cow of the breed German Holstein, which was presented to the veterinarian due to multifocal nodular skin lesions. Several superficial lymph nodes (Lymphonodi mandibulares, parotidei and mammariae) were enlarged, had a tight-elastic consistency and were freely movable. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies showed the presence of multifocal cutaneous T-cell lymphosarcomas consistent with a skin leukosis. Bovine leukemia virus infection was excluded by serological investigation of a milk sample and virological examination of a tissue sample, respectively. Seven weeks after the first clinical examination, the cow deteriorated rapidly and was euthanized. A post mortem examination revealed the presence of neoplastic cells within lymph nodes (all superficial lymph nodes of the carcass and Lymphonodi pulmonales), kidney and lungs as well as a liver rupture. Additionally, an overview of the case reports of sporadic bovine cutaneous lymphosarcomas published during the previous 15 years will be provided. The legal background for a further utilization of affected animals for milk and meat production will be discussed. This case report illustrates that sporadic bovine leukosis represents an important differential diagnosis for viral-, bacterial- and parasitic-induced skin lesions and enlargement of lymph nodes in adult cattle. PMID:26763070

  1. Mandarin Chinese Dictionary: English-Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fred Fangyu

    This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the

  2. Chinese Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, William C.

    2012-01-01

    When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the

  3. Chinese Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, William C.

    2012-01-01

    When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

  4. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  5. Feeding measures to reduce nitrogen excretion in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    De Campeneere, Sam; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, Jos M; Messens, Winy; De Brabander, Danil L

    2009-04-01

    Feeding measures with a potential to improve N efficiency in dairy cattle husbandry were studied at two levels of undegradable protein balance (OEB). In each of the two experiments, two simultaneous Latin squares were conducted, each with three treatments and three lactating Holstein cows. Decreasing the OEB of the diet improved N efficiency and resulted in lower N excretion per kg milk. To avoid a negative effect of the decreased OEB on the production results, spreading the concentrate intake (as TMR or in five meals) seemed to be most promising, although only few significant effects were found. The use of protected protein sources or the addition of clinoptilolite were not successful in improving N-efficiency. The rather well balanced mixed basal diet and the large variation between animals seem to have hampered the assessment of such significant influences. PMID:19489452

  6. Bracken poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    2015-11-21

    Bracken poisoning in cattle: a classic case in 15-month-old-cattleChlamydia abortus as the cause of abortion in a dairy cowCobalt deficiency in preweaned lambsFirst case of Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in pigs in 2015Mute swan mortalities on the River WearThese are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for July and August 2015. PMID:26589986

  7. Milk coagulation ability of five dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, M; Dal Zotto, R; Cassandro, M; Bittante, G

    2007-08-01

    Samples of herd milk (506) were analyzed to assess sources of variation for milk coagulation properties (MCP) for 5 different dairy cattle breeds. Data were recorded in 55 single-breed dairy herds in the Trento province, a mountain area in northeast Italy. The 5 cattle breeds were Holstein-Friesian (8 herds), Brown Swiss (16 herds), Simmental (10 herds), Rendena (13 herds), and Alpine Gray (8 herds). Herd milk samples were analyzed for the MCP traits, milk rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness (a30), as well as protein and fat percentages, somatic cell count, Soxhlet-Henkel acidity, and bacterial count. An ANOVA was performed to study the effect of breed, herd within breed, DIM, month of lactation, protein and fat percentages, somatic cell score, titratable acidity, and log bacterial count within breed on MCP. Breed was the most important source of variation. In particular, the Rendena breed showed the best MCP traits at 13.5 min and 27.0 mm for RCT and a30, respectively. The Holstein-Friesian breed had the worst coagulation properties at 18.0 min and 17.5 mm for RCT and a30, respectively. The other 3 breeds showed intermediate coagulation properties. The RCT values were better at the beginning of lactation, whereas RCT and a30 values were better in September and October (14.3 min and 25.7 mm, respectively). Among the composition traits, only the titratable acidity affected MCP traits of herd milk positively. PMID:17639010

  8. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  9. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely

  10. Enteric methane emissions and efficiency of use of energy in Holstein heifers and steers at age of six months.

    PubMed

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A; Carson, A F; Ferris, C P; Easson, D L; Wills, D

    2013-01-01

    Twenty 5-mo-old Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) were selected from a dairy herd for a 28 d study of enteric methane emissions and energy utilization. The cattle were offered a completely mixed diet with grass silage and concentrates (0.45 and 0.55, DM basis, respectively). They were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, transferred to metabolism units for 3 d, and subsequently housed in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeter chambers for next 5 d with measurements of feed intake, feces and urine outputs, and gaseous exchange. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the 2 groups in terms of animal performance (feed intake, BW, or BW gain), energy metabolism (energy intake, energy outputs, or energy use efficiency), or methane emission rates (total methane emissions expressed on feed intake or energy intake basis). Therefore, the data from the 2 groups were pooled to develop a range of relationships between inputs and outputs. The regression of energy balance or heat production against ME intake (r2=0.85; P<0.001) indicated a NEm of 0.57 MJ/kg BW0.75, which is greater than reported for adult dairy cattle. The methane energy output was found to be 0.068 of GE intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r2=0.73; P<0.001), which is greater than the commonly accepted value (0.065) for adult cattle used for development of methane emission inventories for dairy and beef production systems. These data can add useful information, as there is little information available on measurements of maintenance energy requirement or methane emissions in young stock (6 mo old) of the current high-yielding dairy cattle. The use of these data can potentially improve the accuracy of prediction of energy requirement and methane emissions for dairy and beef production systems in these dietary conditions. PMID:23048155

  11. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of animals grouped on alternative definitions of feed efficiency showed that conventional definitions such as feed conversion efficiency or residual feed intake may be inappropriate measures of efficiency for lactating dairy cows. An alternative definition, residual solids production, is proposed. This definition of feed efficiency identifies animals that produce greater volumes of milk solids at similar levels of feed intake without excessive body tissue mobilization and with improved fertility performance. The results also suggest that although there are differences in feed efficiency between strains of Holstein-Friesian, there is also variation within genotypes so that improvements in feed efficiency can be realized if the appropriate definition of feed efficiency is incorporated into breeding programs. PMID:20723705

  12. Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  13. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mammadova, Nazira

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  14. Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Helen M.; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM. PMID:24891639

  15. Reduced genetic structure of north Ethiopian cattle revealed by Y-chromosome analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, M H; Zerabruk, M; Vangen, O; Olsaker, I; Kantanen, J

    2007-04-01

    Ethiopia is considered to be a putative migratory corridor for both Near-East Bos taurine and Arabian and Indian B. indicus cattle into East Africa. African pastoralism, which is associated with adaptation to specific habitats and farming systems, has contributed to the composite constitution of Ethiopian cattle. We analyse, for the first time, five Y-chromosome microsatellite markers from seven north Ethiopian cattle populations, using a European Holstein-Friesian population as a reference, to assess the paternal gene pool and to explore the mechanisms behind the genetic structure. Our results reveal that the indicine alleles predominate in the present populations, with only one animal in the Arado carrying the taurine alleles. The north Ethiopian cattle populations with one exception (Abergelle) are characterized by a general low Y-chromosome haplotype diversity, as well as by a reduced interpopulation variance (Phi(ST)=4.0%), which can be a result of strong male-mediated selective sweeps. Population structure revealed by multidimensional-scaling analysis differentiates two populations (Arado and Abergelle) from the rest. Analysis of molecular variance does not lend support to the traditional classification for the populations, which is mainly based on physical characteristics. A network analysis indicates two closely related founding haplotypes accounting for a large proportion (50.0% in Abergelle and 85.0-94.7% in others) of north Ethiopian cattle Y-chromosomes. Our findings point to a common, but limited, paternal origin of the north Ethiopian cattle populations and strong male-mediated gene flow among them. The findings also provide insight into the historical immigration of cattle into East Africa. PMID:17213865

  16. Copper status, serum cholesterol, and milk fatty acid profile in Holstein cows fed varying concentrations of copper.

    PubMed

    Engle, T E; Fellner, V; Spears, J W

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu status and lipid metabolism in Holstein cows. Three primiparous and 21 multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in this experiment. Groups of three cows similar in parity, days in milk, and milk yield were assigned randomly to one of the following three treatments: 1) control (no supplemental Cu), 2) 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM from Cu sulfate (CuSO4), and 3) 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM from CuSO4. Liver Cu concentrations were higher in Cu supplemented cows at the end of the 61-d study. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher liver Cu concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Plasma Cu concentrations were similar across treatments. Total serum cholesterol concentrations were higher in cows receiving supplemental Cu. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher serum cholesterol concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Dry matter intake, average daily milk production, and milk lipid, protein, and somatic cell numbers were similar across treatments. On d 61, milk fatty acids C18:1 trans and C18-conjugated dienes were lower in cows receiving supplemental Cu relative to the nonsupplemented controls. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher C12:0 and lower C18:2 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM. These results indicate that Cu supplementation alters lipid metabolism in high producing dairy cows and that Cu supplementation at 40 mg/kg of DM for 61 d can elevate liver Cu concentrations to levels considered to be marginally toxic in dairy cattle. PMID:11699463

  17. THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF FEEDER CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance and in the most severe cases death, thus resulting in the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to investigate the thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle to both acute and chronic exposures t...

  18. Selection for profit in cattle: I. Economic weights for purebred dairy cattle in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Wolfov, M; Wolf, J; Kvapilk, J; Kica, J

    2007-05-01

    A bioeconomic model for dairy cattle production was used to estimate economic values of 18 traits for dairy sires in purebred Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh populations. Economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a closed production system with dairy cow herds and integrated fattening of bulls. All revenues and costs associated with cows calving in the herds within one year and with their progeny were discounted at 5% per annum back to the date of calving. Calculations were carried out for the situation in the Czech Republic in 2005 (scenario 1: market quotas for milk yield and fat percentage) and for the expected situation in 2015 (scenario 2: free market). The relative economic importance of each trait was expressed as a ratio of the standardized economic value of that trait (its marginal economic value multiplied by its genetic standard deviation) to the standardized economic value of 305-d milk yield, with average fat and protein percentages. In addition to milk yield, somatic cell score was the second most important trait, achieving 32% to 43% of the value for milk yield in both scenarios. The relative importance of milk components differed notably between scenarios. The relative importance was approximately zero for protein and from -14 to -23% for fat percentage in scenario 1, but changed to 38% for protein and 27 to 31% for fat percentage in scenario 2. In both scenarios and for both breeds, the relative economic values for somatic cell score and length of productive life of cows were similar to those for fat and protein percentages in scenario 2. The smallest relative economic values (less than 4% of the relative importance of milk yield) were for birth weight, conception rate of heifers, and carcass traits. In conclusion, relative emphasis among traits in the breeding objective for Czech dairy cattle should be reassessed according to the expected situation after shifting to a free market economy in 2015. PMID:17430949

  19. Genome-wide association study for semen production traits in Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Suchocki, T; Szyda, J

    2015-08-01

    Identifying genomic regions, particularly individual genes associated with semen quality traits, may be very important for improving sire fertility via selective breeding. The aim of the study was to estimate (co)variance components and effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) on semen production traits and to find candidate genes for these traits. The analyzed data set originates from the Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population and consists of 1,212 bulls kept at 4 artificial insemination stations. For each bull, 5 semen production traits were collected: sperm concentration, semen volume, number of spermatozoa, motility, and motility score. A multitrait mixed model was used to estimate genetic parameters. The parameters obtained were used to estimate SNP effects for each trait separately by the mixed model, which is used in the Polish direct genomic value project. Additionally, genes located in the vicinity of significant SNP were selected as candidate genes. For motility, 20 genome-wide significant SNP, located on 12 autosomes, were identified. For sperm concentration, we found 7 significant SNP: 3 on chromosome X, and 1 on chromosomes 1, 6, 23, and 24. For semen volume and motility score, 3 and 1 significant SNP were detected, respectively. All these SNP were located on chromosome X. For the number of spermatozoa, 12 significant SNP were observed. Six SNP were located on chromosome X, 3 on chromosome 8, and 1 on chromosomes 2, 7, and 16. This study clearly indicated a key role of the X chromosome in the determination of semen quality and emphasized that including such traits into genetic evaluation should be strongly considered. PMID:26051317

  20. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    PubMed Central

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  1. Brief introduction to whole-genome selection in cattle using single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Seidel, G E

    2010-01-01

    Genomic selection using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a powerful new tool for genetic selection. In cattle, SNP profiles for individual animals are generated using a small plastic chip that is diagnostic for up to 50 000 SNPs spaced throughout the genome. Phenotypes, usually averaged over offspring of bulls, are matched with SNP profiles of bulls mathematically so that animals can be ranked for siring desirable phenotypes via their SNP profiles. For many traits in dairy cattle, the rate of genetic improvement can be nearly doubled when SNP information is used in addition to current methods of genetic evaluation. Separate SNP analyses need to be developed for different populations (e.g. the system for Holsteins is not useful for Jerseys). In addition, the value of these systems is very dependent on the number of accurate phenotypes matched with SNP profiles; for example, increasing the number of North American Holstein bulls evaluated from 1151 to 3576 quadrupled the additional genetic gain in net merit from this approach. Thus, the available information will be insufficient to exploit this technology fully for most populations. However, once a valid SNP evaluation system is developed, any animal in that population, including embryos, can be evaluated with similar accuracy. Biopsying embryos and screening them via SNP analysis will greatly enhance the value of this technology by minimising generation intervals. PMID:20003856

  2. Gene expression profile of Musculus longissimus dorsi in bulls of a Charolais × Holstein F2-cross with divergent intramuscular fat content

    PubMed Central

    Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Albrecht, Elke; Kühn, Christa; Wimmers, Klaus; Maak, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) were compared between bulls from a F2-cross derived from Charolais and Holstein Friesian. Two groups of 10 bulls were selected which differed significantly in intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition despite standardized husbandry and feeding conditions and identical sires in both groups. Consequently, genetic factors underlying the different capability of IMF deposition should be identified. A total of 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found of which 11 were up-regulated and 21 were down-regulated in the high IMF group. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified a gene network comprising DEGs with functions in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and molecular transport. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75347. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in IMF deposition in crossbred cattle with standardized genetic background. PMID:26981388

  3. Gene expression profile of Musculus longissimus dorsi in bulls of a Charolais × Holstein F2-cross with divergent intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Albrecht, Elke; Kühn, Christa; Wimmers, Klaus; Maak, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) were compared between bulls from a F2-cross derived from Charolais and Holstein Friesian. Two groups of 10 bulls were selected which differed significantly in intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition despite standardized husbandry and feeding conditions and identical sires in both groups. Consequently, genetic factors underlying the different capability of IMF deposition should be identified. A total of 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found of which 11 were up-regulated and 21 were down-regulated in the high IMF group. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified a gene network comprising DEGs with functions in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and molecular transport. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75347. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in IMF deposition in crossbred cattle with standardized genetic background. PMID:26981388

  4. The effect of protozoa on the composition of rumen bacteria in cattle using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Ozutsumi, Yuhei; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Akio; Itabashi, Hisao

    2005-03-01

    The effect of the presence of protozoa on the composition of rumen bacteria was investigated in cattle. Seven castrated Holstein cattle were divided into two groups: four faunated and three unfaunated, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) clonal libraries were constructed. A total of 312 clones were sequenced across 1,500 bp. The 151 sequences of the faunated cattle were classified into 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) having at least 97% similarity. The sequences derived from the faunated cattle were classified into Firmicutes (59.7%), Bacteroidetes (34.4%), Spirochaetes (2.6%), Actinobacteria (2.0%), and Proteobacteria (1.3%). Bacteroides and Prevotella (34.4%) were the major groups in the faunated cattle. The 161 sequences in the unfaunated cattle were classified into 72 OTUs. The sequences derived from the unfaunated libraries were classified into Firmicutes (65.7%), Bacteroidetes (31.1%), Proteobacteria (1.9%), and Spirochaetes (1.2%). The Clostridium botulinum group and its relatives (36.0%) were the major groups in the unfaunated cattle. An analysis by the computer program LIBSHUFF clarified that the presence of ruminal protozoa markedly affected the composition of rumen bacteria. PMID:15784977

  5. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-12-30

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-? (IFN-?), IFN-?, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-?, and IFN-? mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV. PMID:26119170

  6. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV. PMID:26119170

  7. Improvement of Prediction Ability for Genomic Selection of Dairy Cattle by Including Dominance Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chuanyu; VanRaden, Paul M.; Cole, John B.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both breeds; those SNPs also showed the largest dominance effects for fat yield (both breeds) as well as for Holstein milk yield. PMID:25084281

  8. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091

  9. A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

  10. Pathologic changes associated with experimental lasalocid and monensin toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Galitzer, S J; Kruckenberg, S M; Kidd, J R

    1986-12-01

    The acute toxicity of lasalocid and monensin was studied in 36 Holstein steers. The cattle were given (orally) a single dosage of lasalocid (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg of body weight) or monensin (25 mg/kg of body weight) or rice hulls. Animals were observed once a day until they died or were euthanatized at 32 days after the dose was given. All cattle were necropsied. Heart, kidney, adrenal gland, liver, spleen, pancreas, lungs, brain, sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, small intestine, large intestine, and rumen tissue sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were studied microscopically. Lasalocid was lethal at dosages of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and monensin was lethal at the dosage given (25 mg/kg). Cattle dying of lasalocid and monensin toxicoses had gross and microscopic lesions consistent with cardiomyopathy. Dilated heart or petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were observed with both drugs. Microscopically, multifocal areas of myocyte necrosis were observed. Those cattle that died within 3 days of dosing with either drug had a marked degranulation of pancreatic acinar cells. Changes were not observed in any other tissues. PMID:3800122

  11. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P<0.05 was significant. The calving difficulty score (1-5) was greater in heifers (median, 3.0) than in cows (median, 1.0). Median intrapelvic area immediately before parturition was smaller in heifers (268cm(2)) than in cows (332cm(2)), whereas front hoof circumference and birth weight of the calf were similar in both groups. The calving difficulty score was positively associated with calf birth weight in heifers (rs=0.39) and cows (rs=0.24). Binary logistic regression using both dam and calf data indicated that the ratio of front hoof circumference of the calf to the maternal intrapelvic area provided the best predictor of dystocia (calving difficulty score=4 or 5), with sensitivity=0.50 and specificity=0.93 at the optimal cutpoint for the ratio (>0.068cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:26474687

  12. Reproductive status of Holstein and Jersey cows in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive information from USDA’s national dairy database since 1996 was used to provide yearly means in 8 traits in the Holstein and Jersey breeds. Respectively, data for Holsteins and Jerseys were from 20,746 and 1963 herds, 3,645,987 and 184,398 cows, 7,107,057 and 387,441 lactations, and 15,...

  13. PROGENY TESTING AND SELECTION INTENSITY FOR HOLSTEIN BULLS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    International Bull Evaluation Service Holstein evaluations from February 1995 through August 2002 were used to determine characteristics of progeny testing for Holstein bulls in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United St...

  14. PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEINS THAT ORIGINATED FROM EMBRYO TRANSFER OR MULTIPAROUS BIRTHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern has continued on possible bias in genetic evaluations of animals from embryo transfer (ET) due to preferential management. Performance of registered ET Holsteins was documented and compared with that of registered Holsteins from uniparous and biparous births. During the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s,...

  15. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  16. Thermal characteristics of Metarhizium anisopliae isolates important for the development of biological pesticides for the control of cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Polar, Perry; de Muro, Marilena Aquino; Kairo, Moses T K; Moore, Dave; Pegram, Rupert; John, Sally-Ann; Roach-Benn, Cheryl

    2005-11-25

    Experiments were conducted to determine if Metarhizium anisopliae isolates which are capable of growth at cattle surface temperatures could produce pathogenicity to Boophilus microplus in laboratory and field studies. The diurnal temperature fluctuation on the surface of cattle was monitored. The temperature tolerance of M. anisopliae isolates (ARSEF3297 and IMI386697) was determined and their pathogenicity to B. microplus compared at a standard bioassay temperature (28 degrees C) and at a temperature similar to the cattle surface (31-35 degrees C). The effect of the two isolates on the B. microplus population on cattle under field conditions was determined. The temperature of the fore udder, rear udder, ribs and neck regions of the mixed Holstein cattle fluctuated between 30 and 35 degrees C, in a similar pattern to the prevailing environmental temperature. However, wider fluctuations were obtained on the ears (28-35 degrees C) and spine (30-41 degrees C). The colony radius of both isolates declined as temperature increased, however, the growth of IMI386697 was five times greater than ARSEF3297 at 34 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, the pathogenicity of both isolates to B. microplus was similar, however, at 31-35 degrees C, IMI386697 was more pathogenic than ARSEF3297. Both isolates reduced the B. microplus population on cattle in comparison to the control formulation. However, IMI386697 (8.5+/-0.64 ticks/animal) produced a greater reduction in tick numbers than ARSEF3297 (19.1+/-0.64 ticks/animal). M. anisopliae was re-isolated from 8.9% of the ticks collected from IMI386697 treated cattle as compared to 2.8% of ticks from ARSEF3297 treated cattle. PMID:16099103

  17. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the conversion of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide in the rumen. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422758

  18. Mobility of Holstein polaron at finite temperature: an unbiased approach.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, A S; Nagaosa, N; De Filippis, G; de Candia, A; Cataudella, V

    2015-04-10

    We present the first unbiased results for the mobility μ of a one-dimensional Holstein polaron obtained by numerical analytic continuation combined with diagrammatic and worldline Monte Carlo methods in the thermodynamic limit. We have identified for the first time several distinct regimes in the λ-T plane including a band conduction region, incoherent metallic region, an activated hopping region, and a high-temperature saturation region. We observe that although mobilities and mean free paths at different values of λ differ by many orders of magnitude at small temperatures, their values at T larger than the bandwidth become very close to each other. PMID:25910142

  19. Congenital sternal foramen in a stillborn Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Bakhtiary, Mohsen Khosravi; Goodarzi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Congenital sternal foramen is an anomaly whose occurrence is rare in human but is especially unusual in animals. This defect was formed when fusion of multiple ossification centers was incomplete. It may be associated with other lesions in body organs especially cardiac anomalies. In the present study, we report a very rare case of congenital sternal foramen in a Holstein calf. The oval defect was like a gunshot wound and located at the lower third of the sternum. Apparently, the rest of skeleton system seems normal. The awareness of the anomaly is important for better diagnosis and treatment of diseases. PMID:23569841

  20. Potential vectors of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses of cattle and white-tailed deer in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Mullen, G R; Hayes, M E; Nusbaum, K E

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen Culicoides spp. were collected on Holstein cattle in Alabama: C. arboricola, C. bickleyi, C. biguttatus, C. debilipalpis, C. guttipennis, C. haematopotus, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis, C. piliferus, C. sanguisuga, C. spinosus, C. stellifer, C. variipennis and C. venustus. Six Culicoides spp. were collected directly from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): C. debilipalpis, C. niger, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis, C. sanguisuga and C. stellifer. Based on their host-feeding behavior, abundance and seasonal occurrence, the following 4 species warrant particular attention as potential vectors of bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses in the southeastern US: C. debilipalpis, C. obsoletus, C. paraensis and C. stellifer. PMID:2989854

  1. Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, false discovery rate q < 0.05) between the high and low groups of cows were revealed. Gene ontology and pathway analysis demonstrated that the 31 differently expressed genes were enriched in specific biological processes with regard to protein metabolism, fat metabolism, and mammary gland development (p < 0.05). Integrated analysis of differential gene expression, previously reported quantitative trait loci, and genome-wide association studies indicated that TRIB3, SAA (SAA1, SAA3, and M-SAA3.2), VEGFA, PTHLH, and RPL23A were the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein and fat percentage. Conclusions This study investigated the complexity of the mammary gland transcriptome in dairy cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits. PMID:24655368

  2. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, T.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle. PMID:25049602

  3. Population genetic structure in the Holstein breed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhes Arajo da Silva, Mrio Henrique; Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes; Costa, Jos Lauro; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Costa, Claudio Napolis; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the population genetic structure of the Holstein breed in Brazil through pedigree analysis with the aim of supporting genetic management of extant herds. We used data from genealogical records of 204,511 animals in farms from south and southeast Brazil. Pedigree records between 1943 and 2005 were divided into seven periods of 8years to estimate the effective population size (N e ). N e varied during the study periods, ranging from 0.19 to 3016.25. There was an increase in the percentage of inbred animals over time, from 0.18 to 5.0%. However, this figure may be an underestimate due to the low completeness of pedigree, primarily related to paternal pedigree. The effective number of founders (fe) was 473 animals and ancestors (fa) was 471. The genetic contribution of 260 ancestors (founders or not) accounted for 50% of the genetic variability in the population. The average relatedness coefficient (AR) and inbreeding coefficient indicate that the Holstein breed in Brazil is being effectively managed, despite a moderate founder effect and the low number of animals that are responsible for the population variance. PMID:26584942

  4. Associations between milk performance traits in Holstein cows and 16 candidate SNPs identified by arrayed primer extension (APEX) microarray.

    PubMed

    Kami?ski, S; Brym, P; Ru??, A; Wjcik, E; Ahman, A; Mgi, R

    2006-01-01

    An oligonucleotide microarray-which allows for parallel genotyping of many SNPs in genes involved in cow milk protein biosynthesis-was used to identify which of the 16 candidate SNPs are associated with milk performance traits in Holstein cows. Four hundred cows were genotyped by the developed and validated microarray. Significant associations were found between four single SNPs, namely DGAT1 (acyloCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase), LTF (lactoferrin), CSN3 (kappa-casein), and GHR (growth hormone receptor) and with fat and protein yield and percentage. Many significant associations between combined genotypes (two SNPs) and milk performance traits were found. The associations between the combined genotypes DGAT1/LTF and DGAT1/LEPTIN analyzed traits are presented as examples. The microarray based on APEX (Arrayed Primer Extension) is a fast and reliable method for multiple SNP analysis of potential application in marker-assisted selection. After further development, the chip may prospectively be used for dairy cattle paternity analysis and evolutionary studies. PMID:16621755

  5. Fluid therapy in mature cattle.

    PubMed

    Roussel, A J

    1999-11-01

    Fluid therapy is practical and beneficial when properly administered to cattle. Mature cattle are more frequently alkalotic than acidotic, so nonalkalizing solutions are usually indicated. Exceptions include cattle with choke, carbohydrate engorgement, diabetes mellitus, and occasionally, renal disease, diarrhea, and fatty liver/ketosis. Many dehydrated cattle need supplemental potassium and calcium as well as sodium, chloride, and water. Intravenous administration is indicated in patients with obstructive gastrointestinal disease and those with severe dehydration. Oral or intraruminal administration is less expensive and, often, very effective. PMID:10573811

  6. Fluid therapy in mature cattle.

    PubMed

    Roussel, A J

    1990-03-01

    Fluid therapy is practical and beneficial when properly administered to cattle. Mature cattle are more frequently alkalotic than acidotic, so nonalkalizing solutions are usually indicated. Exceptions include cattle with choke, carbohydrate engorgement, diabetes mellitus, and, occasionally, renal disease, diarrhea, and fatty liver/ketosis. Most dehydrated cattle need supplemental potassium and calcium as well as sodium, chloride, and water. Intravenous administration is indicated in patients with obstructive gastrointestinal disease and those with severe dehydration. Oral or intraruminal administration is less expensive and often very effective. PMID:2178737

  7. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period. PMID:26211440

  8. Detection of copy number variations and their effects in Chinese bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are a main source of genomic structural variations underlying animal evolution and production traits. Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of CNVs in Chinese domesticated bulls and examination of their effects on gene expression and cattle growth traits. We identifi...

  9. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  10. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    PubMed

    ?evik, Murat; Avc?, O?uzhan; ?nce, mer Bar??

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28%) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28%) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82%) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection. PMID:25708566

  11. Multibreed genomic evaluations using purebred Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic models were developed and tested using the 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2009 USD...

  12. Short communication: Genetic relationships of milk coagulation properties with body condition score and linear type traits in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Cassandro, M; Battagin, M; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M

    2015-01-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are gaining popularity among dairy cattle producers and the improvement of traits associated with MCP is expected to result in a benefit for the dairy industry, especially in countries with a long tradition in cheese production. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations of MCP with body condition score (BCS) and type traits using data from first-parity Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The data analyzed consisted of 18,460 MCP records from 4,036 cows with information on both BCS and conformation traits. The cows were daughters of 246 sires and the pedigree file included a total of 37,559 animals. Genetic relationships of MCP with BCS and type traits were estimated using bivariate animal models. The model for MCP included fixed effects of stage of lactation, and random effects of herd-test-date, cow permanent environment, additive genetic animal, and residual. Fixed factors considered in the model for BCS and type traits were herd-date of evaluation and interaction between age at scoring and stage of lactation of the cow, and random terms were additive genetic animal, cow permanent environment, and residual. Genetic relationships between MCP and BCS, and MCP and type traits were generally low and significant only in a few cases, suggesting that MCP can be selected for without detrimental effects on BCS and linear type traits. PMID:25465560

  13. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY

  14. Teaching Business Chinese Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a comprehensive approach to teaching business Chinese online that is beng developed in the language learning laboratory at the University of Illinois. The courseware consists of two complementary parts: a business Chinese workbook and a business Chinese simulation. (Author/VWL)

  15. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  16. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented

  17. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One

  18. Chinese-Mandarin; Chinese Character Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This writing exercise book, designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course, consists of step-by-step illustrations for copying 825 characters in the Chinese writing system. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.] (AMM)

  19. Quantitative comparisons of select cultured and uncultured microbial populations in the rumen of cattle fed different diets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The number and diversity of uncultured ruminal bacterial and archaeal species revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences greatly exceeds that of cultured bacteria and archaea. However, the significance of uncultured microbes remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to assess the numeric importance of select uncultured bacteria and cultured bacteria and the impact of diets and microenvironments within cow rumen in a comparative manner. Results Liquid and adherent fractions were obtained from the rumen of Jersey cattle fed hay alone and Holstein cattle fed hay plus grain. The populations of cultured and uncultured bacteria present in each fraction were quantified using specific real-time PCR assays. The population of total bacteria was similar between fractions or diets, while total archaea was numerically higher in the hay-fed Jersey cattle than in the hay-grain-fed Holstein cattle. The population of the genus Prevotella was about one log smaller than that of total bacteria. The populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the genus Butyrivibrio, and R. albus was at least one log smaller than that of genus Prevotella. Four of the six uncultured bacteria quantified were as abundant as F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and the genus Butyrivibrio. In addition, the populations of several uncultured bacteria were significantly higher in the adherent fractions than in the liquid fractions. These uncultured bacteria may be associated with fiber degradation. Conclusions Some uncultured bacteria are as abundant as those of major cultured bacteria in the rumen. Uncultured bacteria may have important contribution to ruminal fermentation. Population dynamic studies of uncultured bacteria in a comparative manner can help reveal their ecological features and importance to rumen functions. PMID:22958370

  20. Breeding for nobility or for production? Cultures of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands, 1945-1995.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2012-06-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s Dutch farmers replaced their dual-purpose Friesian cows with Holsteins, a highly specialized American dairy breed. The changeover was related to a major turnabout in breeding practices that involved the adoption of quantitative genetics. Dutch commercial breeders had long resisted the quantitative approach to breeding that scientists had been recommending since World War II. After about 1970, however, they gave up their resistance: the art of breeding, it was said, finally became a science. In historical overviews this turnabout is seen as part of what is called the "modernization project" in Dutch agriculture that the government instigated after the war. Economic developments are assumed to have necessitated this project, and specialization of production is seen as a natural consequence. This essay argues that the idea that the art of breeding was turned into a science is to a certain extent misleading. Furthermore, it aims to show that economic pressures and government policies cannot adequately explain the turn toward Holsteins. A better understanding can be obtained by framing the Holsteinization process as the result of a changeover in breeding culture--that is, in the ensemble of shared convictions, beliefs, conventions, methods, practices, and the like that characterized practical cattle breeding and that involved scientific, technical, economic, aesthetic, normative, and commercial considerations. PMID:22908422

  1. Cattle Tyrant Perched on Horse

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cattle tyrant perched on horse near Asuncion Bay, Paraguay. Cattle tyrants feed on parasitic arthropods on mammals, an example of mutualism. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savanna, Pas...

  2. Associations between allelic polymorphism of the BMP Binding Endothelial Regulator and phenotypic variation of cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunping; Gui, Linsheng; Li, Yaokun; Plath, Martin; Zan, Linsen

    2015-12-01

    The BMP Binding Endothelial Regulator (BMPER) is an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which play fundamental roles in adipocyte differentiation, fat development and energy balance. The objectives of this study were to detect polymorphisms of BMPER gene in four indigenous Chinese cattle populations and to investigate their effects on body size traits. Initially, three SNPs, namely G100597A (SNP1), C105331A (SNP2), and G105521A (SNP3) and eight distinct haplotypes were identified. In a total of 12 SNP-SNP combinations, SNP2-SNP3 had a strong linkage in Qinchuan cattle. These four cattle populations belong to intermediate genetic diversity at three SNP loci except Shuxuan cattle population in SNP3. At SNP1, genotype AA was associated with an increased body size. For SNP2, the heterozygous genotype individuals had a greater rump length than those of two other homozygotic genotypes. At SNP3, individuals with GG genotype had smaller rump length and hip width. A total of seven haplotype combinations were detected in Qinchuan cattle population and association analysis results showed individuals with Haplotype combination 4/2 (AAA/CAA) had greater rump length than those with Hap3/1 and Hap3/3 (P<0.05). These results strongly suggest that bovine BMPER gene may be used as a genetic marker for cattle breeding. PMID:26420743

  3. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  4. Retinal function and morphology are altered in cattle infected with the prion disease transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West

    2009-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Mller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of new strategies for the diagnosis of TSEs. PMID:19429980

  5. Migration of Holstein Polarons in Anatase TiO2.

    PubMed

    Yan, Likai; Chen, Hanning

    2014-11-11

    A simple yet reliable valence bond theory was applied to ascertain the effective size and shape for the electron and hole polarons in bulk anatase TiO2 by examining the extent of polaron charge delocalization. It was found that the electron polaron is approximately 2 times as large as its hole counterpart, leading to a faster electron diffusion than hole hopping with regard to the electron-phonon coupling strength. Moreover, the oblate hole polaron exhibits a pronounced directional heterogeneity in migration, whereas the nearly spherical electron polaron tends to diffuse along all possible lattice directions. In light of the notable delocalization characteristics of both polarons, their migration should proceed in an adiabatic manner, and their rates can be calculated by the Arrhenius equation. It turns out that our calculated polaron mobilities at 300 and 1300K are both in excellent agreement with experimental values, justifying our novel approach for Holstein polaron modeling in crystalline semiconductors. PMID:26584382

  6. Congenital chondrodysplastic dwarfism with dyshematopoiesis in a holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kazumi; Maruyama, Minoru; Dobashi, Koji; Tanimura, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Haritani, Makoto; Nakajima, Yasuyuki

    2002-10-01

    A holstein calf with congenital chondrodysplastic dwarfism was histopathologically examined. The head of the calf was relatively flat giving a dog-like appearance with its short nose and sloping forehead. Limb bones were dumbbell-like with short diaphysis and hypertrophied metaphyses. Bone marrow was pale, whitish and fatty. In the metaphyseal plates most of chondrocytes were pyknotic with swollen and ghost-like cytoplasm, and were irregularly arranged. Column of calcified cartilage were poorly formed losing comb-like structure. Bone marrow was ischemic with poor hematopoiesis and was moderately replaced by adipose tissue. In articular cartilage, most of chondrocytes were degenerated with ghost-like cytoplasm. Many cartilage canals and occasional bone marrow-like structure were formed. The characteristics lesions of the calf were chondrodysplasia and dyshematopoiesis. PMID:12419872

  7. Quantum phase transitions in a pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Mengxing; Ingersent, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    We study a pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model of a magnetic impurity level that hybridizes with a conduction band whose density of states vanishes in power-law fashion at the Fermi energy, and couples, via its charge, to a nondispersive bosonic mode (e.g., an optical phonon). The model, which we treat using poor-man's scaling and the numerical renormalization group, exhibits quantum phase transitions of different types depending on the strength of the impurity-boson coupling. For weak impurity-boson coupling, the suppression of the density of states near the Fermi energy leads to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (Kondo) and local-moment phases. For sufficiently strong impurity-boson coupling, however, the bare repulsion between a pair of electrons in the impurity level becomes an effective attraction, leading to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (charge Kondo) and local-charge phases. Even though the Hamiltonian exhibits different symmetries in the spin and charge sectors, the thermodynamic properties near the two types of quantum phase transition are closely related under spin-charge interchange. Moreover, the critical responses to a local magnetic field (for small impurity-boson coupling) and to an electric potential (for large impurity-boson coupling) are characterized by the same exponents, whose values place these quantum-critical points in the universality class of the pseudogap Anderson model. One specific case of the pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model may be realized in a double-quantum-dot device, where the quantum phase transitions manifest themselves in the finite-temperature linear electrical conductance.

  8. Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS|) and population differentiation index (FST)--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases) the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p < 0.05) from the expectation assuming a random distribution. However, significant FST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life and fertility traits in Holstein cattle. We conclude that high-resolution genome scans of selection signatures can be used to identify genomic regions contributing to within- and inter-breed phenotypic variation. PMID:21679429

  9. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Woerdenbag, H J

    1995-07-28

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal medicine in China. It also describes modern scientific research into and the quality control of Chinese herbal medicines in China. Some examples of how new drugs derived from Chinese herbs have been developed on the basis of traditional therapeutic experience are presented. Finally, the situation of Chinese herbal medicine in the West is discussed. PMID:7581215

  10. Accuracy of direct genomic values in Holstein bulls and cows using subsets of SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background At the current price, the use of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping assays in genomic selection of dairy cattle is limited to applications involving elite sires and dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of low-density assays to predict direct genomic value (DGV) on five milk production traits, an overall conformation trait, a survival index, and two profit index traits (APR, ASI). Methods Dense SNP genotypes were available for 42,576 SNP for 2,114 Holstein bulls and 510 cows. A subset of 1,847 bulls born between 1955 and 2004 was used as a training set to fit models with various sets of pre-selected SNP. A group of 297 bulls born between 2001 and 2004 and all cows born between 1992 and 2004 were used to evaluate the accuracy of DGV prediction. Ridge regression (RR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were used to derive prediction equations and to rank SNP based on the absolute value of the regression coefficients. Four alternative strategies were applied to select subset of SNP, namely: subsets of the highest ranked SNP for each individual trait, or a single subset of evenly spaced SNP, where SNP were selected based on their rank for ASI, APR or minor allele frequency within intervals of approximately equal length. Results RR and PLSR performed very similarly to predict DGV, with PLSR performing better for low-density assays and RR for higher-density SNP sets. When using all SNP, DGV predictions for production traits, which have a higher heritability, were more accurate (0.52-0.64) than for survival (0.19-0.20), which has a low heritability. The gain in accuracy using subsets that included the highest ranked SNP for each trait was marginal (5-6%) over a common set of evenly spaced SNP when at least 3,000 SNP were used. Subsets containing 3,000 SNP provided more than 90% of the accuracy that could be achieved with a high-density assay for cows, and 80% of the high-density assay for young bulls. Conclusions Accurate genomic evaluation of the broader bull and cow population can be achieved with a single genotyping assays containing ~ 3,000 to 5,000 evenly spaced SNP. PMID:20950478

  11. Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Hernandez, L L

    2015-04-01

    Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day -3 compared with -5 and -7 precalving (167.7 80 vs 1511.1 602 ng/mL). 5-HT nadir was on day -1 precalving and remained low postcalving (481.4 49 ng/mL). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased precalving (P = 0.008) and were positively correlated with 5-HT during the precalving period (r = 0.55, P = 0.043). On day 1, postcalving hepatic messenger RNA expression of 5-HT1D, 2B, 3C, 6, and 7 receptors were decreased compared with day -7 (P < 0.048). The 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B decreased on day 7. The 5-HT2A increased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). The 5-HT1F and 5-HT1A receptors were increased 2.5- and 3.8-fold on day 7, respectively, compared with days -7 and 1 (P < 0.046). The 5-HT5A was not detected, and 5-HT4 was detected on days -7 and 1 only. Expression of Glut-2,-5 and SGLT1 were decreased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05), whereas Glut-1 was increased on day 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 5-HT could be important for liver glucose homeostasis possibly through receptor mediated signaling at specific times. Additional research is needed to further explore the functional role of these receptors in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. PMID:25528206

  12. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, GwangHyun; Park, SuBong; Kim, SiDong; Choi, JaeGwan; Park, ByungHo; Park, ChanHyuk; Do, ChangHee

    2015-09-01

    The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd) 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling rates while improving herd health and maintaining high yielding dairy cows. PMID:26194223

  13. Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    PubMed

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Orsel, K

    2016-03-01

    Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Québec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22cm high, the use of sand or >2cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06h/d, respectively. Feed alleys ≥350cm wide or stalls ≥114cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time ≥14h/d, ≤5 lying bouts per day, bout duration ≥110min/bout, or standard deviations of bout duration over 4 d ≥70min had 3.7, 1.7, 2.5, and 3.0higher odds of being lame, respectively. Factors related to comfort of lying and standing surfaces significantly affected lying behavior. Finally, we inferred that automated measures of lying behavior could contribute to lameness detection, especially when interpreted in the context of other factors known to affect lying behavior, including those associated with the individual cow (e.g., parity and stage of lactation) or environment (e.g., stall surface). PMID:26805982

  14. Expressional Analysis of Immunoglobulin D in Cattle (Bos taurus), a Large Domesticated Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beilei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhiguo; Sun, Yi; Tao, Qiqing; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-01-01

    For decades, it has remained unknown whether artiodactyls, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, express immunoglobulin D (IgD), although the δ gene was identified in these species nearly 10 years ago. By developing a mouse anti-bovine IgD heavy chain monoclonal antibody (13C2), we show that secreted bovine IgD was present mainly as a monomer in serum and was heavily glycosylated by N-linked saccharides. Nonetheless, IgD was detectable in some but not all of the Holstein cattle examined. Membrane-bound IgD was detected in the spleen by western blotting. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IgD-positive B cells constituted a much lower percentage of B cells in the bovine spleen (∼6.8% of total B cells), jejunal Peyer's patches (∼0.8%), and peripheral blood leukocytes (∼1.2%) than in humans and mice. Furthermore, IgD-positive B cells were almost undetectable in bovine bone marrow and ileal Peyer's patches. We also demonstrated that the bovine δ gene can be expressed via class switch recombination. Accordingly, bovine δ germline transcription, which involves an Iδ exon and is highly homologous to Iμ, was confirmed. However, we could not identify an Iδ promoter, despite bovine Eμ demonstrating both enhancer and promoter activity. This study has answered a long-standing question in cattle B cell biology and significantly contributes to our understanding of B cell development in this species. PMID:23028592

  15. Sequence variations of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in native Korean Hanwoo cattle

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sangho

    2012-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is one of the fatal neurodegenerative diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) caused by infectious prion proteins. Genetic variations correlated with susceptibility or resistance to TSE in humans and sheep have not been reported for bovine strains including those from Holstein, Jersey, and Japanese Black cattle. Here, we investigated bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) variations in Hanwoo cattle [Bos (B.) taurus coreanae], a native breed in Korea. We identified mutations and polymorphisms in the coding region of PRNP, determined their frequency, and evaluated their significance. We identified four synonymous polymorphisms and two non-synonymous mutations in PRNP, but found no novel polymorphisms. The sequence and number of octapeptide repeats were completely conserved, and the haplotype frequency of the coding region was similar to that of other B. taurus strains. When we examined the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the non-coding region of PRNP, Hanwoo cattle had a lower deletion allele and 23-bp del/12-bp del haplotype frequency than healthy and BSE-affected animals of other strains. Thus, Hanwoo are seemingly less susceptible to BSE than other strains due to the 23-bp and 12-bp indel polymorphisms. PMID:22705734

  16. Transcriptome profiling of Musculus longissimus dorsi in two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat deposition

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Elke; Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Gotoh, Takafumi; Wimmers, Klaus; Maak, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition is a physiological process in cattle and is highly variable among breeds suggesting a large influence of genetic factors besides environmental factors. In order to elucidate molecular pathways underlying the genetic variation in this trait we compared transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) in steers of Japanese Black and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds fed a high energy diet typically applied in Japan to achieve maximum IMF content. We identified a total of 569 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with the majority (433) up-regulated in Japanese Black cattle. This breed is characterized by an extreme capacity for IMF deposition. Subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed a gene network linking parameters of cell morphology and maintenance with lipid metabolism. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75348. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in fat deposition under high-energy nutrition. PMID:26981380

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurlien; Pausch, Hubert; Stothard, Paul; van Binsbergen, Rianne; Brndum, Rasmus F; Liao, Xiaoping; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Grohs, Ccile; Esquerr, Diane; Bouchez, Olivier; Rossignol, Marie-Nolle; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fritz, Sbastien; Eggen, Andr; Bowman, Phil J; Coote, David; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Anderson, Charlotte; VanTassell, Curt P; Hulsegge, Ina; Goddard, Mike E; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Veerkamp, Roel F; Boichard, Didier A; Fries, Ruedi; Hayes, Ben J

    2014-08-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes project, we sequenced the whole genomes of 234 cattle to an average of 8.3-fold coverage. This sequencing includes data for 129 individuals from the global Holstein-Friesian population, 43 individuals from the Fleckvieh breed and 15 individuals from the Jersey breed. We identified a total of 28.3 million variants, with an average of 1.44 heterozygous sites per kilobase for each individual. We demonstrate the use of this database in identifying a recessive mutation underlying embryonic death and a dominant mutation underlying lethal chrondrodysplasia. We also performed genome-wide association studies for milk production and curly coat, using imputed sequence variants, and identified variants associated with these traits in cattle. PMID:25017103

  18. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

  19. Transcriptome profiling of Musculus longissimus dorsi in two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Elke; Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Gotoh, Takafumi; Wimmers, Klaus; Maak, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition is a physiological process in cattle and is highly variable among breeds suggesting a large influence of genetic factors besides environmental factors. In order to elucidate molecular pathways underlying the genetic variation in this trait we compared transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) in steers of Japanese Black and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds fed a high energy diet typically applied in Japan to achieve maximum IMF content. We identified a total of 569 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with the majority (433) up-regulated in Japanese Black cattle. This breed is characterized by an extreme capacity for IMF deposition. Subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed a gene network linking parameters of cell morphology and maintenance with lipid metabolism. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75348. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in fat deposition under high-energy nutrition. PMID:26981380

  20. Portable capillary electrophoresis system for identification of cattle breeds based on DNA mobility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miji; Cho, Keunchang; Yoon, Duhak; Yoo, Dong Jin; Kang, Seong Ho

    2010-08-01

    A portable CE system was developed for the identification of cattle breeds. The system had a width of 44 cm, depth of 27 cm, height of 13 cm, and a weight of only approximately 8 kg and included an LIF detector, with everything integrated into a small box. The specific sizes of genes were quickly separated and detected with a high sensitivity based on the difference in the DNA mobility using a diode-pumped solid-state LIF detector. Using this system, the 100-bp DNA ladder was analyzed under a 1.0% PVP (M(r)=300 000) sieving gel matrix in a fused silica capillary with LODs of 4.4-13.0 pg/microL (S/N=3) for 100-3000 bp DNAs, which indicates ten times improved value than other commercialized portable CE system. The migration times and the peak areas showed good reproducibilities with relative standard deviations that were less than 0.49 and 1.3% (n=5), respectively. Based on the difference in the DNA mobility of the microsatellite and SNP markers, Korean cattle and Holstein were exactly identified as the model cattle breeds within 32 and 3.5 min, respectively. PMID:20665526

  1. [Performance and parasitologic infestation of male dairy cattle supplemented with proteic salt containing or not homeopathic medicines].

    PubMed

    Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection. PMID:20059813

  2. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at the time of conception is associated with lower milk production during the first lactation. While this association does not prove cause and effect, it does provide justification for additional investigation into whether heat stress around the time of conception results in long-term, detrimental consequences for the conceptus. PMID:26840076

  3. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at the time of conception is associated with lower milk production during the first lactation. While this association does not prove cause and effect, it does provide justification for additional investigation into whether heat stress around the time of conception results in long-term, detrimental consequences for the conceptus. PMID:26840076

  4. Lipid composition of teat canal keratin collected before and after milking from Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Bitman, J; Wood, D L; Bright, S A; Miller, R H; Capuco, A V; Roche, A; Pankey, J W

    1991-02-01

    In three experiments, keratin was collected from individual teats of 40 Holstein and 20 Jersey cows immediately before and after milking. In Experiments 1 and 2, keratin collected from teats of 20 Holstein cows before milking was compared with keratin collected after milking. In Experiment 3, keratin was collected from two teats of 20 Jersey and 20 Holstein cows before milking and compared to the other two teats of the same cows after milking. All three experiments yielded similar results. In Holsteins, keratin weight before milking was 1.6 times greater than keratin weight after milking (3.1 vs. 1.9 mg). In Jerseys, only small amounts of keratin were removed during milking (3.5 mg before vs. 3.1 mg after) In Holsteins and Jerseys, neutral lipid concentration was 1.6 times greater after milking than before, suggesting that when keratin was removed during milking, only moderate amounts of lipid were removed. In Holsteins, total lipid collected per teat was similar before or after milking (59.2 vs. 48.5 micrograms). Results demonstrate that keratin collected after milking had a different lipid composition than keratin collected before milking. PMID:1710628

  5. Abomasal erosions in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R; Spraker, T R; Glock, R D; Jones, R L; Collins, J K; Flack, D E; Kerschen, R; Hoff, R L

    1992-01-01

    The abomasa of 1,949 slaughtered feedlot cattle, 45 necropsied feedlot cattle that died 2 to 45 days after arrival, and 45 necropsied pastured cattle were opened and examined. Of these organs, 484, 1, and none, respectively, contained erosions. The slaughtered cattle were fattened at 3 locations: 1,305 with 430 eroded abomasa were fed a ration of corn in northeastern Colorado; 144 cattle with 4 affected abomasa fed a ration of milo in south-central Arizona; and 500 cattle with 50 affected abomasa fed a ration of milo and corn in northwestern Texas. The red-brown lesions developed late during the second semester of fattening and were located mostly on fundic folds. Those on fold edges were linear and were 2 to 15 cm long, whereas those on fold sides were punctate and were 2 to 15 mm in diameter. Normal fold edges contained fewer goblet cells and less surface mucus than did fold sides. Eroded folds had disruption of surface epithelium, damage to endothelial cells, and dilated, thrombosed, congested, and ruptured capillaries. Mean pH values of 16 normal and 17 eroded abomasa were 4.7 and 3.9, respectively. Necrosis of all tissue toward the mucosal surface of erosions was extensive. The cause of gastric erosion in cattle is not known. PMID:1539902

  6. The assembly and characterisation of two structurally distinct cattle MHC class I haplotypes point to the mechanisms driving diversity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, John C; Hammond, John A

    2015-09-01

    In cattle, there are six classical MHC class I genes that are variably present between different haplotypes. Almost all known haplotypes contain between one and three genes, with an allele of Gene 2 present on the vast majority. However, very little is known about the sequence and therefore structure and evolutionary history of this genomic region. To address this, we have refined the MHC class I region in the Hereford cattle genome assembly and sequenced a complete A14 haplotype from a homozygous Holstein. Comparison of the two haplotypes revealed extensive variation within the MHC class Ia region, but not within the flanking regions, with each gene contained within a conserved 63- to 68-kb sequence block. This variable region appears to have undergone block gene duplication and likely deletion at regular breakpoints, suggestive of a site-specific mechanism. Phylogenetic analysis using complete gene sequences provided evidence of allelic diversification via gene conversion, with breakpoints between each of the extracellular domains that were associated with high guanine-cytosine (GC) content. Advancing our knowledge of cattle MHC class I evolution will help inform investigations of cattle genetic diversity and disease resistance. PMID:26227296

  7. A proline-to-histidine mutation in POU1F1 is associated with production traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Maltecca, C; Khatib, H

    2008-10-01

    POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1) is a member of the tissue-specific POU-containing transcription factor family. The expression of POU1F1 in mammalian pituitary gland controls the transcription of the genes encoding growth hormone, prolactin (PRL) and the subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone. In addition, some genes in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway downstream of POU1F1 have been shown to be associated with different production traits in dairy cattle. To investigate whether the POU1F1 gene is associated with economically important traits in dairy cattle, a pooled DNA sequencing approach was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene. An SNP in exon 3 of POU1F1 that changes a proline to a histidine was identified. A total of 2141 individuals from two North American Holstein cattle resource populations were genotyped for this SNP using a modified PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analyses revealed significant association of POU1F1 variants with milk yield and productive life, which makes POU1F1 a possible candidate for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programmes. PMID:18557974

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle in Korea between 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun; Hwang, Sun Young; Kwon, Ka Hee; Kim, Ki Yeon; Kim, Jae Hong

    2014-01-01

    A total of 156 Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from fecal samples of Korean native (100/568, 18%) and Holstein dairy cattle (56/524, 11%) in Korea between September 2010 and July 2011. Fifty-two STEC isolates (33%) harbored both of shiga toxin1 (stx1) and shiga toxin2 (stx2) genes encoding enterohemolysin (EhxA) and autoagglutinating adhesion (Saa) were detected by PCR in 83 (53%) and 65 (42%) isolates, respectively. By serotyping, six STEC from native cattle and four STEC from dairy cattle were identified as O-serotypes (O26, O111, O104, and O157) that can cause human disease. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns highlighted the genetic diversity of the STEC strains and difference between strains collected during different years. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the multidrug resistance rate increased from 12% in 2010 to 42% in 2011. Differences between isolates collected in 2010 and 2011 may have resulted from seasonal variations or large-scale slaughtering in Korea performed to control a foot and mouth disease outbreak that occurred in early 2011. However, continuous epidemiologic studies will be needed to understand mechanisms. More public health efforts are required to minimize STEC infection transmitted via dairy products and the prevalence of these bacteria in dairy cattle. PMID:23820205

  9. Practical aspects of the fertility of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2011-02-01

    To establish sustainability in the dairy industry, it is important that cows become pregnant at a biologically optimal time and at an economically profitable interval after calving. In this review, the results obtained from Holstein cattle in an experimental herd for dairy research are summarized. First, the effect of age at first calving of heifers on productive and reproductive performance was examined. A reduction in calving age from 25.1 to 21.5 months with the same growth rate during the first 12 months after birth had no negative effects on the heifers' performance. Second, the postpartum follicular dynamics of lactating cows were traced in relation to their fertility, and the emergence and fate of cystic ovarian follicles were examined. The premature initiation of ovarian activity does not always improve the fertility of cows as indicated by the number of days open. Third, the occurrences of anestrous ovulation during the early postpartum period were analyzed with reference to the frequency of reversion to anestrus. The premature onset of estrous activity also did not improve fertility, and relapse back into anestrus after the onset of the estrous cycle often occurred during the breeding period. Fourth, some indices for the occurrence of postpartum reproductive events were evaluated as an indicator of the reproductive performance of lactating cows. The milk yield and percentage of body weight loss could be indicators for reproductive events. Finally, the potency of a pedometry system for the detection of typical and atypical estrous behaviors of heifers and lactating cows was evaluated in terms of efficiency and accuracy. The location of the pedometers and housing conditions for the animals affected the estrus detection of the system. These results represent the reproductive potential of modern high-yielding dairy cattle and provide a baseline to evaluate their reproduction. PMID:21422734

  10. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. PMID:26662353

  11. Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Yu, Dayeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Lim, Dajeong

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. A total of approximately 3.12 and 3.07 billion sequence reads were mapped to the bovine reference sequence assembly (UMD 3.1) at an average of approximately 10.71- and 10.53-fold coverage for Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 17,936,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were yielded, of which 22.3% were found to be novel. By annotating the SNPs, we further retrieved numerous nonsynonymous SNPs that may be associated with traits of interest in cattle. Furthermore, we performed whole-genome screening to detect signatures of selection throughout the genome. We located several promising selective sweeps that are potentially responsible for economically important traits in cattle; the PPP1R12A gene is an example of a gene that potentially affects intramuscular fat content. These discoveries provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds. PMID:26018558

  12. Multibreed genome wide association can improve precision of mapping causative variants underlying milk production in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in most cattle breeds result in large genomic intervals of significant associations making it difficult to identify causal mutations. This is due to the extensive, low-level linkage disequilibrium within a cattle breed. As there is less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, multibreed GWAS may improve precision of causal variant mapping. Here we test this hypothesis in a Holstein and Jersey cattle data set with 17,925 individuals with records for production and functional traits and 632,003 SNP markers. Results By using a cross validation strategy within the Holstein and Jersey data sets, we were able to identify and confirm a large number of QTL. As expected, the precision of mapping these QTL within the breeds was limited. In the multibreed analysis, we found that many loci were not segregating in both breeds. This was partly an artefact of power of the experiments, with the number of QTL shared between the breeds generally increasing with trait heritability. False discovery rates suggest that the multibreed analysis was less powerful than between breed analyses, in terms of how much genetic variance was explained by the detected QTL. However, the multibreed analysis could more accurately pinpoint the location of the well-described mutations affecting milk production such as DGAT1. Further, the significant SNP in the multibreed analysis were significantly enriched in genes regions, to a considerably greater extent than was observed in the single breed analyses. In addition, we have refined QTL on BTA5 and BTA19 to very small intervals and identified a small number of potential candidate genes in these, as well as in a number of other regions. Conclusion Where QTL are segregating across breed, multibreed GWAS can refine these to reasonably small genomic intervals. However, such QTL appear to represent only a fraction of the genetic variation. Our results suggest a significant proportion of QTL affecting milk production segregate within rather than across breeds, at least for Holstein and Jersey cattle. PMID:24456127

  13. Relationship of declines in grain consumption and milk yield to estrus in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, T; Kenney, D; Garcia, M; Kristula, M; Wolfer, J; Haenlein, G

    1987-10-01

    A retrospective study was done to determine if a reduction in daily grain consumption or decline in daily milk yield were accurate indicators of estrus in 25 Holstein cows. A computer automatically identified all cows that left more than 10% of their daily grain allocation in the feed stall or that gave less than 85% of their most current 7-d daily average milk yeild. By retrospectively analyzing breeding records, grain refusal and milk declines were identified as either occurring in conjunction with estrus or nonestrus. Declines in grain consumption and milk yield were frequently associated with estrus, but many cows in estrus did not exhibit such declines. While such declines hold promise as estrous detection aids, it was concluded that refusals of daily grain allocation or declines in daily milk yield were not sufficiently accurate to supplant other methods of estrous detection in dairy cattle. PMID:16726323

  14. Immature T cell neoplasms in three young cattle

    PubMed Central

    YOKOTA, Rie; SATO, Kenshi; WADA, Yoshihiro; ISHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; KADOTA, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Immature T cell neoplasms in three young Holstein cattle with neoplastic involvement of the thymus are described. Case 1, with a precursor T lymphoblastic leukemia (calf form of leukosis), was an 86-day-old female calf. The leukemia was characterized by replacement of the bone marrow and spleen by leukemia cells, but preservation of epithelial frameworks throughout the thymus. The other two neoplasms were thymic ?? T cell lymphomas, which were observed in a 246-day-old steer (case 2) and a 16-month-old heifer (case 3). Histological examination revealed obliteration of the normal thymic architecture and stromal fibrosis, with the spleen and liver far less severely affected than in case 1. There were cytological differences bewteen the tumors in case 1 and cases 2 and 3. Additionally, WC1 and CD8 were expressed only in the latter. Thus, the leukemia and these lymphomas should be regarded as independent disease entities on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical characteristics. PMID:26212150

  15. Effects of ?-linolenic acid-enriched diets on gene expression of key inflammatory mediators in immune and milk cells obtained from Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezamand, Pedram; Hatch, Brent P; Carnahan, Kevin G; McGuire, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Immune system and inflammatory responses are affected by ?-linolenic acid (?LA: 18:3 ?-3). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ?LA-enriched rations on gene expression of systemic (blood) and local (mammary gland) inflammatory markers in Holstein dairy cattle. Further, the effect of dietary treatments was evaluated on the concentration of ?LA in serum phospholipids. Camelina (Camelina sativa) meal (containing 242% ?LA) was fed at 0, 3, 6, and 9% (dry matter basis) replacing canola meal (rich in 18:1 ?-9) to provide rations with incremental concentrations of ?LA. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 4 4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 16 d and milk and blood samples were collected during the final 2 d of each period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and milk cells (MC) were harvested, and RNA extracted and converted to complementary DNA for quantitative real time PCR analysis. The effect of dietary treatments (?LA) on the relative abundance of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in the PBMC and MC was tested by the MIXED procedure of SAS. Expression of pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? in MC was linearly reduced (up to 40%) as dietary ?LA increased. Expression of pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-8, and TNF-? was reduced (29, 20, and 27%, respectively) in PBMC isolated from cows fed 6% camelina meal ration as compared with cows fed 0% (control). Expression of IL-6 was, however, increased with inclusion of camelina meal. Greater dietary ?LA linearly increased serum phospholipids ?LA contents, and when fed up to 6% DM down-regulated expression of some of the local (milk) and systemic (blood) pro-inflammatory markers in vivo. PMID:26869108

  16. Polymorphism of exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 gene and its relationship with somatic cell score in Beijing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Chu, M X; Ye, S C; Qiao, L; Wang, J X; Feng, T; Huang, D W; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, G H

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, the exon 2 and 3' end sequence of intron 1 of BoLA-DRB3 gene of 211 Beijing Holstein cows was amplified and a uniform fragment of 284 bp was obtained. The genetic polymorphism was investigated by PCR-RFLP using two restriction endonucleases HaeIII and BstYI. Seven genotypes were detected by digesting the PCR products with HaeIII. The frequency of AA, AB, AC, AD, BB, BC and BF genotypes was 0.4638, 0.0193, 0.0193, 0.3478, 0.0290, 0.0386 and 0.0822, respectively. Three genotypes were found by digesting the PCR products with BstYI. The frequency of AA, AB and BB genotypes was 0.0569, 0.2844 and 0.6587, respectively. The relationship between the polymorphisms in exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 gene and somatic cell score (SCS) in Beijing Holstein cows was analyzed by least squares linear model. No significant difference was detected among least squares means of SCS for seven HaeIII-RFLP genotypes (P > 0.05). As for BstYI-RFLP analysis, least squares mean of SCS for AA was significantly lower than that for AB (P < 0.05) or BB (P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected between AB and BB genotypes (P > 0.05). BstYI AA was the most favorable genotype and BstYI BB was the most unfavorable genotype for mastitis resistance. The information found in the present study is very important for improving mastitis resistance in dairy cattle by marker assisted selection. PMID:21687974

  17. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Lungs in four cases contained multiple spicules of metaplastic bone within alveolar walls. This disease was associated with high doses of vitamin D3 in three cows and one heifer. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4. PMID:17422885

  18. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  19. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Sequencing and annotated analysis of the Holstein cow genome.

    PubMed

    Kõks, Sulev; Lilleoja, Rutt; Reimann, Ene; Salumets, Andres; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to create a high-quality Holstein cow genome reference sequence and describe the different types of variations in this genome compared to the reference Hereford breed. We generated one fragment and three mate-paired libraries from genomic DNA. Raw files were mapped and paired to the reference cow (Bos taurus) genome assemblies bosTau6/UMD_3.1. BioScope (v1.3) software was used for mapping and variant analysis. Initial sequencing resulted in 2,842,744,008 of 50-bp reads. Average mapping efficiency was 78.4 % and altogether 2,168,425,497 reads and 98,022,357,422 bp were successfully mapped, resulting in 36.7X coverage. Tertiary analysis found 5,923,230 SNPs in the bovine genome, of which 3,833,249 were heterozygous and 2,089,981 were homozygous variants. Annotation revealed that 4,241,000 of all discovered SNPs were annotated in the dbSNP database and 1,682,230 SNPs were considered as novel. Large indel variations accounted for 48,537,190 bp of the entire genome and there were 138,504 of them. The largest deletion was 18,594 bp and the largest insertion was 13,498 bp. Another group of variants, small indels (n = 458,061), accounted for the total variation of 1,839,872 nucleotides in the genome. Only 92,115 small indels were listed in the dbSNP and therefore 365,946 small indels were novel. Finally, we identified 1,876 inversions in the bovine genome. In conclusion, this is another description of the Holstein cow genome and, similar to previous studies, we found a large amount of novel variations. Better knowledge of these variations could explain significant phenotypic differences (e.g., health, production, reproduction) between different breeds. PMID:23893136

  1. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  2. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Tonhati, H; Lbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait. PMID:10729033

  3. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally. PMID:26641925

  4. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2015-08-01

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152

  5. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  6. Identification and Dissection of Four Major QTL Affecting Milk Fat Content in the German Holstein-Friesian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pausch, Hubert; Jung, Simone; Reinhardt, Friedrich; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Fries, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP) in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF) population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs) for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P?=?8.9110?198) and BTA20 (P?=?7.0310?12) within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P?=?2.0010?13) and BTA27 (P?=?9.8310?5) encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P?=?1.4010?12) and GPAT4 (P?=?5.1810?5), respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle. PMID:22792397

  7. Impact of stillbirth and abortion on the subsequent fertility and productivity of Holstein, Brown Swiss and their crosses in subtropics.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-10-01

    Stillbirth and abortion are serious problems in cattle breeding, from both economic and animal welfare standpoints. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and implications of stillbirth and abortion on the subsequent reproductive and production performance of the pure Holstein (HO), Brown Swiss (BS), and their F1 crosses (BF) in Egypt. The total number of records was 9275. The pure BS heifers had significantly (P < 0.05) lower incidence of stillbirth, abortion, and twinning (4.5, 2.3, and 1.5 %, respectively), compared with pure HO heifers (15.4, 5.3, and 4.8 %, respectively). Pure BS and BF cows coped with the harsh conditions of abnormal births, even though their subsequent reproductive indices were slightly reduced after stillbirths. In contrast, pure HO cows had significantly (P < 0.05) longer calving intervals and days open (475 and 198 days and 427 and 151 days, respectively) after stillbirths and abortions, compared with those that had normal births (381 and 149 days, respectively). Stillbirths decreased 305-day milk yield (305-MY, 14.5 %) and peak milk yield (Peak-MY, 29.1 %) in pure HO cows when compared with those calved normally. However, productive indices of pure BS and BF cows exposed to stillbirth or abortion were more tolerant. In conclusion, pure BS and BF cows can endure the difficult consequences of stillbirths or abortions under subtropical conditions. Nevertheless, fertility and milk yield had been deteriorated in pure HO. PMID:26070294

  8. Short communication: Genetic correlation of bovine leukosis incidence with somatic cell score and milk yield in a US Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, E A; Weigel, K A; Byrem, T M; Rosa, G J M

    2016-03-01

    Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus (BLV), which affects only cattle. Dairy cows positive for BL produce less milk and have more days open than cows negative for BL. In addition, the virus also affects the immune system and causes weaker response to vaccines. Heritability estimates of BL incidence have been reported for Jersey and Holstein populations at about 0.08, indicating an important genetic component that can potentially be exploited to reduce the prevalence of the disease. However, before BL is used in selection programs, it is important to study its genetic associations with other economically important traits such that correlated responses to selection can be predicted. Hence, this study aimed to estimate the genetic correlations of BL with milk yield (MY) and with somatic cell score (SCS). Data of a commercial assay (ELISA) used to detect BLV antibodies in milk samples were obtained from Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). The data included continuous milk ELISA scores and binary milk ELISA results for 11,554 cows from 112 dairy herds across 16 US states. Continuous and binary milk ELISA were analyzed with linear and threshold models, respectively, together with MY and SCS using multitrait animal models. Genetic correlations (posterior means ± standard deviations) between BL incidence and MY were 0.17±0.077 and 0.14±0.076 using ELISA scores and results, respectively; with SCS, such estimates were 0.20±0.081 and 0.17±0.079, respectively. In summary, the results indicate that selection for higher MY may lead to increased BLV prevalence in dairy herds, but that the inclusion of BL (or SCS as an indicator trait) in selection indexes may help attenuate this problem. PMID:26778307

  9. Time trends, environmental factors and genetic basis of semen traits collected in Holstein bulls under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Karoui, Sofiene; Daz, Clara; Serrano, Magdalena; Cue, Roger; Celorrio, Idoia; Carabao, Mara J

    2011-03-01

    The fact that results of artificial insemination (AI) are declining in highly selected dairy cattle populations has added a renewed interest to the evaluation of male fertility. Data from 42,348 ejaculates collected from 1990 to 2007 on 502 Holstein bulls were analysed in a Bayesian framework to provide estimates of the evolution of semen traits routinely collected in AI centres throughout the last decades of intense selection for production traits and estimate genetic parameters. The traits under consideration were volume (VOL), concentration (CONC), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (NESPZ), mass motility score (MM), individual motility (IM), and post-thawing motility (PTM). The environmental factors studied were year-season and week of collection, which account for changes in environmental and technical conditions along time, age at collection, ejaculate order, time from previous collection (TPC) and time between collection and freezing (TCF) (only for PTM). Bull's inbreeding coefficient (Fi), bull's permanent environmental and additive genetic effects were also considered. The use of reduced models was evaluated using the Bayes factor. For all the systematic effects tested, strong or very strong evidence in favour of including the effect in the model was obtained, except for Fi for motility traits and TCF for PTM. No systematic time trends for environment or bull effects were observed, except for PTM, which showed an increasing environmental trend, associated with improvements in freezing-thawing protocols. Heritability estimates were moderate (0.16-0.22), except for IM, which presented a low value (0.07). Genetic correlations among motilities and between motilities and CONC were large and positive [0.38-0.87], VOL showed a negative correlation with CONC (-0.13) but with ample HPD 95%. The magnitude of heritabilities would allow an efficient selection if required and grants the use of these traits as indicators of the sperm viability component of bulls breeding soundness. PMID:21377297

  10. SAMPLING GENE EXPRESSION FROM MAMMARY TISSUES BY EST SEQUENCING OR ORESTES CDNA LIBRARIES FROM HOLSTEIN AND GIR CATTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though more than 230,000 bovine expressed sequence tags (EST) are available in public databases, additional EST are needed. The objective of this study was to generate EST to better characterize the mammary gland transcriptome. Construction of cDNA libraries was performed using the open reading...

  11. Application of the BovineSNP50 assay for QTL mapping and prediction of genetic merit in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The previous fifteen years have produced numerous QTL mapping experiments aimed at the identification of causal or linked polymorphisms for use in marker assisted selection programs to increase the rate of genetic gain in livestock species. To date, very few causal mutations for QTL have been ident...

  12. Association analysis of bovine bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein gene polymorphisms with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is expressed primarily in bovine neutrophils and epithelial cells and functions as a binding protein of bacterial lipopolysaccharide produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The protein is important in host defense against bacterial infections and may pl...

  13. Heritability Estimated Using 50K SNPs Indicates Missing Heritability Problem in Holstein Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Donghyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Ka, Sojoeng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in Holstein have shown 35% to 51.8% heritability in milk production traits, such as milk yield, fat, and protein, using pedigree data. Other studies in complex human traits could be captured by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and their genetic variations, attributed to chromosomes, are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analyzed three quantitative Holstein traits relevant to milk production in Korean Holstein data harvested from 462 individuals genotyped for 54,609 SNPs. For all three traits (milk yield, fat, and protein), we estimated a nominally significant (p = 0.1) proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip (h2G). These common SNPs explained approximately most of the narrow-sense heritability. Longer genomic regions tended to provide more phenotypic variation information, with a correlation of 0.46~0.53 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length. These results suggested that polygenicity was ubiquitous for Holstein milk production traits. These results will expand our knowledge on recent animal breeding, such as genomic selection in Holstein. PMID:26865846

  14. Chinese by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31

  15. The Chinese Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostic, N.; Segan, S.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.

  16. QUESTIONS IN CHINESE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TSAO, WEN YEN

    THIS ARTICLE, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND CHINESE, IS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE PRESENTATION OF QUESTIONS IN THE TEACHING OF CHINESE. QUESTIONS CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CATEGORIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS--(1) PURE QUESTIONS, (2) RHETORICAL QUESTIONS, AND (3)

  17. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a

  18. Chinese by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  19. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the

  20. The Chinese negotiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark

    2003-10-01

    Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart. PMID:14521100

  1. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ≤ 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605. PMID:20637126

  2. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  3. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  4. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  5. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  6. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  7. Chaotic polaronic and bipolaronic states in the adiabatic Holstein model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Serge; Abramovici, Gilles; Raimbault, Jean-Luc

    1992-05-01

    A rigorous proof for the existence of bipolaronic states is given for the adiabatic Holstein model for any lattice at any dimension, periodic or not, and for an arbitrary band filling, provided that the electron-phonon coupling (in dimensionless units) is large enough. The existence of mixed polaronic-bipolaronic states is also proven, but for larger electron-phonon coupling. These states consist of arbitrary distributions of bipolarons (or of bipolarons and polarons) localized in real space which can be simply labeled by pseudospin configurations as for a lattice gas model. The theory not only applies to periodic crystals, but also to quasicrystals, amorphous structures, polymer network, etc. When these bipolaronic and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic states exist, it is proven that: (1) These bipolaronic (and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic) states exhibit a nonzero phonon gap with a nonvanishing lower bound and an electronic gap at the Fermi energy. (2) These structures are insulating. The perturbation generated by any local change in the bipolaronic or polaronic distribution or by any charged impurity or defect decays exponentially at long distance. (3) These bipolaronic (and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic) states persist for any uniform magnetic field. (4) For large enough electron-phonon coupling, the ground state of the extended adiabatic Holstein model is a bipolaronic state when there is no uniform magnetic field or when it is small enough. It becomes a mixed polaronic-bipolaronic state for large enough magnetic field (note that the mixed polaronic-bipolaronic states are magnetic). In one-dimensional models, the ground state is an incommensurate (or commensurate) charge density wave (CDW) as predicted by Peierls (this result is not rigorous, but has been confirmed numerically). It is proven that the ground state becomes a "bipolaronic charge density wave" (BCDW) at large enough electron-phonon coupling. The existence of a transition by breaking of analyticity (TBA), which was numerically observed as a function of the electron-phonon coupling, is then confirmed. In that case, the shape of the effective bipolaron can be numerically calculated. It is observed that its size diverges at the TBA. The physical properties of BCDWs are rather different from those predicted by standard charge density wave theory. Bipolaronic charge density waves can also exist in models which are not only low-dimensional, but purely two- or three-dimensional. The technique for proving these theorems is an application of the concept of anti-integrability initially developed for Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It consists in proving that the eigenstates of the (trivial) Hamiltonian (called antiintegrable) obtained by canceling all electronic and lattice kinetic terms survive as a uniformly continuous function of the electronic kinetic energy terms in the Hamiltonian up to a certain threshold.

  8. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  9. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  10. ADVANCED CHINESE. YALE LINGUISTIC SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF TEXTS PREPARED AT SETON HALL UNIVERSITY, THIS ADVANCED TEXT PRESUPPOSES MASTERY OF "BEGINNING CHINESE,""BEGINNING CHINESE READER," AND LESSONS 1 TO 6 OF "INTERMEDIATE CHINESE READER." A COMPANION VOLUME TO THIS ONE, "CHARACTER TEXT FOR ADVANCED CHINESE," PROVIDES READING PRACTICE AND REPETITION OF THE 904 NEW CHARACTERS

  11. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,

  12. Chinese Language Guide. Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

    This comprehensive Chinese language development guide for bilingual Chinese-English educators contains fifteen objectives along with related learning activities to be taught in the Chinese bilingual program. The guide emphasizes audio-lingual skill development and involves Chinese games, songs, foods, and holidays. (Author/AM)

  13. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  15. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  17. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  18. Phylogenies using mtDNA and SRY provide evidence for male-mediated introgression in Asian domestic cattle.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Y; Takada, T; Sutopo; Nomura, K; Namikawa, T; Yonekawa, H; Amano, T

    2003-04-01

    Using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and SRY genes, we examined the genetic status of two major groups of domestic cattle, the humpless taurine (Bos taurus) and humped zebu (B. indicus), using 10 cattle populations in Asia. Several sequence polymorphisms specific for each major group were found, although the frequency of these polymorphisms varied in each population. Six major mtDNA-SRY composite types were observed. The Mishima, Mongolian, Korean, Chinese Yellow and Sri Lanka cattle populations had a full match between the mtDNA and SRY sequences, specifically the taurine/taurine type or zebu/zebu type. A non-match type (zebu/taurine type) was found at a high frequency in the Bangladesh (83.4%) and Nepal populations (83.3%). Our results suggest that these non-match type populations developed from genetic hybridization of different strains. Also, the domestication history of modern Asian domestic cattle could be explained by male-mediated introgression. Additionally, our results suggest the occurrence of introgression of mtDNA from other Bibos or Poephagus species into native cattle populations. The existence of other mtDNA-SRY composite types, such as the Bali-zebu and yak-zebu types in Indonesia (85.7%) and Nepal (16.7%), respectively, suggests that genetic introgression also occurred from other genera into domestic cattle during the process of domestication. PMID:12648092

  19. Invited review: Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates?

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2011-05-01

    Environmental heat stress, present during warm seasons and warm episodes, severely impairs dairy cattle performance, particularly in warmer climates. It is widely viewed that warm climate breeds (Zebu and Sanga cattle) are adapted to the climate in which they evolved. Such adaptations might be exploited for increasing cattle productivity in warm climates and decrease the effect of warm periods in cooler climates. The literature was reviewed for presence of such adaptations. Evidence is clear for resistance to ticks and tick-transmitted diseases in Zebu and Sanga breeds as well as for a possible development of resistance to ticks in additional breeds. Development of resistance to ticks demands time; hence, it needs to be balanced with potential use of insecticides or vaccination. The presumption of higher sweating rates in Zebu-derived breeds, based upon morphological differences in sweat glands between breeds, has not been substantiated. Relatively few studies have examined hair coat characteristics and their responses to seasonal heat, particularly in temperate climate breeds. Recently, a gene for slick hair coat has been observed that improved heat tolerance when introduced into temperate climate breeds. No solid evidence exists that hair coat in these lines is lighter than in well-fed warm climate-adapted Holsteins. Warm climate breeds and their F1 crosses share as dominant characteristics lower maintenance requirements and milk yields, and limited response to improved feeding and management. These characteristics are not adaptations to a feed-limited environment but are constitutive and useful in serving survival when feed is scarce and seasonal and high temperatures prevail. The negative relationship between milk yield and fertility present in temperate climates breeds also prevails in Zebu cattle. Fertility impairment by warm conditions might be counteracted in advanced farming systems by extra corporeal early embryo culture. In general, adaptations found in warm climate cattle breeds did not increase heat dissipation capacity, but rather diminished climate-induced strain by decreasing milk production. The negative relationship between reproductive efficiency and milk yield, although relatively low, also appears in Zebu cattle. This association, coupled with limited feed intake, acting over millennia, probably created the selection pressure for a low milk production in these breeds. PMID:21524505

  20. Endectocide exchanges between grazing cattle after pour-on administration of doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin.

    PubMed

    Bousquet-Mlou, Alain; Mercadier, Sonia; Alvinerie, Michel; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2004-10-01

    Self-licking behaviour in cattle has recently been identified as a determinant of the kinetic disposition of topically-administered ivermectin. In the present study, we document the occurrence and extent of transfer between cattle of three topically-administered endectocides, as a consequence of allo-licking. Four groups of two Holstein cows each received one pour-on formulation of doramectin, ivermectin, or moxidectin, or no treatment. The cows were then kept together in a paddock. Systemic exposure to each topically-administered endectocide was observed in at least five of six non-treated cattle. Plasma and faecal drug concentration profiles in non-treated animals were highly variable between animals and within an animal, and sometimes attained those observed in treated animals. Drug exchanges were quantified by measuring plasma and faecal clearances after simultaneous i.v. administration of the three drugs as a cocktail. Plasma clearances were 185+/-43, 347+/-77 and 636+/-130ml/kg/day, faecal clearances representing 75+/-26, 28+/-13, and 39+/-30% of the plasma clearance for doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively. The amount of drug ingested by non-treated cattle attained 1.3-21.3% (doramectin), 1.3-16.1% (ivermectin), 2.4-10.6% (moxidectin) of a pour-on dose (500 microg/kg). The total amount of drug ingested by all non-treated cattle represented 29% (doramectin), 19% (ivermectin), and 8.6% (moxidectin) of the total amount of each drug poured on the backs of treated animals. The cumulative amounts of endectocide ingested by each non-treated cow ranged from 1.3 to 27.4% of a pour-on dose. Oral bioavailability after drug ingestion due to allo-licking was 13.5+/-9.4, 17.5+/-3.5 and 26.1+/-11.1% for doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively. The extent of drug exchange demonstrated here raises concerns for drug efficacy and safety, emergence of drug resistance, presence of unexpectedly high residue levels in treated and/or untreated animals and high environmental burdens. Moreover, scientific and regulatory aspects of clinical and bioequivalence trials for topical drug administration in cattle should be explored. PMID:15491592

  1. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  2. Dynamics of a One-Dimensional Holstein Polaron with the Hierarchical Equations of Motion Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-08-01

    Dynamics of a one-dimensional Holstein molecular crystal model is investigated by making use of the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) introduced by Tanimura and Kubo [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 1989, 104, 101]. Our extended, numerically exact HEOM approach is capable of treating exciton-phonon coupling in a nonperturbative manner and is applicable to any temperature. It is revealed that strong exciton phonon coupling leads to excitonic localization, while a large exciton transfer integral facilitates exciton transport. Temperature effects on excitonic scattering have also been examined. A proof of concept, our work also serves as a benchmark for future comparisons with other numerical approaches to Holstein polaron dynamics. PMID:26267210

  3. Fluid therapy in mature cattle.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Allen J

    2014-07-01

    Fluid therapy for mature cattle differs from that for calves because the common conditions that result in dehydration and the metabolic derangements that accompany these conditions are different. The veterinarian needs to know which problem exists, what to administer to correct the problem, in what quantity, by what route, and at what rate. Mature cattle more frequently suffer from alkalosis; therefore, acidifying solutions containing K(+) and Cl(-) in concentrations greater than that of plasma are frequently indicated. The rumen provides a large-capacity reservoir into which oral rehydration solutions may be administered, which can save time and money. PMID:24980730

  4. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected to exert only limited effects on the REC traits. Instead, breeders may be able to exploit genetic variations in the %CY, particularly RECFAT and RECPROTEIN. This last component is not explained by the milk protein content, suggesting that its direct selection could be beneficial for cheese production aptitude. Collectively, our findings indicate that breeding strategies aimed at enhancing CY and REC could be easily and rapidly implemented for dairy cattle populations in which FTIR spectra are routinely acquired from individual milk samples. PMID:25958274

  5. Evaluation of insecticide ear tags containing ethion for control of pyrethroid resistant Haematobia irritans (L.) on dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Anziani, O S; Zimmermann, G; Guglielmone, A A; Forchieri, M; Volpogni, M M

    2000-07-24

    A field study was conducted in central Argentina to evaluate the efficacy of ear tags containing 36% ethion against pyrethroid resistant populations of Haematobia irritans on grazing dairy cattle. The treated group consisted of 45 milking Holstein cows which received two tags per head and the control consisted of 22 dry cows from the same cohort. Treated and control groups were grazed on similar lucerne pastures separated for a minimum distance of 800 m but they were not isolated from other cattle herds on the same or contiguous properties. In both groups, horn fly estimation were made weekly by examining cattle in the pastures with the aid of binoculars. The percentage reduction of fly numbers on treated cows was considered as efficacy of control provided by the tags. The ethion ear tags provided a range of 85-99% reduction in horn fly numbers for 16 weeks. During this period, the weekly mean number of H. irritans on the tagged cows ranged between 0.44 and 28.26 compared with 143.5 and 239.1 in control animals. The ethion ear tags could be a useful tool for the control of H. irritans mainly in areas where populations of this insect have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:10889367

  6. Mango tree pruning hay in substitution of elephant grass in cattle diet.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Fernando Santos; de Souza Wanderley, Carlos Wagner; Neto, Alvaro Santos Lisboa

    2013-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 %) of elephant grass by hay of mango tree pruning (HMTP) on intake and digestibility in cattle and on the in vitro gas production. Moreover, the effect of tannin in HMTP on the gas production and in vitro degradability of the dry matter was evaluated, using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The intake and digestibility were evaluated in a double 4 4 square Latin design, using eight Holstein intact bulls. To evaluate the gas production and degradability, in vitro semi-automated gas production technique was used. The substitution of elephant grass by HMTP decreased the intake (P<0.05) and the digestibility (P<0.05) of the nutrients and also the gas production (P<0.05). Furthermore, the utilization of PEG as a tannin-complexing agent increased the gas production and degradability of the HMTP (P<0.05). It was concluded that the high cell wall lignification and the presence of tannin limit the use of HMTP as the only source of roughage in cattle diets. PMID:23212837

  7. The Genome Response to Artificial Selection: A Case Study in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Sbastien; Jaffrzic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Gautier, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated FST within and across the three breeds for each SNP under a pure drift model. We further considered two different strategies to evaluate the effect of selection at the genome level. First, smoothing FST values over each chromosome with a local variable bandwidth kernel estimator allowed identifying 13 highly significant regions subjected to strong and/or recent positive selection. Some of them contained genes within which causal variants with strong effect on milk production traits (GHR) or coloration (MC1R) have already been reported. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the FST value of SNPs localized close or within them. To that end we performed a comprehensive network analysis which suggested a central role of somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in the response to selection. Altogether, these observations shed light on the antagonism, at the genome level, between milk production and reproduction traits in highly producing dairy cows. PMID:19672461

  8. Lumpy skin disease of cattle: an emerging problem in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Tageldin, Mohamed Hassan; Wallace, David Brian; Gerdes, Gertruida Hermanna; Putterill, John Fraser; Greyling, Roelf Rudolph; Phosiwa, Maanda Noaxe; Al Busaidy, Rashied Mohammed; Al Ismaaily, Sultan Issa

    2014-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus belonging to the Capripoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. The purpose of this study is to place on record the first confirmation of LSD in the Sultanate. The disease was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy and serum neutralization testing. The epizootic occurred in 2009 involving a large number of animals and covering a wide area including Nezwa, Alqabel, Sohar, Saham and Burimi. Morbidity and mortality rates of 29.7 and 26.3%, and 13.6 and 15.4% were observed at Nezwa and Sohar, respectively. The clinical signs were much more severe in Holstein-Friesian cattle compared to indigenous breeds and were characterized by multiple skin nodules covering the neck, back, perineum, tail, limbs and genital organs. Affected animals also exhibited lameness, emaciation and cessation of milk production. Oedema of limbs and brisket, and superficial lymph node enlargement were highly prominent. It is not known from where the virus originated, or how it spread to the Sultanate. The disease has become endemic in the country and is liable to extend to other Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and cause a pandemic. It is of major concern to the Omani dairy industry. Due to the widespread presence of screw worm, serious economic losses can follow outbreaks. PMID:24097247

  9. Presence of Atrazine in the Biological Samples of Cattle and Its Consequence Adversity in Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Peighambarzadeh, SZ; Safi, S; Shahtaheri, SJ; Javanbakht, M; Rahimi Forushani, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Cattle can be considered as an important source for herbicides through nutrition. Therefore, herbicide residue in animal products is a potential human exposure to herbicides causing public health problems in human life. Triazines are a group of herbicides primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in corn and other feed ingredients and are considered as possible human carcinogens. To evaluate trace residue of these pollutants molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been developed, using biological samples. Methods: Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 45 Holstein cows in 3 commercial dairy farms in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Urine samples were also taken from the cows. Results: The mean SD concentrations of atrazine in serum and urine samples of the study group (0.739 0.567 ppm and 1.389 0.633 ppm, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than the concentrations in serum and urine samples of the control group (0.002 0.005 ppm and 0.012 0.026 ppm, respectively). Conclusion: Atrazine in the feed ingredients ingested by cattle could be transferred into the biological samples and consequently can be considered as a potential hazard for the public health. PMID:23113110

  10. Novel identification of Factor XI deficiency in Indian Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Chakravarti, S; Ghosh, A K; Kumar, S; Nayak, B; Nandi, S; Sarkar, U; Deb, Rajib; De, A; Biswas, J

    2016-04-01

    Factor-XI deficiency (FXID) is inherited as autosomal lethal recessive disorder of carrier Holstein-Friesian bulls. A 76 base pair segment insertion into exon 12 in Factor-XI gene causes FXID in cattle. Keeping this in view the present study was conducted to screen breeding bulls of both indigenous and exotic breeds for mutation in Factor-XI gene and to find out the frequency of FXID carrier animals in breeding bulls. A total of 120 bulls of different age group maintained at Frozen Semen Bull Station, India were randomly selected from different cattle breeds to screen presence of FXID syndrome in breeding sires. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the selected bulls. PCR parameters were standardized to obtain 244 and 320 bp amplicons. The results showed that 2 Sahiwal bulls out of 120 animals were carrier for FXID. Amplicons of the carrier animals were sequenced and annoted, which confirms a 76 bp insertion in the exon 12. Bleeding and clotting time showed considerable discrepancy in the carrier animals as compared to the normal animals. The findings of relative mRNA expression of Factor XI transcript revealed identical tendency in the carrier. The frequency of carrier animals and mutant allele was 2.5 % and 0.025 respectively. This study recommends for screening of breeding at AI bull centers in the country for FXID. The study also stands a merit for identification of FXID carrier in Bos indicus for the first time. PMID:26892783

  11. Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) genes in cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco-Jaramillo, Diana Lelidett; Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María; Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; de la Rosa-Reyna, Xochitl Fabiola; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Arellano-Vera, Williams

    2012-01-01

    DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds. PMID:22888292

  12. T-Cell and Antibody Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens in Tuberculin Skin-Test-Positive Bos indicus and Bos taurus Cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ameni, Gobena; Cockle, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Higher IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens were observed in Bos taurus (Holsteins) than in Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle which could due to differences in antigen recognition profiles between the two breeds. The present study was conducted to evaluate mycobacterial antigen recognition profiles of the two breeds. Twenty-three mycobacterial antigens were tested on 46 skin test positive (24 Zebu and 22 Holstein) using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and multiple antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Herds from which the study cattle obtained were tested for Fasciola antibody. The T cells from both breeds recognized most of the mycobacterial antigens at lower and comparable frequencies. However, antigens such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv0287, Rv0288, MPB87, Acr-2, Rv3616c, and Rv3879c were recognized at higher frequencies in zebu while higher frequencies of T cell responses were observed to Hsp65 in both breeds. Furthermore, comparable antibody responses were observed in both breeds; MPB83 being the sero-dominant antigen in both breeds. The prevalence of Fasciola antibody was 81% and similar in both breeds. This piece of work could not lead to a definitive conclusion if there are differences in mycobacterial recognition profiles between the two breeds warranting for further similar studies using sound sample size from the two breeds. PMID:22685689

  13. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although absolute rates of CH4 emissions (g/day) were lower from cattle grazing UG than LG, cattle grazing UG would be expected to take longer to reach an acceptable finishing weight, thereby potentially off-setting this apparent advantage. Methane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

  14. Effect of water and feed withdrawal and health status on blood and serum components, body weight loss, and meat and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M

    2011-02-01

    During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 6.2C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 0.6%) than AL (3.1 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 0.4% and 75.2 0.4%) than 36H. Mean 24-h pH values were 5.92 (AL), 5.92 (18H), and 5.81 (36H; SE = 0.04) and were not different (P < 0.05). Observed pH and color values indicated a borderline dark-cutter state across all cattle in the study, regardless of water and feed access treatment. Based on these results, water and feed withdrawal in lairage should not exceed 18 h during the marketing of Holstein slaughter cows acclimated to springtime conditions to maintain BW, serum component concentrations, and fresh meat composition. PMID:20935137

  15. Differentiation of European cattle by AFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Negrini, R; Nijman, I J; Milanesi, E; Moazami-Goudarzi, K; Williams, J L; Erhardt, G; Dunner, S; Rodellar, C; Valentini, A; Bradley, D G; Olsaker, I; Kantanen, J; Ajmone-Marsan, P; Lenstra, J A

    2007-02-01

    The Neolithic introduction of domestic cattle into Europe was followed by differential adaptation, selection, migration and genetic isolation, leading ultimately to the emergence of specialized breeds. We have studied the differentiation of European cattle by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. Combining AFLP data sets from two laboratories yielded 81 biallelic polymorphic markers scored in 19-22 individual animals from 51 breeds. Model-based clustering differentiated Podolian cattle as well as French and Alpine breeds from other European cattle. AFLP genetic distances correlated well with microsatellite-based genetic distances calculated for the same breeds. However, the AFLP data emphasized the divergence of taurine and indicine cattle relative to the variation among European breeds and indicated an Eastern influence on Italian and Hungarian Podolian breeds. This probably reflects import from the East after the original introduction of domestic cattle into Europe. Our data suggest that Italian cattle breeds are relatively diverse at the DNA sequence level. PMID:17257190

  16. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations. PMID:25384155

  17. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  18. The Chinese in Britain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y M; Chan, C

    1997-01-01

    "This research note offers a brief historical perspective on the relationship between Hong Kong and Britain and describes the demographic profile of the Chinese community in Britain...[using] information obtained from the 1991 [UK] Census.... The data analysis shows that the Chinese population is widely dispersed and increasing rapidly, and is characterised by a high child-bearing capacity and a low rate of unemployment." PMID:12179828

  19. Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

  20. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  1. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-12-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  2. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  3. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and

  4. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  5. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  6. GENETIC EVALUATION OF STILLBIRTH IN UNITED STATES HOLSTEINS USING A SIRE-MATERNAL GRANDSIRE THRESHOLD MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sire-maternal grandsire threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in U.S. Holsteins. Calving ease and stillbirth records for herds reporting at least 10 dead calves were extracted from the AIPL database. About half of the 14 million calving ease records in the database have a k...

  7. EFFECT OF RUMINALLY DEGRADED PROTEIN SOURCE ON NITROGEN METABOLISM IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of ruminally degraded protein (RPD) source on microbial protein flow measured in the reticulum and duodenum using 15N and in milk, urine and blood using allantoin. Eight early lactation Holstein cows were arranged in a repeated 4x4 Latin square design balanc...

  8. Endoscopic removal of esophageal and ruminal foreign bodies in 5 Holstein calves

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Cribb, Nicola C.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Desrochers, Andr; Fecteau, Gilles; Nichols, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic removal of esophageal and ruminal foreign bodies was successfully performed in 5 Holstein-Friesian calves under sedation or general anesthesia by using an electrocautery snare or a wire-guided Dormi basket. This report describes the endoscopic manipulations, treatment, and outcomes of esophageal foreign body removal in these calves. PMID:25320385

  9. Relationship of reason for lactation termination with genetic merit of Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons that producers report to 4 dairy records processing centers for why individual cows exit the herd (lactation termination codes) were examined for 6.2 million US Holsteins with lactation records that ended in 2007 and 2008 to determine their relationship to genetic merit. The most frequent t...

  10. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  11. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  12. GENETIC EVALUATION OF STILLBIRTH IN UNITED STATES HOLSTEINS USING A SIRE-MATERNAL GRANDSIRE THRESHOLD MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sire-maternal grandsire (MGS) threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Holsteins. Data consisted of almost 7.5 million records, and over 41,000 AI bulls received evaluations. The model included effects of herd-year, year-season, parity-sex, sire, birth year group of sire...

  13. Invited Review: Reliability of Genomic Predictions for North American Holstein Bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic progress will increase when breeders examine genotypes instead of only pedigrees and phenotypes. Genotypes for 38,416 markers and August 2003 genetic evaluations for 3,576 Holstein bulls born before 1999 were used to predict January 2008 daughter deviations for 1,759 bulls born from 1999 thr...

  14. Dissection of genomic correlation matrices of US Holsteins using multivariate factor analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim of the study was to compare correlation matrices between direct genomic predictions for 31 production, fitness and conformation traits both at genomic and chromosomal level in US Holstein bulls. Multivariate factor analysis was used to quantify basic features of correlation matrices. Factor extr...

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes related to daughter pregnancy rate in Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT: Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 40 SNPs associated with daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) in dairy bulls. We evaluated 39 of these SNPs for relationship to DPR in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped on their predicted transmitting ability for DPR: <= -1 (n=1266) a...

  16. A colon-associated cystic mass occurring in conjunction with cecal dilatation in a Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Edgar F; Singh, Kuldeep

    2012-12-01

    A 7-year-old Holstein cow was presented for reduced appetite and decreased milk production. Based on physical examination, cecal dilatation was the primary differential diagnosis and was confirmed at surgery. However, in addition to the dilated cecum, 2 large cystic masses were found firmly attached to the proximal loop of the ascending colon. PMID:23729831

  17. Application of a posteriori granddaughter and modified granddaughter designs to determine Holstein haplotype effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A posteriori and modified granddaughter designs were applied to determine haplotype effects for Holstein bulls and cows with BovineSNP50 genotypes. The a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to 52 sire families, each with '100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests. Fo...

  18. Sporadic juvenile thymic lymphoma in a 6-month-old Holstein heifer

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 6-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for recurrent bloat and a firm, primarily left-sided mass in the caudoventral cervical region. Surgical exploration revealed a vascularized, encapsulated mass extending from the submandibular region to the thoracic inlet. Postmortem gross and histopathologic examination and the history enabled a diagnosis of sporadic thymic lymphoma. PMID:16231655

  19. GENETIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MATURITY RATES OF DAUGHTERS OF HOLSTEIN BULLS IN THE NETHERLANDS AND UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity rate of Holstein bull daughters in the Netherlands and United States were compared by examining sire predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for milk yield for each of the first 3 parities. For each bull with US daughters, PTA that included data from parity 1 (PTA1), parities 1 and 2, and pa...

  20. EFFECT OF MASTITIS AND POSTPARTUM METABOLIC DISEASES ON LACTATION PERSISTENCY OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) and post-partum metabolic disease (PPMD) on persistency of milk yield (P) in Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) cows. Data consisted of daily milk yields and health events for 59 H and 27 J calving between July, 2004 and ...

  1. Application of a posteriori granddaughter and modified granddaughter designs to determine Holstein haplotype effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A posteriori and modified granddaughter designs were applied to determine haplotype effects for Holstein bulls and cows with BovineSNP50 genotypes. The a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to 52 sire families, each with >100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests. Fo...

  2. Application of the a posteriori granddaughter design to the Holstein genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to determine haplotype effects for the Holstein genome. A total of 52 grandsire families, each with >=100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests, were analyzed for 33 traits (milk, fat, and protein yields; fat and protein perce...

  3. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  4. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  5. NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION AND ENERGY STATUS IN HOLSTEIN COWS WITH UTERINE HEALTH DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected w...

  6. USE OF CUBIC SPLINES FOR ESTIMATING LACTATION CURVES OF HOLSTEIN COWS TREATED WITH BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cubic splines can be used to model fixed and random effects of lactation curves. A total of 64,138 test-day observations for first lactation Holstein cows recorded as treated with bovine somatotropin (bST) and 138,008 test-day observations for untreated cows were obtained from Dairy Records Manageme...

  7. Genetic evaluation of fertility traits of dairy cattle using a multiple-trait animal model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Jaitner, J; Reinhardt, F; Pasman, E; Rensing, S; Reents, R

    2008-11-01

    A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits but favorably with udder health and longevity. Integrating fertility traits into a total merit selection index can halt or reverse the decline of fertility and improve the longevity of dairy cattle. PMID:18946139

  8. Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange.

    PubMed

    Sarre, Charlotte; Gonzlez-Hernndez, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Grit, Rika; Grauwet, Korneel; Van Meulder, Frederik; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Geldhof, Peter; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, is a major problem in the beef cattle industry, especially in Belgian Blue (BB) cattle. This breed is naturally more predisposed to psoroptic mange but reasons for this high susceptibility remain unknown. Different immune responses could be a potential cause; thus in this study, the cutaneous immune response and in vitro cellular immune response after antigen re-stimulation were examined in naturally infested BB. Cytokine production in the skin and in circulating re-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) demonstrated a mixed pro-inflammatory Th2/Th17 profile, with transcription of IL-4, IL-13, IL-6 and IL-17. Strong IL-17 up-regulation in the skin of BB was associated with an influx of eosinophils and other immune cells, potentially leading towards more severe symptoms. Virtually no changes in cutaneous IFN-? transcription were detected, while there was substantial IFN-? up-regulation in re-stimulated PBMC from infested and uninfested animals, potentially indicating a role of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in the innate immune response. In Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, generally more resistant to P. ovis infection, a largely similar immunologic response was observed. Differences between HF and BB were the lack of cutaneous IL-17 response in infested HF and low transcription levels of IFN-? and high IL-10 transcription in re-stimulated PBMC from both infested and uninfested animals. Further research is needed to identify potential cell sources and biological functions for these cytokines and to fully unravel the basis of this different breed susceptibility to P. ovis. PMID:26582546

  9. Expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood of cattle infested with Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Domingues, R; Wohlres-Viana, S; Reis, D R L; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P; Guimares, S E F; Prata, M C A; Furlong, J; Verneque, R S; Machado, M A

    2014-01-01

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus microplus is responsible for severe economic losses in tropical cattle production. Bos indicus breeds are more resistant to tick infestations than are Bos taurus breeds, and the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in this difference is important for the development of new methods of parasite control. We evaluated differences in the transcript expression of genes related to the immune response in the peripheral blood of cattle previously characterized as resistant or susceptible to tick infestation. Crossbreed F2 Gir x Holstein animals (resistant, N = 6; susceptible, N = 6) were artificially submitted to tick infestation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h after tick infestation and evaluated for transcript expression of the CD25, CXCL8, CXCL10, FoxP3, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) genes. Gene expression of CD25 (6.00, P < 0.01), IL-10 (31.62, P < 0.01), FoxP3 (35.48, P < 0.01), and CXCL10 (3.38, P < 0.05) was altered in the resistant group at 48 h compared with samples collected before infestation. In the susceptible group, CXCL8 (-2.02, P < 0.05) and CXCL10 (2.20, P < 0.05) showed altered expression 24 h after infestation. CXCL8 (-5.78, P < 0.05) also showed altered expression at 48 h after infestation when compared with samples collected before infestation. We detected a correlation between T ?? cell activity and the immunological mechanisms that result in a higher resistance to R. microplus in cattle. PMID:24938612

  10. An experimental infection model to induce digital dermatitis infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B; Bernardoni, N D; Rieman, J; Dusick, A F; Hartshorn, R; Socha, M T; Read, D H; Dpfer, D

    2012-04-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD), also known as papillomatous digital dermatitis (foot warts), has been recognized as a major cause of lameness in cattle, with important economic and welfare consequences. The evaluation of therapeutic and preventive interventions aiming to control DD infections in dairy cattle is often challenged by the complex multifactorial etiology of the disease. An experimental infection model to induce acute DD lesions in a controlled environment is proposed. The goal was to provide a standard way of reproducing DD infections independent of external factors that could confound the natural course of the disease, such as management practices or infection pressure, resulting in transmission of DD between animals. A group of 4 yearling Holstein heifers free of any clinical evidence of hoof disease was recruited from a commercial dairy farm and housed in an experimental facility in 1 pen with slatted flooring. The hind feet were wrapped to mimic conditions of prolonged moisture (maceration) and reduced access to air (closure) and inoculated at the heel and dewclaw areas with a homogenate of a naturally occurring DD lesion skin biopsy or a culture broth of Treponema spp. After a period of 12 to 25 d, 4 of 6 and 1 of 4 dewclaw areas inoculated with biopsied DD lesion or a Treponema spp. culture, respectively, had gross lesions compatible with DD. Histopathology confirmed the gross diagnosis in the sites inoculated with tissue homogenate. In the site inoculated with Treponema spp. culture broth, histopathology revealed an incipient DD lesion. Treponema spp. were detected by PCR in both naturally occurring DD homogenate and Treponema spp. culture broth inoculation sites. An experimental infection model to induce acute DD in cattle was developed, which may be used to evaluate interventions to control DD and study the pathogenesis of this infectious hoof disease in a controlled manner. PMID:22459830

  11. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice. PMID:19144968

  12. Lumpy skin disease: preliminary vaccine efficacy assessment and overview on outbreak impact in dairy cattle at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, Gelagay; Abate, Yebeyen; Sisay, Tesfaye; Nigussie, Haileleul; Gelaye, Esayas; Jemberie, Shiferaw; Asmare, Kassahun

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted in and around Debre Zeit town to assess the field efficacy of LSD vaccine in use and overview associated disease impact. The study comprised cross-sectional and retrospective study design which employed active disease follow-up, semi-structured questionnaire survey and molecular techniques. The finding revealed that the Kenyan sheep pox vaccine strain used for the control of LSD did not confer expected protection. From the total of 476 animals observed, 22.9% and 2.31% cattle were found sick and dead due to LSD, respectively. Breed specific morbidity rate was 22.5% in Holstein Friesian-zebu cross and 25.9% in local zebu breed. The disease was observed to be more serious in young animals and also in females. A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development. PMID:23428671

  13. Skin lesions and cattle hide damage from Haematobia irritans infestations.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Gimeno, E; Idiart, J; Fisher, W F; Volpogni, M M; Quaino, O; Anziani, O S; Flores, S G; Warnke, O

    1999-07-01

    The horn fly Haematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) has recently spread to Argentina and Uruguay and is believed to cause damage to cattle hides. Four groups of ten Holstein steers each were maintained for 58 weeks under different infestation levels with H. irritans to determine if it was the cause of this problem. Hides (chrome tanned) from steers maintained under minimum infestation level had 4.7 +/- 3.8% of the area damaged. Maintaining the steers under low H. irritans level for the last 44 days of the trial using insecticidal ear-tags, resulted in 29.5 +/- 15.8% of hide area being damaged. Steers that were treated with 5% cypermethrin pour-on, when the H. irritans population was close to 50 flies, showed that 31.3 +/- 16.6% of hide area was injured, and 46.6 +/- 12.8% of damaged hide area was found in hides from non-treated steers. Significant differences were found between mean hide damage from steers maintained continuously under low H. irritans infestation levels and all other groups. Hyperaemia was significantly lower in the skin of steers under low H. irritans infestation level than in the skins of non-treated steers and steers maintained under low-level infestations for the final 44 days. Eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration was significantly lower when the population of H. irritans was less than six per steer than when the population was more than 100 flies per steer. Low numbers of Stomoxys calcitrans were found in all groups, but most hide damage was presumed due to H. irritans. PMID:10514060

  14. Breed and Lactation Stage Alter the Rumen Protozoal Fatty Acid Profiles and Community Structures in Primiparous Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cersosimo, Laura M; Bainbridge, Melissa L; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-03-01

    The protozoal fatty acid (FA) composition and community structure are important to dairy cattle nutrition and their products. The purpose of the study was to observe if the rumen protozoal FA profiles and protozoal community structure differed by breed and lactation stage. At 93, 183, and 273 days in milk (DIM), whole rumen digesta samples were collected from seven co-housed Holstein (H), eight Jersey (J), and seven Holstein-Jersey crossbreed (C) cows. Rumen protozoal linoleic acid was higher at 183 DIM (8.1%) and 273 DIM (8.3%) than at 93 DIM (5.7%). Oleic acid was the most abundant protozoal unsaturated FA (10.1%). Protozoal rumenic acid and protozoa of the genus Metadinium were higher in J (9.9%) than in H (0.52%) and C (0.96%). Protozoa belonging to the genus Entodinium were more abundant in H (45.2%) than in J (23.4%) and C (30.2%). In conclusion, breed and DIM affected several protozoal FAs and genera. PMID:26752342

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n = 677) and Holstein Jersey (n = 264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the SCS: GHR_140 and OPN_8514C-T. The heterozygote genotype for GHR_140 showed a favorable effect in reducing the SCS. On the other hand, heterozygote genotypes for OPN8514C-T caused an increase in the SCS; moreover, combined genotypes for OPN SNPs showed an even larger effect. These findings can contribute to the design of effective marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:25783851

  16. The Chinese Finger Alphabet and the Chinese Finger Syllabary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youguang, Zhou

    1980-01-01

    Describes two manual aids used in educating deaf children in Peking: the Chinese finger alphabet for teaching Chinese characters, and a new device being experimented with called the Chinese finger syllabary. Sample illustrations are given for both, as well as for the Pinyin finger alphabet. (PJM)

  17. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course. Glossary: Chinese-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This Chinese-English glossary provides a ready-reference to all lexical items introduced in the 180 lessons of the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course. The contents are arranged alphabetically from Chinese to English. Each entry has a reference number that corresponds to the lesson number of the basic course in which the item was introduced. (NCR)

  18. Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

    2013-10-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring ancestor-descendant SNP pairs can be explored as possible epistatic effects for further study. The importance scores generated by RF can be used effectively to identify large additive or epistatic SNP and informative QTL. The consistency in results of our study and previous studies in beef cattle indicates that the genetic architecture of RFI in dairy cattle might be similar to that of beef cattle. PMID:23932129

  19. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  20. Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay or corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Stokes, S R; Goetsch, A L; Nejad, H H; Murphy, G; Jones, A L; Mashburn, S; Beers, K W; Johnson, Z B; Piper, E L

    1988-01-01

    Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay (BG) or ground corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue (I) were studied. In Exp. 1, a Latin square study, five growing Holstein steers (158.1 kg) consumed I ad libitum and were offered 0, .3, .6, .9 or 1.2% body weight (BW) of BG daily. Total dry matter (DM) intake rose linearly (P less than .05) with increasing BG, although intake was numerically similar with .6, .9 and 1.2% BW of BG. Digestibility was constant with diet (P greater than .10). Six growing Holstein steers used in Exp. 2, a Latin square with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, ingested I or noninfected (NI) fescue hay ad libitum with 0, .5 or 1.0% BW of ground corn. Total DM intake increased linearly as the level of corn rose (P less than .05). Total intake with I increased more with the first than with the second addition of corn, and the opposite occurred with NI (interaction between fescue infection and the quadratic effect of corn level, P less than .10). Organic matter digested (g/d) was greater for NI than for I and rose linearly with increasing corn ingestion (P less than .05). Ninety-six crossbred beef heifers and steers (184.2 kg avg initial live weight) were used in a 77-d fall grazing experiment (Exp. 3) with a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Cattle grazed I or NI paddocks and were given no supplement or .34% BW of BG or .65% BW of ground corn on a daily basis (DM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3366707

  1. Individual Recognition in Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus): Evidence from 2D-Images of Heads from Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L.; Heyman, Yvan; Baudoin, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to maintain cohesion of groups, social animals need to process social information efficiently. Visual individual recognition, which is distinguished from mere visual discrimination, has been studied in only few mammalian species. In addition, most previous studies used either a small number of subjects or a few various views as test stimuli. Dairy cattle, as a domestic species allow the testing of a good sample size and provide a large variety of test stimuli due to the morphological diversity of breeds. Hence cattle are a suitable model for studying individual visual recognition. This study demonstrates that cattle display visual individual recognition and shows the effect of both familiarity and coat diversity in discrimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether 8 Prim'Holstein heifers could recognize 2D-images of heads of one cow (face, profiles, ¾ views) from those of other cows. Experiments were based on a simultaneous discrimination paradigm through instrumental conditioning using food rewards. In Experiment 1, all images represented familiar cows (belonging to the same social group) from the Prim'Holstein breed. In Experiments 2, 3 and 4, images were from unfamiliar (unknown) individuals either from the same breed or other breeds. All heifers displayed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Subjects reached criterion sooner when recognizing a familiar individual than when recognizing an unfamiliar one (Exp 1: 3.1±0.7 vs. Exp 2: 5.2±1.2 sessions; Z = 1.99, N = 8, P = 0.046). In addition almost all subjects recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, however with greater difficulty. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that cattle have efficient individual recognition based on categorization capacities. Social familiarity improved their performance. The recognition of individuals with very different coat characteristics from the subjects was the most difficult task. These results call for studies exploring the mechanisms involved in face recognition allowing interspecies comparisons, including humans. PMID:19212439

  2. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p < 0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) was decreased by decreasing the FPL (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C (65:35) increased the DMI (p < 0.05). A positive interaction between FPL and F:C was found for (daily weight gain) DWG, weight gain (WG) and feed conversation ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05). In case of feeding behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p < 0.05). Chopping of hay had decreased the chewing time (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C increased chewing time per kilogram DMI. High F:C decreased the lying time (p < 0.05) in FL and SL treatments (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C reduced the overall abnormal behaviour (p < 0.05). These results suggested that animals performed better at higher F:C at SL diet. Intensity of sorting for short and fine particle and against long particle increased at higher F:C and SL diets. Eating time and eating time per kilogram DMI increased by increasing F:C level in both FL and SL treatments. Chewing time increased by increasing the FPL, while increasing the F:C enhanced the chewing time per kilogram DMI and reduced animal's abnormal behaviour. PMID:26010423

  3. Clinical coccidiosis in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara Reddy, B; Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C

    2015-09-01

    Coccidiosis is caused by the protozoan parasite belongs to the genous Eimeria spp. which parasitizes the epithelium lining of the alimentary tract. Infection damages the lining of the gut causing diarrhoea and possibly dysentery. Coccidiosis is primarily a disease of young animals but can affect older animals that are in poor condition. In a farm, seven adult cattle had foul smell bloody diarrhoea, anorexia, emaciation condition, smudging of the perineum and tail with blood stained dung. Laboratory examinations of the dung samples revealed the presence of coccidian oocysts. Animals were treated with 33.33 % (w/v) sulphadimidine, along with supportive and fluid therapy. After completion of 1 week of therapy all the affected cattle were recovered from the diarrhoea. PMID:26345070

  4. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  5. The Linguistics of Chinese Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, David E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the results of an analysis of Chinese characters carried out at the National Bureau of Standards and indicates how it might be applied in the Chinese or Japanese language classroom. Paper presented to the Chinese Language Teachers Association, MLA Convention, Denver, Colorado, December 1969. (FWB)

  6. INTERMEDIATE CHINESE READER. PART I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THIS TWO-VOLUME TEXT IS A SEQUEL TO "BEGINNING CHINESE READER" AND IS CLOSELY CORRELATED WITH "BEGINNING CHINESE" AND "ADVANCED CHINESE," ALL BY THE SAME AUTHOR. INTRODUCED IN THE 30 LESSONS ARE 400 NEW CHARACTERS, 2,500 COMPOUNDS, AND ABOUT 200,000 CHARACTERS OF RUNNING TEXT. THE CHARACTERS ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH A CHART IN LARGE PRINT, PINYIN

  7. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of

  8. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during

  9. Chinese American Experience: San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit encourages students to explore the history and current situation of Chinese Americans. Organized around five lesson plans, the unit's first lesson begins with the students' own perceptions of Chinese Americans, followed by a quiz that provides relevant background information. The second lesson examines the general history of Chinese

  10. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota between German Holstein Dairy Cows with and without Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun-Sik; Jung, Sang Il; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Son, Jeong-Hoon; Hong, Sanghyun; Shim, Minkyung; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Song, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-01

    One of the most common diseases in high-performance German Holstein dairy cows is left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Hypomotility of the abomasum is detrimental during the pathogenesis of LDA. It is known that improper interactions between the gut microbiota and the enteric nervous system contribute to dysfunctions of gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut microbial composition will be different between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. We used 16S rRNA gene analysis to evaluate whether there are any differences in bacterial composition between German Holstein dairy cows with and without LDA. Even though our data are limited to being used to correlate compositional changes with corresponding functional aspects in the pathogenesis of LDA, results from this study show that the fecal microbial compositions of German Holstein dairy cows with LDA shifted and were less diverse than those in normal cows. In particular,Spirochaeteswere absent in cows with LDA. PMID:26842700

  11. Effect of summer conditions and shade on the production and metabolism of Holstein dairy cows on pasture in temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Moons, C P H; Vandaele, L

    2015-09-01

    For dairy cattle on pasture in temperate regions, it is largely unknown to what degree hot summer conditions impact energy metabolism, milk yield and milk composition and how effective shade is in reducing these negative effects. During the summer of 2012, a herd of Holstein cows was kept on pasture without access to shade (treatment NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013, the herd was divided into a group with (treatment S) and a group without (treatment NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees combined with shade cloths (80% reduction in solar radiation). A weather station registered the local climatic conditions on open pasture, from which we calculated daily average Heat Load Index (HLI) values. The effects of HLI and shade on rectal temperature (RT), blood plasma indicators of hyperventilation and metabolic changes due to heat stress, milk yield and milk composition were investigated. RT increased with increasing HLI, but was less for S cows than for NS cows (by 0.02C and 0.03C increase per unit increase of HLI, respectively). Hyperchloraemia (an increased blood plasma concentration of Cl-), a sign of hyperventilation, increased for NS cows but not for S cows. The plasma concentration of alkaline phosphatase, a regulator of energy metabolism in the liver, decreased with increasing HLI for NS cows only. Access to shade, thus, reduced the effect of HLI on RT, hyperchloraemia and the regulation of metabolism by the liver. As HLI increased, the plasma concentration of cholesterol decreased (indicating increased lipolysis) and the plasma concentration of creatinine increased (indicating increased protein catabolism). These effects did not differ between S and NS cows. For NS cows, after a lag-time of 2 days, the milk yield decreased with increasing HLI. For S cows, the milk yield was unaffected by HLI and its quadratic factor. The milk concentrations of lactose, protein and fat decreased as HLI increased, but only the effect on milk protein content was remediated by shade. In conclusion, access to shade tempered the negative effects of high HLI on RT, hyperchloraemia and a blood plasma indicator of changing energy metabolism (generally) as well as prevented the decrease in milk yield observed in cows without access to shade. PMID:25998858

  12. The g.841G>C SNP of FASN gene is associated with fatty acid composition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kiri; Sakamoto, Takayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Yamaji, Keita; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Sasago, Nanae; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Maruyama, Shin; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study is to evaluate the association between fatty acid composition and fatty acid synthase gene polymorphisms as responsible mutations. For this purpose, we selected seven previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FASN gene, including one within promoter region (g.841G>C) and six non-synonymous SNPs (g.8805C>T, g.13126C>T, g.15532A>C, g.16024A>G, g.16039C>T, g.17924A>G), and genotyped them in Japanese Black cattle. Genotyping results revealed that g.8805 C>T and g.17924 A>G were monomorphic loci. Genome-wide association analysis including the other five SNPs revealed that only g.841G>C showed significant associations with the percentages of C14:0, C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1 at 5% genome-wide significance level. In order to further evaluate the effect, we genotyped g.841G>C using additional three populations, including two Japanese Black populations and a Holstein cattle population. g.16024A>G was also genotyped and included in the analysis because it has been reported to be associated with fatty acid composition in Japanese Black cattle. In the result of analysis of variance, g.841G>C showed stronger effects on fatty acid percentage than those of g.16024A>G in all populations. These results suggested that g.841G>C would be a responsible mutation for fatty acid composition and contribute to production of high-grade beef as a selection marker in beef cattle. PMID:25597874

  13. Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

    1977-03-01

    Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

  14. Rumen epithelial adaptation to ruminal acidosis in lactating cattle involves the coordinated expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and a cholesterolgenic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Steele, M A; Dionissopoulos, L; AlZahal, O; Doelman, J; McBride, B W

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of metabolic and proliferative genes in the rumen epithelium during ruminal acidosis. To meet our objectives, 16 rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cattle (61835 kg of body weight, 22132 d in milk) were used in a randomized complete block design. All cattle were fed a high-forage diet (HF; 88.9% of dry matter) for 5 wk before the experiment. After the baseline week (wk 0), half of the cattle were randomly assigned and transitioned to a high-concentrate diet (HC; 62.2% of dry matter) which was fed for 3 wk (wk 1, 2, and 3). For the last 48 h of each week, continuous ruminal pH, short-chain fatty acids, and plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate were assessed, followed by a rumen papillae biopsy. Milk production was higher in HC cattle compared with HF during wk 1, 2, and 3 (17.40.5 vs. 23.40.9 kg/d, respectively); however, the mean ruminal pH was decreased (5.750.03 vs. 6.300.02). The HC cattle spent more time below pH 5.6 (59454 vs. 33 min/d) and displayed greater concentrations of ruminal butyrate (15.80.9 vs. 10.20.4 mmol) and plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (1,03663 vs. 77820 ?M) compared with the HF cattle. The mRNA expression of genes involved in ketogenesis (HMGCS2 and PPARA) and short-chain fatty acid transport (MCT1) was unchanged by treatment. However, a downregulation in HMGCS1 (0.720.09), one of the cholesterol biosynthesis genes, was observed in HC cattle during wk 1 of the grain challenge. In addition, the relative mRNA expression value of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 was lower (0.780.06), whereas insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 was higher (1.790.15) in HC compared with HF cattle. These results suggest that grain-induced ruminal acidosis alters the mRNA expression of IGF-binding proteins and a cholesterolgenic enzyme in the rumen epithelium of lactating dairy cattle. PMID:22192211

  15. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than those fed a low-nutrition diet, and they provide clear evidence that nutritional modulation of Holstein bull calves during early life has profound effects on reproductive development. PMID:25497791

  16. Inbreeding and crossbreeding parameters for production and fertility traits in Holstein, Montbliarde, and Normande cows.

    PubMed

    Dezetter, C; Leclerc, H; Mattalia, S; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Ducrocq, V

    2015-07-01

    Breed differences and nonadditive genetic effects for milk production traits, somatic cell score (SCS), conception rate (CR), and days to first service (DFS) were estimated for Holstein Montbliarde and Holstein Normande crossbreds, using an animal model adapted from the French genetic evaluation and extended to across-breed analysis. Inbreeding and breed differences were estimated from all purebred recorded cows. Only records from 1,137 herds with Holstein Montbliarde crossbred cows and from 1,033 herds with Holstein Normande crossbred cows were used to estimate crossbreeding parameters. In these herds, crossbred cows represented about 13% of the total number of recorded animals compared with <1% when all herds were considered. Compared with the Montbliarde and Normande breeds, the Holstein breed was genetically superior for production [+951kg and +2,444kg for 305-d mature-equivalent (305ME) milk, +40kg and +102kg for 305ME fat, +17kg and +54kg for 305ME protein, respectively] and inferior for fertility traits (-12 and -9% for CR, respectively). Inbreeding depression caused loss of yield for production traits (from -32 to -41kg of 305ME milk, -1.4 to -1.7kg of 305ME fat, and -1.1 to -1.3kg of 305ME protein per inbreeding percentage), a small increase in SCS (+0.001 to 0.006) and DFS (+0.12d), and a decrease in CR (-0.27 to -0.44%). Favorable heterosis effects were found for all traits (+494 to 524kg of 305ME milk, +21 to 22kg of 305ME fat, +15 to 16kg of 305ME protein, -0.05 to -0.04 SCS, +2 to 3% for CR, and -3 to 6d of DFS), to such a point that F1 crossbreds could compete with Holstein cows for milk production while having a better fertility. However, recombination losses suggested that some F1 heterosis was lost for backcross cows. PMID:25981069

  17. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  18. Short communication: Reference limits for blood analytes in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows: Effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Lora, I; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F

    2015-11-01

    Reference limits for metabolic profiles in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows were determined considering the effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season. Blood samples were collected from 104 pregnant heifers and 186 dry cows (68 primiparous and 118 pluriparous) from 60 to 10 d before the expected calving date in 31 dairy farms in northeastern Italy. Sampling was performed during summer (182 samples) and the following winter (108 samples). All the animals were judged as clinically healthy at a veterinary visit before sampling. Outliers were removed from data of each blood analyte, and variables that were not normally distributed were log transformed. A mixed model was used to test the fixed effects of parity (late-pregnant heifers, primiparous or pluriparous dry cows), class of days relative to calving (60-41 d, 40-21 d, 20-10 d), season (summer or winter), and the interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season, with farm as random effect. Single general reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for analytes that did not vary according to fixed effects. Whenever a fixed effect included in the model significantly affected a given analyte, specific reference limits and 95% confidence intervals were generated for each of its levels. Albumin, urea, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, conjugated bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, chloride, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were not influenced by any of the fixed effects. Total protein, globulins, creatinine, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium plasma concentrations were affected by parity. The class of days relative to calving had a significant effect on the concentrations of total protein, globulins, fatty acids, cholesterol, total bilirubin, and sodium. Season affected plasma concentrations of creatinine, glucose, fatty acids, lactate dehydrogenase, and sodium. Interactions between parity and class of days relative to calving and between parity and season did not significantly affect any of the blood analytes tested. The reference limits and the 95% confidence intervals for blood analytes determined in the study could help dairy practitioners to improve the accuracy of metabolic profile interpretation in Holstein late-pregnant cattle. PMID:26364112

  19. Differential response to stocking rates and feeding by two genotypes of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Nieman, C C; Steensma, K M; Rowntree, J E; Beede, D K; Utsumi, S A

    2015-12-01

    The throughput of automatic milking systems (AMS) is likely affected by differential traffic behavior and subsequent effects on the milking frequency and milk production of cows. This study investigated the effect of increasing stocking rate and partial mixed ration (PMR) on the milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and use of AMS by two genotypes of Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-lactation. The study lasted 8 weeks and consisted in a factorial arrangement of two genotypes of dairy cattle, United States Holstein (USH) or New Zealand Friesian (NZF), and two pasture-based feeding treatments, a low stocking rate system (2 cows/ha) fed temperate pasture and concentrate, or a high stocking rate system (HSR; 3 cows/ha) fed same pasture and concentrate plus PMR. A total of 28 cows, 14 USH and 14 NZF, were used for comparisons, with 12 cows, six USH and six NZF, also used for tracking of animal movements. Data were analyzed by repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design. No differences (P>0.05) in pre- or post-grazing herbage mass, DMI and FCE were detected in response to increases in stocking rate and PMR feeding in HSR. However, there was a significant (P<0.05) grazing treatmentgenotypeweek interaction on milk production, explained by differential responses of genotypes to changes in herbage mass over time (P<0.001). A reduction (P<0.01) in hours spent on pasture was detected in response to PMR supplementation in HSR; this reduction was greater (P=0.01) for USH than NZF cows (6 v. 2 h, respectively). Regardless of the grazing treatment, USH cows had greater (P=0.02) milking frequency (2.51 v. 2.260.08 milkings/day) and greater (P<0.01) milk yield (27.3 v. 16.01.2 kg/day), energy-corrected milk (24.8 v. 16.51.0 kg/day), DMI (22.1 v. 16.60.8 kg/day) and FCE (1.25 v. 1.010.06 kg/kg) than NZF cows. There was also a different distribution of milkings/h between genotypes (P<0.001), with patterns of milkings/h shifting (P<0.001) as a consequence of PMR feeding in HSR. Results confirmed the improved FCE of grazing dairy cows with greater milk production and suggested the potential use of PMR feeding as a tactical decision to managing HSR and milkings/day in AMS farms. PMID:26343791

  20. Application of sexed semen technology to in vitro embryo production in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew B; Rutledge, Jack J; Fischer-Brown, Amy; VanEtten, Tara; Malusky, Samantha; Beebe, David J

    2006-01-01

    Use of sexed semen in conjunction with in vitro embryo production is a potentially efficient means of obtaining offspring of predetermined sex. For thousands of years, livestock owners have desired a methodology to predetermine the sex of offspring for their herds. The ability to sort individual sperm cells into viable X- and Y-chromosome-bearing fractions made producers' sex selection dreams reality in the 1990s and now semen can be sexed with greater than 90% accuracy with use of a flow cytometric cell sorter. Several concerns regarding the implementation of sexed semen technology include the apparent lower fertility of sorted sperm, the lower survival of sorted sperm after cryopreservation and the reduced number of sperm that could be separated in a specified time period. These issues are discussed in this review. There are also a number of issues that appear to influence the success rates of using sexed semen to produce bovine embryos in vitro. These issues include reductions in fertilization rates, lower cleavage rates, blastocyst rates and pregnancy rates, partial capacitation of the sperm, dilute sperm samples and sire variation. These subjects are also addressed in this paper. Finally, we will describe a recent field trial in which female Holstein embryos produced using the combined technologies of sex-selected semen and microfluidics were transferred either as single or bilateral twin embryos into beef cattle recipients, demonstrating these technologies' contributions to viable embryo production. The results indicate that large-scale transfer of in vitro produced, Holstein heifer embryos to beef recipients is a feasible production scheme. PMID:16263159

  1. Indigenous domestic breeds as reservoirs of genetic diversity: the Argentinean Creole cattle.

    PubMed

    Giovambattista, G; Ripoli, M V; Peral-Garcia, P; Bouzat, J L

    2001-10-01

    Contrary to highly selected commercial breeds, indigenous domestic breeds are composed of semi-wild or feral populations subjected to reduced levels of artificial selection. As a consequence, many of these breeds have become locally adapted to a wide range of environments, showing high levels of phenotypic variability and increased fitness under natural conditions. Genetic analyses of three loci associated with milk production (alpha(S1)-casein, kappa-casein and prolactin) and the locus BoLA-DRB3 of the major histocompatibility complex indicated that the Argentinean Creole cattle (ACC), an indigenous breed from South America, maintains high levels of genetic diversity and population structure. In contrast to the commercial Holstein breed, the ACC showed considerable variation in heterozygosity (H(e)) and allelic diversity (A) across populations. As expected, bi-allelic markers showed extensive variation in He whereas the highly polymorphic BoLA-DRB3 showed substantial variation in A, with individual populations having 39-74% of the total number of alleles characterized for the breed. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of nine populations throughout the distribution range of the ACC revealed that 91.9-94.7% of the total observed variance was explained by differences within populations whereas 5.3-8.1% was the result of differences among populations. In addition, the ACC breed consistently showed higher levels of genetic differentiation among populations than Holstein. Results from this study emphasize the importance of population genetic structure within domestic breeds as an essential component of genetic diversity and suggest that indigenous breeds may be considered important reservoirs of genetic diversity for commercial domestic species. PMID:11683709

  2. Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size in Four South African Sanga Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Makina, Sithembile O.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; van Marle-Köster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; Makgahlela, Mahlako L.; MacNeil, Michael D.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne) for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), and Bonsmara breeds (n = 46), using Angus (n = 31) and Holstein (n = 29) as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40–60 kb in Angus (0.21) and Holstein (0.21) and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20). This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000–50,000 SNPs. However, r2≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10–20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20–40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for GWAS in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne = 95 (Nguni), Ne = 87 (Drakensberger), Ne = 77 (Bonsmara), and Ne = 41 (Afrikaner). Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa. PMID:26648975

  3. Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, N. E.

    2005-05-01

    As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

  4. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  5. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor

  6. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  7. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  8. Chinese Air Quality

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    Chinese Air Quality Project Title:  GTE Discipline:  ... Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Air Pollution Index Order Data:  Data Pool:  Order Data ... Spatial Coverage: 8000 km^2 area in Brazil Full Product Page ...

  9. The Chinese House Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a

  10. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:

  11. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the

  12. The Imperative in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  13. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production. PMID:23955271

  15. Orbital effects of strong magnetic field on a two-dimensional Holstein polaron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Subhasree; Chakraborty, Monodeep; Taraphder, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the orbital effects of a strong external magnetic field on the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional (2D) Holstein polaron, employing variational approaches based on exact diagonalization. From the ground-state energy and the wave function, we calculate the electron-phonon correlation function, the average phonon number, and the Drude weight and investigate the evolution of a 2D Holstein polaron as a function of the magnetic flux. Although the external magnetic field affects the polaron throughout the parameter regime, we show that the magnetic field has a stronger effect on a loosely bound (spatially extended) polaron. We also find that the magnetic field can be used as a tuning parameter, particularly for a weakly coupled polaron, to reduce the spatial extent of a large polaron.

  16. Properties of a localized magnetic impurity in a superconducting host: The Anderson-Holstein-BCS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimha Raju, Ch.; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    A symmetric Anderson-Holstein model with a BCS interaction term is considered to investigate the effect of local electron-phonon interaction on a magnetic impurity in a superconductor. The Kikuchi-Morita Cluster variation (CV) method is used to calculate the local impurity magnetic moment and the binding energy between the impurity and the conduction electrons in the superconductor. The effect of electron-phonon interaction and the order parameter on the bound state is discussed.

  17. Extended Holstein small polaron model for charge transfer in dry DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Fu, Liang; Wang, Ke-Lin

    2006-01-20

    In this paper, the charge transfer problem in dry DNA was investigated by employing an extended Holstein small polaron model with external potential traps being involved in consideration. The ground state energy and the probability amplitude of polaron in various DNA chains with different external trap potentials were obtained by variational method with the trial function being taken in coherent state form. The stability of transfered charges in various circumstances was discussed accordingly. PMID:16225982

  18. The prion protein gene polymorphisms associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility differ significantly between cattle and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Du, Yanli; Chen, Shunmei; Qing, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jingfei; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Prion protein, encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several polymorphisms within the PRNP are known to be associated with influencing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle, namely two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms (a 23-bp indel in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1), the number of octapeptide repeats (octarepeats) present in coding sequence (CDS) and amino acid polymorphisms. The domestic buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, are a ruminant involved in various aspects of agriculture. It is of interest to ask whether the PRNP polymorphisms differ between cattle and buffalo. In this study, we analyzed the previously reported polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo breeds, and compared these polymorphisms in cattle with BSE, healthy cattle and buffalo by pooling data from the literature. Our analysis revealed three significant findings in buffalo: 1) extraordinarily low deletion allele frequencies of the 23- and 12-bp indel polymorphisms; 2) significantly low allelic frequencies of six octarepeats in CDS and 3) the presence of S4R, A16V, P54S, G108S, V123M, S154N and F257L substitutions in buffalo CDSs. Sequence alignments comparing the buffalo coding sequence to other species were analyzed using the McDonald-Kreitman test to reveal five groups (Bison bonasus, Bos indicus, Bos gaurus, Boselaphus tragocamelus, Syncerus caffer caffer) with significantly divergent non-synonymous substitutions from buffalo, suggesting potential divergence of buffalo PRNP and others. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of PRNP polymorphisms associated with BSE susceptibility in Chinese buffalo. Our findings have provided evidence that buffaloes have a unique genetic background in the PRNP gene in comparison with cattle. PMID:26319996

  19. Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  20. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242