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1

Genome wide association studies for body conformation traits in the Chinese Holstein cattle population  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for revealing the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, studies using GWAS for conformation traits of cattle is comparatively less. This study aims to use GWAS to find the candidates genes for body conformation traits. Results The Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with body conformation traits. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was applied to detect multiple SNPs simultaneously for 29 body conformation traits with 1,314 Chinese Holstein cattle and 52,166 SNPs. Totally, 59 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were detected by genome-wide association analysis; five SNPs were within previously reported QTL regions (Animal Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database) and 11 were very close to the reported SNPs. Twenty-two SNPs were located within annotated gene regions, while the remainder were 0.6–826 kb away from known genes. Some of the genes had clear biological functions related to conformation traits. By combining information about the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, we identified DARC, GAS1, MTPN, HTR2A, ZNF521, PDIA6, and TMEM130 as the most promising candidate genes for capacity and body depth, chest width, foot angle, angularity, rear leg side view, teat length, and animal size traits, respectively. We also found four SNPs that affected four pairs of traits, and the genetic correlation between each pair of traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.86, suggesting that these SNPs may have a pleiotropic effect on each pair of traits. Conclusions A total of 59 significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were identified in the Chinese Holstein population. Six promising candidate genes were suggested, and four SNPs showed genetic correlation for four pairs of traits.

2013-01-01

2

Consistency of linkage disequilibrium between Chinese and Nordic Holsteins and genomic prediction for Chinese Holsteins using a joint reference population  

PubMed Central

Background In China, the reference population of genotyped Holstein cattle is relatively small with to date, 80 bulls and 2091 cows genotyped with the Illumina 54?K chip. Including genotyped Holstein cattle from other countries in the reference population could improve the accuracy of genomic prediction of the Chinese Holstein population. This study investigated the consistency of linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers between the Chinese and Nordic Holstein populations, and compared the reliability of genomic predictions based on the Chinese reference population only or the combined Chinese and Nordic reference populations. Methods Genomic estimated breeding values of Chinese Holstein cattle were predicted using a single-trait GBLUP model based on the Chinese reference dataset, and using a two-trait GBLUP model based on a joint reference dataset that included both the Chinese and Nordic Holstein data. Results The extent of linkage disequilibrium was similar in the Chinese and Nordic Holstein populations and the consistency of linkage disequilibrium between the two populations was very high, with a correlation of 0.97. Genomic prediction using the joint versus the Chinese reference dataset increased reliabilities of genomic predictions of Chinese Holstein bulls in the test data from 0.22, 0.15 and 0.11 to 0.51, 0.47 and 0.36 for milk yield, fat yield and protein yield, respectively. Using five-fold cross-validation, reliabilities of genomic predictions of Chinese cows increased from 0.15, 0.12 and 0.15 to 0.26, 0.17 and 0.20 for milk yield, fat yield and protein yield, respectively. Conclusions The linkage disequilibrium between the two populations was very consistent and using the combined Nordic and Chinese reference dataset substantially increased reliabilities of genomic predictions for Chinese Holstein cattle.

2013-01-01

3

Paternal origins of Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

To determine the genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 302 males from 16 Chinese native cattle breeds as well as 30 Holstein males and four Burma males as controls were analysed using four Y-SNPs and two Y-STRs. In Chinese bulls, the taurine Y1 and Y2 haplogroups and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in seven, 172 and 123 individuals respectively, and these frequencies varied among the Chinese cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4%), and Y3 dominates in southern China (90.8%). Central China is an admixture zone, although Y2 predominates overall (72.0%). The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies revealed a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China. The three Y haplogroups were further classified into one Y1 haplotype, five Y2 haplotypes and one Y3 haplotype in Chinese native bulls. Due to the interplay between taurine and indicine types, Chinese cattle represent an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. The Y haplotype distribution of Chinese cattle exhibited a clear geographical structure, which is consistent with mtDNA, historical and geographical information. PMID:23347145

Li, R; Zhang, X M; Campana, M G; Huang, J P; Chang, Z H; Qi, X B; Shi, H; Su, B; Zhang, R F; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z

2013-08-01

4

Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Results Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P < 0.05), and 2 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1 and SNP Ex12-3 with protein yield (P < 0.05). Furthermore, our haplotype-based association analyses indicated that haplotypes G-C-C, formed by SNP Ex12-2-SNP Int11-1-SNP Ex11-1, T-G, formed by SNP Int9-3-SNP Int9-2, and C-C, formed by SNP Int5-1-SNP Int3-1, are significantly associated with protein percentage (F=4.15; P=0.0418) and fat percentage (F=5.18~7.25; P=0.0072~0.0231). Finally, by using an in vitro expression assay, we demonstrated that the A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1of UGDH significantly decreases the expression of UGDH by 68.0% at the RNA, and 50.1% at the protein level, suggesting that SNP Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 represent two functional polymorphisms affecting expression of UGDH and may partly contributed to the observed association of the gene with milk production traits in our samples. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits.

2012-01-01

5

Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

2010-11-24

6

Congenital Cerebellar Cortical Degeneration in Holstein Cattle in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A congenital progressive cerebellar disorder is described in Holstein calves. The clinical signs were progressive and were characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, a wide stance and fine head tremors. When the affected cattle were forced to run, the signs were exacerbated, leading to epileptiform attacks. Histological lesions consisted of a very selective cerebellar cortical degeneration, almost exclusively affecting the Purkinje cells.

A. L. Schild; F. Riet-Correa; E. L. Portiansky; M. C. Méndez; D. L. Graça

2001-01-01

7

Serum thyroid hormones and trace element concentrations in crossbred holstein cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was carried out to study thyroid function in view of serum trace element and possible serum cortisol concentration\\u000a changes in crossbred Holstein cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata. Twenty cattle of different age and sex which had been naturally infected with T. annulata were examined. A control group were selected among the clinically healthy crossbred Holstein cattle with

Badiei Khalil; Mostaghni Khodadad; Mehrdad Pourjafar; Ghane Mohsen; Mohammadi Ebadolah

2011-01-01

8

A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

2012-01-01

9

Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed Central

Two Holstein heifers with persistent and recurrent infections including ulcerative gingivitis, periodontitis, pneumonia, loss of teeth and stunted growth associated with marked neutrophilia were evaluated clinically and for neutrophil function, CD18 expression on neutrophils and CD18 genotype analysis by DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Adherence to nylon fibers and phagocytic activity of neutrophils from affected animals were significantly (p < 0.05) impaired as compared with those of controls. Neutrophils from affected heifers had decreased chemiluminescent (CL) responses when stimulated with opsonized zymosan, compared with those of controls. In contrast, neutrophils from affected heifers produced increased CL responses when stimulated with latex beads and phorbol myristate acetate compared with those of controls. The clinical findings, functional leukocyte abnormalities, deficiency in expression of CD18 on neutrophils, and the D128G mutation detected by DNA-PCR testing of affected heifers demonstrated that these heifers have bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD). Although both animals were confirmed to be homozygotes for BLAD by DNA-PCR test, they had differences in clinical, hematological and neutrophil functional characteristics. Images Fig. 2.

Nagahata, H; Nochi, H; Tamoto, K; Taniyama, H; Noda, H; Morita, M; Kanamaki, M; Kociba, G J

1993-01-01

10

Seasonal meningoencephalitis in Holstein cattle caused by Naegleria fowleri.  

PubMed

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is a fulminant infection of the human central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that thrives in artificially or naturally heated water. The infection usually is acquired while bathing or swimming in such waters. The portal of entry is the olfactory neuroepithelium. This report describes fatal meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in Holstein cattle that consumed untreated surface water in an area of California where summer temperatures at times exceed 42 degrees C. In the summers of 1998 and 1999, severe multifocal necrosuppurative hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis was observed in brain samples from nine 10-20-month-old heifers with clinical histories of acute central nervous system disease. Olfactory lobes and cerebella were most severely affected. Lesions were also evident in periventricular and submeningeal neuropil as well as olfactory nerves. Naegleria fowleri was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain and olfactory nerve lesions and was isolated from one brain. Even though cultures of drinking water did not yield N. fowleri, drinking water was the likely source of the amoeba. The disease in cattle closely resembles primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Naegleria meningoencephalitis should be included among differential diagnoses of central nervous system disease in cattle during the summer season in areas with high ambient temperatures. PMID:16475525

Daft, Barbara M; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Read, Deryck H; Kinde, Hailu; Uzal, Francisco A; Manzer, Michael D

2005-11-01

11

Fitting and validating the genomic evaluation model to Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to fit the genomic evaluation model to Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. A training data set\\u000a for the estimation of additive effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) consisted of 1227 Polish Holstein-Friesian\\u000a bulls. Genotypes were obtained by the use of Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping BeadChip. Altogether 29 traits were considered:\\u000a milk-, fat- and protein- yields, somatic

Joanna Szyda; Andrzej ?arnecki; Tomasz Suchocki; Stanis?aw Kami?ski

12

Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects.

Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

2014-01-01

13

Principal milk components in buffalo, holstein cross, indigenous cattle and red chittagong cattle from bangladesh.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

Islam, M A; Alam, M K; Islam, M N; Khan, M A S; Ekeberg, D; Rukke, E O; Vegarud, G E

2014-06-01

14

Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing  

PubMed Central

A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding.

Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

2014-01-01

15

The Association Between Reproductive Performance and Milk Yield in Chilean Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the rela- tionship between reproductive performance and milk yield in central-southern Chilean Holstein cattle that calved from 1990 to 2003. The analysis included 150,457 lactations obtained from a certified recording system. Reproductive indexes included in the study were calving interval (CI, d), calving to first service interval (CFSI, d), calving to conception

P. Melendez; P. Pinedo

2007-01-01

16

Effects of Casein Haplotypes on Milk Production Traits in Italian Holstein and Brown Swiss Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different haplotypes of the casein genes on milk pro- duction traits in Italian dairy cattle. Traits of interest were yields of milk, fat, and protein, and percentages offatandproteininmilk.Thedataincluded728multip- arous records from 347 Holsteins and 773 records from 298 Brown Swiss cows. Records were preadjusted for effects of age and

P. J. Boettcher; A. Caroli; A. Stella; S. Chessa; E. Budelli; F. Canavesi; S. Ghiroldi; G. Pagnacco

2004-01-01

17

Amylase Genetic Variation of Serum in Holstein Cattle1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three amylase phenotypes, AmlB, AmlC, and AmlBC, were detected by electrophoresis of blood serum from 329 Holstein cattle. These phenotypes appear to be controlled by two alleles AmlB and AmlC at the amylase I locus (AmI). Frequencies were .518 and .482 for alleles B and C. The numbers of pheno- types corresponded closely to expecta- tions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No

CAROLYN L. TROWBRIDGE; H. C. HINES

1979-01-01

18

Linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6 in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle by genotyping a sample of 45 bulls for 15 closely-spaced microsatellites on two regions of BTA6 reported to carry important QTL for dairy traits. The order and distance of markers were based on the USDA-MARC linkage map. Frequencies of haplotypes were estimated using the E-M approach and a more computationally-intensive Bayesian

Mehar S Khatkar; Peter C Thomson; Imke Tammen; Julie AL Cavanagh; Frank W Nicholas; Herman W Raadsma

2006-01-01

19

Identification and prevalence of a genetic defect that causes leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed Central

Two point mutations were identified within the gene encoding bovine CD18 in a Holstein calf afflicted with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD). One mutation causes an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the highly conserved extracellular region of this adhesion glycoprotein, a region where several mutations have been found to cause human LAD. The other mutation is silent. Twenty calves with clinical symptoms of LAD were tested, and all were homozygous for the D128G allele. In addition, two calves homozygous for the D128G allele were identified during widespread DNA testing, and both were subsequently found to exhibit symptoms of LAD. The carrier frequency for the D128G allele among Holstein cattle in the United States is approximately 15% among bulls and 6% among cows. This mutation is also prevalent among Holstein cattle throughout the world, placing this disorder among the most common genetic diseases known in animal agriculture. All cattle with the mutant allele are related to one bull, who through the use of artificial insemination sired many calves in the 1950s and 1960s. The organization of the dairy industry and the diagnostic test described herein will enable nearly complete eradication of bovine LAD within 1 year. These results also demonstrate that bovine LAD is genetically homologous and phenotypically similar to human LAD, thus providing a useful animal model for studies of LAD and beta 2 integrin function. Images

Shuster, D E; Kehrli, M E; Ackermann, M R; Gilbert, R O

1992-01-01

20

Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows. PMID:21959893

Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

2012-02-01

21

Novel SNPs of the mannan-binding lectin 2 gene and their association with production traits in Chinese Holsteins.  

PubMed

The mannan-binding lectin gene (MBL) participates as an opsonin in the innate immune system of mammals, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MBL cause various immune dysfunctions. In this study, we detected SNPs in MBL2 at exon 1 using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing techniques in 825 Chinese Holstein cows. Four new SNPs with various allele frequencies were also found. The g.1164 G>A SNP was predicted to substitute arginine with glutamine at the N-terminus of the cysteine-rich domain. In the collagen-like domain, SNPs g.1197 C>A and g.1198 G>A changed proline to glutamine, whereas SNP g.1207 T>C was identified as a synonymous mutation. Correlation analysis showed that the g.1197 C>A marker was significantly correlated to somatic cell score (SCS), and the g.1164 G>A locus had significant effects on SCS, fat content, and protein content (P < 0.05), suggesting possible roles of these SNPs in the host response against mastitis. Nine haplotypes and nine haplotype pairs corresponding to the loci of the 4 novel SNPs were found in Chinese Holsteins. Haplotype pairs MM, MN, and BQ were correlated with the lowest SCS; MN with the highest protein yield; MM with the highest protein rate, and MN with the highest 305- day milk yield. Thus, MM, MN, and BQ are possible candidates for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:23096694

Zhao, Z L; Wang, C F; Li, Q L; Ju, Z H; Huang, J M; Li, J B; Zhong, J F; Zhang, J B

2012-01-01

22

Genome-wide copy number variation in Hanwoo, Black Angus, and Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Hanwoo, Korean native cattle, is indigenous to the Korean peninsula. They have been used mainly as draft animals for about 5,000 years; however, in the last 30 years, their main role has been changed to meat production by selective breeding which has led to substantial increases in their productivity. Massively parallel sequencing technology has recently made possible the systematic identification of structural variations in cattle genomes. In particular, copy number variation (CNV) has been recognized as an important genetic variation complementary to single-nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used to account for variations of economically important traits in cattle. Here we report genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) in Hanwoo cattle obtained by comparing the whole genome sequence of Hanwoo with Black Angus and Holstein sequence datasets. We identified 1,173 and 963 putative CNVRs representing 16.7 and 7.8 Mbp from comparisons between Black Angus and Hanwoo and between Holstein and Hanwoo, respectively. The potential functional roles of the CNVRs were assessed by Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. The results showed that response to stimulus, immune system process, and cellular component organization were highly enriched in the genic-CNVRs that overlapped with annotated cattle genes. Of the 11 CNVRs that were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR, 9 exhibited the expected copy number differences. The results reported in this study show that genome-wide CNVs were detected successfully using massively parallel sequencing technology. The CNVs may be a valuable resource for further studies to correlate CNVs and economically important traits in cattle. PMID:23543395

Choi, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Liao, Xiaoping; Stothard, Paul; An, Hyeon-Seung; Ahn, Sungmin; Lee, Seunghwan; Lee, Sung-Yeoun; Moore, Stephen S; Kim, Tae-Hun

2013-04-01

23

Rates of inbreeding and genetic diversity in Canadian Holstein and Jersey cattle.  

PubMed

The accumulation of inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity is a potential problem in the modern dairy cattle breeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the pedigrees of Canadian Holstein and Jersey cattle to estimate the past and current rates of inbreeding and genetic diversity, and to identify the main causes of diversity loss. Completeness and depth of the pedigrees were good for both breeds. For Holsteins, the average rates of inbreeding per generation showed a decreasing trend in recent years when compared with the 1990s. The estimated current effective population size was about 115 for Holsteins and is not expected to significantly change in the near future if generation intervals stay at current value, as rates of increase in inbreeding and coancestry showed decreasing trends. For Jerseys, the estimated effective population size was about 55 and it is expected to decrease in the near future due to the observed increasing rates of coancestry and inbreeding. Ancestors with the highest marginal genetic contributions to the gene pool in current years and with the highest contributions to inbreeding were identified. The 2 most heavily used and represented ancestors in the Holstein pedigree (i.e., Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation and his son Hanoverhill Starbuck), accounted for 30% of inbreeding. Analyses revealed that the most important cause of genetic diversity loss in both breeds was genetic drift accumulated over nonfounder generations, which occurred due to small effective population size. Therefore, a need exists in both breeds, particularly in Jerseys, for managing selection and mating decisions to control future coancestry and inbreeding, which would lead to better handling of the effective population size. PMID:21943766

Stachowicz, K; Sargolzaei, M; Miglior, F; Schenkel, F S

2011-10-01

24

A genome-wide scan for signatures of recent selection in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The data from the newly available 50 K SNP chip was used for tagging the genome-wide footprints of positive selection in Holstein-Friesian cattle. For this purpose, we employed the recently described Extended Haplotype Homozygosity test, which detects selection by measuring the characteristics of haplotypes within a single population. To assess formally the significance of these results, we compared the combination of frequency and the Relative Extended Haplotype Homozygosity value of each core haplotype with equally frequent haplotypes across the genome. A subset of the putative regions showing the highest significance in the genome-wide EHH tests was mapped. We annotated genes to identify possible influence they have in beneficial traits by using the Gene Ontology database. A panel of genes, including FABP3, CLPN3, SPERT, HTR2A5, ABCE1, BMP4 and PTGER2, was detected, which overlapped with the most extreme P-values. This panel comprises some interesting candidate genes and QTL, representing a broad range of economically important traits such as milk yield and composition, as well as reproductive and behavioural traits. We also report high values of linkage disequilibrium and a slower decay of haplotype homozygosity for some candidate regions harbouring major genes related to dairy quality. The results of this study provide a genome-wide map of selection footprints in the Holstein genome, and can be used to better understand the mechanisms of selection in dairy cattle breeding. PMID:20096028

Qanbari, S; Pimentel, E C G; Tetens, J; Thaller, G; Lichtner, P; Sharifi, A R; Simianer, H

2010-08-01

25

Use of Computerized Mate Selection Programs to Control Inbreeding of Holstein and Jersey Cattle in the Next Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expected role of computerized mate selection pro- grams with regard to inbreeding and lifetime profit- ability of Holstein and Jersey cattle was examined us- ing data from 25 large registered herds of each breed. Sire selection and mate allocation were carried out us- ing linear programming with the following objectives: 1) minimum inbreeding, 2) maximum net merit subject to

K. A. Weigel; S. W. Lin

2000-01-01

26

Hepatic lipidosis in anorectic, lactating holstein cattle: a retrospective study of serum biochemical abnormalities.  

PubMed

The association between hepatic lipidosis (HL) and disease in 59 anorectic, ketotic, lactating Holstein heifers and cows was investigated. Severe HL, as determined by histologic evaluation of liver tissue, was present in 46 animals; only half of these animals required intensive treatment for ketosis, and only half had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease, as determined by the presence of a last value of 2-fold or greater than the upper limit of the reference ranges for at least 2 of the 4 serum tests: gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities and bile acid concentrations. Most cattle with biochemical evidence of liver disease and severe HL had been lactating for 14 or more days. Cows that required intensive treatment inconsistently had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease. Although cattle with severe HL had significantly higher serum bilirubin concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities than cattle with less severe lipidosis, the specificity of abnormally high serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity or bilirubin concentration for severe lipidosis was only 8%. Abnormally high serum aspartate aminotransferase activity was 83% sensitive and 62% specific for severe lipidosis. Serum glucose and total carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower in cattle with severe lipidosis than in those with mild or moderate lipidosis, and low serum glucose or total carbon dioxide concentrations were rare in cattle without severe lipidosis. From these data, we conclude that the use of a single biochemical or histopathologic criterion to define severity of disease or degree of liver compromise in anorectic, ketotic cows results in the misidentification of many animals. PMID:9298478

Cebra, C K; Garry, F B; Getzy, D M; Fettman, M J

1997-01-01

27

BDNF Contributes to the Genetic Variance of Milk Fat Yield in German Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield (FY). A highly significant effect (corrected p-value?=?3.362?×?10?4) was identified for an SNP 168?kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13?kg of fat per lactation on the EBV for milk FY in bulls and 6.80?kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72 and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analyzed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF region affecting the milk FY. The FY increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

Zielke, Lea G.; Bortfeldt, Ralf H.; Tetens, Jens; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

2011-01-01

28

Single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype effects associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background To better understand the genetic determination of udder health, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a population of 2354 German Holstein bulls for which daughter yield deviations (DYD) for somatic cell score (SCS) were available. For this study, we used genetic information of 44 576 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 725 inferred haplotype blocks. Results When accounting for the sub-structure of the analyzed population, 16 SNPs and 10 haplotypes in six genomic regions were significant at the Bonferroni threshold of P???1.14?×?10-6. The size of the identified regions ranged from 0.05 to 5.62 Mb. Genomic regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 18 and 19 coincided with known QTL affecting SCS, while additional genomic regions were found on chromosomes 13 and X. Of particular interest is the region on chromosome 6 between 85 and 88 Mb, where QTL for mastitis traits and significant SNPs for SCS in different Holstein populations coincide with our results. In all identified regions, except for the region on chromosome X, significant SNPs were present in significant haplotypes. The minor alleles of identified SNPs on chromosomes 18 and 19, and the major alleles of SNPs on chromosomes 6 and X were favorable for a lower SCS. Differences in somatic cell count (SCC) between alternative SNP alleles reached 14 000 cells/mL. Conclusions The results support the polygenic nature of the genetic determination of SCS, confirm the importance of previously reported QTL, and provide evidence for the segregation of additional QTL for SCS in Holstein cattle. The small size of the regions identified here will facilitate the search for causal genetic variations that affect gene functions.

2014-01-01

29

Potential risk factors associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle from Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.  

PubMed

Since the first detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in homebred cattle in Germany on 26 November 2000, 382 cases have been confirmed until 30 September 2005. Thirty-two of these cases were reported from the Federal State of Schleswig-Holstein (SH). There are hypotheses on the routes of infection for German cattle, but only few efforts have been made to assess potential risk factors by epidemiological studies. The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors at the farm level for the occurrence of BSE in cattle in SH. By applying the method of indirect standardization, the prevalence of various structural and management parameters of BSE-affected farms in SH was compared with the prevalence of these parameters in a standard population of cattle farms from SH. The data describing the standard population were obtained by a cross-sectional study performed in SH in 2003. Data of the BSE case population were available from the central German BSE case database. A possible association of the occurrence of BSE with the feeding of milk replacers to calves was observed. There was a clear indication that the occurrence of BSE was associated with the presence of pigs and/or poultry on the farm. This finding suggests that cross-contamination of feed or cross-exposition may have occurred in SH. The results obtained using the indirect standardization analysis were validated by multiple logistic regression. This study indicates that the feedborne path has been the principal route of transmission for the BSE agent in SH. PMID:16930273

Pottgiesser, C; Ovelhey, A; Ziller, M; Kramer, M; Selhorst, T; Conraths, F J

2006-09-01

30

Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein  

PubMed Central

Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle.

Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

2014-01-01

31

Low Incidence of an Altered Endometrial Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Profile in Repeat Breeder Holstein Heifers and Differential Effect of Parity on the EGF Profile Between Fertile Holstein (Dairy) and Japanese Black (Beef) Cattle  

PubMed Central

Abstract A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2–4 and 13–14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows.

KATAGIRI, Seiji; MORIYOSHI, Masaharu; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki

2013-01-01

32

Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frederic; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W

2009-01-01

33

Genetic Association Analysis of Paratuberculosis Forms in Holstein-Friesian Cattle  

PubMed Central

A genetic susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants has been longtime suspected to exist. Recently, natural infections in cattle have been reclassified into latent and patent forms based on histopathological findings and their associations with immunological and microbiological variables. This study aims to explore whether these newly defined phenotypes are associated with twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six bovine candidate genes: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1), nuclear body protein SP110 (SP110), toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, and CD209 (also known as DC-SIGN, dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin). SNPs were genotyped for 772 Holstein-Friesian animals (52.6% apparently free; 38.1% latent; 9.3% patent) by TaqMan OpenArray technology. Genotypic-phenotypic associations were assessed by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age at slaughter, under five models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and log-additive), and corrected for multiple testing. The rs208222804 C allele (CD209 gene) was found to be associated with latent paratuberculosis (log-additive model: P < 0.0034 after permutation procedure; OR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.48–0.86). No significant association was detected between any SNP and the patent phenotype. Consequently, CD209 gene may play a key role in the pathogenesis of bovine paratuberculosis.

Vazquez, Patricia; Ruiz-Larranaga, Otsanda; Garrido, Joseba M.; Manzano, Carmen; Agirre, Mikel; Estonba, Andone; Juste, Ramon A.

2014-01-01

34

Risk factors and milk yield losses associated with lameness in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Weekly locomotion scores on a scale of 1 to 5 were used to investigate the relationship between cattle lameness, management systems and the impact of lameness on milk production. The data were 14026 locomotion scores from 248 Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were managed in two groups, XE (high-concentrate feed and housed indoors all year) and XM (low-concentrate feed and outdoors in summer). Analysis was performed using residual maximum likelihood. Results indicated that the most significant variables affecting locomotion were time of year when the animal was locomotion scored and management group. Cows scored during February and August had increased locomotion problems. Cows in the more intensively managed group had significantly poorer locomotion compared with those in the more extensive group. Older animals were more susceptible to lameness than heifers. Body weight, body condition score and days in milk (DIM) also accounted for significant variation in locomotion score. Poor locomotion was associated with a significant reduction in the milk yield of later lactation cows. There was a significant difference in the shape of the lactation curve depending on whether or not the cow was lame during lactation. Average persistency was greater for the group of cows never lame throughout lactation compared with those lame before 60 DIM. PMID:22443736

Onyiro, O M; Offer, J; Brotherstone, S

2008-08-01

35

Genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity for milk and milk quality in Walloon Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Animals that are robust to environmental changes are desirable in the current dairy industry. Genetic differences in micro-environmental sensitivity can be studied through heterogeneity of residual variance between animals. However, residual variance between animals is usually assumed to be homogeneous in traditional genetic evaluations. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic heterogeneity of residual variance by estimating variance components in residual variance for milk yield, somatic cell score, contents in milk (g/dL) of 2 groups of milk fatty acids (i.e., saturated and unsaturated fatty acids), and the content in milk of one individual fatty acid (i.e., oleic acid, C18:1 cis-9), for first-parity Holstein cows in the Walloon Region of Belgium. A total of 146,027 test-day records from 26,887 cows in 747 herds were available. All cows had at least 3 records and a known sire. These sires had at least 10 cows with records and each herd × test-day had at least 5 cows. The 5 traits were analyzed separately based on fixed lactation curve and random regression test-day models for the mean. Estimation of variance components was performed by running iteratively expectation maximization-REML algorithm by the implementation of double hierarchical generalized linear models. Based on fixed lactation curve test-day mean models, heritability for residual variances ranged between 1.01×10(-3) and 4.17×10(-3) for all traits. The genetic standard deviation in residual variance (i.e., approximately the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance) ranged between 0.12 and 0.17. Therefore, some genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity existed in the Walloon Holstein dairy cattle for the 5 studied traits. The standard deviations due to herd × test-day and permanent environment in residual variance ranged between 0.36 and 0.45 for herd × test-day effect and between 0.55 and 0.97 for permanent environmental effect. Therefore, nongenetic effects also contributed substantially to micro-environmental sensitivity. Addition of random regressions to the mean model did not reduce heterogeneity in residual variance and that genetic heterogeneity of residual variance was not simply an effect of an incomplete mean model. PMID:23871372

Vandenplas, J; Bastin, C; Gengler, N; Mulder, H A

2013-09-01

36

Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM. PMID:22327646

Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

2012-06-01

37

Accuracy of genomic prediction for milk production traits in the Chinese Holstein population using a reference population consisting of cows.  

PubMed

Genomic selection using dense markers covering the whole genome is a tool for the genetic improvement of livestock and is revolutionizing the breeding system in dairy cattle. Progeny-tested bulls have been used to form reference populations in almost all countries where genomic selection has been implemented. In this study, the accuracy of genomic prediction when cows are used to form the reference population was investigated. The reference population consisted of 3,087 cows. All individuals were genotyped with Illumina BovineSNP50. After genotype imputation and editing, 48,676 single nucleotide polymorphisms were available for analysis. Two methods, genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and BayesB, were used to render genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for 5 milk production traits. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed in 3 ways: r(GEBV,EBV) (the correlation between GEBV and conventional EBV) in 67 progeny-tested bulls, rGEBV,EBV from a 5-fold cross validation in the 3,087 cow reference population, and the theoretical accuracy (for GBLUP) calculated in the same way as for conventional BLUP. The results showed that using GBLUP, the r(GEBV,EBV) and theoretical accuracy of genomic prediction in Chinese Holstein ranged from 0.59 to 0.76 and 0.70 to 0.80, respectively, which was 0.13 to 0.30 and 0.23 to 0.33 higher than the accuracies of conventional pedigree index, respectively. The results indicate that, as an alternative, genomic selection using cows in the reference population is feasible. PMID:23746588

Ding, X; Zhang, Z; Li, X; Wang, S; Wu, X; Sun, D; Yu, Y; Liu, J; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q

2013-08-01

38

Genome-wide association study for calving traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Dystocia and perinatal mortality are quantitative traits that significantly impact animal productivity and welfare. Their economic importance is reflected by their inclusion in the national breeding goals of many cattle populations. The genetic architecture that influences these traits, however, has still yet to be thoroughly defined. Regions of the bovine genome associated with calving difficulty (direct and maternal) and perinatal mortality were detected in this study using a Bayesian approach with 43 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on up to 1970 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Several SNPs on chromosomes 5, 6, 11, 12, 17,18 and 28 were detected to be strongly associated with these calving performance traits. Novel genomic regions with previously reported associations with growth, stature, birth weight and bone morphology were identified in the present study as being associated with the three calving performance traits. Morphological abnormalities are a known contributor to perinatal mortality and the most significantly associated SNP for perinatal mortality in the present study was located in a region in linkage disequilibrium with the gene SLC26A7. This gene, SLC26A7, has similarities and colocalises with SLC4A2, which has previously been associated with osteoporosis and mortality in cattle populations. The HHIP gene that is known to be associated with stature in humans was strongly associated with direct calving difficulty in the present study; large calves are known to, on average, have a greater likelihood of dystocia. A stemloop microRNA, bta-mir-1256, on chromosome 12, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression was associated with maternal calving difficulty. Previously reported quantitative trait loci associated with calving performance traits in other populations were again identified in this study; with one genomic region on chromosome 18 supporting very strong evidence of an underlying causative mutation and accounting for 2.1% of the genetic variation in direct calving difficulty. Overlapping genomic regions associated with one or more of the calving traits were also detected substantiating the known genetic covariances existing between these traits. Moreover, some genomic regions were only associated with one of the calving traits implying the selective genomic breeding programs exploiting these regions could help resolve genetic antagonisms. PMID:24256561

Purfield, D C; Bradley, D G; Kearney, J F; Berry, D P

2014-02-01

39

Genome wide association study identifies 20 novel promising genes associated with milk Fatty Acid traits in chinese holstein.  

PubMed

Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

2014-01-01

40

Expression, SNV identification, linkage disequilibrium, and combined genotype association analysis of the muscle-specific gene CSRP3 in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

The cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) plays an important role in the myofiber differentiation. Here, we identified five SNVs in all exon and intron regions of the CSRP3 gene using DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and forced-PCR-RFLP methods in 554 cattle. Four of the five SNVs were significantly associated with growth performance and carcass traits of the cattle. In addition, we evaluated haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium coefficient of five sequence variants. The result of haplotype analysis demonstrated 28 haplotypes present in Qinchuan and two haplotypes in Chinese Holstein. Only haplotypes 1 and 8 were being shared by two populations, haplotype 14 had the highest haplotype frequency in Qinchuan (17.4%) and haplotype 8 had the highest haplotype frequency in Chinese Holstein (94.4%). Statistical analyses of combined genotypes indicated that some combined genotypes were significantly or highly significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. qPCR analyses also showed that bovine CSRP3 gene was exclusively expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle and heart tissues. The data support the high potential of the CSRP3 as a marker gene for the improvement of growth performance and carcass traits in selection programs. PMID:24279998

He, Hua; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Li, Zhi-Xiong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Lin

2014-02-01

41

PLCz Functional Haplotypes Modulating Promoter Transcriptional Activity Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter.

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

2013-01-01

42

Transcription Factor Binding Site Polymorphism in the Motilin Gene Associated with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum in German Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random

Stefanie Mömke; Marlene Sickinger; Jürgen Rehage; Klaus Doll; Ottmar Distl

2012-01-01

43

In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. Methodology Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. Principal Findings The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n?=?60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing ?-casein (CSN2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-? (ACACA) and butyrophilin (BTN1A1). An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. Conclusions The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs).

Hu, Han; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Wei, Hongyang; Zhou, Linyun; Li, Fadi; Loor, Juan J.

2009-01-01

44

Blood Antigen, Serum Protein, and Milk Protein Gene Frequencies and Genetic Interrelationships in Holstein Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene frequencies at ten blood group loci, one serum protein locus, and four milk protein loci were determined for the Holstein-Friesian breed in the United States. The sample consisted of 8630 cows in 51 herds from 10 states. Because of the close linkage among casein subloci and the concomitant rarity of crossover- recombinant groups, casein gene com- bination or haplotype

H. C. Hines; G. F. W. Haenlein; J. P. Zikakis; H. C. Dickey

1977-01-01

45

Relationship Between External Body Measurements and Calving Difficulties in Canadian Holstein-Friesian Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen body measurements per cow were collected from 1980 to 1981 on 3,193 Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows by 576 sires in 100 herds. These data were analyzed to test effects of herd, age of cow, stage of lactation, and generation group; to predict sire proofs; to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations among body measures; and to estimate correlations between

T. E. Ali; E. B. Burnside; L. R. Schaeffer

1984-01-01

46

DEFICIENCY OF URIDINE MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE: INHERITANCE AND BODY MEASUREMENTS 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples and body measurements were obtained from daughters of seven Holstein bulls previously shown to have a partial deficiency of uridine monophosphate (UMP) synthase and presumed to be heterozygous for the condition. Erythrocyte UMP synthase for 85 daughters showed a bimodal distribution with 42 having half the normal activity of 43 others. Furthermore, each bull had 50% of his

Roger D. Shanks; A. Bragg; James L. Robinson

2010-01-01

47

Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P < 0.05) were developed for prediction of N (g/d) and OM (kg/d) excretion in feces and urine. The present data were also used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve national inventories of manure N output and greenhouse gas emissions and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies for young Holstein cattle. PMID:24879759

Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

2014-07-01

48

Effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle on consumer palatability ratings.  

PubMed

The need to provide consumer data for beef steak tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability ratings from zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) beef to the processor, retailers, restaurants, and consumers is paramount. Consumer palatability responses were studied for 14- and 21-d aged USDA Choice and USDA Select quality grade beef and USDA Choice calf-fed Holstein New York Strip steaks from cattle that had been fed ZH for 0, 20, and 30 d before slaughter. Strip loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick New York strip steaks and assigned to a 14- or 21-d aging treatment. The first and fourth steaks were assigned for 14- or 21-d WBSF analysis, and the second, third, fifth, and sixth steaks were reserved for consumer sensory panel evaluation. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis was conducted at Texas Tech University (TTU, Lubbock), Kansas State University (Manhattan), Oklahoma State University (Stillwater), and West Texas A&M University (Canyon) with values used to sort steaks for consumer evaluation. Slice shear force analysis was performed at TTU on available paired consumer steaks. Consumers (n = 3,007) in 4 metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were asked to rate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Consumers were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Steaks were cooked to a medium degree of doneness (71 degrees C), cut into 1 cm(3) pieces, and served warm to consumers. Consumers tasted samples from each of 3 separate steaks from each ZH treatment (0, 20, and 30 d) and within each USDA quality grade and within the 14- and 21-d aging treatments. Steaks were selected to represent the distribution of tenderness for the first, second, and third SD either side of the mean for each treatment. A second calf-fed Holstein consumer study (n = 240) was conducted with consumers eating USDA Choice 14- and 21-d aged steaks from Holstein cattle fed ZH for 0 or 20 d. Steaks from 0- and 20-d ZH treatments were different for tenderness for the 14-d aged USDA Choice and the calf-fed Holstein study groups. No differences were shown for all other 0- and 20-d ZH treatments for tenderness. The 21-d aged USDA Select steaks were improved with aging, which aided in removing the effects of ZH treatment. The ZH treatment of 30 d before slaughter resulted in increased WBSF values and decreased consumer tenderness, juiciness, and overall palatability ratings for 14-d-aged USDA Choice. No differences were shown for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability consumer ratings for 0- and 20-d steaks from 21-d Choice and 14- and 21-d Select quality and aging periods. Overall, USDA Choice Holstein steaks aged 14 and 21 d had differences in tenderness with ZH. PMID:19717772

Mehaffey, J M; Brooks, J C; Rathmann, R J; Alsup, E M; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Johnson, B J; Miller, M F

2009-11-01

49

Evaluating alternate models to estimate genetic parameters of calving traits in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The focus in dairy cattle breeding is gradually shifting from production to functional traits and genetic parameters of calving traits are estimated more frequently. However, across countries, various statistical models are used to estimate these parameters. This study evaluates different models for calving ease and stillbirth in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian cattle. Methods Data from first and later parity records were used. Genetic parameters for calving ease, stillbirth and gestation length were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method, considering different models i.e. sire (?maternal grandsire), animal, univariate and bivariate models. Gestation length was fitted as a correlated indicator trait and, for all three traits, genetic correlations between first and later parities were estimated. Potential bias in estimates was avoided by acknowledging a possible environmental direct-maternal covariance. The total heritable variance was estimated for each trait to discuss its theoretical importance and practical value. Prediction error variances and accuracies were calculated to compare the models. Results and discussion On average, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving traits were low, except for direct gestation length. Calving ease in first parity had a significant and negative direct-maternal genetic correlation. Gestation length was maternally correlated to stillbirth in first parity and directly correlated to calving ease in later parities. Multi-trait models had a slightly greater predictive ability than univariate models, especially for the lowly heritable traits. The computation time needed for sire (?maternal grandsire) models was much smaller than for animal models with only small differences in accuracy. The sire (?maternal grandsire) model was robust when additional genetic components were estimated, while the equivalent animal model had difficulties reaching convergence. Conclusions For the evaluation of calving traits, multi-trait models show a slight advantage over univariate models. Extended sire models (?maternal grandsire) are more practical and robust than animal models. Estimated genetic parameters for calving traits of UK Holstein cattle are consistent with literature. Calculating an aggregate estimated breeding value including direct and maternal values should encourage breeders to consider both direct and maternal effects in selection decisions.

2012-01-01

50

Effect of Artificial Selection on Runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins.

Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B.; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Crooker, Brian A.; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S.

2013-01-01

51

Perilipin, C\\/EBP?, and C\\/EBP? mRNA abundance in longissimus muscle and different adipose tissues of Holstein and Charolais cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible regulators of intramuscular fat deposition were investigated in longissimus muscle (LM) and adipose tissues of 18months old Holstein and Charolais bulls. The mRNA abundance of perilipin and transcription factors C\\/EBP? and C\\/EBP? was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Carcass traits and marbling traits were recorded and relationships among adipogenic genes and tissue traits were determined. Charolais cattle were heavier (P<0.001)

J. X. Xu; E. Albrecht; T. Viergutz; G. Nürnberg; R. Q. Zhao; J. Wegner

2009-01-01

52

A candidate gene association study for nine economically important traits in Italian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

We genotyped 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 25 candidate genes in about 800 Italian Holstein sires. Fifty-six (minor allele frequency >0.02) were used to evaluate their association with single traits: milk yield (MY), milk fat yield (FY), milk protein yield (PY), milk fat percentage (FP), milk protein percentage (PP), milk somatic cell count (MSCC); and complex indexes: longevity, fertility and productivity-functionality type (PFT), using deregressed proofs, after adjustment for familial relatedness. Thirty-two SNPs were significantly associated (proportion of false positives <0.05) with different traits: 16 with MSCC, 15 with PY, 14 with MY, 12 with PFT, eight with longevity, eight with FY, eight with PP, five with FP and two with fertility. In particular, a SNP in the promoter region of the PRLR gene was associated with eight of nine traits. DGAT1 polymorphisms were highly associated with FP and FY. Casein gene markers were associated with several traits, confirming the role of the casein gene cluster in affecting milk yield, milk quality and health traits. Other SNPs in genes located on chromosome 6 were associated with PY, PP, PFT, MY (PPARGC1A) and MSCC (KIT). This latter association may suggest a biological link between the degree of piebaldism in Holstein and immunological functions affecting somatic cell count and mastitis resistance. Other significant SNPs were in the ACACA, CRH, CXCR1, FASN, GH1, LEP, LGB (also known as PAEP), MFGE8, SRC, TG, THRSP and TPH1 genes. These results provide information that can complement QTL mapping and genome-wide association studies in Holstein. PMID:24796806

Fontanesi, L; Calň, D G; Galimberti, G; Negrini, R; Marino, R; Nardone, A; Ajmone-Marsan, P; Russo, V

2014-08-01

53

Molecular cloning, promoter analysis, SNP detection of Clusterin gene and their associations with mastitis in Chinese Holstein cows.  

PubMed

To examine the effect of Clusterin (CLU) on mastitis, genetic association analysis was applied on mastitis and milk production traits of 1,137 Chinese Holstein cows. We detected two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), G+15781A in the seventh exon and C-994T before 5'-upstream region (UTR) of CLU gene, found five TATA box, one CpG island and more transcription factor binding sites in promoter region, respectively, Milk fat rate in genotype AA was significantly higher than in GG on fat rate (P < 0.01), milk fat and milk yield in combined haplotype H1H4 (AGCT) were significantly higher than in H3H4 (GGCT) (P < 0.05), H1H4 was decided advantage in nine milk production traits. Quadruplet cows in G+15781A were decided advantage in each milk production traits that 305-day milk yield, fat rate, protein rate and somatic cell scores (SCS) increased following with birth order. A allele and T allele had positive effect on SCS. In conclusion, this study showed that the haplotype AA may be a genetic marker on mastitis and other performance for Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:21667239

Wang, Zeying; Huang, Jingmin; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Genlin

2012-03-01

54

Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: comparing the Dutch, French, and US germplasm collections.  

PubMed

Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands, and the United States to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in each country by using pedigree data. Measures of genetic diversity such as probability of gene origin inbreeding and kinship were calculated. The cryobanks have captured substantial amounts of genetic diversity for the HF compared with the current populations. A substantial part of the US, French, and Dutch collections seems to be genetically similar. On the other hand, the US collection in particular represents an interesting reservoir of HF genes of the past. Gene banks can play an important role in conserving genetic diversity within livestock breeds over time, and may support industry in the future when needed. PMID:21787945

Danchin-Burge, C; Hiemstra, S J; Blackburn, H

2011-08-01

55

Genetic evaluation of Ethiopian Boran cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian for growth performance in central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Breed additive and non-additive effects, and heritabilities of birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6 months weight (SMWT), yearling weight (YWT), eighteen months weight (EWT), 2 years weight (TWT) and average daily weight gain from birth to 6 months (ADG1) and from 6 months to 2 years (ADG2) were estimated in Ethiopian Boran (B) cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian (F) in central Ethiopia. The data analysed were spread over 15 years. Ethiopian Boran were consistently lighter (p < 0.01) than the B-F crosses at all ages. Ethiopian Boran also gained lower weight than all the crosses. At birth, 50% F crosses were significantly (p < 0.01) lighter than all the other crosses. However, the differences in SMWT, YWT, EWT, TWT, ADG1 and ADG2 were all non-significant among the crosses. The individual additive breed differences between B and F breeds were positive and significant (p < 0.01) for all traits. The individual heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.05) for all traits except WWT for which the effect was non-significant. The maternal heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.01) for BWT (2.5 kg) and WWT (-3.0 kg). The heritability estimates for all traits in B and crosses were generally moderate to high indicating that there is scope for genetic improvement through selection. Selection within B and crossbreeding should be the strategy to enhance the growth performance under such production systems. PMID:21385228

Haile, A; Joshi, B K; Ayalew, W; Tegegne, A; Singh, A

2011-04-01

56

Genome wide analysis of fertility and production traits in Italian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits. PMID:24265800

Minozzi, Giulietta; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Stella, Alessandra; Biffani, Stefano; Negrini, Riccardo; Lazzari, Barbara; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Williams, John L

2013-01-01

57

High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Holsteins Compared to Zebu Breeds under Field Cattle Husbandry in Central Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either zebus (22.2% versus 11.6%, ?2 = 61.8; P < 0.001) or crosses (22.2% versus 11.9%, ?2 = 50.7; P < 0.001). Moreover, the severity of pathology in Holsteins (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 6.84 ± 0.79) was significantly higher (P = 0.018) than the severity of pathology in zebus (5.21 ± 0.30). In addition, the risk of TB in Holsteins was more than twice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89, 2.85) that in zebus. Animals between 5 and 9 years of age were at higher (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.80, 3.12) risk of bovine TB than those 2 years of age or below. A significant difference (?2 = 351; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of TB lesions in lymph nodes was recorded; the mesenteric lymph node (mean pathology score ± SEM, 1.95 ± 0.08) was most severely affected, followed by the retropharyngeal (0.80 ± 0.05) and caudal mediastinal (0.8 ± 0.06) lymph nodes. Fifty-six percent (n = 145) of the animals with gross TB lesions were culture positive; the lowest culture positivity was recorded in the skin lesions (27.3%) and the lesions of the mesenteric lymph node (31.5%). Both the skin test response and the postmortem findings suggested a higher susceptibility to bovine TB in Holsteins than zebus under identical field husbandry conditions (on pasture). In the light of increased numbers of Holstein cattle introduced into this area to raise milk production to satisfy the needs of Addis Ababa's growing population, these findings highlight the need for a control program in these herds.

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2007-01-01

58

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rectal Temperature during Heat Stress in Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

Heat stress compromises production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One mitigation strategy is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of either physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature or adverse consequences of failure to regulate body temperature. Thus, selection for regulation of body temperature during heat stress could increase thermotolerance. The objective was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for rectal temperature (RT) during heat stress in lactating Holstein cows and identify SNPs associated with genes that have large effects on RT. Records on afternoon RT where the temperature-humidity index was ?78.2 were obtained from 4,447 cows sired by 220 bulls, resulting in 1,440 useable genotypes from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip with 39,759 SNP. For GWAS, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 adjacent SNP were averaged to identify consensus genomic regions associated with RT. The largest proportion of SNP variance (0.07 to 0.44%) was explained by markers flanking the region between 28,877,547 and 28,907,154 bp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 24. That region is flanked by U1 (28,822,883 to 28,823,043) and NCAD (28,992,666 to 29,241,119). In addition, the SNP at 58,500,249 bp on BTA 16 explained 0.08% and 0.11% of the SNP variance for 2- and 3-SNP analyses, respectively. That contig includes SNORA19, RFWD2 and SCARNA3. Other SNPs associated with RT were located on BTA 16 (close to CEP170 and PLD5), BTA 5 (near SLCO1C1 and PDE3A), BTA 4 (near KBTBD2 and LSM5), and BTA 26 (located in GOT1, a gene implicated in protection from cellular stress). In conclusion, there are QTL for RT in heat-stressed dairy cattle. These SNPs could prove useful in genetic selection and for identification of genes involved in physiological responses to heat stress.

Dikmen, Serdal; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Hansen, Peter J.

2013-01-01

59

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5' promoter, intronic, and 3' regulatory regions, encompassing ~5?kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P?cattle. PMID:22303302

Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P; Howard, Dawn J; Diskin, Michael G; Lynch, Ciaran O; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A; Magee, David A; Meade, Kieran G; Waters, Sinead M

2011-01-01

60

Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3?-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3?-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3?-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3?-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls.

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

61

Association of TNP2 gene polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 target site with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3'-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3'-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3'-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3'-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

Gao, Qing; Ju, Zhihua; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

62

Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele)?=?0.64; -log(10)P(allele)?=?6.8, -log(10)P(genotype)?=?7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

2012-01-01

63

A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism within the Interferon Gamma Receptor 2 Gene Perfectly Coincides with Polledness in Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

Polledness is a high impact trait in modern milk and beef production to meet the demands of animal welfare and work safety. Previous studies have mapped the polled-locus to the proximal region of the bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) and narrowed it down to approximately 1 Mb. Sequencing of the positional candidate genes within the 1 Mb polled region and whole genome sequencing of Holsteins revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) AC000158: g.1390292G>A within intron 3 of the interferon gamma receptor 2 gene (IFNGR2) in perfect co-segregation with polledness in Holsteins. This complete association was validated in 443 animals of the same breed. This SNP allows reliable genotyping of horned, heterozygous and homozygous polled Holsteins, even in animals that could not be resolved using the previously published haplotype for Holstein.

Dierks, Claudia; Wohlke, Anne; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

2013-01-01

64

Two novel SNPs of the ABCG2 gene and its associations with milk traits in Chinese Holsteins.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (also known as breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transmembrane drug transporters, playing a crucial role in the protection of various cells and tissues against xenotoxins and/or endotoxins. Recently, several studies have proposed it as the potential gene underlying the QTL on bovine chromosome 6. Hence, in this study, the PCR-SSCP method was applied to detect two polymorphisms (A ? C and A ? G) in the target sequence coding nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) region of ABCG2 and evaluate its associations with milk production traits and mastitis-related traits among Chinese Holsteins. In the analyzed population, the allelic frequencies for the A and B alleles were 0.5990 and 0.4010, respectively and the genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (P < 0.01). Moreover, significant statistical relationships between the polymorphisms of ABCG2 gene and following traits, including milk yields, milk protein percentage and somatic cell scores (SCS), were found (P < 0.05). When compared with AA genotype, BB genotype was associated with higher milk yields during 1st and 2nd lactations, as well as lower milk protein percentage and SCS. Thus, BB genotype is suggested to be a molecular marker for superior milk performance. PMID:20140710

Yue, Wangping; Fang, Xingtang; Zhang, Chunlei; Pang, Yonghong; Xu, Haixia; Gu, Chuanwen; Shao, Ruying; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

2011-06-01

65

Polymorphisms in the bone morphogenetic protein 15 gene and their effect on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) expression has been detected in the testis, but its roles in this organ has not been well elucidated. We evaluated polymorphisms of the BMP-15 gene by PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP in 212 Chinese Holstein bulls, and investigated possible associations with sperm quality traits, including semen volume per ejaculate, sperm density, fresh sperm motility, thawed sperm motility, acrosome integrity rate, and abnormal sperm rate. A single nucleotide polymorphism (C5697T) in intron 1 of the BMP-15 gene was identified in these bulls. Age was found to have significant effects on both fresh sperm motility and abnormal sperm rate. A significant effect of genotype on fresh sperm motility was also observed. Least square analysis showed that CT genotype bulls had significantly lower fresh sperm motility than CC or TT genotype bulls. In conclusion, BMP-15 should be considered as a potential genetic marker for sperm quality, based on its association with fresh sperm motility. PMID:24668668

Sun, L P; Song, Y P; Du, Q Z; Song, L W; Tian, Y Z; Zhang, S L; Hua, G H; Yang, L G

2014-01-01

66

Perilipin, C/EBP?, and C/EBP? mRNA abundance in longissimus muscle and different adipose tissues of Holstein and Charolais cattle.  

PubMed

Possible regulators of intramuscular fat deposition were investigated in longissimus muscle (LM) and adipose tissues of 18months old Holstein and Charolais bulls. The mRNA abundance of perilipin and transcription factors C/EBP? and C/EBP? was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Carcass traits and marbling traits were recorded and relationships among adipogenic genes and tissue traits were determined. Charolais cattle were heavier (P<0.001) and had less body fat (P<0.001). Holstein bulls accumulated more fat in the LM (P=0.02), but the number and size of marbling flecks did not differ (P>0.7) between breeds. Perilipin, C/EBP?, and C/EBP? mRNA abundance was influenced by tissue but not by breed. Relationships between mRNA abundance and marbling traits could not be confirmed, however relationships among adipogenic genes. The transcriptional activity of adipogenic genes in LM suggests that intramuscular adipose tissue is still developing and differentiation still occurs. PMID:20416782

Xu, J X; Albrecht, E; Viergutz, T; Nürnberg, G; Zhao, R Q; Wegner, J

2009-09-01

67

Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. PMID:24952782

Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

2014-08-01

68

Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls  

PubMed Central

Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle.

2014-01-01

69

Genetic Parameters of Dairy Character, Protein Yield, Clinical Mastitis, and Other Diseases in the Danish Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study was to estimate ge- netic correlations between dairy character, protein yield, clinical mastitis, and other diseases. Data con- sisted of first lactation records of Danish Holstein cows calving from 1990 to 1999. After editing, the data in- cluded records on 934,639 cows, of which 101,853 were assessed for dairy character, 472,421 for diseases, and

M. Hansen; M. S. Lund; M. K. Sřrensen; L. G. Christensen

2002-01-01

70

Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is one of the most common disorders of the digestive system in many dairy breeds and particularly in Holstein dairy cows. We performed a genome-wide association study for 854 German Holstein cows, including 225 cases and 629 controls. All cows were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After quality control of genotypes, a total of 36,226 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were left for analysis. We used a mixed linear model approach for a genome-wide association study of LDA. In total, 36 SNP located on 17 bovine (Bos taurus) chromosomes (BTA) showed associations with LDA at nominal -log10P-values >3.0. Two of these SNP, located on BTA11 at 46.70 Mb and BTA20 at 16.67 Mb, showed genome-wide significant associations with LDA at -log10P-values >4.6. Pathway analyses indicated genes involved in calcium metabolism and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to be factors in the pathogenesis of LDA in German Holstein cows. PMID:23548285

Mömke, S; Sickinger, M; Lichtner, P; Doll, K; Rehage, J; Distl, O

2013-06-01

71

SNP and haplotype analysis reveal IGF2 variants associated with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a potent cell growth and differentiation factor and is implicated in mammals' growth and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the mutations in the bovine IGF2 with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected of the bovine IGF2 by DNA pool sequencing and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (forced PCR-RFLP) methods. We also investigated haplotype structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) coefficients for four SNPs in 817 individuals representing two main cattle breeds from China. The result of haplotype analysis showed eight different haplotypes and 27 combined genotypes within the study population. The statistical analyses indicated that the four SNPs, combined genotypes and haplotypes are associated with the withers height, body length, chest breadth, chest depth and body weight in Qinchuan cattle population (P < 0.05 or <0.01). The mutant-type variants and mutant haplotype (Hap 8: ATGG; likely to be the beneficial QTN allele) was superior for growth traits; the heterozygote diplotype was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the IGF2 gene are associated with growth traits, and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:24374893

Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xin-Yi; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Sun, Yu-Jia; Xue, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Jia, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hong

2014-02-01

72

Estimación de tendencias genéticas e interacción genotipo x ambiente en ganado lechero de Costa Rica Genetic trends, genotype-environment interaction and inbreeding in Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle from Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic trends for 305-d milk yield, genotype-environment interaction and inbreeding levels were evaluated in Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) dairy cattle populations in Costa Rica. Heritability and repeatability for 305-d milk yield were estimated with a statistical model that included the fixed effect of herd-year-season and the random effects of herd-sire interaction, permanent environment and animal. Heritability estimates were 0.19±0.021

Bernardo Vargas Leitóna; Gabriela Gamboa Zeledóna

73

Accumulation of clenbuterol residues in the hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle during and after treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of clenbuterol residues in the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of clenbuterol for 21 days. This experiment was conducted in six male red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were administered clenbuterol at a dose of 16 and 48 ?g/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively. Hair samples were collected on Days 7, 14 and 21 during treatment, and on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 70 after discontinuation of medication, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. About 500 mg hair samples spiked with 50 pg/mg D9-clenbuterol internal standard were analyzed with which the method recovery was from 88.6 to 116.9%. The results showed that clenbuterol was significantly accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 0.98 ± 0.56 pg/mg in Group 1 and 6.34 ± 3.21 pg/mg in Group 2 on Day 7 of treatment, and the residue concentrations increased as treatment proceeded. During the early withdrawal period, the residues increased from 13.52 ± 8.69 to 17.96 ± 6.94 pg/mg in Group 1 and from 55.15 ± 4.04 to 147.79 ± 15.35 pg/mg in Group 2. No significant differences were found in the later withdrawal period in both treatment groups. The results of the present study indicated that the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle has high accumulation potential for clenbuterol residues. Hair, as a target matrix, even light-pigmented hair, can be used to monitor clenbuterol abuse over a long period. PMID:24327621

Li, Lijun; Zhang, Junmin; Tang, Chaohua; Zhao, Qingyu

2014-01-01

74

A 2cM genome-wide scan of European Holstein cattle affected by classical BSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that non-synonymous mutations in

Brenda M Murdoch; Michael L Clawson; William W Laegreid; Paul Stothard; Matthew Settles; Stephanie McKay; Aparna Prasad; Zhiquan Wang; Stephen S Moore; John L Williams

2010-01-01

75

Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Chinese Beef Simmental Cattle Using High-density SNP Panels  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays an important role in genomic selection and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, the pattern of LD and effective population size (Ne) were investigated in Chinese beef Simmental cattle. A total of 640 bulls were genotyped with IlluminaBovinSNP50BeadChip and IlluminaBovinHDBeadChip. We estimated LD for each autosomal chromosome at the distance between two random SNPs of <0 to 25 kb, 25 to 50 kb, 50 to 100 kb, 100 to 500 kb, 0.5 to 1 Mb, 1 to 5 Mb and 5 to 10 Mb. The mean values of r2 were 0.30, 0.16 and 0.08, when the separation between SNPs ranged from 0 to 25 kb to 50 to 100 kb and then to 0.5 to 1 Mb, respectively. The LD estimates decreased as the distance increased in SNP pairs, and increased with the increase of minor allelic frequency (MAF) and with the decrease of sample sizes. Estimates of effective population size for Chinese beef Simmental cattle decreased in the past generations and Ne was 73 at five generations ago.

Zhu, M.; Zhu, B.; Wang, Y. H.; Wu, Y.; Xu, L.; Guo, L. P.; Yuan, Z. R.; Zhang, L. P.; Gao, X.; Gao, H. J.; Xu, S. Z.; Li, J. Y.

2013-01-01

76

Genetic variants in BMP8B gene are associated with growth traits in Chinese native cattle.  

PubMed

As a signaling molecule, bone morphogenetic protein 8B (BMP8B) plays an essential role in bone metabolism and is able to regulate thermogenesis and energy balance, which suggests that BMP8B gene may be a new candidate for growth traits. Here, to characterize the effects of BMP8B gene on growth traits, we first used three Chinese indigenous cattle breeds (n=845) to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five novel SNPs of BMP8B gene (g.-242C>T, g.2164C>T, g.2639T>C, g.2900C>G and g.10817C>T) were identified by DNA pool sequencing and forced PCR-RFLP. And then we associated the five SNPs with four growth traits (body weight, body length, heart girth, and hucklebone width). Results from association analysis showed that the SNPs 1, 2, and 3 affected growth trait(s) markedly (P<0.05). Further, 6 combined haplotypes were constructed to guarantee the reliability of analysis results. There were also significant differences in body length, heart girth and body weight between the 6 combined haplotypes (P<0.05), but not in hucklebone width (P>0.05). Collectively, our results suggest a modulatory role of BMP8B gene in cattle growth and development, and 3 SNPs could be used as molecular markers in early marker assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:24076131

Cao, Xiu-Kai; Wang, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Qi, Xing-Lei; Chen, Hong

2013-12-10

77

Abnormal segregation of alleles and haplotypes at the polymorphic site of the PRNP gene within promoter and intron 1 regions in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.  

PubMed

Allele and haplotype segregation at the polymorphic sites within the promoter (23indel) and intron 1 (12indel) regions of the PRNP gene was analyzed in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. More 23del/del homozygotes and fewer 23ins/ins homozygotes than expected were observed in the offspring of ? 23ins/del × ? 23ins/del parents. In the offspring of ? 23ins/del × ? 23del/del parents and ? 23del/del × ? 23ins/del parents, a trend toward more 23del/del animals and fewer 23ins/del animals than expected was noted. At the 12indel polymorphic site, the only trend found was one toward fewer 12ins/ins genotypes and more 12ins/del and 12del/del genotypes than expected in the offspring of ? 12ins/del × ? 12ins/del parents. An analysis of haplotype segregation revealed more 23del-12del/23del-12del diplotypes and fewer 23ins-12ins/23ins-12ins diplotypes at the significance threshold than expected in the offspring of ? 23ins-12ins/23del-12del × ? 23ins-12ins/23del-12del parents. PMID:22258312

Strychalski, Janusz; Czarnik, Urszula; Zabolewicz, Tadeusz

2012-08-01

78

Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration. PMID:21862090

Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

2012-08-01

79

Novel xylanase from a holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library and its application in xylooligosaccharide and ferulic Acid production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. A high level of activity was obtained under the optimum conditions of pH 6.5 and 40 °C. A substrate utilization study indicated that Xyln-SH1 was cellulase-free and strictly specific to xylan from softwood. The synergistic effects of Xyln-SH1 and feruloyl esterase (FAE-SH1) were observed for the release of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and ferulic acid (FA) from wheat straw. In addition, a high dose of Xyln-SH1 alone was observed to improve the release of FA from wheat straw. These features suggest that this enzyme has substantial potential to improve biomass degradation and industrial applications. PMID:23134352

Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Dong, Rubo; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lin

2012-12-26

80

Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM intake and milk production were not different across treatments and averaged 26.1 +/- 2.3 and 28.3 +/- 3.9 kg/d. Ruminal pH (6.26 +/- 0.08) and total concentration of volatile fatty acids (125.3 +/- 4.2 mM) were similar. Acetate concentration was higher for the control treatment than the DDGS, germ, and HPDDG treatments (81.7 vs. 75.8, 75.0, and 78.4 mM). Concentrations of propionate and butyrate were not different and averaged 27.8 +/- 1.2 and 14.3 +/- 0.9 mM across treatments. The acetate:propionate ratios for the control, germ, and HPDDG treatments were greater than for the DDGS treatment (3.02, 2.88, and 2.91 vs. 2.62). Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were similar across treatments and averaged 63.5 +/- 2.7, 67.3 +/- 2.2, and 43.5 +/- 4.2%. Milk production followed DM intake in experiment 1, and yield of major milk components was not affected. Results of these experiments indicate that dairy rations can be successfully formulated to include 15% of diet DM as corn-milling coproducts while maintaining or increasing DM intakes and yields of milk and milk components. PMID:19762830

Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

2009-10-01

81

Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids in Danish Holstein cattle based on SNP markers using a Bayesian approach  

PubMed Central

Background For several years, in human nutrition there has been a focus on the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) found in bovine milk. The positive health-related properties of UFA versus SFA have increased the demand for food products with a higher proportion of UFA. To be able to change the UFA and SFA content of the milk by breeding it is important to know whether there is a genetic component underlying the individual FA in the milk. We have estimated the heritability for individual FA in the milk of Danish Holstein. For this purpose we used information of SNP markers instead of the traditional pedigree relationships. Results Estimates of heritability were moderate within the range of 0.10 for C18:1 trans-11 to 0.34 for C8:0 and C10:0, whereas the estimates for saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were 0.14 and 0.18, respectively. Posterior standard deviations were in the range from 0.07 to 0.17. The correlation estimates showed a general pattern of two groups, one group mainly consisting of saturated fatty acids and one group mainly consisting of unsaturated fatty acids. The phenotypic correlation ranged from ?0.95 (saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids) to 0.99 (unsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids) and the genomic correlation for fatty acids ranged from ?0.29 to 0.91. Conclusions The heritability estimates obtained in this study are in general accordance with heritability estimates from studies using pedigree data and/or a genomic relationship matrix in the context of a REML approach. SFA and UFA expressed a strong negative phenotypic correlation and a weaker genetic correlation. This is in accordance with the theory that SFA is synthesized de novo, while UFA can be regulated independently from the regulation of SFA by the feeding regime.

2013-01-01

82

Relative efficiencies of wither height and body weight increase from birth until first calving in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Female Holstein calves from the Purina Research Center herd averaged 74 cm of height at withers and 40 kg of body weight (BW) at birth. At first calving (24 mo of age), calves averaged 138 cm of height at withers, 611 kg at precalving BW, and 547 kg at postcalving BW. Fifty percent of the total height increase occurred from birth to 6 mo of age, 25% occurred during 7 to 12 mo of age, and 25% occurred during 13 to 24 mo of age. Twenty-five percent of the total BW increase occurred from birth to 6 mo of age, 25% occurred from 6 to 12 mo of age, and the remaining 50% occurred from 13 to 24 mo of age. The increase in BW for 2-mo intervals, expressed as a proportion of the BW of the previous 2-mo interval, declined most rapidly during the first 6 mo, intermediately during the second 6 mo, and more slowly and progressively during the final 12 mo. Feed cost per unit of BW gain was lowest during the first 6 mo and then increased at a decreasing rate over the final 18 mo. The proportion of BW to height linearly increased over the 24-mo period. The increase in wither height as a proportion of the wither height during the previous period was greatest during the first 6 mo, intermediate during the second 6 mo, and lowest in the final 12 mo. Feed cost per unit of height increase was lowest in the first 6 mo, intermediate during the second 6 mo, and highest with a rapid increase during the final 12 mo. The increases in relative BW and wither height are the most rapid and cost efficient during the first 6 mo of life. PMID:9621252

Kertz, A F; Barton, B A; Reutzel, L F

1998-05-01

83

A whole genome association analysis identifies loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in US holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont enrolled in longitudinal herd studies between January 1999 and November 2007 were assessed for the presence of Map in both faecal and tissue samples. An animal was considered tissue infected if any sample contained at least one colony forming unit of Map per gram of tissue (CFU/g) and the same definition was employed for faecal samples. Each animal was genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and after quality assurance filtering, 218 animals and 45 683 SNPs remained. We sought to identify loci associated with four different case/control classifications: presence of Map in the tissue, presence of Map in faeces, presence of Map in both tissue and faeces and presence of Map in tissue but not faeces. A case-control genome wide association study was conducted to test the four different classifications of Map infection status (cases) when compared with a Map-negative control group (control). Regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 16, 21 and 23 were identified with moderate significance (P < 5 x 10(-5)). Two regions, one on chromosome 3 (near EDN2) and another on chromosome 9 (no positional gene candidates), were identified with a high level of association to the presence of Map in tissue and both tissue and faeces respectively (P < 5 x 10(-7), genome-wide Bonferonni P < 0.05). PMID:19422364

Settles, M; Zanella, R; McKay, S D; Schnabel, R D; Taylor, J F; Whitlock, R; Schukken, Y; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Neibergs, H

2009-10-01

84

Associations of MYH3 gene copy number variations with transcriptional expression and growth traits in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Copy number variations (CNVs) have been recently recognized as another important genetic variability complementary to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Compelling evidence has indicated that CNVs are responsible for phenotypic traits by changing the copy numbers of functional genes. Myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) gene is a critical regulatory factor in skeletal muscle development, and has been detected in the CNVs region by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array. This study was conducted to validate and detect the distribution of MYH3 copy numbers (relative to Angus cattle) in four Chinese cattle breeds (NY, QC, LX, and CY), and further to investigate the associations of the copy number changes with its transcriptional expression and cattle growth traits. Substantial genetic differences of MYH3 copy numbers were identified between NY and the other three breeds (P<0.01). The copy numbers of MYH3 gene presented the positive correlations with the transcript level of MYH3 gene in both fetal and adult skeletal muscles (P<0.05). Statistical analysis revealed that CNVs of MYH3 gene were significantly associated with growth traits of NY cattle, and the individuals with copy number gain showed better phenotypes than the loss and/or median groups (P<0.05). This study firstly attempted to establish the correlations between CNVs of candidate genes and growth traits, and our results suggested that the CNVs of MYH3 gene may be utilized as the potential markers for economic traits in selection breeding programs of Chinese cattle. PMID:24316128

Xu, Yao; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Zhou, Yang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Qi, Xinglei; Chen, Hong

2014-02-10

85

Peripartum changes in plasma estrone sulfate and estradiol-17beta profiles associated with and without the retention of fetal membranes in holstein-friesian cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in plasma concentrations of estrone sulfate (E(1)S) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)beta) during the peripartum period (from day 10 prepartum to day 1 postpartum) associated with and without retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in Holstein-Friesian cattle (n=42). Plasma samples were analyzed for E(1)S and E(2)beta by ELISA. All parturitions were spontaneous and normal. Of 38 cattle delivering singletons, 29 had no RFM (singleton-normal group) and nine had RFM for more than 12 h (singleton-RFM group). Four cows gave birth to twins, and each twin had its own fetal membrane (FM). Two twinning cows expelled both FMs normally within 12 h (twin-normal group). In the remaining 2 twinning cows (twin-RFM group), the FM was expelled normally for one twin (first), while the FM of the other (second) was retained. There were no significant differences in the E(1)S concentrations or their increments from the concentrations on the preceding day between the normal and RFM groups of singleton cows on any peripartum day. The mean plasma E(2)beta concentrations on each day from day 10 to day 3 prepartum were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the singleton-RFM group compared with the singleton-normal group; however, on days 2 and 1 prepartum, the increments in the E(2)beta concentrations from the concentrations on the preceding days were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the singleton-RFM group than in the singleton-normal group. Thus, the plasma E(1)S concentrations just before parturition may not be associated with RFM. In the cows with RFM, the lower plasma E(2)beta concentrations that were found prior to day 2 prepartum may have been associated with immature placentomes, and the rapid rise in plasma E(2) beta within 1 to 2 days prior to calving may have produced asynchrony of placental and/or fetal maturation in relation to calving, thus resulting in RFM. PMID:17135712

Shah, Kapil Deo; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu; Maeda, Teruo

2007-04-01

86

Factors associated with early and mid-to-late fetal loss in lactating and nonlactating Holstein cattle in a hot climate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evalu- ate associations of lactation, somatic cell count score (SCCS) at breeding, milk yield, lactation number, inter- val from calving to breeding (days open), number of times inseminated, and season of breeding on fetal loss for lactating Holstein females (both first-parity and multiparous cows) and nonlactating Holstein heifers in a hot climate. Females

F. D. Jousan; M. Drost; P. J. Hansen

87

Utilization of Energy and Nitrogen by Yearling Holstein Cattle Fed Direct-Cut Alfalfa or Orchard rass Ensiled with Formic Acid 8111s F~rrnaldehydel  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-growth orchardgrass and al- falfa were harvested at two stages of maturity, treated with formic acid plus formaldehyde, and ensiled as direct-cut silage during 1978 and 1979. The 1978 silages were fed to eight yearling Holstein heifers (average BW 273 kg), and the 1979 silages were fed to eight yearling Holstein steers (average BW 264 kg) in replicated 4 x

H. F. TyrrelP; D. J. Thomson; D. R. Waldo; G. L. Haaland

88

Association between variants in the 5?-untranslated region of the bovine MC4R gene and two growth traits in Nanyang cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is one of five G-protein-coupled receptors binding melanocortins that is implicated in the\\u000a control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Six cattle populations (n = 594), including four Chinese indigenous breeds, Chinese Holstein, and a meat type breed (Angus), were used to detect single\\u000a nucleotide polymorphisms in 5?-untranslated region of MC4R gene by means of PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing.

Chun-Lei Zhang; Yan-Hong Wang; Hong Chen; Xian-Yong Lan; Chu-Zhao Lei; Xing-Tang Fang

2009-01-01

89

Expression differences of miRNAs and genes on NF-?B pathway between the healthy and the mastitis Chinese Holstein cows.  

PubMed

In order to discover the variation of microRNAs and genes associated with NF-?B signaling pathway between the healthy and the mastitis Chinese Holstein cows, Illumina Deep Sequencing and qRT-PCR are applied to detect 25 kinds of miRNAs (miR-16, miR-125b, miR-15, miR-29a, miR-23b, miR-146, miR-301a, miR-181b, let-7, miR-30b, miR-21, miR-223, miR-27b, miR-10a, miR-143, etc.) expression levels in blood samples and 14 genes (RelA, RelB, Rel, p105, p100, I?B?, I?B?, I?B?, I?B?, I?B?, Bcl-3, IKK?, IKK?, IKK?/NEMO) relative expression levels in nine tissues. The total number of miRNAs is declining, and RelA, Rel, p105, p100, I?B?, I?B?, I?B?, I?B?, Bcl-3, and IKK? expressions are rising in mastitis individuals. So, we suppose that NF-?B pathway is active in mastitis individuals as a result of the decrease inhibition of miRNAs. While in healthy ones, the NF-?B pathway is inactive, because of the miRNAs enhanced inhibition action. However, the specific regulatory mechanism of miRNAs on NF-?B pathway in mastitis Holstein cows needs further investigation. Moreover, due to obvious expression differences, some miRNAs, especially miR-16 and miR-223, may be used as new markers for the dairy mastitis prognosing. PMID:24793582

Chen, Ling; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Yu; He, Hua; Yang, Jing; Niu, Fubiao; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Jiazhong

2014-07-15

90

Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production  

PubMed Central

Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein.

Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

2014-01-01

91

Comparison of genomic predictions using medium-density (?54,000) and high-density (?777,000) single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels in Nordic Holstein and Red Dairy Cattle populations.  

PubMed

This study investigated genomic prediction using medium-density (?54,000; 54K) and high-density marker panels (?777,000; 777K), based on data from Nordic Holstein and Red Dairy Cattle (RDC). The Holstein data comprised 4,539 progeny-tested bulls, and the RDC data 4,403 progeny-tested bulls. The data were divided into reference data and test data using October 1, 2001, as a cut-off date (birth date of the bulls). This resulted in about 25% genotyped bulls in the Holstein test data and 20% in the RDC test data. For each breed, 3 data sets of markers were used to predict breeding values: (1) 54K data set with missing genotypes, (2) 54K data set where missing genotypes were imputed, and (3) imputed high-density (HD) marker data set created by imputing the 54K data to the HD data based on 557 bulls genotyped using a 777K single nucleotide polymorphism chip in Holstein, and 706 bulls in RDC. Based on the 3 marker data sets, direct genomic breeding values (DGV) for protein, fertility, and udder health were predicted using a genomic BLUP model (GBLUP) and a Bayesian mixture model with 2 normal distributions. Reliability of DGV was measured as squared correlations between deregressed proofs (DRP) and DGV corrected for reliability of DRP. Unbiasedness was assessed by regression of DRP on DGV, based on the bulls in the test data sets. Averaged over the 3 traits, reliability of DGV based on the HD markers was 0.5% higher than that based on the 54K data in Holstein, and 1.0% higher than that in RDC. In addition, the HD markers led to an improvement of unbiasedness of DGV. The Bayesian mixture model led to 0.5% higher reliability than the GBLUP model in Holstein, but not in RDC. Imputing missing genotypes in the 54K marker data did not improve genomic predictions for most of the traits. PMID:22818480

Su, G; Brřndum, R F; Ma, P; Guldbrandtsen, B; Aamand, G P; Lund, M S

2012-08-01

92

DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ? 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ? 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ? 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ? 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ? 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ? 0.01), angularity (P ? 0.01), body depth (P ? 0.01), rump width (P ? 0.01) and animal stature (P ? 0.01). Conclusions Of the eight candidate bovine imprinted genes assessed, DNA sequence polymorphisms in six of these genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, RASGRF1, ZIM2 and ZNF215) displayed associations with several of the phenotypes included for analyses. The genotype-phenotype associations detected here are further supported by the biological function of these six genes, each of which plays important roles in mammalian growth, development and physiology. The associations between SNPs within the imprinted PEG3 gene cluster and traits related to calving, calf performance and gestation length suggest that this domain on chromosome 18 may play a role regulating pre-natal growth and development and fertility. SNPs within the bovine ZNF215 gene were associated with bovine growth and body conformation traits and studies in humans have revealed that the human ZNF215 ortholog belongs to the imprinted gene cluster associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome--a genetic disorder characterised by growth abnormalities. Similarly, the data presented here suggest that the ZNF215 gene may have an important role in regulating bovine growth. Collectively, our results support previous work showing that (candidate) imprinted genes/loci contribute to heritable variation in bovine performance traits and suggest that DNA sequence polymorphisms within these genes/loci represents an important reservoir of genomic markers for future genetic improvement of dairy and beef cattle populations.

2010-01-01

93

Haplotypes and effects on growth traits of bovine Wnt7a gene in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Wnt7a is a member of the WNT gene family, which encodes secreted signaling proteins and responds to many biological processes. Specifically Wnt7a influences satellite stem cells and regulates the regenerative potential of the muscle. However, similar researches about the bovine Wnt7a gene are lacking. Therefore, in this study, polymorphisms of the bovine Wnt7a gene were detected in 488 individuals from Chinese Qinchuan cattle by DNA pooling, forced PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing methods. 3 novel SNPs were identified, two SNPs (g.T4926C and g.A21943G) were in the intron and the last one (g.C63777T) was in the exon. Five haplotypes involved in these three variant sites in the Wnt7a gene were identified and their effects on growth traits were analyzed. The results revealed that haplotype 1 had the highest haplotype frequencies and was highly significantly associated with body height (P<0.01), body weight (P<0.05), chest width (P<0.05) and height at hip cross (P<0.01) respectively. PMID:23612250

Xue, Jing; Sun, Yujia; Guo, Wenjiao; Yang, Ziqi; Tian, Huibin; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

2013-07-25

94

Effect of environmental factors and of the proportion of Holstein blood on the milk yield and lactation length of crossbred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in north-east Tanzania.  

PubMed

A study was carried out on the lactation performance of crossbred dairy cattle in a smallholder farming system in north-east Tanzania. Data were collected from the records for 6 years and the factors considered were district, proportion of Holsteins, season of calving, year of calving and herd size. The data were considered separately for animals with a single lactation record. The least-square means for first lactation length and yield were 331 days (SD 77.0) and 2332 L (SD 283.0), respectively, while for cows with data on more than one lactation record the yield was 2477 L (SD 840.1) in 324 days (SD 74.0). First lactation yield was significantly affected by year of calving. For repeated records, the lactation yield was significantly affected by district, proportion of Holsteins and herd size, while lactation length was significantly affected by district and herd size. The calculated repeatabilities for lactation yield and length were 0.27 and 0.12, respectively. For the pooled data, the correlation between lactation length and yield gave r = 0.569 (p < 0.0001). PMID:10717941

Msanga, Y N; Bryant, M J; Rutam, I B; Minja, F N; Zylstra, L

2000-02-01

95

The novel coding region SNPs of PPARGC1A gene and their associations with growth traits in Chinese native cattle.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha protein, encoded by the PPARGC1A gene, is a metabolic switch, which transcriptionally activates a complex pathway of mitochondrial biogenesis, lipid and glucose metabolism. Three SNPs (exon 3 c.396G>A, intron 9 c.1892 + 19C>T and exon 10 c.1971C>T) were found and identified in three Chinese native cattle breeds by PCR-SSCP, PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods. All three populations had a low genetic diversity at SNP396 locus (PIC <0.25) while possessed a moderate genetic diversity at SNP1892 locus (0.25 < PIC < 0.5). Association study indicated that the synonymous mutation c.396G>A significantly associated with body weight and average daily gain in Nanyang cattle at the adult age (P < 0.05). Our investigation will not only extend the spectrum of genetic variation of bovine PPARGC1A gene, but also provide useful information for the marker assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:24197695

Li, Mijie; Liu, Mei; Liu, Dong; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

96

Extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle based on a high-density SNP panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within a population determines the number of markers that will be required for successful association mapping and marker-assisted selection. Most studies on LD in cattle reported to date are based on microsatellite markers or small numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering one or only a few chromosomes. This is the first comprehensive

Mehar S Khatkar; Frank W Nicholas; Andrew R Collins; Kyall R Zenger; Julie AL Cavanagh; Wes Barris; Robert D Schnabel; Jeremy F Taylor; Herman W Raadsma

2008-01-01

97

Antimicrobial resistance and toxin gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains from Holstein milk.  

PubMed

Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus) from Holstein milk samples with mastitis and nonmastitis was conducted to estimate its prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and toxin genes. A total of 353 milk samples were collected from three Chinese Holstein herds. Fifty-three Staph. aureus isolates collected from 29 Staph. aureus-positive samples were characterized via antimicrobial susceptibility, toxin genes and Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. The prevalence of Staph. aureus was 4·0-9·5% in mastitic and 7·3-11·5% in nonmastitic samples in the analysed herds. Approximately 61·0% of Staph. aureus strains isolated from mastitis cows were resistant to ?10 antimicrobials compared with 0% of isolates with nonmastitis. The most frequently observed super antigenic toxin gene was pvl (41·5%) followed by seh + pvl (13·2%). We did not find mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) strains, while mecA-negative MRSA strains were identified in the three herds. PFGE results suggested potential transmission of Staph. aureus strains in different farms. These results open new insights into Staph. aureus transmission and antimicrobial resistance of Holstein dairy cows and into developing strategies for udder health improvement of dairy cattle. PMID:24460961

Wang, X; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Guo, G; Usman, T; Hao, D; Tang, X; Zhang, Y; Yu, Y

2014-06-01

98

Imputation of genotypes with low-density chips and its effect on reliabilty of direct genomic values in Dutch Holstein cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic selection using 50,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (50k SNP) chips has been implemented in many dairy cattle breeding programs. Cheap, low-density chips make genotyping of a larger number of animals cost effective. A commonly proposed strategy is to impute low-density genotypes up to 50,000 genotypes before predicting direct genomic values (DGV). The objectives of this study were to investigate the

H. A. Mulder; M. P. L. Calus; T. Druet; C. Schrooten

2012-01-01

99

Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (?0.950kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ?0.950kg/d and in prepubertal growth ?0.970kg/d) and the lowest ADG (?0.849kg/d) was approximately 1,000kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ?751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ?699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (?420kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ?699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. PMID:24612798

Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

2014-05-01

100

Donor category and seasonal climate associated with embryo production and survival in multiple ovulation and embryo transfer programs in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Holstein donor category (cows vs. heifers) and climate variation (hot vs. cooler season) on the efficiency of in vivo embryo production programs as well as embryo survival after transferred to Holstein recipient cows. A total of 1562 multiple ovulation (MO) procedures (cows: n = 609, and heifers: n = 953) and 4076 embryo transfers (ETs) performed in two dairy herds were evaluated. Donor cows had greater number of CLs (10.6 ± 0.6 vs. 7.5 ± 0.4; P < 0.0001) and ova/embryos recovered (7.6 ± 0.6 vs. 4.6 ± 0.4; P < 0.0001) compared with donor heifers. However, fertilization rate (47.9 vs. 82.4%; P < 0.0001) and proportion of transferable embryos (31.5 vs. 67.4%; P < 0.0001) were lower in donor cows than heifers, respectively. Regardless of donor category, the proportion of freezable embryos was less (P < 0.001) during hot season than in cooler season (21.4 vs. 32.8%). However, greater decline in the proportion of freezable embryos during the hot season was observed in cows (21.7 vs. 10.7%) compared with heifers (46.2 vs. 38.1%; P = 0.01). In contrast, the season on which the embryo was produced (hot or cool) did not affect pregnancy rate on Day 31 (30.5 vs. 31.7%; P = 0.45) and 45 (25.3 vs. 25.1%; P = 0.64) of pregnancy. Regardless of the season in which the embryos were produced, embryonic survival after transferring embryos retrieved from donor cows was greater on Days 31 (36.0 vs. 30.7%; P = 0.001) and 45 (28.3 vs. 23.1%; P = 0.001) of pregnancy when compared with embryos from donor heifers. In conclusion, MO embryo production efficiency decreased during the hot seasons both in cows and heifers; however, the decline was more pronounced in donor cows. Regardless of the embryo source, similar pregnancy rate was observed in the recipient that received embryos produced during the hot and cooler seasons. Curiously, embryos originating from donor cows had higher embryonic survival when transferred to recipient cows than embryos originating from heifers. PMID:24768006

Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Mendanha, M F; Sá Filho, M F; Sales, J N S; Souza, A H; Santos, J E P; Baruselli, P S

2014-07-15

101

Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

2010-01-01

102

Identification and characterization of a Chinese isolate of Cryptosporidium serpentis from dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium serpentis, a protozoan observed first in snakes, has also been found in lizards and other reptiles. However, there are few reports of the characteristics of C. serpentis isolated from humans and other animals. The present study was undertaken to characterize a C. serpentis isolate from a calf in terms of morphology, host specificity, and small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) gene sequences. Oocysts of the isolate measured 6.32 × 5.18 ?m, and they had a length/width shape index of 1.22. A cross-transmission study demonstrated that the isolate was infectious in the stomach of BALB/c mice, but not in New Zealand white rabbits or white leghorn chickens. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA and HSP 70 gene revealed that the isolate was identical to C. serpentis, and it was classified in a monophyletic group of C. serpentis. This study is the first description of the characteristics of a C. serpentis isolate from dairy cattle and may contribute to a better understanding of C. serpentis and investigations of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in cattle. PMID:22782475

Chen, Fu; Qiu, Huiling

2012-10-01

103

Holstein's Milk Detection in Cheeses Inferred from Melanocortin Receptor 1 (MC1R) Gene Polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some French Registered Designation of Origin (RDO) cheeses PrimHolstein's milk is not allowed for cheese making (e.g., Reblochon, Abondance, and Beau- fort cheeses). To find molecular markers for Prim'- Holstein's milk detection in RDO cheese, four genes affecting coat color in cattle (c-kit, MGH, TYRP1, and MC1R) have been sequenced for three mountain breeds and the PrimHolstein breed. Only

C. Maudet; P. Taberlet

2002-01-01

104

Influence of sire and sire breed (Gyr versus Holstein) on establishment of pregnancy and embryonic loss in lactating Holstein cows during summer heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat stress has negative effects on pregnancy rates of lactating dairy cattle. There are genetic differences in tolerance to heat stress; Bos taurus indicus (B. t. indicus) cattle and embryos are more thermotolerant than Bos taurus taurus (B. t. taurus). In the present study, the effects of sire and sire breed on conception and embryonic\\/fetal loss rates of lactating Holstein

Marcelo F. Pegorer; José L. M. Vasconcelos; Luzia A. Trinca; Peter J. Hansen; Ciro M. Barros

2007-01-01

105

A missense mutant of the PPAR-? gene associated with carcass and meat quality traits in Chinese cattle breeds.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?) is a key molecule in adipocyte differentitation; it transactivates multiple target genes in lipid metabolic pathways. Using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing, we evaluated a potential association of an SNP (72472 G?T in exon7) of the bovine PPAR-? gene with carcass and meat quality traits in 660 individuals from five Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, Qinchuan (QC), Luxi (LX), Nanyang (NY), Jiaxian (JX), and Xianan (XN). This 72472 G?T mutation identified a missense mutation, Q448H. Two alleles were named C and D. Allele frequencies of PPAR-?-C/D in the five breeds were 0.7815/0.2185, 0.9/0.1, 0.7442/0.2558, 0.7051/0.2949, and 0.8333/0.1667 for QC, NY, JX, LX, and XN, respectively. Except for the XN breed, all breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at this locus. The polymorphism information content was low for NY and XN (0.16 and 0.24, respectively), while it was moderately high for QC, JX, and LX (0.28, 0.31 and 0.33, respectively). Correlation analysis showed significant association of this missense mutation with carcass length, backfat thickness and water holding capacity in the QC breed. Animals with the genotype CD had significantly greater carcass length than those with genotypes CC and DD, while animals with genotype CC had significantly greater backfat thickness than those with genotypes CD and DD. Animals with genotype CC had lower water holding capacity than those with the genotypes CD and DD. In conclusion, this locus is a candidate for a major quantitative trait locus affecting production traits and could be used for beef breeding selection. PMID:22930427

Fan, Y Y; Fu, G W; Fu, C Z; Zan, L S; Tian, W Q

2012-01-01

106

Der Einfluss der Fütterung auf die Mast und Schlachtleistung bei Jungbullen der Rassen Ungarisches Grauvieh und Holstein Friesian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title of the paper: Influence of feeding on fattening performance and carcass quality of young Hungarian Grey and Holstein Friesian bulls The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of nutrition, genotype and nutrition x genotype interaction on growth performance and carcass quality using Hungarian Grey cattle bulls (HG) in comparison to Holstein Friesian bulls (HF) kept under

GABRIELLA HOLLÓ; KARIN NÜRNBERG; JÁNOS SEREGI; ISTVÁN HOLLÓ; IMRE REPA

2004-01-01

107

Haplotype combination of polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene promoter is associated with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Adiponectin modulates lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissues and is also related to bone metabolism. Polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene likely have an impact on growth traits in cattle. In this study, we examined the relationship between ADIPOQ polymorphisms and body measurement parameters in Chinese beef cattle. First, we sequenced ADIPOQ and 1.2 kb of DNA upstream of its promoter, and we found 14 polymorphisms. With the luciferase reporter assay, we showed that the two polymorphisms SNP PR_-135 A>G and PR_-68 G>C, which are located in the core region of promoter, influence promoter activity of ADIPOQ. Second, we identified three haplotypes involved in these two polymorphic sites: A (A-135/C-68), B (A-135/G-68), and C (G-135/G-68). Haplotypes B and C are major haplotypes in five Chinese populations of cattle (Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jiaxian, Hazakh, and Chinese Holstein). We studied the effects of these three haplotypes on body measurements, gene expression, and promoter activity, and we found that the genotypes are associated with body measurement parameters in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with genotype BC (AG/GG) had significantly higher body height and heart girth than others, and this result may be interpreted by the following two observations. The promoter activity with haplotype B (A/G) is significantly higher than those with A (A/C) and C (G/G) in driving reporter gene transcription; the ADIPOQ mRNA level in cattle with genotype BC (AG/GG) is relatively lower than that in cattle with genotype BB (AA/GG). PMID:24099391

Zhang, Liangzhi; Li, Mijie; Lai, Xinsheng; Yang, Mingjuan; Xu, Yao; Hua, Liushuai; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

2013-07-01

108

SNP and haplotype analysis of paired box 3 (PAX3) gene provide evidence for association with growth traits in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Paired box 3 (PAX3) belongs to the PAX superfamily of transcription factors and plays essential roles in the embryogenesis and postnatal formation of limb musculature through affecting the survival of muscle progenitor cells. By genetic mapping, PAX3 gene is assigned in the interval of quantitative trait loci for body weight on bovine BTA2. The objectives of this study were to detect polymorphisms of PAX3 gene in 1,241 cattle from five breeds and to investigate their effects on growth traits. Initially, three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by DNA pool sequencing and aCRS-RFLP methods (AC_000159: g.T-580G, g.A4617C and g.79018Ins/del G), which were located at 5'-UTR, exon 4 and intron 6, respectively. A total of eight haplotypes were constructed and the frequency of the three main haplotypes H1 (TAG), H2 (GCG) and H3 (GAG) accounted for over 81.7 % of the total individuals. Statistical analysis revealed that the three SNPs were associated with body height and body length of Nanyang and Chinese Caoyuan cattle at the age of 6 and/or 12 months old (P < 0.05), and consistently significant effects were also found in the haplotype combination analysis on these traits (P < 0.05). This study presented a complete scan of variations within bovine PAX3 gene, which could provide evidence for improving the economic traits of cattle by using these variations as potentially genetic markers in early marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:24570025

Xu, Yao; Cai, Hanfang; Zhou, Yang; Shi, Tao; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Jia, Yutang; Chen, Hong

2014-07-01

109

Effect of repeated administration of combination trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants on growth, carcass traits, and beef quality of long-fed Holstein steers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine the ef- fect of repeated use of implants on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein cattle. Holstein steers (n = 128) weighing an average of 211 kg were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 16 pens. At the start of the trial (d 0), pens were assigned to one of four treatments: 1)

J. M. Scheffler; D. D. Buskirk; S. R. Rust; J. D. Cowley; M. E. Doumit

2010-01-01

110

Genome-wide detection of copy number variations using high-density SNP genotyping platforms in Holsteins  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in the human or animal genome and are a significant source of genetic variation, which has been demonstrated to play an important role in phenotypic diversity. Advances in technology have allowed for identification of a large number of CNVs in cattle. Comprehensive explore novel CNVs in the bovine genome would provide valuable information for functional analyses of genome structural variation and facilitating follow-up association studies between complex traits and genetic variants. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide CNV detection based on high-density SNP genotyping data of 96 Chinese Holstein cattle. A total of 367 CNV regions (CNVRs) across the genome were identified, which cover 42.74Mb of the cattle genome and correspond to 1.61% of the genome sequence. The length of the CNVRs on autosomes range from 10.76 to 2,806.42 Kb with an average of 96.23 Kb. 218 out of these CNVRs contain 610 annotated genes, which possess a wide spectrum of molecular functions. To confirm these findings, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed for 17 CNVRs and 13(76.5%) of them were successfully validated. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the high density SNP array can significantly improve the accuracy and sensitivity of CNV calling. Integration of different platforms can enhance the detection of genomic structure variants. Our results provide a significant replenishment for the high resolution map of copy number variation in the bovine genome and valuable information for investigation of genomic structural variation underlying traits of interest in cattle.

2013-01-01

111

Haplotype combination of SREBP-1c gene sequence variants is associated with growth traits in cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the association of the SREBP-1c polymorphism with growth traits in cattle breeds. Five sequence variants (SVs) were identified within the bovine sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c), using DNA sequencing, PCR, PCR–RFLP, and forced PCR–RFLP methods. These polymorphisms include three missense mutations (SV1, SV4, and SV5) in exons 7, 9, and 12, a silent mutation (SV3) in exon 9, and a large deletion (SV2) in intron 7. Overall, we report the validation of polymorphisms within the bovine SREBP-1c gene, and the haplotype variability and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 1061 individuals representing the five main cattle breeds from China. We also investigated haplotype frequencies and LD coefficients for five SVs in all study populations. LD and haplotype structure of SREBP-1c were different between breeds. The result of haplotype analysis of five SVs showed that 27 different haplotypes were identified by all breeds. Two haplotypes (Hap1 and Hap2) shared by all five populations accounted for 42.75%, 35.68%, 36.44%, 25.43%, and 96.26% of all haplotypes observed in the cattle breeds Nanyang, Qinchuan, Jiaxian, Jinnan, and Chinese Holstein, respectively. The statistical analyses indicated that one single SV and 38 combined haplotypes were significantly associated with growth traits in the Nanyang cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The results of this study suggest that the SREBP-1c gene possibly is a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in the Chinese beef cattle breeding program. PMID:21639705

Huang, Yong-Zhen; He, Hua; Sun, Jia-Jie; Wang, Jing; Li, Zhuan-Jian; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, En-Ping; Wang, Ju-Qiang; Chen, Hong

2011-06-01

112

Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.  

PubMed

Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 °C to achieve core temperature of 0 °C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 °C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 °C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 °C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. PMID:22857853

Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

2012-12-01

113

Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned\\/polled trait in Holsteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins

Edward J Cargill; Nick J Nissing; Michael D Grosz

2008-01-01

114

Light exposure during night suppresses nocturnal increase in growth hormone secretion in Holstein steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the regulatory mecha- nism of the secretory rhythm of GH and the involve- ment of melatonin (MEL) in GH regulation in cattle, daytime and nighttime profiles of GH secretion and the effect of a photic stimulation on nocturnal GH and MEL secretion were investigated in Holstein steers. Steers were kept under a constant lighting condition of 12 h

E. Kasuya; S. Kushibiki; K. Yayou; K. Hodate; M. Sutoh

2008-01-01

115

The Effect of Manual Forestripping on Milking Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forestripping as a premilking stimulation technique on milk yield, milking unit attachment time, and milk flow rates in Holstein dairy cattle. Multiparous Hol- stein cows (n = 24) were divided into two groups (HPE, high producing, early lactation; LPL, low producing, late lactation) based on prestudy milk yield and

A. M. Wagner; P. L. Ruegg

2002-01-01

116

Superovulation of holstein heifers by a single subcutaneous injection of FSH dissolved in polyvinylpyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine whether a single injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) would induce a superovulatory response in cattle. Holstein heifers were given a single injection of pFSH (30mg, sc) dissolved in saline (Group 1, n = 5); 50% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; Group 2, n = 5); or 25% PVP (Group 3, n = 4). Group-4 heifers (n =

T. Takedomi; Y. Aoyagi; M. Konishi; H. Kishi; K. Taya; G. Watanabe; S. Sasamoto

1995-01-01

117

A note on hair whorl position and cattle temperament in the auction ring.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to further describe the relationships between facial hair whorls and temperament in cattle. Cattle (n=1636) from six commercial cattle auctions in Colorado and Texas were observed. Whorl location was classified according to lateral position (left, right, or middle) and height (high: above the top of the eye, middle: at eye level, low: below the bottom of the eye). A 4-point temperament score was used to rate each animal while it was in the auction ring. Cattle with a score of 1 remained calm and stood still or walked around, and those with a score of 4 were highly agitated and hit the ring fence, walls, partitions, or people with its head. The cattle observed were 75% Bos taurus beef breeds, 21% Holstein dairy cattle, 3% Bos indicus beef breeds, and 1% non-Holstein dairy breeds. Ten percent of cattle surveyed had no facial hair whorl, while 86% had a single spiral hair whorl, of which 47% had middle-middle whorl placement. Animals with a high whorl position or no hair whorl had higher temperament scores (P=0.01). Cattle with low whorls were more likely to have greater lateral displacement of whorls off of the centerline than cattle with high or middle whorls (P<0.01). Abnormally shaped whorls were more common on cattle with low whorls (P<0.01) and on cattle with lateral whorls located off of the centerline (P<0.01). Cattle with hair whorls on the centerline had more variable temperament scores (P=0.04). Beef cattle had more abnormal whorls than Holsteins (P<0.01). Temperament scores showed that Holsteins were calmer than beef cattle (P<0.01). Facial hair whorls in cattle may be a useful management tool in assessing which animals may become disturbed in novel environments. PMID:11358607

Lanier, J L.; Grandin, T; Green, R; Avery, D; McGee, K

2001-07-28

118

Breed differences in the pharmacokinetics of ivermectin administered subcutaneously to Holstein and Belgian Blue calves.  

PubMed

Belgian Blue (BB) cattle are very sensitive to mange caused by Psoroptes ovis and, in contrast to the case in Holstein cattle, single treatments with ivermectin do not result in complete elimination of the parasite. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of ivermectin in plasma, skin and hair following subcutaneous administration to Holstein and BB calves and to assess the influence of breed on drug pharmacokinetics and availability. Two groups of six healthy female Holstein and BB calves were treated with ivermectin (SC formulation) at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Blood, skin and hair were collected before treatment and up to 21 days after treatment. Ivermectin was analyzed in plasma and tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak concentrations (Cmax), time-peak concentrations (Tmax), the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) and the mean residence time (MRT) were determined. The patterns of plasma and tissue ivermectin concentrations were similar in the two breeds of animals, however, the AUC and Cmax levels for plasma and skin were significantly higher in the BB calves. In hair, ivermectin was detected later than in plasma and skin, with the Tmax ranging between 4 days (Holstein group) and 6 days (BB group). The possible reasons for the significantly higher levels in plasma and skin in BB calves compared to Holstein calves are discussed. PMID:18207642

Vercruysse, Jozef; Deprez, Piet; Everaert, Dries; Bassissi, Firas; Alvinerie, Michel

2008-03-25

119

[The cattle breeding program of the Republic of Cuba].  

PubMed

The Cuban cattle breeding programme has remained unchanged over more than 20 years and aims at the genetic transformation of the indigenous population by means of crossbreeding within a high-performance cattle stock. Focus is on the breeds Holstein X Zebu in order to produce the crosses "Holstein Tropical" (7/8H 1/8Z), "Mambi" (3/4H 1/4Z), and "Siboney" (5/8H 3/8Z). Besides these, other new breeds are envisaged for milk and meat production. Representative parameters of the production and reproduction of the new genotypes are being reported and discussed. PMID:3395321

Hanke, R; Lopez, D

1988-01-01

120

Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus x Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus?×?Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2?×?2?×?2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles.

2014-01-01

121

Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

2005-05-01

122

Relationship of polymorphisms within ZBED6 gene and growth traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

ZBED6 is a novel transcription factor that was identified and shown to act as a repressor of IGF2 transcription in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the ZBED6 polymorphism with growth traits in beef cattle breed. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the bovine ZBED6 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (Forced PCR-RFLP) methods. Overall, we reported one mutation (SNP1) in the promoter region and two missense mutations (SNP2 and 3) in the coding region (single exon) within the bovine ZBED6 gene, and the haplotype variability and extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 1522 individuals representing four main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, NY; Qinchuan, QC; Jiaxian, JX; and Chinese Holstein, CH). We also investigated haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium coefficients for three SNPs in all study populations. LD and haplotype structure of ZBED6 were different between breeds. The result of haplotype analysis of three SNPs showed that eight different haplotypes were identified in all breeds. The wild-type haplotype (Hap 1: GCA) and mutant-type haplotype (Hap 8: AGG) shared by all four populations accounted for 15.1, 29.8, 21.7, 57.5% and 9.5, 8.6, 16.7, 0% of all haplotypes were observed in NY, QC, JX and CH, respectively. The statistical analyses indicated that three SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits in NY cattle population (P<0.05 or P<0.01) at five different ages. The results of this study suggest that the ZBED6 gene possibly is a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:23644023

Huang, Yong-Zhen; He, Hua; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Sun, Yu-Jia; Li, Ming-Xun; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Chen, Hong

2013-09-10

123

Licking behaviour and environmental contamination arising from pour-on ivermectin for cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pour-on formulations of endectocides are extensively used to treat and control systemic parasitic diseases in cattle, worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the natural licking behaviour of cattle on the plasma and faecal disposition of topically administered ivermectin. Twelve Holstein cattle were given one single intravenous (i.v.) (200 ?g\\/kg) and topical (500 ?g\\/kg)

Ce Line M. Laffont; Michel Alvinerie; Alain Bousquet-Mélou; Pierre-Louis Toutain

2001-01-01

124

Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.  

PubMed

This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472

Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

2013-11-01

125

Selection indices in Holstein cattle of various countries.  

PubMed

Fifteen countries, based on geographical representation, Interbull membership, and size of progeny testing programs, provided a brief description of national selection index and top bull listings from August 2003. Individual traits included in each selection index were grouped into 3 components as they related to production, durability, and health and reproduction. The relative emphasis for each component within the selection index, as well as the number of common bulls among top listings were compared across countries. Average relative emphasis for production, durability, and health and reproduction, across all countries, was 59.5, 28, and 12.5%, respectively. The main difference between selection indices in various countries was the relative emphasis on production. Overall, the Danish S-Index had the most balanced emphasis across the 3 components, with 34% on production, 29% on durability, and 37% on health and reproduction. Broadening of breeding goals through recent changes to selection indices decreased the similarities of top bull listings across the various countries, with a slightly greater commonality among sires of top bulls. PMID:15738259

Miglior, F; Muir, B L; Van Doormaal, B J

2005-03-01

126

Induced lactation in prepubertal Holstein heifers.  

PubMed

Lactation was hormonally induced in six prepuberal Holstein heifers by seven daily injections of estrogen and progesterone and three injections of dexamethasone on d 18, 19, and 20, followed by twice daily hand milking beginning on d 21. Heifers were about 6 mo old and weighed 162 kg at the beginning of the experiment. Secretions were obtained from five of six of heifers, and twice daily milking continued for 75 d in three of five heifers. The volume of milk obtained on d 7 ranged from 32 to 500 ml and averaged 4.7, 4.1, and 3.7% lactose, protein, and fat, respectively. In the first natural lactation, milk yield and composition were nearly identical for controls and induced heifers. Serum alpha-lactalbumin was increased in induced heifers after treatment with dexamethasone and was highest on d 10 after onset of milking. Our data suggest that sufficient secretions for extensive biochemical testing can be obtained following hormonal induction of lactation in a majority of prepubertal heifers. Moreover, hormonal induction of lactation had no apparent effect on reproduction or first natural lactation. While it is unlikely that hormonal induction of lactation in prepubertal heifers is practical from a dairy production viewpoint, the advent of biotechnology for production of therapeutic recombinant proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic livestock has made early detection of these transgenic proteins very desirable. We conclude that induction of lactation in prepubertal heifers is a viable technique for testing the expression of mammary-linked gene constructs in transgenic cattle. PMID:11104264

Ball, S; Polson, K; Emeny, J; Eyestone, W; Akers, R M

2000-11-01

127

Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.  

PubMed

Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 0 and 20 d on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that traditionally packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins treated with ZH for 0 d had a darker lean color (P < 0.05) than steaks from ZH-treated cattle on d 1 of display, whereas the lean color scores for ZH treatments of all durations were similar on d 4 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that ZH treatment had no effect on the discoloration of traditionally packaged, nonenhanced strip steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. Therefore, feeding ZH to beef or calf-fed Holstein steers had no detrimental effect on the lean color or color stability of strip loin steaks subjected to enhancement, packaged in modified-atmosphere or traditional packaging, and displayed under simulated retail conditions. PMID:19966164

Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F

2010-03-01

128

Effects of common anticoagulants (heparin, citrate and EDTA) on routine plasma biochemistry of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various types of anticoagulants on plasma biochemistry have been studied in man and various animals but limited\\u000a information exists for cattle plasma biochemistry. Ten clinically healthy Holstein cattle were blood sampled into different\\u000a anticoagulants and plain tubes for harvesting plasma and serum. The concentrations of glucose, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine,\\u000a total protein, albumin and the activity of

M. Mohri; H. Shakeri; S. Lotfollah Zadeh

2007-01-01

129

Endectocide exchanges between grazing cattle after pour-on administration of doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-licking behaviour in cattle has recently been identified as a determinant of the kinetic disposition of topically-administered ivermectin. In the present study, we document the occurrence and extent of transfer between cattle of three topically-administered endectocides, as a consequence of allo-licking. Four groups of two Holstein cows each received one pour-on formulation of doramectin, ivermectin, or moxidectin, or no treatment.

Alain Bousquet-Mélou; Sonia Mercadier; Michel Alvinerie; Pierre-Louis Toutain

2004-01-01

130

Studies of the pathogenesis of bovine pestivirus-induced ovarian dysfunction in superovulated dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (Experiment I, n=12 Holstein–Friesian heifers; Experiment II, n=8 Jersey cows) were conducted to investigate the pathogenesis of bovine pestivirus-induced ovarian dysfunction in cattle. In both experiments the cattle were superovulated with twice daily injections of a porcine pituitary extract preparation of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P), for 4 days commencing on Day 10±2 after a presynchronised oestrus. The heifers

M. R. McGowan; M. Kafi; P. D. Kirkland; R. Kelly; H. Bielefeldt-Ohmann; M. D. Occhio; D. Jillella

2003-01-01

131

Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers,

Didier Boichard; Cécile Grohs; Florence Bourgeois; Frédérique Cerqueira; Rémi Faugeras; André Neau; Rachel Rupp; Yves Amigues; Marie Boscher; Hubert Levéziel

2003-01-01

132

Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Milk Production and Ketosis of Dairy Cattle[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments with Holstein cows effects of dietary supplementation of niacin to periparturient cattle on subsequent milk production and ketosis were examined. In Experiment 1, 20 cows were assigned to two groups. The treatment group received niacin at 6 g per head per day for 2 wk prepartum and 12 g per head per day for 4 wk postpartum.

G. S. Dufva; E. E. Bartley; A. D. Dayton; D. O. Riddell

1983-01-01

133

Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.  

PubMed

In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p < 0.05). The AFP was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.05). Similarly, the AMH concentration was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.0001). When heifers were classified as to present high or low AFP according to the mean of the AFP within each genetic group, high-AFP heifers presented a greater (p < 0.0001) AMH concentration than low-AFP heifers, regardless of the genetic group. In conclusion, the AFP is positively correlated with plasma AMH concentration in both Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. PMID:24689827

Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S

2014-06-01

134

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.  

PubMed

The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

2014-08-01

135

Deleted copy number variation of Hanwoo and Holstein using next generation sequencing at the population level  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variation (CNV), a source of genetic diversity in mammals, has been shown to underlie biological functions related to production traits. Notwithstanding, there have been few studies conducted on CNVs using next generation sequencing at the population level. Results Illumina NGS data was obtained for ten Holsteins, a dairy cattle, and 22 Hanwoo, a beef cattle. The sequence data for each of the 32 animals varied from 13.58-fold to almost 20-fold coverage. We detected a total of 6,811 deleted CNVs across the analyzed individuals (average length =?2732.2 bp) corresponding to 0.74% of the cattle genome (18.6 Mbp of variable sequence). By examining the overlap between CNV deletion regions and genes, we selected 30 genes with the highest deletion scores. These genes were found to be related to the nervous system, more specifically with nervous transmission, neuron motion, and neurogenesis. We regarded these genes as having been effected by the domestication process. Further analysis of the CNV genotyping information revealed 94 putative selected CNVs and 954 breed-specific CNVs. Conclusions This study provides useful information for assessing the impact of CNVs on cattle traits using NGS at the population level.

2014-01-01

136

Independent Polled Mutations Leading to Complex Gene Expression Differences in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle.

Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Remy; Thaller, Georg; Drogemuller, Cord

2014-01-01

137

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 experimentation on adult cattle.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an arthropod-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae), is an emerging pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV). EHDV serotype 6 (EHDV6) has recently caused outbreaks close to Europe in Turkey and Morocco and a recent experimental study performed on calves inoculated with these two EHDV6 strains showed that the young animals have remained clinically unaffected. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of an EHDV6 strain from La Reunion Island in adult Holstein (18-month-old heifers). This EHDV6 strain has induced clinical signs in cattle in the field. Samples taken throughout the study were tested with commercially available ELISA and real-time RT-PCR kits. Very mild clinical manifestations were observed in cattle during the experiment although high levels of viral RNA and virus were found in their blood. EHDV was isolated from the blood of infected animals at 8 dpi. Antibodies against EHDV were first detected by 7 dpi and persisted up to the end of the study. Virus was detected in various tissue samples until 35 dpi, but was not infectious. In view of the recent circulation of different arboviruses in Europe, this study demonstrates what the EHD induces a strong viraemia in adult Holstein cattle and shows that a spread of EHD on European livestock cattle is possible. PMID:23899717

Breard, Emmanuel; Belbis, Guillaume; Viarouge, Cyril; Riou, Mickael; Desprat, Alexandra; Moreau, Joël; Laloy, Eve; Martin, Guillaume; Sarradin, Pierre; Vitour, Damien; Batten, Carrie; Doceul, Virginie; Sailleau, Corinne; Zientara, Stéphan

2013-10-01

138

Peierls instability for the Holstein model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the static Holstein model, describing a chain of Fermions interacting with a classical phonon field, when the interaction is weak and the density is a rational number. We show that the energy of the system, as a function of the phonon field, has two stationary points, defined up to a lattice translation, which are local minima in the

G. Benfatto; G. Gentile; V. Mastropietro

1998-01-01

139

Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due to a longer production life. However, a reduced milk yield was detected in the end of the production life in Danish Red. The study supports that BRL is inherited autosomal recessively in the Danish Red breed and Danish Holsteins, but with incomplete penetrance of the genotype in Danish Holsteins.

Agerholm, J?rgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, S?ren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

2009-01-01

140

Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of beef steers and calf-fed Holstein steers on the color stability of top sirloin butt steaks.  

PubMed

Top sirloin butt steaks were used to determine the effects on color stability of supplementing zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to beef and calf-fed Holstein steers. This study compared the effects of dietary ZH supplementation for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d on feed. One-half of the top sirloin butts were enhanced and packaged in modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP); the remaining one-half were packaged in polyvinylchloride (PVC) film. Beef steaks packaged with PVC from cattle supplemented for 30 d had a tendency (P = 0.07) to produce a redder (a* = 18.31) steak than the control cattle (a* = 17.00) or cattle supplemented for 40 d (a* = 17.05). In beef steaks, ZH had no effect on subjective visual color (P = 0.15 to 0.27) and discoloration (P = 0.10 to 0.59) of steaks packaged with PVC when stratified by day of display, with the exception of visual color on d 5. Beef steaks under MAP from cattle supplemented for 20 d were redder (a* = 19.50, P < 0.05) than those from cattle supplemented for 30 (a* = 18.07) or 40 d (a* = 17.57), but were similar to the control steaks (a* = 18.68). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of retail display day and day of supplementation on objective or subjective color of calf-fed Holstein steaks packaged with PVC. Dietary supplementation for 20 d produced a greater (P < 0.05) b* value on d 1 of display in MAP-packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. If recommending a period of dietary supplementation, 20 to 30 d would be suggested to result in, on average, the brightest, reddest sirloin butt steaks. PMID:19684278

VanOverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Green, J; Hunt, M; Brooks, C; Killefer, J; Streeter, M N; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Allen, D M; Yates, D A

2009-11-01

141

The relationship between endogenous cortisol, blood micronutrients, and neutrophil function in postparturient Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Neutrophil function, blood micronutrients, and cortisol concentrations were measured in 43 clinically healthy postparturient Holstein cows. Estimated 305-day mature equivalent milk production and neutrophil function were related to results of the blood micronutrient concentrations and neutrophil function tests. Cattle had low to normal zinc concentrations; normal to high selenium, vitamin E, and cortisol concentrations; and normal copper concentrations. Blood selenium (P = .03) and zinc (P = .027) concentrations were both significant predictors of neutrophil adhesion, and selenium (P < .001) was a significant predictor of neutrophil cytochrome C reduction (superoxide production). Fourteen of 20 (70%) cattle with blood selenium concentrations > 300 ng/mL had neutrophil adhesion, and 15 of 20 (75%) had cytochrome C reduction above the mean value for this group. There was also a significant correlation (r = 0.331; P = .037) between cytochrome C reduction and estimated milk production. These findings suggest that neutrophils from postparturient dairy cows with higher blood concentrations of selenium have greater potential to kill microbes, and that cattle with greater superoxide production may have higher milk production. PMID:14658729

Cebra, Christopher K; Heidel, Jerry R; Crisman, Russell O; Stang, Bernadette V

2003-01-01

142

Changes in Conception Rate, Calving Performance, and Calf Health and Survival From the Use of Crossbred Jersey×Holstein Sires as Mates for Holstein Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in conception rates in matings of Holstein sires or F1 Jersey × Holstein sires to Holstein dams in the University of Wisconsin-Madison experimental herd were evaluated, as were differences in birth weight, dystocia, serum protein, serum IgG, fecal con- sistency, respiratory disease, and perinatal and pre- weaning mortality among the resulting calves. When mated to randomly chosen, lactating Holstein

C. Maltecca; H. Khatib; V. R. Schutzkus; P. C. Hoffman; K. A. Weigel

2006-01-01

143

Hot topic: performance of bovine high-density genotyping platforms in Holsteins and Jerseys.  

PubMed

Two high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays have recently become available for bovine genomic analyses, the Illumina High-Density Bovine BeadChip Array (777,962 SNP) and the Affymetrix Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (648,874 SNP). These products each have unique design and chemistry attributes, and the extent of marker overlap and their potential utility for quantitative trait loci fine mapping, detection of copy number variation, and multibreed genomic selection are of significant interest to the cattle community. This is the first study to compare the performance of these 2 arrays. Deoxyribonucleic acid samples from 16 dairy cattle (10 Holstein, 6 Jersey) were used for the comparison. An independent set of DNA samples taken from 46 Jersey cattle and 18 Holstein cattle were used to ascertain the amount of SNP variation accounted by the 16 experimental samples. Data were analyzed with SVS7 software (Golden Helix Inc., Bozeman, MT) to remove SNP having a call rate less than 90%, and linkage disequilibrium pruning was used to remove linked SNP (r˛ ? 0.9). Maximum, average, and median gaps were calculated for each analysis based on genomic position of SNP on the bovine UMD3.1 genome assembly. All samples were successfully genotyped (? 98% SNP genotyped) with both platforms. The average number of genotyped SNP in the Illumina platform was 775,681 and 637,249 for the Affymetrix platform. Based on genomic position, a total of 107,896 SNP were shared between the 2 platforms; however, based on genotype concordance, only 96,031 SNP had complete concordance at these loci. Both Affymetrix BOS 1 and Illumina BovineHD genotyping platforms are well designed and provide high-quality genotypes and similar coverage of informative SNP. Despite fewer total SNP on BOS 1, 19% more SNP remained after linkage disequilibrium pruning, resulting in a smaller gap size (5.2 vs. 6.9 kb) in Holstein and Jersey samples relative to BovineHD. However, only 224,115 Illumina and 241,038 Affymetrix SNP remained following removal of SNP with a minor allele frequency of zero in Holstein and Jersey samples, resulting in an average gap size of 11,887 bp and 11,018 bp, respectively. Combining the 354,348 informative (r˛ ? 0.9), polymorphic (minor allele frequency ? 0), unique SNP data from both platforms decreased the average gap size to 7,560 bp. Genome-wide copy number variant analyses were performed using intensity files from both platforms. The BovineHD platform provided an advantage to the copy number variant data compared with the BOS 1 because of the larger number of SNP, higher intensity signals, and lower background effects. The combined use of both platforms significantly improved coverage over either platform alone and decreased the gap size between SNP, providing a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci and multibreed animal evaluation. PMID:22118099

Rincon, G; Weber, K L; Eenennaam, A L Van; Golden, B L; Medrano, J F

2011-12-01

144

A genome-wide association study of direct gestation length in US Holstein and Italian Brown populations.  

PubMed

Direct gestation length influences economically important traits in dairy cattle that are related to birth and peri-natal survival of the calf. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with direct gestation length through a genome-wide association study. Data used in the analysis included 7,308,194 cow gestation lengths from daughters of 4743 United States Holstein sires in the Cooperative Dairy DNA Repository population and 580,157 gestation lengths from 749 sires in the Italian Brown population. Association analysis included 36,768 and 35,082 SNPs spanning all autosomes for Holstein and Brown Swiss, respectively. Multiple shrinkage Bayesian was employed. Estimates of heritability for both populations were moderate, with values of 0.32 (±0.03) and 0.29 (±0.02) for Holstein and Brown Swiss, respectively. A panel of SNPs was identified, which included SNPs that have significant effects on direct gestation length, of which the strongest candidate region is located on chromosome 18. Two regions not previously linked to direct calving ease and calf survival were identified on chromosome 7 and 28, corresponding to regions that contain genes related to embryonic development and foetal development. SNPs were also identified in regions that have been previously mapped for calving difficulty and longevity. This study identifies target regions for the investigation of direct foetal effects, which are a significant factor in determining the ease of calving. PMID:22034999

Maltecca, C; Gray, K A; Weigel, K A; Cassady, J P; Ashwell, M

2011-12-01

145

Chinese Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

Hsu, Kai-yu

146

Things Chinese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

Law, Yip Wang

147

EFFECTS OF LIMESTONE AND SODIUM BICARBONATE BUFFERS ON RUMEN MEASUREMENTS AND RATE OF PASSAGE IN CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Eight rumen-fistulated cattle (four Angus steers and four nonlactating Holstein cows) were fed a cracked corn-based concentrate (65% of dry matter) and corn silage (35% of dry matter) diet containing: (1) no buffer, (2) 2.5% limestone, (3) 2% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or (4) 1.25% limestone and 1.25% NaHCO3. Each diet was fed at approximately maintenance and-two times maintenance levels

G. L. Haaland; H. F. Tyrrell

148

Immuno-fluorescence staining patterns of leukocyte subsets in the skin of taurine and indicine cattle.  

PubMed

The immuno-staining patterns of skin leukocytes were investigated in three breeds of cattle: Holstein-Friesian, Brahman and Santa Gertrudis of similar age before and after tick infestation. The antibodies specific for CD45 and CD45RO reacted with cells in the skin of all Holstein-Friesian cattle but did not react with cells in the skin of any Brahman cattle. The same antibodies reacted with cells from the skin of four (CD45) and seven (CD45RO) of twelve Santa Gertrudis cattle. The antibodies specific for T cells and ?? subset of T cells recognized cells from all three breeds of cattle. The antibody specific for MHC class II molecules labelled cells of mostly irregular shape, presumably dermal dendritic cells and/or macrophages and Langerhans cells. The antibody specific for granulocytes (mAb CH138) reacted with cells only in sections cut from skin with lesions. The antibody specific for CD25(+) cells labelled regularly shaped cells that showed a wide range of intensities of staining. PMID:24011596

Constantinoiu, C C; Jonsson, N N; Jorgensen, W K; Jackson, L A; Piper, E K; Lew-Tabor, A E

2013-12-01

149

Fine Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility in Dairy Cattle on BTA03 Using a Dense Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Map  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility quantitative trait loci (QTL) are of high interest in dairy cattle since insemination failure has dramatically increased in some breeds such as Holstein. High-throughput SNP analysis and SNP micro- arrays give the opportunity to genotype many animals for hundreds SNPs per chromosome. In this study, due to these techniques a dense SNP marker map was used to fine map

Tom Druet; Sebastien Fritz; Mekki Boussaha; Slim Ben-Jemaa; Franc xois Guillaume; David Derbala; Diana Zelenika; Doris Lechner; Celine Charon; Didier Boichard; Ivo G. Gut; A. Eggen; M. Gautier

2008-01-01

150

Potential nutritional assessment of dwarf elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott) by chemical composition, digestion and net portal flux of oxygen in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate changes in chemical composition of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days of growth, and its effect on apparent digestibility and particle-phase passage through the gastrointestinal tract (Experiment 1) and on oxygen utilization by the portal-drained viscera of cattle (Experiment 2). The experiments were carried out using four Holstein

G. V Kozloski; J Perottoni; M. L. S Ciocca; J. B. T Rocha; A. G Raiser; L. M. B Sanchez

2003-01-01

151

Effect of fiber source and a yeast culture ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1026) on digestion and the environment in the rumen of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source (alfalfa hay, coffee hull, cornstalk) with or without a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026; YS) on in situ digestion and the environment in the rumen of cattle. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (484 kg BW) were randomly assigned to three diets within a 6 × 6 Latin square:

J. R. Bárcena-Gama

1997-01-01

152

The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

2012-03-01

153

Analog superconducting quantum simulator for Holstein polarons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an analog quantum simulator for the Holstein molecular-crystal model based on a superconducting circuit QED system in the dispersive regime. By varying the driving field on the superconducting resonators, one can access both the adiabatic and antiadiabatic regimes of this model, and the strong electron-phonon coupling required for small-polaron formation can be readily reached. We show that a small-polaron state of arbitrary quasimomentum can be generated by applying a microwave pulse to the resonators. We also show that significant squeezing in the resonator modes can be achieved in the polaron-crossover regime through a measurement-based scheme.

Mei, Feng; Stojanovi?, Vladimir M.; Siddiqi, Irfan; Tian, Lin

2013-12-01

154

The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

To evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers, calf-fed Holstein carcasses (n = 102) were selected from a pool of 2,300 steers that were fed 0 or 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis) of ZH. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was supplemented the last 20 d of the finishing period and withdrawn for 3 d before slaughter. Carcasses were selected based on carcass weight as well as predetermined USDA Yield grade categories. For tenderness evaluation, steaks from the strip loin, bottom round, and top round (n = 54 per subprimal) were aged for 14 or 21 d postmortem. Carcasses from ZH-fed steers had more (P < 0.01) saleable yield than carcasses from control-fed steers. Additionally, ZH-fed steers had greater (P < or = 0.01) subprimal yield from the shoulder clod, strip loin, peeled tenderloin, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin tri-tip, peeled knuckle, inside round, bottom round flat, eye of round, heel, and shank. Furthermore, ZH decreased (P < 0.01) the total amount and percentage of bone and fat trim from the carcass. Moisture loss was not affected by ZH in LM or inside round steaks (P > 0.05); however, ZH increased thawing loss (P = 0.05) but reduced cooking loss (P = 0.05) in bottom round steaks. Shear force values of LM and inside round steaks increased with ZH inclusion (P < 0.01), but there was no difference in bottom round steaks (P > 0.05). Steaks aged for 21 d had smaller (P < 0.01) Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) values than 14-d steaks from all 3 subprimals. Trained sensory panelists did not detect any differences (P > 0.05) in sensory juiciness, tenderness, or flavor variables of LM or inside round steaks, except ZH steaks from the LM received smaller scores for sustained juiciness (P = 0.01) and overall tenderness (P = 0.04) than control steaks. Although LM steaks from ZH cattle were tougher than control steaks, the ZH-treated steaks had an average WBS value of 4.10 kg, which would be classified as intermediate in tenderness, with trained panelists rating ZH steaks slightly to moderately tender. Feeding ZH improved carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers; however, tenderness was reduced in LM and inside round steaks. The interaction of postmortem tenderization techniques should be investigated to evaluate their impact on palatability in cattle supplemented with beta-agonists to allow the beef industry to take full advantage of the enhancement in performance and carcass yield. PMID:20382878

Garmyn, A J; Shook, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Hilton, G G

2010-07-01

155

The place of Sanga cattle in dairy production in Uganda.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out on milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle: 24 farms, with a total of 900 animals and distributed in four agro-ecological zones, were visited every 15 days over 18 months. Cows were fed on natural pastures as the only source of feed, and animal performance was dependent on the season and exhibited a dramatic drop in dry spells. Numeric productivity indices integrating productive performance for settler's, multipurpose, crop-livestock integrated and modern farms were 0.56, 0.74, 0.69 and 0.63, respectively. Milk productivity was higher on modem farms (6.7 L/cow per day) than in the other systems, and higher with Holstein-Friesian cows (7.7 L/cow per day) than with indigenous cattle (1.8 L/cow per day) or crossbred animals (3.7 L/cow per day). This paper speculates on the opportunity to improve the genetic potential of indigenous cattle, concomitantly with the efforts to adapt exotic cattle to a mountainous equatorial environment. PMID:17691546

Grimaud, P; Mpairwe, D; Chalimbaud, J; Messad, S; Faye, B

2007-04-01

156

Chinese Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

Kane, Tony

157

The influence of cattle breed on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis in domestic livestock such as cattle is an economically important disease with zoonotic potential, particularly in countries with emerging economies. We discuss the findings of recent epidemiological and immunological studies conducted in Ethiopia on host susceptibility differences between native zebu and the exotic Holstein–Friesian cattle that are increasingly part of the Ethiopian National herd, due to the drive to increase milk yields. These findings support the hypothesis that native Zebu cattle are more resistant to bovine tuberculosis. We also summarise the results of experimental infections that support the epidemiological data, and of laboratory experiments that suggest a role for the innate immune response, and in particular interleukin-6, in the outcome of bovine tuberculosis infection.

Vordermeier, Martin; Ameni, Gobena; Berg, Stefan; Bishop, Richard; Robertson, Brian D.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas B.

2012-01-01

158

Serotonin receptor 1B ( HTR1B) genotype associated with milk production traits in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B) is one of the 14 different identified serotonin receptors which are involved in the regulation of behaviors such as sleep, fear, aggression, mood, and feeding. The aims of this study were to characterize polymorphisms in the 5? coding and the 3? flanking regions of the bovine HTR1B gene among Chinese Holsteins and to identify the association

C. L. Zhang; H. Chen; Y. H. Wang; R. F. Zhang; X. Y. Lan; C. Z. Lei; L. Zhang; A. L. Zhang; S. R. Hu

2008-01-01

159

Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth rates, feed conversion, and carcass traits in calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). A 3-d withdrawal was maintained immediately before slaughter. Cattle within an experiment were fed to a common number of days on feed. During the last 120 d before slaughter, ADG was not enhanced by feeding ZH for 20 d (P = 0.33 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.79 in Exp. 2). Gain-to-feed conversion was increased by feeding ZH for all durations in Exp. 1 (P < 0.05). Feeding ZH increased HCW by 9.3 (Exp. 2) to 11.6 (Exp. 1) kg at 20 d compared with the control groups. Across both experiments, dressing percent was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). Although skeletal maturity score, liver integrity, lean color, fat thickness, and KPH were not affected by feeding ZH for 20 d in either experiment (P >or= 0.6), LM area was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). The percentage of carcasses identified as USDA Choice was reduced (P < 0.01) for all durations of feeding ZH in Exp. 1. This effect was not observed in Exp. 2. Holstein steers clearly respond to the beta-agonist ZH, and 20 d of feeding ZH with a 3-d withdrawal significantly increased carcass weights, muscling, and carcass leanness. PMID:19717762

Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Duff, G C; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N

2009-12-01

160

A study of relative horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), abundance on Holstein steers and steers of two Holstein crosses.  

PubMed

A study was performed to determine if the number of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) adults differ significantly on Holstein (black and white coat color), Holstein x Holstein Friesian (black and white coat color) and Holstein x Jersey (black coat color) steers, 10-12 months old at the onset of the study. All steers were run together on lucerne paddocks and the number of flies counted at 30-day intervals from September 2000 to August 2001. No significant differences (P > 0.05, test of Kruskal-Wallis) were found in fly numbers, even in the period April-May 2001 when the infestation reached its peak. We were unable to demonstrate that coat color influenced horn fly abundance in the present study. It appears that none of the biotypes evaluated had any advantage for natural control of H. irritans. PMID:12383633

Guglielmone, A A; Volpogni, M M; Castro, H; Mangold, A J; Anziani, O S

2002-10-16

161

Estrus synchronization in Holstein cows using reduced doses of prostaglandin F(2)alpha.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the dose of PGF(2)alpha generally used to synchronize estrus (25 mg) is higher than required to induce luteolysis in cattle. To investigate this, 98 Holstein cows from three farms were assigned at random within farm to be treated with a single dose of 25 mg (n=33), 17.5 mg (n=33) or 10 mg (n=32) of PGF(2)alpha on Day 10+/-0.5 (mean +/- SEM) of the estrous cycle. Statistical analyses were conducted using analyses of variance and Chisquare test. Only 59.3% of the cows treated with 10 mg of PGF(2)alpha were detected in estrus compared with 72.7 and 78.7% of the cows treated with 17.5 and 25.0 mg doses, respectively (P>0.05). There were no differences (P>0.05) in pregnancy rates at the first service (40.0, 66.6 and 50.0% for 25, 17.5 and 10 mg, respectively). Concentrations of progesterone in blood were different (P<0.05) for cows treated with 10 mg compared with those of cows treated with 17.5 or 25 mg of PGF(2)alpha. The pattern of changes in progesterone concentrations between the last two groups was not different, and progesterone concentrations of less than 1 ng/ml of serum were observed within the first 36 h post PGF(2)alpha administration. In cows treated with 10-mg dose of PGF(2)alpha, concentrations of progesterone declined during the first 24 h, however, by the end of the experimental period, they were not different to pretreatment concentrations (treatment x time; P<0.05). It is suggested that reducing the dose of PGF(2)alpha from 25 to 17.5 mg do not affect estrus response or pregnancy rate in Holstein cows. PMID:16726992

Garcia-Winder, M J; Gallegos-Sánchez, J

1991-08-01

162

The Origins of Domesticated Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of domestic cattle has perplexed archaeologists for more than a century. Researchers have proposed various theories, which offer alternative spatial and chronological models for the origin and spread of domesticated cattle. One point of discussion is whether domestic cattle had a single or multiple origins; however, most authorities considered that the first steps towards cattle domestication were taken

David Caramelli

2006-01-01

163

Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions.

Cheng, Richard

1984-01-01

164

Birth Weight as a Predictor of Calving Ease and Perinatal Mortality in Holstein Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the effect of birth weight on perinatal mortality (PM) (alive or dead at 48 h of age) and dystocia (unassisted or as- sisted). Data were 4528 records of births between 1968 and 1999 from the Iowa State University research dairy farm in Ankeny. The incidence of PM was 7.1%; dystocia was 23.7%.

J. M. Johanson; P. J. Berger

2003-01-01

165

Non-additive genetic effects for fertility traits in Canadian Holstein cattle (Open Access publication )  

PubMed Central

The effects of additive, dominance, additive by dominance, additive by additive and dominance by dominance genetic effects on age at first service, non-return rates and interval from calving to first service were estimated. Practical considerations of computing additive and dominance relationships using the genomic relationship matrix are discussed. The final strategy utilized several groups of 1000 animals (heifers or cows) in which all animals had a non-zero dominance relationship with at least one other animal in the group. Direct inversion of relationship matrices was possible within the 1000 animal subsets. Estimates of variances were obtained using Bayesian methodology via Gibbs sampling. Estimated non-additive genetic variances were generally as large as or larger than the additive genetic variance in most cases, except for non-return rates and interval from calving to first service for cows. Non-additive genetic effects appear to be of sizeable magnitude for fertility traits and should be included in models intended for estimating additive genetic merit. However, computing additive and dominance relationships for all possible pairs of individuals is very time consuming in populations of more than 200 000 animals.

Palucci, Valentina; Schaeffer, Lawrence R; Miglior, Filippo; Osborne, Vern

2007-01-01

166

Copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in blood serum and diet of dairy cattle on semi-industrial farms in central Iran.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood serum and diet concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in Holstein dairy cattle kept under semi-industrial farming in Isfahan province, central Iran. Moreover, the effects of season, pregnancy, and daily milk yield on serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were also evaluated. The study was carried out on 12 semi-industrial Holstein dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 blood serum samples (60 in each season) and 24 diet samples (12 in each season) were collected in the summer and winter. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents were assessed in samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the summer, the mean concentrations of Cu and Fe in serum samples were lower and higher than the critical level, respectively (P?cattle (P?cattle in different daily milk yield groups. It can be concluded that Holstein dairy cattle reared under semi-industrial dairy farming were deficient in serum Cu concentrations, especially in summer. Further, high level of Fe in blood serum might be due to feeding of cattle with diet containing excess quantity of Fe. PMID:21667325

Noaman, Vahid; Rasti, Mohsen; Ranjbari, Ahmad Reza; Shirvani, Edris

2012-03-01

167

Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on retail yields of subprimals from beef and calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Retail cutting tests were conducted on subprimals from cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to determine if the improved carcass composition and red meat yield resulting from ZH feeding would translate into increased retail yields of ready-to-cook products. As part of a 3-phase study, selection of carcasses from Holstein steers was done once (fall 2008), followed by the collection of carcasses from beef-type steers on 2 separate occasions (beef study I: summer 2009; beef study II: spring 2010). Each of the 3 groups of steers was assigned previously to 1 of 2 treatments, treated (fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH for 20 d) or control (not fed ZH). All steers were slaughtered and carcasses were fabricated in commercial beef-processing establishments. Only those carcasses grading USDA Choice or higher were used. Five subprimals were used for both the calf-fed Holstein study (n = 546 subprimals) and beef study I (n = 576 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef chuck, shoulder clod; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; and beef round, outside round (flat). Seven subprimals were used in beef study II (n = 138 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; beef round, eye of round; beef loin, strip loin, boneless; beef loin, top sirloin butt, boneless; and beef loin, tenderloin. A simulated retail market environment was created, and 3 retail meat merchandisers prepared retail cuts from each subprimal so salable yields and processing times could be obtained. Differences in salable yields were found for the calf-fed Holstein steer chuck rolls (96.54% for ZH vs. 95.71% for control; P = 0.0045) and calf-fed Holstein steer top rounds (91.30% for ZH vs. 90.18% for control; P = 0.0469). However, other than heavier subprimals and an increased number of retail cuts obtained, total salable yields measured on a percentage basis and processing times were mostly unaffected by ZH. Cutability advantages of feeding ZH are achieved primarily in the carcass-to-subprimal conversion rather than in the subprimal-to-retail conversion. PMID:21478448

Haneklaus, A N; Hodgen, J M; Delmore, R J; Lawrence, T E; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W

2011-09-01

168

Incidence and Genetic Characterization of Gongylonema pulchrum in Cattle Slaughtered in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, is a thread-like spirurid nematode found in a variety of mammals worldwide. Its incidences in Iranian cattle of different breed or age have not been reported. The aims of the present study are to disclose the infection status of G. pulchrum in cattle slaughtered in northern region of Iran. Methods Full-length esophagi of cattle of 97 native dairy breed and 41 Holstein-Friesian breed were collected at four local abattoirs in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, from March 2006 to August 2007, and were examined parasitologically. Eight overlapping segments of the small- and large-subunits of rDNA were amplified by PCR, and the obtained nucleotide sequences were characterized. Results The incidences of G. pulchrum in female and male native dairy breed were 38.9% and 24.0%, respectively, whereas those in female and male Holstein-Friesian breed were 4.2% and 0%, respectively. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of G. pulchrum rDNA showed an intra-individual variation in the sequence and length, and the variation was ascribed to some unstable repeats of "A" or "CA". Conclusion Distinct incidences of G. pulchrum infection in native dairy breed and Holstein-Friesian breed might be ascribed to different animal husbandry manners for each breed in Iran; the former breed grazes freely in the pasture, but the latter breed is usually held in a pen. The rDNA sequence of Iranian G. pulchrum, obtained for the first time by us, might facilitate a reliable species identification of the parasite with a wide spectrum of morphological variations.

Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Salehi, N; Ashrafi-Helan, J; Sato, H

2010-01-01

169

Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.  

PubMed

The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

2013-12-01

170

Chinese Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

Skilling, William C.

2012-01-01

171

Low incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) carriers in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds.  

PubMed

BLAD is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle worldwide. It is a disease characterized by a reduced expression of the adhesion molecules on neutrophils. The disease is caused by a mutation that replaces adenine at 383 with guanine, which causes an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glycine. Blood samples and a few semen samples were collected from 1250 phenotypically normal individuals, including HF (N=377), HF crossbred (N=334), Jersey (105), other breeds of cattle (N=160) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (N=274) belonging to various artificial insemination stations, bull mother farms (BMFs) and embryo transfer (ET) centres across the country. PCR-RFLP was performed to detect a point mutation in CD18, surface molecules of neutrophils. The results indicate that out of 1250 cattle and buffaloes tested for BLAD, 13 HF purebreds out of 377 and 10 HF crossbreds out of 334 appear to be BLAD carriers. In the HF and HF crossbred population, the percentage of BLAD carriers was estimated as 3.23%. The condition is alarming as the mutant gene has already entered the HF crossbred cattle population and therefore, the population of HF and its crossbreds needs regular screening to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population of India. PMID:17495349

Patel, Rajesh K; Singh, Krishna M; Soni, Kalpesh J; Chauhan, Jenabhai B; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli R S

2007-01-01

172

The slick hair coat locus maps to chromosome 20 in Senepol-derived cattle.  

PubMed

The ability to maintain normal temperatures during heat stress is an important attribute for cattle in the subtropics and tropics. Previous studies have shown that Senepol cattle and their crosses with Holstein, Charolais and Angus animals are as heat tolerant as Brahman cattle. This has been attributed to the slick hair coat of Senepol cattle, which is thought to be controlled by a single dominant gene. In this study, a genome scan using a DNA-pooling strategy indicated that the slick locus is most likely on bovine chromosome 20 (BTA20). Interval mapping confirmed the BTA20 assignment and refined the location of the locus. In total, 14 microsatellite markers were individually genotyped in two pedigrees consisting of slick and normal-haired cattle (n = 36), representing both dairy and beef breeds. The maximum LOD score was 9.4 for a 4.4-cM support interval between markers DIK2416 and BM4107. By using additional microsatellite markers in this region, and genotyping in six more pedigrees (n = 86), the slick locus was further localized to the DIK4835 - DIK2930 interval. PMID:17257189

Mariasegaram, M; Chase, C C; Chaparro, J X; Olson, T A; Brenneman, R A; Niedz, R P

2007-02-01

173

Narthecium asiaticum Maxim. Poisoning of grazing cattle: observations on spontaneous and experimental cases.  

PubMed

A total of 39 Holstein cattle were grazed in tracts of wild grassland on account of shortage in pasture grass. Twenty-nine cattle were affected and 26 of them died during a 21-day period. The main signs were depression, anorexia, ascites, and oliguria. There was elevated serum urea nitrogen and sugar and protein in the urine. Pathological examination revealed turbid swelling of the kidney, an increase in the amount of fluid in the body cavity, edema in the perirenal adipose tissue and hemorrhage in various visceral organs and tissues. Histologically, acute tubular necrosis in the kidney, hypoplasia of the erythroblast series in the bone marrow, atrophy and degeneration of the lymphatic tissue and focal necrosis of the liver were observed in many of the cattle. Among cows experimentally fed Narthecium asiaticum Maxim., Polygonum sachalinense Fr. Schum., and Vitis coignetiae Pulliat which were presumed to have been ingested in large amounts by grazing cattle in the field, the cows fed N. asiaticum revealed the clinical, biochemical and pathological changes similar to those noticed in naturally affected cattle. Cows fed P. sachalinense and V. coignetiae showed no distinct systemic symptoms except transient anorexia and hypothermia. PMID:3987297

Suzuki, K; Kobayashi, M; Ito, A; Nakgawa, M

1985-04-01

174

Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association studies were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBV in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBV within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multibreed reference population. Therefore, a multibreed reference population is a useful resource to find SNP with a greater than average association with RFI in 1 breed and use them to estimate GEBV in another breed. PMID:25074450

Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

2014-08-01

175

Efficacy of Timed Embryo Transfer with Fresh and Frozen In Vitro Produced Embryos to Increase Pregnancy Rates in Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen- thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchro- nized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2? and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows

J. D. Ambrose; M. Drost; R. L. Monson; J. J. Rutledge; M. L. Leibfried-Rutledge; M.-J. Thatcher; T. Kassa; M. Binelli; P. J. Hansen; P. J. Chenoweth

1999-01-01

176

Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

Lipman, Jonathan

2010-01-01

177

Multibreed genome wide association can improve precision of mapping causative variants underlying milk production in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in most cattle breeds result in large genomic intervals of significant associations making it difficult to identify causal mutations. This is due to the extensive, low-level linkage disequilibrium within a cattle breed. As there is less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, multibreed GWAS may improve precision of causal variant mapping. Here we test this hypothesis in a Holstein and Jersey cattle data set with 17,925 individuals with records for production and functional traits and 632,003 SNP markers. Results By using a cross validation strategy within the Holstein and Jersey data sets, we were able to identify and confirm a large number of QTL. As expected, the precision of mapping these QTL within the breeds was limited. In the multibreed analysis, we found that many loci were not segregating in both breeds. This was partly an artefact of power of the experiments, with the number of QTL shared between the breeds generally increasing with trait heritability. False discovery rates suggest that the multibreed analysis was less powerful than between breed analyses, in terms of how much genetic variance was explained by the detected QTL. However, the multibreed analysis could more accurately pinpoint the location of the well-described mutations affecting milk production such as DGAT1. Further, the significant SNP in the multibreed analysis were significantly enriched in genes regions, to a considerably greater extent than was observed in the single breed analyses. In addition, we have refined QTL on BTA5 and BTA19 to very small intervals and identified a small number of potential candidate genes in these, as well as in a number of other regions. Conclusion Where QTL are segregating across breed, multibreed GWAS can refine these to reasonably small genomic intervals. However, such QTL appear to represent only a fraction of the genetic variation. Our results suggest a significant proportion of QTL affecting milk production segregate within rather than across breeds, at least for Holstein and Jersey cattle.

2014-01-01

178

Effect of Dursban 44 on Semen Output of Holstein Bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dursban 44, an insecticide for lice con- trol, was applied to 185 Holstein bulls 9 to 52 mo of age. These sires were in various stages of progeny testing at an artificial insemination center. Application of this product killed 7 bulls, and the re- maining bulls exhibited varying severity of illness with 6 classified as very sick. This study evaluated

R. W. Everett

1982-01-01

179

Peierls Instability for the Holstein Model with Rational Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the static Holstein model, describing a chain of fermions interacting with a classical phonon field, when the interaction is weak and the density is a rational number p = P\\/Q, with P, Q relative prime integers. We show that the energy of the system, as a function of the phonon field, has one (if Q is even) or

G. Benfatto; G. Gentile; V. Mastropietro

1998-01-01

180

Reappearance of Mecistocirrus digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics: prevalence, molecular, and scanning electron microscopy identification.  

PubMed

Mecistocirrus digitatus is a hematophagous abomasal nematode which causes significant blood and production losses in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) report the reappearance of M. digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics using microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and molecular identification, and (2) determine the prevalence of M. digitatus in slaughtered adult cattle from the Mexican tropics. Gastroinestinal nematodes (GIN) were recovered from the abomasum of an 8-yr-old cow (Holstein × Zebu) previously diagnosed with Johne's disease. Of 1,254 GIN, 98.8% were identified as M. digitatus and 1.2% as Haemonchus sp. SEM was used to identify ultrastructure features of M. digitatus (oral cavity, cervical papillae, bursa, bursa lobes papillae, male spicules, anus, and female vulva). A conventional PCR method was used to corroborate the morphological findings. The prevalence of adult cattle infected with M. digitatus and Haemonchus sp., determined from 68 adult cattle from different grazing tropical herds, was 38.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of animals infected with M. digitatus presented lesions in their abomasum such as mucosal inflammation, hemorrhage, and ulcers; some of them had necrosis. The current reappearance of M. digitatus in a Mexican herd suggests the possibility of an underestimated prevalence of this nematode amongst grazing cattle. PMID:24433062

von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Aguilar-Marcelino, Liliana

2014-06-01

181

Molecular cloning of bovine lymphocyte activation gene-3 and its expression characteristics in bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle.  

PubMed

Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II binding CD4 homologue has recently been shown as one of the mechanisms for down-regulating immune responses during chronic disease progression. For the first time, we cloned LAG-3 from two breeds of cattle (Holstein and Japanese Black), and analyzed its expression levels in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a chronic viral infection that leads to immuno-suppression. The cloned cDNA of bovine LAG-3 have an open reading frame of 1551 nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 515 amino acids in length. Similar to the swine LAG-3, the bovine LAG-3 protein sequence consisted of four extracellular domains, a transmembrane domain and an inhibitory motif, KTGELE. We found that the bovine LAG-3 mRNA transcripts were expressed predominantly on T-cells such as CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, among peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In subsequent expression analysis, LAG-3 mRNA expression on CD4(+) T-cells from BLV-infected cattle was upregulated compared to that in normal cattle. Comparable results were obtained with CD8(+) T-cells from cattle infected with BLV. We further observed strong upregualtion of MHC class II molecule, the ligand for LAG-3 in BLV-infected cattle. These findings indicate an important role for inhibitory receptor molecules such as LAG-3 in chronic bovine infections and future studies will elucidate the specific role of LAG-3 in bovine diseases. PMID:21981995

Shirai, Tatsuya; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Saori; Sunden, Yuji; Onuma, Misao; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

2011-12-15

182

Comparative digestibility of low-quality grass hay by two breeds of cattle differing in mature live weight.  

PubMed

The digestive capacity of the Portuguese native breed of Barrosăo cattle and the Holstein-Friesian breed was measured when fed meadow hay (72-74 g CP and 641-671 g NDF/kg dry matter), offered either alone or supplemented with soya bean meal (150 g/kg dry matter), at maintenance level. Four mature cows of each breed were used. Average initial live weight (LW) was 457 and 635 kg for the Barrosăo and the Holstein-Friesian cows respectively. The organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the meadow hay was higher in Holstein-Friesian than in Barrosăo cows (p < 0.08) whether supplemented or not. The neutral detergent fibre digestibility of the hay was also higher in Holstein-Frisian when the hay was fed alone (p < 0.08). The soya bean meal supplementation increased the OMD and the NDFD digestibility of the total diet (p < 0.05), but not the OMD digestibility of the hay (p > 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest a higher ability to digest fibre in the large dairy breed than in the small native breed. This suggestion is also supported by previous findings with sheep breeds largely differing in mature live weight. PMID:23746083

Lourenço, A L; Dias-da-Silva, A; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Cone, J W; Ferreira, L M M

2014-06-01

183

Chinese Culture and Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

Wong, Kam-Cheung

2001-01-01

184

Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection.

Mammadova, Nazira

2013-01-01

185

Methoxychlor residues in milk of cattle treated with Marlate 50 insecticide as a dermal spray.  

PubMed

Lactating Holstein cattle were treated twice at an interval of 14 days with methoxychlor (Marlate 50 insecticide) as a 0, .25, or .50% dermal spray, with 2 quarts of spray mix applied to each animal. Residues of methoxychlor in whole milk were highest on the 1st or 2nd day after treatment and, when expressed as part per million equivalent in milk fat, were as high as 2.0 and 3.0 ppm in samples from the low and high dosage sprays. Residues in milk dropped rapidly after residues were at most only slightly above the sensitivity limit (.005 ppm in whole milk) of the analytical method. Applicative specifications for Marlate 50 insecticide use on lactating dairy cattle might result in violative methoxychlor residues in milk during the first 1 to 3 days after treatment. PMID:6853805

Ivey, M C; Ivie, G W; Coppock, C E; Clark, K J

1983-04-01

186

Dynamics of culling for Jersey, Holstein, and Jersey × Holstein crossbred cows in large multibreed dairy herds.  

PubMed

The objective of this observational study was to describe and compare the dynamics of reason-specific culling risk for the genetic groups Jerseys (JE), Holsteins (HO), and Jersey × Holstein crossbreds (JH), considering parity, stage of lactation, and milk yield, among other variables, in large multibreed dairy herds in Texas. The secondary objective was to analyze the association between survival and management factors, such as breeding and replacement policies, type of facilities, and use of cooling systems. After edits, available data included 202,384 lactations in 16 herds, ranging from 407 to 8,773 cows calving per year during the study period from 2007 to 2011. The distribution of lactation records by genetic group was 58, 36, and 6% for HO, JE, and JH crosses, respectively. Overall culling rates across breeds were 30.1, 32.1, and 35.0% for JH, JE, and HO, respectively. The dynamics of reason-specific culling were dependent on genetic group, parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, and herd characteristics. Early lactation was a critical period for "died" and "injury-sick" culling. The risk increased with days after calving for "breeding" and, in the case of HO, "low production" culling. Open cows had a 3.5 to 4.6 times greater risk for overall culling compared with pregnant cows. The odds of culling with reason "died" within the first 60d in milk (DIM) were not significantly associated with genetic group. However, both JE and JH crosses had lower odds of live culling within the first 60 DIM compared with HO cows (OR=0.72 and 0.82, respectively). Other cow variables significantly associated with the risk of dying within the first 60 DIM were cow relative 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield, parity, and season of calving. Significant herd-related variables for death included herd size and origin of replacements. In addition to genetic group, the risk of live culling within 60 DIM was associated with cow-relative 305ME milk yield, parity, and season of calving. Significant herd-related variables for live culling included herd-relative 305ME milk yield, herd size, type of facility, origin of replacement, and type of maternity. Overall, reason-specific culling followed similar patterns across DIM in the 3 genetic groups. PMID:24612810

Pinedo, P J; Daniels, A; Shumaker, J; De Vries, A

2014-05-01

187

Effects of prolonged nutrient restriction on baseline and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers.  

PubMed

Objectives of this study were to measure both daily and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers during prolonged undernutrition. Following an acclimation period, Holstein heifers [n=10; 339.5 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW)] were fed ad libitum [well fed (WF); n=5] or restricted to 50% of ad libitum intake [underfed (UF); n=5) for 8 wk. Body condition scores (BCS) were recorded at the beginning and end of the treatment period, and weekly measurements of BW, plasma ghrelin, progesterone, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were obtained. Ovarian follicular and luteal structures were measured twice weekly via transrectal ultrasonography. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were also measured during a periprandial window bleed conducted at the end of the experiment. During the window bleed, samples were collected every 15 min between 0500 and 0900 h, with feed offered at 0700 h. Underfed heifers lost BW and BCS, whereas WF heifers gained weight and either increased or maintained BCS. Chronic underfeeding increased circulating ghrelin and NEFA concentrations. By wk 4 of the treatment period, circulating ghrelin concentrations of the UF heifers reached a plateau. Periprandial fluctuations in ghrelin concentrations were apparent as plasma ghrelin concentrations changed over time. Overall differences in periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations were primarily due to prefeeding effects of plane of nutrition. Plasma ghrelin concentrations and change in BCS were negatively correlated such that heifers that lost the most BCS had the highest concentrations of circulating ghrelin. Two of the 5 UF heifers became anestrus by wk 3 of the treatment period. Despite being of similar age, the heifers that became anestrus had lower BW and plasma ghrelin concentrations than the UF heifers that continued to ovulate. In the current experiment, long-term undernutrition elicited ghrelin responses similar to those reported for shorter durations of nutrient restriction in cattle and other ruminants. These results demonstrate that plane of nutrition is a chronic regulator of plasma ghrelin concentrations, and that these concentrations can be experimentally manipulated in postpubertal heifers for up to 8 wk with no evidence of an adaptive response. PMID:23958007

Field, M E; Deaver, S E; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Rhoads, M L

2013-10-01

188

Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009. As of January 2013, 1,023 Ayrshires had genotypes in the North American database. Evaluation accuracy was assessed using genomic evaluations based on 646 bulls with 2008 traditional evaluations to predict daughter performance of up to 180 bulls in 2012. Mean gain in reliability over parent average for all traits was 8.2 percentage points. The highest gains were for protein yield (16.9 percentage points), milk yield (16.6 percentage points), and stature (16.2 percentage points). Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms were useful for Ayrshire breed determination. Fewer breed-determining SNP were available for Ayrshires than for Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss because of the similarity of Ayrshires and Holsteins. A haplotype that affects fertility was identified on chromosome 17 and traces back in the genotyped population to the bull Selwood Betty's Commander (born in 1953). The haplotype carrier frequency for genotyped Ayrshires was 26.1%. Sire conception rate was decreased by 4.3±2.5 percentage points for carriers of the haplotype as determined by 618 matings of carrier sire by carrier maternal grandsire. Genomic evaluations for Ayrshires were officially implemented in the United States in April 2013. PMID:24679938

Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; Null, D J; Hutchison, J L; Cole, J B

2014-06-01

189

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7 in European cattle and sheep: diagnostic considerations and effect of previous BTV exposure.  

PubMed

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an arthropod-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae), is an emerging pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants that is closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV). The present study examines the outcome of an experimental EHDV-7 infection of Holstein cattle and East Frisian sheep. Apart from naďve animals that had not been exposed to BTV, it included animals that had been experimentally infected with either BTV-6 or BTV-8 two months earlier. In addition, EHDV-infected cattle were subsequently challenged with BTV-8. Samples were tested with commercially available ELISA and real-time RT-PCR kits and a custom NS3-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Virus isolation was attempted in Vero, C6/36 and KC cells (from Culicoides variipennis), embryonated chicken eggs and type I interferon receptor-deficient IFNAR(-/-) mice. EHDV-7 productively infected Holstein cattle, but caused no clinical signs. The inoculation of East Frisian sheep, on the other hand, apparently did not lead to a productive infection. The commercial diagnostic kits performed adequately. KC cells proved to be the most sensitive means of virus isolation, but viremia was shorter than 2 weeks in most animals. No interference between EHDV and BTV infection was observed; therefore the pre-existing immunity to some BTV serotypes in Europe is not expected to protect against a possible introduction of EHDV, in spite of the close relation between the viruses. PMID:22560764

Eschbaumer, Michael; Wernike, Kerstin; Batten, Carrie A; Savini, Giovanni; Edwards, Lorraine; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Teodori, Liana; Oura, Chris A L; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

2012-10-12

190

Rockets in the Schlesvig-Holstein War 1848-1850  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mid-19th century was a lot busier period of rocketry activities than is generally realised. The war 1848-1850 in the tiny German duchies of Schleswig and Holstein (here called Schlesvig-Holstein)against Denmark is a case in point, in which both sides used war rockets, as well as allied states around them and there were also numerous “inventors” or improvers of rocket hardware who plied their “trade” in as many countries as they could. The author of this article is a lieutenant-colonel (Oberst- Leutnant) in the German Army whose avocation has been to track down the technology, development, and usage of these early gunpowder war rockets of the Congreve-Hale era of rocketry in the 19th century and is working on a book entitled “Geschichte der Kriegsraketen und der Raketenartillerie im 19. Jahrhundert” scheduled for publication late 1999 early 2000.

Fricke, H.-D.

191

Methane Emissions from Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing atmospheric concentra- tions of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many

K. A. Johnson; D. E. Johnson

2010-01-01

192

Use of Urea by Early Postpartum Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine lactating Holstein cows were fed high-energy complete rations ad libitum with crude protein: 1) 11.7% (negative control); 2) 13.9% (1% urea); 3) 16.6% (1% urea); or 4) 16.6% (positive control) in a continuous 12-wk study beginning at wk 5 postpartum. Milk production of 27.7, 31.8, 34.0, and 30.4 kg\\/day showed the use of urea nitrogen by groups 2 and

K. Kwan; C. E. Coppock; G. B. Lake; M. J. Fettman; L. E. Chase; R. E. McDowell

1977-01-01

193

Genetic structure of Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) based on microsatellites: clarification for their breed classification.  

PubMed

We pool three previously published data sets and present population genetic analyses of microsatellite variation in 48 Bos taurus cattle breeds from a wide range of geographical origins in Eurasia, mostly its northern territory. Bayesian model-based clustering reveals six distinct clusters: besides a single-population cluster of the Yakutian Cattle from Far Eastern Siberia and a cluster of breeds characteristic of an early origin, the other four major clusters largely correspond to previously defined morphological subgroups of Red Lowland, Lowland Black-Pied, Longhorned Dairy and North European Polled cattle breeds. The results highlighted past expansion events of the productive breeds such as Danish Red, Angeln, Holstein-Friesian and Ayrshire in northern and Eastern Europe. Based on genetic assignment of the breeds and the availability of breed information, we provide a preliminary classification of the five breeds that were to date undefined. Furthermore, in the analysis of molecular variance, despite some correspondence between geographical proximity and genetic similarity, the breed classification appears to be a better predictor of genetic structure in the cattle populations (the among-group variance component: breed classification, 2.47%, P < 0.001; geographical division, 0.77%, P < 0.001). PMID:19845598

Li, M-H; Kantanen, J

2010-04-01

194

Localization of large polarons in the disordered Holstein model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the disordered Holstein model via the density-matrix renormalization group method to investigate the combined roles of electron-phonon coupling and disorder on the localization of a single charge or exciton. The parameter regimes chosen, namely the adiabatic regime, ?? /4t0=?'<1, and the large polaron regime, ? <1, are applicable to most conjugated polymers. We show that as a consequence of the polaron effective mass diverging in the adiabatic limit (defined as ?'?0 subject to fixed ?) self-localized, symmetry-breaking solutions are predicted by the quantum Holstein model for infinitesimal disorder, in complete agreement with the predictions of the Born-Oppenheimer Holstein model. For other parts of the (?', ?) parameter space, however, self-localized Born-Oppenheimer solutions are not expected. If ?' is not small enough and ? is not large enough, then the polaron is predominately localized by Anderson disorder, albeit more than for a free particle, because of the enhanced effective mass. Alternatively, for very small electron-phonon coupling (? ?1) the disorder-induced localization length is always smaller than the classical polaron size, 2/?, so that disorder always dominates. We comment on the implication of our results on the electronic properties of conjugated polymers.

Tozer, Oliver Robert; Barford, William

2014-04-01

195

Thermal characteristics of Metarhizium anisopliae isolates important for the development of biological pesticides for the control of cattle ticks.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine if Metarhizium anisopliae isolates which are capable of growth at cattle surface temperatures could produce pathogenicity to Boophilus microplus in laboratory and field studies. The diurnal temperature fluctuation on the surface of cattle was monitored. The temperature tolerance of M. anisopliae isolates (ARSEF3297 and IMI386697) was determined and their pathogenicity to B. microplus compared at a standard bioassay temperature (28 degrees C) and at a temperature similar to the cattle surface (31-35 degrees C). The effect of the two isolates on the B. microplus population on cattle under field conditions was determined. The temperature of the fore udder, rear udder, ribs and neck regions of the mixed Holstein cattle fluctuated between 30 and 35 degrees C, in a similar pattern to the prevailing environmental temperature. However, wider fluctuations were obtained on the ears (28-35 degrees C) and spine (30-41 degrees C). The colony radius of both isolates declined as temperature increased, however, the growth of IMI386697 was five times greater than ARSEF3297 at 34 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, the pathogenicity of both isolates to B. microplus was similar, however, at 31-35 degrees C, IMI386697 was more pathogenic than ARSEF3297. Both isolates reduced the B. microplus population on cattle in comparison to the control formulation. However, IMI386697 (8.5+/-0.64 ticks/animal) produced a greater reduction in tick numbers than ARSEF3297 (19.1+/-0.64 ticks/animal). M. anisopliae was re-isolated from 8.9% of the ticks collected from IMI386697 treated cattle as compared to 2.8% of ticks from ARSEF3297 treated cattle. PMID:16099103

Polar, Perry; de Muro, Marilena Aquino; Kairo, Moses T K; Moore, Dave; Pegram, Rupert; John, Sally-Ann; Roach-Benn, Cheryl

2005-11-25

196

In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro.MethodologyMammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and

Han Hu; Jiaqi Wang; Dengpan Bu; Hongyang Wei; Linyun Zhou; Fadi Li; Juan J. Loor

2009-01-01

197

Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

Matsui, T.

2012-01-01

198

Traumatic flexor tendon injuries in 27 cattle.  

PubMed

Information for all cattle with a diagnosis of tendon injury entered into the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) was retrieved and selected medical records reviewed. The proportional morbidity rate for tendon disruption was 0.89 cattle/1,000 cattle admissions and 95 of 99 cattle survived. Female and dairy cattle had a greater risk of tendon disruption than male or beef cattle, respectively. Also, cattle 6 months to 7 years old had a greater risk than cattle younger than 6 months old. Complete medical records were examined for 27 cattle. Affected cattle were 2.5 +/- 1.8 years old and weighed 593.6 +/- 315.6 kg. Injuries were most commonly caused by accidents involving farm machinery (72%). Unilateral superficial digital flexor tendon injury occurred in 8 cattle (30%); multiple tendon injury occurred in the other 19 cattle (70%). A single limb was involved in 25 cattle, a rear limb was involved in 24 cattle, and an open wound was associated with the injury in 26 cattle. Wounds were identified most commonly at the mid (13 cattle) and proximal metatarsus (4 cattle). Treatment of tendon disruption included tenorrhaphy and casting (9 cattle), external coaptation, alone, (14 cattle), stall confinement, alone, (1 cow), and euthanasia or salvage (3 cattle). External coaptation was maintained for 74.4 +/- 34.3 days, and total confinement period was 88.3 +/- 59.5 days. Short-term complications included severe tendon laxity (one cow) and fatal septic peritonitis (one bull). Twenty-two of 24 cattle treated for tendon disruption survived. Follow-up information was available for 16 cattle; 14 cattle (87%) returned to productivity and 11 of 15 cattle with long-term follow-up (73%) were considered productive. Long-term complications included persistent lameness (56%) and persistent hyperextension of the digits (19%). PMID:8810022

Anderson, D E; St-Jean, G; Morin, D E; Ducharme, N G; Nelson, D R; Desrochers, A

1996-01-01

199

[Relationships of three microsatellite loci with GSH-Px, SOD and Na+/K+-ATP enzyme activities and daily milk yield in different seasons in Holstein cows].  

PubMed

Genetic variation of three microsatellite loci BMS2258, SOD1, and BM723, which were closely correlated with GSH-Px, SOD, and Na+/K+-ATPase genes, was analyzed in 130 Holstein cows by PCR and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis. Polymorphic information content, effective number of alleles and heterozygosity of these microsatellite loci were determined. Relationships of the three microsatellite loci with enzyme activities and daily milk yields in Holstein cows were analyzed by least squares linear model. The results showed significant correlations of the three microsatellite loci with their corresponding enzyme activities and daily milk yield in summer and fall (Plt;0.05). The least square means of GSH-Px activities and daily milk yields for BMS2258 (182 bp/164 bp), SOD activities for SOD1 (148 bp/148 bp), and daily milk yields for SOD1 (148 bp/146 bp), Na+/K+-ATPase activities and daily milk yields for BM723 (161 bp/111 bp) were relatively higher. These genotypes were the most favorable genotypes for enzyme activity and daily milk yields in summer and fall, which could be references for marker assisted selection in heat resistance traits in dairy cattle. PMID:20423893

Li, Da-Qi; Liu, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Min; Gao, Hong-Bin; Wang, Gen-Lin

2010-04-01

200

Genetic analyses of early-expressed reproduction traits of Boran and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey in Central Highlands of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess early-expressed reproductive traits of Boran cattle and their crosses with Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF). The traits studied were age at first services (AFS), number of services for first conception, age at first calving (AFC), first dry period (FDP), first calving interval (FCI), and first service period (FSP). Genetic group and period of birth/calving had a significant (p?cattle were inferior to HF or Jersey crosses. First crosses (F 1) for Jersey and Boran (50 % Jersey: 50 % Boran) showed a significantly (p?cattle. The F 1 for Jersey and Boran (50 % Jersey: 50 % Boran) crosses showed better performance than the F 1 for HF and Boran (50 % HF: 50 % Boran). Heritability values for AFS and AFC were the highest and were estimated at 0.51?±?0.10 and 0.49?±?0.13, respectively, and lowest heritability was recorded for FDP (0.02?±?020) and FSP (0.10?±?0.29). The genetic correlation was highest (0.10?±?0.20) between AFS and AFC and was lowest (-0.01?±?0.66) between FCI and FSP. The breed additive for Jersey was only significant (p?cattle has desirably reduced 9.16?±?2.88 months in AFS; the corresponding reduction in AFS was 3.49?±?3.59 months by crossing with Jersey. The performance comparisons and genetic and crossbreeding parameters indicated that crossbreeding of Boran with HF or Jersey can improve reproductive performance. PMID:24162873

Belay, Berhanu; Chakravarty, Ashim Kumar

2014-01-01

201

Heritability and impact of environmental effects during pregnancy on antral follicle count in cattle.  

PubMed

Previous studies have documented that ovarian antral follicle count (AFC) is positively correlated with number of healthy follicles and oocytes in ovaries (ovarian reserve), as well as ovarian function and fertility in cattle. However, environmental factors (e.g., nutrition, steroids) during pregnancy in cattle and sheep can reduce AFC in offspring. The role that genetic and environmental factors play in influencing the variability in AFC and, correspondingly, the size of the ovarian reserve, ovarian function, and fertility, are, however, poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that variability in AFC in offspring is influenced not only by genetic merit but also by the dam age and lactation status (lactating cows vs. nonlactating heifers) and milk production during pregnancy. Antral follicle count was assessed by ultrasonography in 445 Irish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 522 US Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers. Heritability estimates for AFC (± standard error) were 0.31±0.14 and 0.25±0.13 in dairy cows and heifers, respectively. Association analysis between both genotypic sire data and phenotypic dam data with AFC in their daughters was performed using regression and generalized linear models. Antral follicle count was negatively associated with genetic merit for milk fat concentration. Also, AFC was greater in offspring of dams that were lactating (n=255) compared with nonlactating dams (n=89) during pregnancy and was positively associated with dam milk fat concentration and milk fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, AFC in dairy cattle is a moderately heritable genetic trait affected by age or lactation status and milk quality but not by level of dam's milk production during pregnancy. PMID:24835969

Walsh, S W; Mossa, F; Butler, S T; Berry, D P; Scheetz, D; Jimenez-Krassel, F; Tempelman, R J; Carter, F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Ireland, J J

2014-07-01

202

Electron motion in a Holstein molecular chain in an electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A charge motion in an electric field in a Holstein molecular chain is modeled in the absence of dissipation. It is shown that in a weak electric field a Holstein polaron moves uniformly experiencing small oscillations of its shape. These oscillations are associated with the chain's discreteness and caused by the presence of Peierls-Nabarro potential there. The critical value of

V. D. Lakhno; A. N. Korshunova

2011-01-01

203

Properties of the moving Holstein large polaron in one-dimensional molecular crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of the moving large polaron are investigated within Holstein’s molecular crystal model. The necessity to account for the phonon dispersion is emphasized and its impact on polaron properties is examined in detail. It was found that the large polaron dynamics is described by the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The character of its solutions is determined by the degree

Zoran Vosika; Željko Pržulj; Ljup?o Hadžievski; Zoran Ivi?

2009-01-01

204

Fertility and hair coat characteristics of Holstein cows in a tropical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment deals with the effects of hair coat on the number of inseminations per conception in Brazilian Holstein cows. Data (n = 2446) were collected from 939 primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows in a commercial herd managed under an intensive free- stall system and provided with cooling units (fans and sprinklers). The following hair coat characteristics were considered: hair

E. C. A. Bertipaglia; R. G. Silva

2006-01-01

205

Effect of Season and Exposure to Heat Stress on Oocyte Competence in Holstein Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate sea- sonal variation in oocyte competence in Holstein cows and to test whether oocyte quality in summer is af- fected by the magnitude of heat stress. In the first experiment, ovaries of Holstein cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and used to harvest oocytes over 1 yr (n = 18 replicates). After in vitro

Y. M. Al-Katanani; F. F. Paula-Lopes; P. J. Hansen

2002-01-01

206

Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p?cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits.

2014-01-01

207

Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta  

PubMed Central

A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties) The prevalence of PI3 viral antibodies among Saskatchewan cattle was not affected by district of origin, breed, sex, age, or vaccination practices, though BRS viral antibodies appeared less frequent in young, male, and unvaccinated animals. Antibodies to IBR and BVD viruses were less prevalent in the Prince Albert/Tisdale districts and in young, male, and unvaccinated animals, but were more common in Holstein cattle. Antibodies to IBR virus appeared less frequent in Herefords. Antibodies were more prevalent in cattle which had been vaccinated against IBR, BRS, and BVD virus infections. The relatively small number of cattle sampled from Alberta had a similar prevalence of antibodies to PI3 and BRS viruses to that seen in cattle in Saskatchewan, though IBR and BVD prevalence rates were lower.

Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

1990-01-01

208

Multimode vibronic spectra of the Holstein molecular crystal model.  

PubMed

Vibronic spectra of the Holstein model for molecular crystals are investigated using the dynamical mean field theory with the additional aid of the multi-mode Brownian oscillator model. The effects of temperature, intermolecular transfer integral, damping constant and quadratic coupling on the vibronic spectra are examined, and spectra in the presence of two phonon modes are studied in detail. Results from the dynamical mean field theory are corroborated by those from the multi-mode Brownian oscillator model. Strength and weakness of the two approaches are discussed to point out the corresponding regimes of application for each. PMID:20379577

Liu, Qingmei; Ye, Jun; Zhao, Yang

2010-06-21

209

Electric dipolar susceptibility of the Anderson-Holstein model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of the electric dipolar susceptibility ?P is discussed on the basis of the Anderson-Holstein model with the use of a numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique. Note that ? P is related to the phonon Green's function D. In order to obtain a correct temperature dependence for ? P at low temperatures, we propose a method to evaluate ? P through the Dyson equation from the charge susceptibility ? c calculated by using the NRG instead of the direct NRG calculation of D. We find that the irreducible charge susceptibility estimated from ? c agree with the perturbation calculation, suggesting that our method works well.

Fuse, Takahiro; Hotta, Takashi

2013-06-01

210

Allele frequencies of gene polymorphisms related to economic traits in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Allele frequencies of 10 representative polymorphisms for beef and milk traits were investigated for a total of 240 animals from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds, including two Japanese groups (Japanese Black and Japanese Brown), two East Asian groups (Korean and Mongolian), three European groups (Holstein, Angus and Hereford) and a Bos indicus group in South Asia (Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia). The Japanese Black revealed unique genetic construction in GH, FASN and SREBP-1 and the other Asian populations show intermediate frequencies between European and Japanese populations. The Bos indicus group showed low favorable allele frequencies in most of the genes. The study showed the variability and distribution of 10 genes affecting economic traits among world representative cattle breeds. The genetic information would contribute to elucidating the genetic background for worldwide cattle breeds and the possibility of improvement using the markers. PMID:22111625

Kaneda, Makoto; Lin, Bang Zhong; Sasazaki, Shinji; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki

2011-12-01

211

Eradication of Lice in Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli)

O. Nafstad; H. Grřnstřl

2001-01-01

212

Immunisation against ringworm in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunisation against dermatomycoses in cattle was introduced in Gausdal, Norway, in 1979. A programme was implemented in which a six-year period of mandatory vaccination of all cattle was followed by vaccination on a voluntary basis. The prevalence of infected herds fell from 70 per cent in 1979 to 0 per cent in 1987. During the last five years, no newly

R Gudding; B Naess; O Aamodt

1991-01-01

213

Quantitative comparisons of select cultured and uncultured microbial populations in the rumen of cattle fed different diets  

PubMed Central

Background The number and diversity of uncultured ruminal bacterial and archaeal species revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences greatly exceeds that of cultured bacteria and archaea. However, the significance of uncultured microbes remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to assess the numeric importance of select uncultured bacteria and cultured bacteria and the impact of diets and microenvironments within cow rumen in a comparative manner. Results Liquid and adherent fractions were obtained from the rumen of Jersey cattle fed hay alone and Holstein cattle fed hay plus grain. The populations of cultured and uncultured bacteria present in each fraction were quantified using specific real-time PCR assays. The population of total bacteria was similar between fractions or diets, while total archaea was numerically higher in the hay-fed Jersey cattle than in the hay-grain-fed Holstein cattle. The population of the genus Prevotella was about one log smaller than that of total bacteria. The populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the genus Butyrivibrio, and R. albus was at least one log smaller than that of genus Prevotella. Four of the six uncultured bacteria quantified were as abundant as F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and the genus Butyrivibrio. In addition, the populations of several uncultured bacteria were significantly higher in the adherent fractions than in the liquid fractions. These uncultured bacteria may be associated with fiber degradation. Conclusions Some uncultured bacteria are as abundant as those of major cultured bacteria in the rumen. Uncultured bacteria may have important contribution to ruminal fermentation. Population dynamic studies of uncultured bacteria in a comparative manner can help reveal their ecological features and importance to rumen functions.

2012-01-01

214

Chinese Folktales for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

Kwok, Irene

215

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

216

Genome wide scan for somatic cell counts in holstein bulls  

PubMed Central

Background Mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy production, and control of the disease is often difficult, due to its multi-factorial nature. Susceptibility to mastitis is under partial genetic control and the industry uses indirect selection for decreased concentrations of somatic cells in milk to reduce mastitis. Methods A genome-wide scan was performed to identify genomic regions associated with deregressed estimated breeding values (EBVs) for somatic cell counts (SCC) in Holstein bulls. In total 1183 proven bulls of the Italian of Holstein population, were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and a whole genome association analysis was performed using the R package GenABEL. Results Two chromosomal regions showed association with SCC, a region on chromosome 14 with high significance (P < 5x10-6) and a region on chromosome 6 with moderate significance (P < 5x10-5). Conclusions Two regions with effects on SCC have been identified with good statistical support. A further study of these candidate regions will be performed to verify the results and identify the causal mutations.

2011-01-01

217

Studies of the pathogenesis of bovine pestivirus-induced ovarian dysfunction in superovulated dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Two experiments (Experiment I, n=12 Holstein-Friesian heifers; Experiment II, n=8 Jersey cows) were conducted to investigate the pathogenesis of bovine pestivirus-induced ovarian dysfunction in cattle. In both experiments the cattle were superovulated with twice daily injections of a porcine pituitary extract preparation of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P), for 4 days commencing on Day 10+/-2 after a presynchronised oestrus. The heifers received a total dose of 30 mg and the cows 32 mg of FSH-P. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) was administered 48 h after commencement of superovulation and all cattle were artificially inseminated (AI) between 48 and 66h after PGF(2alpha) treatment. In both experiments bovine pestivirus seronegative cattle (Experiment I, n=6; Experiment II, n=4) were inoculated intranasally with an Australian strain of non-cytopathogenic bovine pestivirus (bovine viral diarrhoea virus Type 1) 9 days prior to AI. Bovine pestivirus infection was confirmed by seroconversion and/or virus isolation in all of the inoculated cattle, consistent with a viremia occurring approximately between Day 5 prior to AI and the day of AI. Ovarian function was monitored in both experiments by daily transrectal ultrasonography and strategic blood sampling to determine progesterone, oestradiol-17beta, luteinising hormone (LH) and cortisol profiles. Non-surgical ova/embryo recovery was performed on Day 7 after AI. In Experiment II half the cattle were slaughtered on Day 2 and the remainder on Day 8 after AI, and the ovaries submitted for gross and histopathological examination including immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the presence of bovine pestivirus antigen. In both studies, comparisons were made between infected and confirmed uninfected (control) animals. Overall the bovine pestivirus infected cattle had significantly lower (P<0.05) ova/embryo recovery rates compared to the control cattle. There was evidence of either an absence (partial or complete) of a preovulatory LH surge or delay in timing of the LH peak in the majority (90%) of infected heifers and cows, and histologically, there was evidence of non-suppurative oophoritis with necrosis of granulosa cells and the oocyte in follicles from the infected cows. By contrast only 20% of the control heifers and cows had evidence of absence of a pre-ovulatory LH surge. These experiments collectively demonstrate that bovine pestivirus infection during the period of final growth of preovulatory follicles may result in varying degrees of necrosis of the granulosa cells with subsequent negative effects on oestradiol-17beta secretion which in turn negatively affects the magnitude and/or timing of the preovulatory LH surge. PMID:12517403

McGowan, M R; Kafi, M; Kirkland, P D; Kelly, R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Occhio, M D; Jillella, D

2003-02-01

218

[Establishment of the detection method for two causative genes of cattle arachnomelia syndrome].  

PubMed

Arachnomelia syndrome (AS) is a recessive inherited disease in cattle. Although the arachnomelia phenotypes are virtually identical in Brown Swiss and Simmental cattle, the causative mutation are different, which are a 1 bp insertion c.363-364insG in the sulfite oxidase (SUOX) gene and a 2 bp deletion c.1224_1225delCA in the molybdenum cofactor syn-thesis step 1 (MOCS1) gene, respectively. In the current study, combining fluorescence PCR with capillary electrophoresis technology, an automatic fluorescence method was established, which could detect the two causative loci rapidly and cor-rectly with a single reaction. Samples from 51 Simmental bulls, 80 cows mated artificially using semen of Simmental bulls and their resulted 106 progeny, together with 55 Xinjiang Brown were collected and used for validation of the newly de-signed methods. Our results have laid a foundation for screening AS disease causing mutations in Chinese cattle. PMID:23732669

Chu, Qin; Jiao, Shi-Hui; Wang, Ya-Chun; Liu, Lin; Liu, Ai-Rong; Wu, Hong-Jun; Xie, Zhen-Quan; Hou, Shi-Yu; Geng, Fan-Jun; Wang, Cong-Yong; Huang, Xi-Xia; Tan, Shi-Xin; Tan, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yuan

2013-05-01

219

Zero-inflated Poisson regression models for QTL mapping applied to tick-resistance in a Gyr × Holstein F2 population.  

PubMed

Now a days, an important and interesting alternative in the control of tick-infestation in cattle is to select resistant animals, and identify the respective quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and DNA markers, for posterior use in breeding programs. The number of ticks/animal is characterized as a discrete-counting trait, which could potentially follow Poisson distribution. However, in the case of an excess of zeros, due to the occurrence of several noninfected animals, zero-inflated Poisson and generalized zero-inflated distribution (GZIP) may provide a better description of the data. Thus, the objective here was to compare through simulation, Poisson and ZIP models (simple and generalized) with classical approaches, for QTL mapping with counting phenotypes under different scenarios, and to apply these approaches to a QTL study of tick resistance in an F2 cattle (Gyr × Holstein) population. It was concluded that, when working with zero-inflated data, it is recommendable to use the generalized and simple ZIP model for analysis. On the other hand, when working with data with zeros, but not zero-inflated, the Poisson model or a data-transformation-approach, such as square-root or Box-Cox transformation, are applicable. PMID:22215960

Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Tunin, Karen P; Rosa, Guilherme J M; da Silva, Marcos V B; Azevedo, Ana Luisa Souza; da Silva Verneque, Rui; Machado, Marco Antonio; Packer, Irineu Umberto

2011-10-01

220

Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle  

PubMed Central

Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS|) and population differentiation index (FST)--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases) the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p < 0.05) from the expectation assuming a random distribution. However, significant FST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life and fertility traits in Holstein cattle. We conclude that high-resolution genome scans of selection signatures can be used to identify genomic regions contributing to within- and inter-breed phenotypic variation.

2011-01-01

221

Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.  

PubMed

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ? 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (?(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

2012-08-01

222

The First Outbreak of Chorioptes texanus (Acari: Psoroptidae) Infestation in a Cattle Farm in Korea  

PubMed Central

Mites in the genus Chorioptes cause a mild form of skin disease in both domestic and wild ruminants. In July 2006, dermatitis characterized by alopecia, marked lichenification, accumulation of crust, and fissuring was recognized in 14 out of 200 Holstein dairy cattle raised in the cattle farm of the National Institute of Animal Science in Cheonan, Republic of Korea. Skin lesions were distributed mainly over the tail base, and sacral and perineal regions. Microscopic examinations of skin scraping samples from severely affected areas revealed numerous mites of all developmental stages. Morphologically, pedicels of the mites were short and unjointed. The tarsal suckers occurred on the pedicels of all the legs in the male worm and on the first, second, and fourth pair of legs in the adult female worm. A single long seta at the tarsus of legs III and the length of legs II being about twice as long as legs IV in adult male mites were observed. Arising anterior to the inner-most spatulate seta was a short seta with an average of 26.4 ± 5.8 µm in length. Also, the length of setae #4 on the opisthosomal lobes was relatively short. Based on these observations, the mites were identified as Choriptes texanus. Although the chorioptic mange may not influence the mortality rate in the affected farm, reports indicate that a decline in milk production can be observed. This is the first report of chorioptic infestation in a cattle farm from Korea.

Suh, Guk-Hyun; Hur, Tai-Young; Lim, Sun; Shin, Sang-Min; Kwon, Jungkee; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Chai-Yong

2008-01-01

223

Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.  

PubMed

In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

2010-11-01

224

Sequence variations of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in native Korean Hanwoo cattle  

PubMed Central

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is one of the fatal neurodegenerative diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) caused by infectious prion proteins. Genetic variations correlated with susceptibility or resistance to TSE in humans and sheep have not been reported for bovine strains including those from Holstein, Jersey, and Japanese Black cattle. Here, we investigated bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) variations in Hanwoo cattle [Bos (B.) taurus coreanae], a native breed in Korea. We identified mutations and polymorphisms in the coding region of PRNP, determined their frequency, and evaluated their significance. We identified four synonymous polymorphisms and two non-synonymous mutations in PRNP, but found no novel polymorphisms. The sequence and number of octapeptide repeats were completely conserved, and the haplotype frequency of the coding region was similar to that of other B. taurus strains. When we examined the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the non-coding region of PRNP, Hanwoo cattle had a lower deletion allele and 23-bp del/12-bp del haplotype frequency than healthy and BSE-affected animals of other strains. Thus, Hanwoo are seemingly less susceptible to BSE than other strains due to the 23-bp and 12-bp indel polymorphisms.

Choi, Sangho

2012-01-01

225

A DNA vaccination regime including protein boost and electroporation protects cattle against foot-and-mouth disease.  

PubMed

Protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) using DNA technology has been documented for sheep and pigs but not for the highly susceptible species of cattle. Twenty-five Holstein Friesian cross-bred cattle were vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with a DNA vaccine containing the capsid coding region (P1) along with the non-structural proteins 2A, 3C and 3D (pcDNA3.1/P1-2A3C3D) of O(1) Kaufbeuren alone or coated onto PLG (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. In some pcDNA3.1/P1-2A3C3D was also combined with an adjuvant plasmid expressing bovine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). DNA vaccinations were administered intramuscularly with, or without, the use of electroporation and at 42 days post primary vaccination cattle received a protein boost of 146S FMD virus (FMDV) antigen and non-structural protein 3D. For comparison, four cattle were vaccinated with a conventional FMD vaccine and two more included as unvaccinated controls. Apart from those immunised with PLG microparticles all cattle were challenged with 10(5) TCID(50) cattle adapted O(1) Lausanne FMDV virus at day 93 post primary vaccination. All DNA vaccinated cattle regardless of regime developed good humoral and cell mediated responses prior to challenge. The best overall virus neutralising antibody, IFN-? and clinical protection (75%) were seen in the cattle whereby the DNA was delivered by electroporation. In contrast, only 25% of cattle vaccinated with the DNA vaccine without electroporation were clinically protected. The addition of GM-CSF in combination with electroporation further improved the efficacy of the vaccine, as demonstrated from the reduction of clinical disease and virus excretions in nasal swabs. We thus demonstrate for the first time that cattle can be clinically protected against FMDV challenge following a DNA prime-protein boost strategy, and particularly when DNA vaccine is combined with GM-CSF and delivered by electroporation. PMID:22330893

Fowler, V; Robinson, L; Bankowski, B; Cox, S; Parida, S; Lawlor, C; Gibson, D; O'Brien, F; Ellefsen, B; Hannaman, D; Takamatsu, H-H; Barnett, P V

2012-04-01

226

9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso...disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart...each animal's left ear. (b) Dairy cattle disposed of under this...

2009-01-01

227

9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso...disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart...each animal's left ear. (b) Dairy cattle disposed of under this...

2010-01-01

228

A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle.

2013-01-01

229

Developmental competence of embryos derived from reciprocal in vitro fertilization between Yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate fertilization ability and embryo development to the blastocyst stage after reciprocal in vitro fertilization (IVF) between yak and cattle in an attempt to clarify the problem of low conception rate after mating yak females with cattle bulls. In vitro-matured (IVM) cattle and yak oocytes were inseminated with either Holstein or yak spermatozoa, and after an 18-h of coincubation period, a proportion of the oocytes was fixed and examined for sperm penetration, polyspermy and male pronuclear formation. The remaining oocytes were cultured in vitro and evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst formation rates. The percentage of IVM oocytes penetrated by spermatozoa ranged from 78.5 to 90.5%, and the formation of one or two pronuclei and the incidence of polyspermy did not differ among the different combinations. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were not affected by the species of the sperm, but they were affected by the species of the oocytes (P<0.05), with cattle oocytes having a higher (P<0.05) cleavage and blastocyst rates (69.9 and 31.3%) than yak oocytes (62.7 and 11.5%). The blastocyst formation rate was calculated from the cleaved zygotes. The interaction between sire and oocytes species (P<0.05) influenced blastocyst formation rate, with the highest blastocyst rate occurring in cattle oocytes fertilized with yak spermatozoa (36.5%) and the lowest rate occurring in yak oocytes fertilized with yak spermatozoa (9.4%). The effect of heterosis was apparent at the blastocyst stage, but there was a large reciprocal difference in blastocyst production between crosses. It was concluded that the low conception rate that results from crossing yaks with cattle is not due to either a species-specific block of fertilization or the developmental competence of the early stage embryo. PMID:19521055

Zi, Xiang-Dong; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, Shao-Wei; Liang, Guan-Nan; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Chun-Hua

2009-10-01

230

English-Chinese, Chinese-English Nuclear Security Glossary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. National Academies Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) and the Chinese Scientists Group on Arms Control (CSGAC) of the Chinese People's Association for Peace and Disarmament have jointly produced a Chinese - English Engli...

2008-01-01

231

Relationship between female fertility and production traits in Canadian Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were a) to estimate the genetic correlation between milk production and some female fertility traits such as 56-d nonreturn rate in cows (NRRC), calving to first service (CTFS), and first service to conception (FSTC); b) to assess the influence of including milk production as a correlated trait on the genetic evaluation of these traits in Canadian Holsteins; and c) to determine if using heifer nonreturn rate (NRRH) had a similar effect as using milk production on cow NRRC evaluation. The data included fertility and production records of first-parity Holstein cows. Genetic parameters were estimated using uni- and bivariate analyses in which milk production at around 90 DIM (TD90M) was included as a correlated trait to NRRC, CTFS, and FTSC. A bivariate analysis was also carried out in which NRRH was included as a correlated trait to NRRC. The models were compared by genetic trend (NRRC, CTFS, and FSTC) and cross-validation and predictability (NRRC). The heritability estimates for NRRC from the uni- and bivariate analyses were 0.017 and 0.020, respectively. The corresponding figures for CTFS were 0.07 and 0.08 and for FSTC were 0.049 and 0.05. The genetic trends for NRRC of the 2 models (NRRC+TD90M and NRRC+NRRH) gave very similar results. However, when milk production was included in the genetic evaluation of CTFS and FSTC, the genetic trends of the 2 fertility traits were higher compared with the univariate analysis. In NRRC evaluation by cross-validation and predictability, the bivariate analyses were more consistent and gave a better predictability than the univariate analysis. However, there was no major difference between the 2 models. Consequently, it might be worth including milk production or heifer fertility as correlated traits in the genetic evaluation of female fertility traits. PMID:20723717

Sewalem, A; Kistemaker, G J; Miglior, F

2010-09-01

232

Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.

1987-09-01

233

Learn Chinese Characters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zhongwen.com is a valuable online resource for individuals just beginning to learn Chinese, as well as those who want to learn more. The site contains the complete on line text of "Chinese Character: A Genealogy and Dictionary". All the Chinese characters are hyperlinked so that users of the site can quickly decipher new and unfamiliar characters in English. Additionally, the site has readings about Chinese culture written in Chinese such as the "Art of War" and "Mao Sayings". Finally, for those who may just have basic questions about the Chinese language there is a frequently asked questions section that addresses common questions such as "Why are characters so complicated?" and "Are they pictures?"

Harbaugh, Rick

2007-02-04

234

Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.  

PubMed

Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals. PMID:1554771

Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G

1992-01-01

235

Electron motion in a Holstein molecular chain in an electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  A charge motion in an electric field in a Holstein molecular chain is modeled in the absence of dissipation. It is shown that\\u000a in a weak electric field a Holstein polaron moves uniformly experiencing small oscillations of its shape. These oscillations\\u000a are associated with the chain’s discreteness and caused by the presence of Peierls-Nabarro potential there. The critical value\\u000a of

V. D. Lakhno; A. N. Korshunova

2011-01-01

236

Genetic characterization of a herd of the endangered Danish Jutland cattle.  

PubMed

In this paper we present results from a genetic characterization of a herd of the Danish Jutland cattle breed named the Kortegaard herd (n = 135; 57 males and 78 females). The herd is genotyped on the Bovine HD BeadChip microarray with 697,548 evenly spaced SNP across the bovine genome. The aim of the study was to characterize the genetic profile of the Kortegaard herd, which has been closed for several generations, by quantifying the degree of genetic homogeneity within the herd and to compare its genetic profile to that of other cattle breeds. A total of 868 animals from the Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Holstein-Friesian crosses, Limousin, and Simmental breeds was used for genetic profile comparisons. The level of genetic variation within the breeds were quantified by the expected heterozygosity (HE), observed heterozygosity (HO), average minor allele frequency (MAF), the degree of polymorphism, and runs of homozygosity (ROH), which are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes of varying length. Interestingly, the Kortegaard herd had the lowest within-breed genetic variation (lowest HE, HO, and MAF), showed moderate levels of short ROH (<5 Mb), and had the highest mean long ROH (>5 Mb) compared to all the other breeds. This is possibly due to recent consanguineous matings, a strong founder effect, and a lack of gene flow from other herds and breeds. We further examined whether the observed genetic patterns in the Kortegaard herd can be used to design breeding strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool by focusing on a subset of SNP outside homozygote regions. By calculating the pairwise identical-by-state between all possible matings, we designed a breeding plan that maximized heterozygosity in the short term. The benefits and limitations of such a breeding strategy are discussed. PMID:24671594

Pertoldi, C; Purfield, D C; Berg, P; Jensen, T H; Bach, O S; Vingborg, R; Kristensen, T N

2014-06-01

237

Partitioning additive genetic variance into genomic and remaining polygenic components for complex traits in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. Results The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44?K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker) and familial (pedigree) effects most (on average 77.2%) of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. Conclusions Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44?K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased) set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44?K is limited.

2012-01-01

238

Copy number variations of MICAL-L2 shaping gene expression contribute to different phenotypes of cattle.  

PubMed

Copy number variations (CNVs) recently have been recognized as an important source of genetic variability. Compelling evidence has indicated that CNVs are responsible for phenotypic traits by altering the copy numbers of functional genes. The molecule interacting with CasL-like protein 2 (MICAL-L2) gene plays a critical role in muscle fiber development and has been identified in the CNV region by comparative genomic hybridization array. In the present study, we detected the different distributions of MICAL-L2 gene copy numbers in four Chinese cattle breeds (QC, NY, LX, and CY) and investigated the functional effects of MICAL-L2 CNVs on the gene's expression level and the phenotypic traits in QC and NY cattle. The results showed that the copy number loss (relative to Angus cattle) was more frequent in CY than in the other breeds. The MICAL-L2 gene copy number presented a moderate negative correlation with the transcriptional expression in fetal skeletal muscles (P < 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed that the MICAL-L2 CNVs were significantly associated with body weight, body height, and body length of NY cattle in the early stages (6 and 12 months old), and the copy number loss showed better traits than the gain and/or median groups (P < 0.05). No significance was found at the late stages in QC (24 months old) and NY cattle (18 and 24 months old). These observations provided further insight into the associations between cattle CNVs and economic traits, suggesting that the CNVs may be considered promising markers for the molecular breeding of Chinese beef cattle. PMID:24196410

Xu, Yao; Zhang, Liangzhi; Shi, Tao; Zhou, Yang; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

2013-12-01

239

Determination of Genetic Diversity among Korean Hanwoo Cattle Based on Physical Characteristics  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to establish genetic criteria for phenotypic characteristics of Hanwoo cattle based on allele frequencies and genetic variance analysis using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genetic diversity among 399 Hanwoo cattle classified according to nose pigmentation and coat color was carried out using 22 microsatellite markers. The results revealed that the INRA035 locus was associated with the highest Fis (0.536). Given that the Fis value for the Hanwoo INRA035 population ranged from 0.533 (white) to 1.000 (white spotted), this finding was consistent with the loci being fixed in Hanwoo cattle. Expected heterozygosities of the Hanwoo groups classified by coat colors and degree of nose pigmentation ranged from 0.689±0.023 (Holstein) to 0.743±0.021 (nose pigmentation level of d). Normal Hanwoo and animals with a mixed white coat showed the closest relationship because the lowest DA value was observed between these groups. However, a pair-wise differentiation test of Fst showed no significant difference among the Hanwoo groups classified by coat color and degree of nose pigmentation (p<0.01). Moreover, results of the neighbor-joining tree based on a DA genetic distance matrix within 399 Hanwoo individuals and principal component analyses confirmed that different groups of cattle with mixed coat color and nose pigmentation formed other specific groups representing Hanwoo genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The results of this study support a relaxation of policies regulating bull selection or animal registration in an effort to minimize financial loss, and could provide basic information that can be used for establishing criteria to classify Hanwoo phenotypes.

Choi, T. J.; Lee, S. S.; Yoon, D. H.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, C. D.; Hwang, I. H.; Kim, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Yang, C. G.; Seo, K. S.

2012-01-01

240

Psoroptic Cattle Scabies Research: An Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Psoroptic cattle scabies is a dermatitis that causes harmful itching, crusting, scurfing, and depilitation. Psoroptes ovis mites are the specific cause of common scabies in cattle. A major reason for the inadequacy of formerly successful eradication progr...

1979-01-01

241

Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen causing respiratory disease, otitis media, arthritis, mastitis, and a variety of other diseases in cattle worldwide. It is increasingly recognized by the veterinary and livestock communities as having an important impact on the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy and beef cattle. M. bovis diseases can be difficult to diagnose and control because of inconsistent disease expression and response to treatments and vaccines, and large gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these diseases. There are limited data on which to base evidence-based decisions for treatment and control, and the literature contains differing clinical biases and opinions. This document is intended for veterinarians dealing with cattle and is focused on the cattle production systems of North America. The goal of the consensus statement panel was to encourage an evidence-based approach to M. bovis problems. The scientific literature was critically reviewed, including peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews obtained by database searches using the terms "Mycoplasma bovis" or "mycoplasma + cattle." Where other data were lacking, conference proceedings were reviewed as a source of expert opinion. PMID:21745245

Maunsell, F P; Woolums, A R; Francoz, D; Rosenbusch, R F; Step, D L; Wilson, D J; Janzen, E D

2011-01-01

242

Chinese Children's Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

Kwok, Irene, Comp.

243

Predicate Movements in Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

Shou-hsin, Teng

1975-01-01

244

Chinese by Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

Beem, Kate

2008-01-01

245

Clostridium botulinum in Cattle and Dairy Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and

Miia Lindström; Jan Myllykoski; Seppo Sivelä; Hannu Korkeala

2010-01-01

246

Competition, Bargaining Power, and the Cattle Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle production follows a dynamic cycle that has often been analyzed, and cattle markets receive much scrutiny because of the potential for buyer market power. The relationship between the two has been little studied, however. This paper provides a simple conceptual framework to study how the cattle cycle and market concentration jointly affect the bargaining power of producers and packers

John M. Crespi; Tian Xia; Rodney D. Jones

2008-01-01

247

Ground band properties of the Holstein molecular crystal model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we study the problem of a polaron, a mobile excitation (electron or exciton) together with its commoving lattice distortion. In particular, we focus on the local interaction of an excitation with an optical phonon mode described by an Einstein frequency, as in the Holstein molecular crystal model. Our approach embodies two points: (i) A confirmation of the scope and accuracy of the variational methods upon which this work is based, and comparison between the variational results and other modern and accurate techniques; (ii) The computation of several ground and "excited" properties that characterize rather completely the structure of the polaron. An important experimental observation is the rapid increase of the electron effective mass with increasing electron-phonon coupling, i.e., the so-called self-trapping transition. We characterize such behavior through different quantities, all of which find the transition to be well located by the simple relation gsb{st} =1+sqrt{J/hbaromega}, where gsb{st} is the electron-phonon coupling strength at the transition, J is the transfer integral, and hbaromega is the phonon quantum. The polaron in the parameter space (J/hbaromega,\\ g) is divided by this curve into a small polaron-like region above the curve and large polaron-like region below the curve. Studying the band edge curvature, a line indicating the onset of band narrowing can be defined that again divides the large polaron region into two parts, an intermediate regime, through which most band narrowing takes place, and the large polaron region, where the bandwidth is almost constant. The polaron radius is computed as the variance of the electron-phonon correlation function, from which we show that a specific almost universal function can be found to describe polaron radii in the adiabatic regime. The results of this thesis are not limited to one-dimensional systems or to the Holstein polaron; they can be extrapolated (at least qualitatively) to more complex polaron models. Our results suggest that the polaron structure and properties we have found should not change substantially as dimensionality is increased.

Romero, Aldo Humberto

248

Reliability of genomic evaluations in Holstein-Friesians using haplotypes based on the BovineHD BeadChip.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to make subsets of high-density (HD) loci based on localized haplotype clusters, without loss of genomic information, to reduce computing time compared with the use of all HD loci and to investigate the effect on the reliability of the direct genomic value (DGV) when using this HD subset based on localized haplotype clusters in the genomic evaluation for Holstein-Friesians. The DNA was isolated from semen samples of 548 bulls (key ancestors) of the EuroGenomics Consortium, a collaboration between 4 European dairy cattle breeding organizations and scientific partners. These bulls were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip [~777,000 (777K) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA] and used to impute all 30,483 Holstein-Friesians from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip [~50,000 (50K) SNP; Illumina Inc.] to HD, using the BEAGLE software package. The final data set consisted of 30,483 animals and 603,145 SNP. For each locus, localized haplotype clusters (i.e., edges of the fitted graph model) identifications were obtained from BEAGLE. Three subsets [38,000 (38K), 116,000 (116K), and 322,000 (322K) loci] were made based on deleting obsolete loci (i.e., loci that do not give extra information compared with the neighboring loci). A fourth data set was based on 38K SNP, which is currently used for routine genomic evaluation at the Cattle Improvement Cooperative (CRV, Arnhem, the Netherlands). A validation study using the HD loci subsets based on localized haplotype clusters was performed for 9 traits (production, conformation, and functional traits). Error of imputation from 50K to HD averaged 0.78%. Three thresholds (0.17, 0.05, and 0.008%) were used for the identification of obsolete HD loci based on localized haplotype clusters to obtain a desired number of HD loci (38K, 116K, and 322K). On average, 46% (using threshold 0.008%) to 93% (using threshold 0.17%) of HD loci were eliminated. The computing time was about 9 d for 38K loci, 15.5d for 116K loci, 21d for 322K loci, and 7.5 d for 38K SNP. The increase in reliability of DGV compared with pedigree-based estimated breeding values for kilograms of protein was similar for 322K and 116K loci (30.7%), but was 1.5 to 2% higher compared with 38K loci and 38K SNP. Averaged over 9 traits, subset 116K loci resulted in a higher increase in reliability compared with 38K loci and 38K SNP. Eliminating obsolete loci enormously decreased the amount of data to be analyzed for genomic evaluations. The more HD loci used in a genomic evaluation, the higher the increase in reliability of DGV. It is possible to increase the reliability of DGV by 1 to 2% compared with the SNP currently used for routine genomic evaluation. PMID:24140319

Schopen, G C B; Schrooten, C

2013-12-01

249

Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

Lau, Sing, Ed.

250

Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multi-breed dairy cattle populations  

PubMed Central

Background Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1) the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV), and 2) prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we investigate the accuracies of GEBV in Holstein dairy cattle and Jersey dairy cattle when the reference population is single breed or multi-breed. The accuracies were obtained both as a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix and from the realised accuracies of GEBV. Methods Best linear unbiased prediction with a multi-breed genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) and two Bayesian methods (BAYESA and BAYES_SSVS) which estimate individual SNP effects were used to predict GEBV for 400 and 77 young Holstein and Jersey bulls respectively, from a reference population of 781 and 287 Holstein and Jersey bulls, respectively. Genotypes of 39,048 SNP markers were used. Phenotypes in the reference population were de-regressed breeding values for production traits. For the GBLUP method, expected accuracies calculated from the diagonal of the inverse of coefficient matrix were compared to realised accuracies. Results When GBLUP was used, expected accuracies from a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix agreed reasonably well with realised accuracies calculated from the correlation between GEBV and EBV in single breed populations, but not in multi-breed populations. When the Bayesian methods were used, realised accuracies of GEBV were up to 13% higher when the multi-breed reference population was used than when a pure breed reference was used. However no consistent increase in accuracy across traits was obtained. Conclusion Predicting genomic breeding values using a genomic relationship matrix is an attractive approach to implement genomic selection as expected accuracies of GEBV can be readily derived. However in multi-breed populations, Bayesian approaches give higher accuracies for some traits. Finally, multi-breed reference populations will be a valuable resource to fine map QTL.

2009-01-01

251

Identification and Dissection of Four Major QTL Affecting Milk Fat Content in the German Holstein-Friesian Population  

PubMed Central

Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP) in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF) population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs) for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P?=?8.91×10?198) and BTA20 (P?=?7.03×10?12) within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P?=?2.00×10?13) and BTA27 (P?=?9.83×10?5) encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P?=?1.40×10?12) and GPAT4 (P?=?5.18×10?5), respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle.

Pausch, Hubert; Jung, Simone; Reinhardt, Friedrich; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Fries, Ruedi

2012-01-01

252

Sudden death of feedlot cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Sudden,deaths,or the,sudden,death syndrome,are perceived,as major,concerns,in cattle feedlots because,most,of these,deaths,occur,in cattle near,market,weight. Etiology and,preventive,meas- ures,are poorly,defined. The current,literature,indi- cates,that,sudden,deaths,are,associated,most,com- monly,with,digestive,upsets. Death,is thought,to be the,result,of interactions,between,factors,including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are,specifically,defined,but,relatively,uncommon. Enterotoxemia,is of questionable,significance,as,a cause,of sudden,deaths. Key Words: Death, Feedlots, Cattle, Acidosis, Bloat, Clostridium ©1998 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.,J.

R. D. Glock; B. D. DeGroot; Bud Britton

253

Evidence for cattle major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) class II DQA1 gene heterozygote advantage against clinical mastitis caused by Streptococci and Escherichia species.  

PubMed

Mastitis is an inflammatory response of the mammary gland to irritation, injury, or infectious agents and is a major problem in the dairy industry. We genotyped bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1 genes in 120 Holstein cattle with clinical mastitis and 85 randomly selected Holstein cattle in Japan by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing. The mastitis cattle were divided into four groups according to the bacterial species that caused the mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, Escherichia, and coagulase-negative staphylococci). The BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1 heterozygosity of each group was compared with that of the control cattle, while the expected heterozygosities based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions and the observed heterozygosities for each locus were compared for each group. The Escherichia-induced and Streptococci-induced mastitis groups showed significant differences between their expected and observed heterozygosities with regard to their BoLA-DQA1 genes. No differences were observed for any group with regard to the BoLA-DRB3 genes. We then found that two BoLA-DQA1 alleles promoted susceptibility to Streptococci-induced mastitis, namely BoLA-DQA1*0101 and BoLA-DQA1*10012 and that the homozygous BoLA-DQA1*0101/0101 and BoLA-DQA1*10011/10011 genotypes promoted susceptibility to mastitis caused by Streptococci and Escherichia, respectively. This is the first report showing that heterozygosity of the BoLA-DQA1 gene is associated with resistance to mastitis progression. PMID:19000149

Takeshima, S; Matsumoto, Y; Chen, J; Yoshida, T; Mukoyama, H; Aida, Y

2008-12-01

254

Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2.  

PubMed

The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10(-4)) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

2013-01-01

255

A genome-wide scan for signatures of differential artificial selection in ten cattle breeds  

PubMed Central

Background Since the times of domestication, cattle have been continually shaped by the influence of humans. Relatively recent history, including breed formation and the still enduring enormous improvement of economically important traits, is expected to have left distinctive footprints of selection within the genome. The purpose of this study was to map genome-wide selection signatures in ten cattle breeds and thus improve the understanding of the genome response to strong artificial selection and support the identification of the underlying genetic variants of favoured phenotypes. We analysed 47,651 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). Results We set the significance thresholds using the maximum XP-EHH values of two essentially artificially unselected breeds and found up to 229 selection signatures per breed. Through a confirmation process we verified selection for three distinct phenotypes typical for one breed (polledness in Galloway, double muscling in Blanc-Bleu Belge and red coat colour in Red Holstein cattle). Moreover, we detected six genes strongly associated with known QTL for beef or dairy traits (TG, ABCG2, DGAT1, GH1, GHR and the Casein Cluster) within selection signatures of at least one breed. A literature search for genes lying in outstanding signatures revealed further promising candidate genes. However, in concordance with previous genome-wide studies, we also detected a substantial number of signatures without any yet known gene content. Conclusions These results show the power of XP-EHH analyses in cattle to discover promising candidate genes and raise the hope of identifying phenotypically important variants in the near future. The finding of plausible functional candidates in some short signatures supports this hope. For instance, MAP2K6 is the only annotated gene of two signatures detected in Galloway and Gelbvieh cattle and is already known to be associated with carcass weight, back fat thickness and marbling score in Korean beef cattle. Based on the confirmation process and literature search we deduce that XP-EHH is able to uncover numerous artificial selection targets in subpopulations of domesticated animals.

2013-01-01

256

Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.  

PubMed

Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

2014-09-01

257

Chronic cystic ovarian disease in a Holstein cow.  

PubMed

Cystic ovarian follicles are commonly found during rectal examination of early postpartum dairy cows, usually presenting with anoestrus and occasionally nymphomania. Most cases self cure with time, or respond to exogenous hormonal treatment. This case report describes a refractory case in a Holstein cow in which a novel treatment approach was used. A gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist implant was inserted for 180 d in an attempt to suppress pituitary gonadotrophin output, arrest abnormal ovarian follicle growth and prevent steroidogenesis. Frequent serial blood samples were collected before and after implant insertion to monitor changes in pulse release of luteinising hormone. Follow up ultrasound scans and blood samples were done to monitor ovarian structures; progesterone and oestradiol were collected at various times over the 180 d period. A normal, cycling herdmate was enrolled as a control. Prior to implant insertion, high frequency and low amplitude luteinising hormone pulses were detected in the cystic cow. Insertion was followed by a sustained surge in the release of luteinising hormone in both cows, but ovulation was not induced in the cystic cow. Plasma oestradiol levels remained consistently elevated and signs of oestrous behaviour were observed. Long term gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist treatment failed to suppress either ovarian steroid production or cause regression of the cysts by 180 d. PMID:15971820

Padula, A M; Macmillan, K L

2005-01-01

258

Delocalized Davydov D1 Ansatz for the Holstein polaron.  

PubMed

An efficient, yet very accurate trial wave function, constructed from projecting the well-known Davydov D1 Ansatz onto momentum eigenstates, is employed to study the ground state properties of the generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal coupling. Ground-state energies have been obtained with a precision matching that of the computationally much more demanding density-matrix renormalization group method. The delocalized D1 Ansatz lowers the ground-state energies at the Brillouin zone boundary significantly compared with the Toyozawa and Global-Local Ansa?tze in the weak coupling regime, while considerable improvement is demonstrated to have been achieved over the entire Brillouin zone in the strong coupling regime. Unique solutions are obtained with the delocalized D1 for different initial conditions when the transfer integral is 20 times the phonon frequency at the zone center, implying the absence of any self-trapping discontinuity. The scaled correlation variance is found to fit satisfactorily well with the predictions of the perturbation theories. PMID:23656123

Sun, Jin; Duan, Liwei; Zhao, Yang

2013-05-01

259

Proteomics of cauda epididymal fluid from mature Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

The proteome of cauda epididymal fluid (CEF) from Holstein bulls was defined. Fluid was collected from the vas deferens, subjected to 2-D SDS-PAGE and spots identified by CapLC-MS/MS and MALDI-ToF/ToF. Because albumin accounted for 21.1% of all spot intensities in the gels examined by PDQuest, samples were subjected to albumin depletion and then analyzed again as before. Original CEF gels had 114 ± 3 spots, including as the most abundant: albumin, epididymal secretory protein E1, prostaglandin d-synthase and gelsolin. Epididymal fluid also expressed: clusterin, transferrin, N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase, cauxin, glutathione peroxidase, acidic seminal fluid protein (aSFP), aldehyde reductase, ?-l-fucosidase, ?-1-?-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A-1, ? actin, calmodulin, cathepsin D, cystatin E/M, enolase, galectin 3-binding protein, leucine amino-peptidase and nucleobindin. Albumin depletion decreased that very spot to 10% of its original intensity and the resulting gels had, on average, 137 ± 4 spots. Spots identified as dipeptidyl-peptidase 7, angiotensin-converting enzyme, arylsulfatase A, aspartylglucosaminidase, serine protease inhibitors, new isoforms of calmodulin, cystatin E/M and a 17-kDa nucleobindin appeared only in depleted maps. This study is the first to report nucleobindin and aSFP as epididymal components. We suggest that CEF proteins act to facilitate membrane remodeling, transport of lipophilic substances, protect sperm and prevent premature acrosome reaction. PMID:20601273

Moura, Arlindo A; Souza, Carlos E; Stanley, Bruce A; Chapman, David A; Killian, Gary J

2010-09-10

260

Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.  

PubMed

Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

1981-05-01

261

Immunisation against ringworm in cattle.  

PubMed

Immunisation against dermatomycoses in cattle was introduced in Gausdal, Norway, in 1979. A programme was implemented in which a six-year period of mandatory vaccination of all cattle was followed by vaccination on a voluntary basis. The prevalence of infected herds fell from 70 per cent in 1979 to 0 per cent in 1987. During the last five years, no newly infected herds have been registered in Gausdal. Proper disinfection of premises, the isolation of infected animals and other hygienic measures contributed to the successful result. PMID:2017854

Gudding, R; Naess, B; Aamodt, O

1991-01-26

262

Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) genes in cattle breeds.  

PubMed

DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds. PMID:22888292

Lourenco-Jaramillo, Diana Lelidett; Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María; Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; de la Rosa-Reyna, Xochitl Fabiola; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Arellano-Vera, Williams

2012-04-01

263

The genome response to artificial selection: a case study in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated F(ST) within and across the three breeds for each SNP under a pure drift model. We further considered two different strategies to evaluate the effect of selection at the genome level. First, smoothing F(ST) values over each chromosome with a local variable bandwidth kernel estimator allowed identifying 13 highly significant regions subjected to strong and/or recent positive selection. Some of them contained genes within which causal variants with strong effect on milk production traits (GHR) or coloration (MC1R) have already been reported. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the F(ST) value of SNPs localized close or within them. To that end we performed a comprehensive network analysis which suggested a central role of somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in the response to selection. Altogether, these observations shed light on the antagonism, at the genome level, between milk production and reproduction traits in highly producing dairy cows. PMID:19672461

Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Sébastien; Jaffrézic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Gautier, Mathieu

2009-01-01

264

Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) genes in cattle breeds  

PubMed Central

DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds.

Lourenco-Jaramillo, Diana Lelidett; Sifuentes-Rincon, Ana Maria; Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; de la Rosa-Reyna, Xochitl Fabiola; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Arellano-Vera, Williams

2012-01-01

265

Lumpy skin disease of cattle: an emerging problem in the Sultanate of Oman.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus belonging to the Capripoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. The purpose of this study is to place on record the first confirmation of LSD in the Sultanate. The disease was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy and serum neutralization testing. The epizootic occurred in 2009 involving a large number of animals and covering a wide area including Nezwa, Alqabel, Sohar, Saham and Burimi. Morbidity and mortality rates of 29.7 and 26.3 %, and 13.6 and 15.4 % were observed at Nezwa and Sohar, respectively. The clinical signs were much more severe in Holstein-Friesian cattle compared to indigenous breeds and were characterized by multiple skin nodules covering the neck, back, perineum, tail, limbs and genital organs. Affected animals also exhibited lameness, emaciation and cessation of milk production. Oedema of limbs and brisket, and superficial lymph node enlargement were highly prominent. It is not known from where the virus originated, or how it spread to the Sultanate. The disease has become endemic in the country and is liable to extend to other Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and cause a pandemic. It is of major concern to the Omani dairy industry. Due to the widespread presence of screw worm, serious economic losses can follow outbreaks. PMID:24097247

Tageldin, Mohamed Hassan; Wallace, David Brian; Gerdes, Gertruida Hermanna; Putterill, John Fraser; Greyling, Roelf Rudolph; Phosiwa, Maanda Noaxe; Al Busaidy, Rashied Mohammed; Al Ismaaily, Sultan Issa

2014-01-01

266

Mango tree pruning hay in substitution of elephant grass in cattle diet.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 %) of elephant grass by hay of mango tree pruning (HMTP) on intake and digestibility in cattle and on the in vitro gas production. Moreover, the effect of tannin in HMTP on the gas production and in vitro degradability of the dry matter was evaluated, using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The intake and digestibility were evaluated in a double 4 × 4 square Latin design, using eight Holstein intact bulls. To evaluate the gas production and degradability, in vitro semi-automated gas production technique was used. The substitution of elephant grass by HMTP decreased the intake (P<0.05) and the digestibility (P<0.05) of the nutrients and also the gas production (P<0.05). Furthermore, the utilization of PEG as a tannin-complexing agent increased the gas production and degradability of the HMTP (P<0.05). It was concluded that the high cell wall lignification and the presence of tannin limit the use of HMTP as the only source of roughage in cattle diets. PMID:23212837

de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Fernando Santos; de Souza Wanderley, Carlos Wagner; Neto, Alvaro Santos Lisboa

2013-04-01

267

Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle  

PubMed Central

A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption.

Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

2007-01-01

268

Soil ingestion by dairy cattle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral ...

R. Darwin

1990-01-01

269

Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

270

Bryophyllum pinnatum poisoning of cattle.  

PubMed

Two adult cattle died within 48 h of being fed a large amount of Bryophyllum pinnatum plants collected from a house garden. Clinical signs became apparent the day after feeding and included hypersalivation, ataxia, severe cardiac arrhythmia and laboured respiration. The main necropsy findings were acute rumenitis, reduction of bronchiolar lumens and emphysema. PMID:8929190

Reppas, G P

1995-11-01

271

Rating Cattle for Physical Condition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amply illustrated instructional booklet explains a 7-point scale for rating the physical condition of cattle. Ratings are based on an animal's finish (degree of fatness) and fleshing (degree of natural flesh and muscle) and use the common names of the...

G. Wellington

1981-01-01

272

Chinese Air Quality  

Chinese Air Quality Project Title:  GTE Discipline:  ... Aerosols Platform:  Ground based Instrument:  in situ Location:  North Western Pacific ... Web Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Air Pollution Index Order Data:  Data Pool:  Order Data ...

2014-07-23

273

Chinese Medical Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: High tibial osteotomy; An investigation of digoxin radioimmunoassay; Comparative studies on the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-gossypol in 4 animal species; Maldimelsu antimicrobial activities; Pharmacognostic study of the Chinese...

1980-01-01

274

Theory of charge transport in organic crystals: Beyond Holstein's small-polaron model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theory for charge transport in organic crystals. A mobility expression is derived based on the evaluation of the Kubo formula and the Holstein Hamiltonian. It covers the whole temperature range from low T , where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T , where it generalizes Holstein’s small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T , for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus’ electron transfer theory is obtained. The general expression treats coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping on equal footing. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons.

Ortmann, Frank; Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Hannewald, Karsten

2009-06-01

275

Psychiatry and Chinese Culture  

PubMed Central

When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed.

Lin, Tsung-Yi

1983-01-01

276

Effect of Feed Additives on Digestibility and Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Fed Wet Brewer Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aguilera-Soto J.I., Ramirez, R.G., Arechiga, C.F., Mendez-Llorente, F., Lopez-Carlos, M.A., Pińa-Flores J.A., Medina-Flores C.A., Rodriguez-Frausto, H., Rodriguez-Tenorio, D. and Gutierrez-Bańuelos, H. 2009. Effect of feed additives on digestibility and performance of Holstein cows fed wet brewers grains. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 36: 227–230.To evaluate different feed additives in cows fed wet brewer's grain, 5 ruminal-cannulated Holstein cows (470±45 kg; 18±3

J. I. Aguilera-Soto; R. G. Ramirez; C. F. Arechiga; F. Mendez-Llorente; M. A. Lopez-Carlos; J. A. Pińa-Flores; C. A. Medina-Flores; H. Rodríguez-Frausto; D. Rodríguez-Tenorio; H. Gutiérrez-Bańuelos

2009-01-01

277

Spectral properties of the 2D Holstein t-J model  

SciTech Connect

Employing the Lanczos algorithm in combination with a kernel polynomial moment expansion (KPM) and the maximum entropy method (MEM), we show a way of calculating charge and spin excitations in the Holstein t-J model, including the full quantum nature of phonons. To analyze polaron band formation we evaluate the hole spectral function for a wide range of electron-phonon coupling strengths. For the first time, we present results for the optical conductivity of the 2D Holstein t-J model.

Fehske, H.; Wellein, G.; Bauml, B. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Physics Inst.; Silver, R.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31

278

Description of thoracoscopy and associated short-term cardiovascular and pulmonary effects in healthy cattle.  

PubMed

Objective-To describe the optimal thoracoscopic approach to the bovine pleural cavity and evaluate the short-term effects of thoracoscopy on cardiovascular and pulmonary function of healthy cattle. Sample-6 healthy adult Holstein cows (12 hemithoraxes). Procedures-For each cow, thoracoscopy was performed in both the left and right hemithoraxes with a 24-hour interval between procedures. Cows were sedated and restrained in a standing position for each thoracoscopic examination. Examination of each hemithorax lasted for 30 minutes. Arterial blood gas variables, heart rate, and respiratory rate were assessed at predetermined times before, during, and after the procedures to monitor cardiovascular and pulmonary function. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed immediately and at 24 hours and 1 week after each thorascopic examination to evaluate the extent of residual pneumothorax. Results-Insertion of the laparoscope into the pleural cavity at the ninth intercostal space 15 cm ventral to the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae provided optimal visibility of structures in both the left and right hemithoraxes. Most structures of the pleural cavity were equally visible from both sides except the esophagus and the dorsal branch of the vagus nerve, which were best observed in the left hemithorax, and the pericardium, which was best observed in the right hemithorax. Mild increases in heart and respiratory rates and moderate decreases in arterial oxygen saturation and Pao2 were detected during the procedures. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Standing thoracoscopy was well tolerated in healthy adult dairy cattle and needs to be evaluated in cattle with pulmonary disease. PMID:24762019

Michaux, Hélčne; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Francoz, David

2014-05-01

279

9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

2014-01-01

280

9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

2012-01-01

281

9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...

2011-01-01

282

Milk fatty acid profiles in Holstein dairy cows fed diets based on corn stover or mixed forage.  

PubMed

In this study the influence of modulated concentrate-to-roughage ratio on the fatty acid profile of milk fat was investigated in dairy cows. Therefore, corn stover was compared with better-quality roughages. Two groups of in total 24 Holstein dairy cows (136 ± 37 days in milk) received either a high-forage diet (Diet MF, forage-to-concentrate ratio [F:C] = 60:40) with alfalfa hay, corn silage and Chinese wild rye as forage sources, or a low-forage diet with corn stover as forage source (Diet CS, F: C = 40:60) for an experimental period of nine weeks. During the study, milk yield as well content and fatty acid profiles of milk fat were examined. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield and milk fat content, whereas dry matter intake (p < 0.01) and milk fat yield (p < 0.05) were higher for Diet MF than for Diet CS. Compared with Diet CS, feeding Diet MF increased the daily intake of total unsaturated fatty acids and the C18:0 and C18:3 contents (p < 0.01) in milk fat, whereas the total content of fatty acids <16C was decreased (p < 0.05). No influence on total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk was observed. The ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat to its daily intake was substantially lower for Diet MF compared with Diet CS, suggesting that the high proportion of roughage resulted in a high rate of biohydrogenation in the rumen. PMID:24422608

Han, Rongwei; Zheng, Nan; Zhang, Yangdong; Zhao, Xiaowei; Bu, Dengpan; An, Pengpeng; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shimin; Wang, Jiaqi

2014-01-01

283

Apparent thiamin status of cattle and its relationship to polioencephalomalacia.  

PubMed Central

The thiamin status (thiamin concentration in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes; erythrocyte transketolase activity) of normal cattle consuming varying diets did not differ from that of cattle with polioencephalomalacia or lead poisoning. Dairy cattle had higher ruminal content of thiamin and lower thiamin destroying activity than did beef cattle. Renal oxalosis was no more frequent in cattle which had polioencephalomalacia than in postnatal calves. In normal beef cattle, approximately 75% of total blood thiamin is in erythrocytes and the remainder in plasma.

Loew, F M; Bettany, J M; Halifax, C E

1975-01-01

284

[Mycozoonoses with special regard to ringworm of cattle].  

PubMed

Ringworm of cattle is nearly exclusively caused by Trichophyton verrucosum. This skin disease is worldwide present in cattle and is responsible for high economic losses in cattle farming. T. verrucosum may also be responsible for severe skin diseases in man. For economic and epidemiological causes a control of ringworm in cattle is still necessary. Preventive measures consist in hygiene and vaccination of cattle with live vaccines against ringworm in cattle. PMID:11098622

Weber, A

2000-01-01

285

Prediction of breed composition in an admixed cattle population.  

PubMed

Swiss Fleckvieh was established in 1970 as a composite of Simmental (SI) and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF) cattle. Breed composition is currently reported based on pedigree information. Information on a large number of molecular markers potentially provides more accurate information. For the analysis, we used Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip data for 90 pure SI, 100 pure RHF and 305 admixed bulls. The scope of the study was to compare the performance of hidden Markov models, as implemented in structure software, with methods conventionally used in genomic selection [BayesB, partial least squares regression (PLSR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variable selection)] for predicting breed composition. We checked the performance of algorithms for a set of 40 492 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), subsets of evenly distributed SNPs and subsets with different allele frequencies in the pure populations, using F(ST) as an indicator. Key results are correlations of admixture levels estimated with the various algorithms with admixture based on pedigree information. For the full set, PLSR, BayesB and structure performed in a very similar manner (correlations of 0.97), whereas the correlation of LASSO and pedigree admixture was lower (0.93). With decreasing number of SNPs, correlations decreased substantially only for 5% or 1% of all SNPs. With SNPs chosen according to F(ST) , results were similar to results obtained with the full set. Only when using 96 and 48 SNPs with the highest F(ST) , correlations dropped to 0.92 and 0.90 respectively. Reducing the number of pure animals in training sets to 50, 20 and 10 each did not cause a drop in the correlation with pedigree admixture. PMID:23061480

Frkonja, A; Gredler, B; Schnyder, U; Curik, I; Sölkner, J

2012-12-01

286

The relationship between cattle and savings: A cattle?owner perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Dryharts area in the Taung district of Bophuthatswana, the advantages and disadvantages of keeping cattle are explored using a cattle?owner perspective. It is argued that storing wealth in the form of cattle is a rational investment decision. This has certain implications for strategies aimed at conservation of grazing resources. While providing rural inhabitants with alternative forms

M. I. Schmidt

1992-01-01

287

The study of the SNP in the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (exon 2) and milk production traits in cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was estimate the relations between CRH C22G and milk production traits (milk yield, yield of protein and fat, content of protein and fat in milk). The study was carried on 169 Polish Holstein-Friesian strain Red-and-White cows kept in the south-western region of Poland. The CRH C22G (exon 2) polymorphisms were detected using PCR-RFLP method. The genotype and allele frequencies were estimated and they were as follows: CC - 0.89, CG - 0.09, GG - 0.02; C - 0.93, G - 0.07. Statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) associations between CRH C22G genotypes and milk production traits like milk yield and protein yield in the second lactation were found. Moreover, the obtained results should be verified by conducting research on a larger group of animals and various cattle breeds. PMID:22830260

Kowalewska-Luczak, I; Wachelko, B; Kulig, H

2012-05-01

288

Is it Harder to Parse Chinese, or the Chinese Treebank?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed investigation of the challenges posed when applying parsing models developed against English corpora to Chinese. We develop a factored-model statistical parser for the Penn Chinese Treebank, showing the implications of gross statistical differences between WSJ and Chinese Tree-banks for the most general methods of parser adaptation. We then provide a detailed analysis of the major sources

Roger Levy; Christopher D. Manning

2003-01-01

289

Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R

1977-03-01

290

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

291

Appraisal of interpretation criteria for the comparative intradermal tuberculin test for diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle in central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Accurate detection and removal of infected cattle, using immunodiagnostic tests such as the comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, are the basis of control strategies for bovine tuberculosis (TB). According to the Office des Internationale Epizooties recommendation, the cutoff point for positivity of the CIDT test, calculated as the difference between skin thicknesses after bovine tuberculin (B) and avian tuberculin (A) injections (B - A), is >4 mm. This cutoff point is used worldwide, although it is likely that local conditions influence test performance. Thus, this study was formulated to determine CIDT test cutoff points applicable to cattle in central Ethiopia. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for the CIDT test, using data from 186 Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos taurus (Holstein) cattle. Detailed postmortem examination for the presence of TB lesions was used to define disease status. At a cutoff of >2 mm, CIDT test sensitivity was 69% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 58.5 to 79%), while it was 59% (95% CI, 49 to 69%) at a cutoff of >4 mm. In contrast, specificities of the CIDT test at these two cutoff values were identical, at 97% (95% CI, 89 to 100%). Thus, the maximum sensitivity of the CIDT test can be realized using a >2-mm cutoff without affecting specificity. The apparent prevalence was significantly (chi(2) = 13.56; P < 0.001) higher at a cutoff of >2 mm (16.0%; n = 5,424) than at a >4-mm cutoff (13.5%; n = 5,424). Nonetheless, no significant difference (chi(2) = 2.15; P = 0.14) in true prevalence was observed at a cutoff of >2 mm (19.6%) and at a cutoff of >4 mm (18.5%). Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of defining local, relevant cutoff values to maximize test sensitivity, and we suggest the application of the >2-mm cutoff for testing of cattle in central Ethiopia. PMID:18495847

Ameni, Gobena; Hewinson, Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas; Vordermeier, Martin

2008-08-01

292

A fatal case of complicated congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a Holstein calf.  

PubMed

Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition most commonly reported in cats and dogs. A 6-week-old Holstein heifer calf with a congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia complicated by a perforated abomasal ulcer is described. The clinical signs and pathological findings are compared with those reported in other species. PMID:24155464

Hicks, Keltie A; Britton, Ann P

2013-07-01

293

Supplemental Fat and Nicotinic Acid for Holstein Cows During an Entire Lactation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this experiment were to deter- mine long-term responses to supplemental fat (from whole soybeans and liquid animal fat) and to deter- mine whether the supplementation of nicotinic acid would enhance milk protein content or yield. From wk 4 through 43 postpartum, 44 multiparous Holstein cows (10 to 12 per treatment) were assigned to one of four dietary

J. K. Drackley; D. W. LaCount; J. P. Elliott; T. H. Klusmeyer; T. R. Overton; J. H. Clark; S. A. Blum

1998-01-01

294

Ovarian follicular development following administration of progesterone or aspiration of ovarian follicles in holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of administration of a single injection of progesterone (P4) and follicle aspiration on Day 7 of the estrous cycle on the timing and synchrony of follicular wave emergence, time of ovulation, and concentrations of P4, estradiol and FSH in Holstein cows. Twenty cows were assigned to 4 groups (n=5 cows

J. Cavalieri; P. W. Farin; J. E. Kinder; S. D. Van Camp; M. D. Whitacre; S. P. Washburn; J. H. Britt

2001-01-01

295

Effect of ultrasonically-guided follicle aspiration on estrous cycle and follicular dynamics in Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of ultrasonically-guided follicle aspiration on estrous cycle and follicular dynamics in Holstein cows. The objective of the first experiment was to determine if aspiration of all visible follicles would influence the estrous cycle. All visible follicles ? 5 mm in diameter were punctured and the oocytes aspirated once during the second and

R. B. Stubbings; J. S. Walton

1995-01-01

296

Properties of the moving Holstein large polaron in one-dimensional molecular crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of the moving large polaron are investigated within Holstein's molecular crystal model. The necessity to account for the phonon dispersion is emphasized and its impact on polaron properties is examined in detail. It was found that the large polaron dynamics is described by the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The character of its solutions is determined by the degree

Zoran Vosika; Zeljko Przulj; Ljupco Hadzievski; Zoran Ivic

2009-01-01

297

Dry Matter Intake and Blood Parameters of Nonlactating Holstein and Jersey Cows in Late Gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted using 14 multiparous Holstein and 14 multiparous Jersey cows to determine if dry matter intake (DMI), specifically the decline in prepartum DMI and plasma parameters differed be- tween breeds. Cows were blocked by expected calving date and received a dry cow total mixed ration (15% crude protein and 39% neutral detergent fiber) begin- ning 30 d

P. D. French

2006-01-01

298

Ruminal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal can- nulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mes- enteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG). Each cow re- ceived 2 treatments: control (no infusion) and infusion of 650 g of PG into the rumen at

N. B. Kristensen; B. M. L. Raun

2007-01-01

299

Short communication Effects of dietary urea levels on milk protein fractions of Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting soybean meal for urea on milk protein fractions (casein, whey protein and non-protein nitrogen) of dairy cows in three dietary lev- els. Nine mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement, composed of 3 treatments, 3 periods of 21 days each, and 3

A. A. Aquino; Y. V. R. Lima; B. G. Botaro; C. S. S. Alberto; K. C. Peixoto Jr; M. V. Santos

300

Interrelationships Between Production and Reproductive Diseases in Holstein Cows. Conditional Relationships Between Production and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

By methods of conditional odds ratio with a set of 2960 Holstein lactation records, relationships between occurrences of disease in a lactation were examined. There were strong positive relationships between retained placenta and metritis and between cystic follicle and luteal cyst. Interaction was among dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis and among retained placenta, cystic follicle, and luteal cyst. Metritis was

H. N. Erb; S. W. Martin; N. Ison; S. Swaminathan

1981-01-01

301

A fatal case of complicated congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a Holstein calf  

PubMed Central

Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition most commonly reported in cats and dogs. A 6-week-old Holstein heifer calf with a congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia complicated by a perforated abomasal ulcer is described. The clinical signs and pathological findings are compared with those reported in other species.

Hicks, Keltie A.; Britton, Ann P.

2013-01-01

302

Relationship of Temperature and Humidity to Conception Rate of Holstein Cows in Hawaii1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather data and breeding records for a Holstein herd of 1300 cows in Hawaii were evaluated to determine effects of climate on reproductive performance. The dairy is in a coastal climate near latitude 21°N. Average maximum temper- ature, relative humidity, and resulting temperature-humidity index for the warmest month of the year were 31 C, 44%, and 79. Average minimum tempera-

R. H. Ingraham; R. W. Stanley; W. C. Wagner

1976-01-01

303

Relationship of Temperature and Humidity to Conception Rate of Holstein Cows in Subtropical Climate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conception rates of a Holstein dairy herd near Culiacan on the west coast of Mexico were evaluated with respect to the average temperature-humidity index of the 2 days prior to breeding, the day of breeding, and the day following breed- ing. Average daily index for 3 yr ranged from 62 to 86. Average daily ambient temperature and relative humiditv for

R. H. Ingraham; D. D. Gillette; W. D. Wagner

1974-01-01

304

Portomesenteric venous gas in a 2-week-old Holstein calf  

PubMed Central

A 2-week-old Holstein Friesian female calf was presented with profuse diarrhea and abdominal distension. Clinicopathological findings included marked hypoproteinemia, hypoglycemia and leucopenia, mild hyperlactatemia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. On abdominal ultrasonography, features were consistent with portomesenteric venous gas (PVG), a rare condition reported in the medical literature. The PVG in this calf was associated with severe gastrointestinal illness and sepsis.

Hirsch, Gaelle; Silva, Goncalo; zur Linden, Alex; Needham, Hank; Arroyo, Luis G.

2013-01-01

305

Short communication: hair cortisol concentrations in Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers by analysis of the cortisol concentrations in hair samples. Cortisol, the primary hormone of the HPA axis, is the biological endpoint for the investigation of the HPA response. The study was conducted on 290 prepubertal heifers; 142 heifers were pure Holstein-Friesian and 148 were crossbreed F1 heifers obtained from the 3-way rotational system with Swedish Red and Montbéliarde breeds. Extraction was performed on the hair using methanol, and cortisol concentrations were determined by a radioimmunoassay method. Cortisol concentrations measured in regrown hair of crossbreed F1 heifers were significantly lower than those in hair of Holstein-Friesian heifers. This result helps us to better understand the differences in HPA activity and allostatic load between Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers and allows us to better assess the adaptability of these animals to the environment and the importance of crossbreed traits for profitability in dairy farming. PMID:23522680

Peric, T; Comin, A; Corazzin, M; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Campanile, G; Prandi, A

2013-05-01

306

Cellular conditions for intramuscular fat deposition in Japanese Black and Holstein steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted to study the development of intramuscular fat in Japanese Black (JB) compared to Holstein (HS) steers and to find breed differences for fat depot development and distribution in the carcass under equal feeding conditions. Additional to slaughter samples, biopsy samples of longissimus muscle (LM) and subcutaneous fat, taken at 10, 14, 18, and 22months of age,

E. Albrecht; T. Gotoh; F. Ebara; J. X. Xu; T. Viergutz; G. Nürnberg; S. Maak; J. Wegner

2011-01-01

307

Environmental, Management, and Genetic Factors Affecting Semen Production in Holstein Bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of environment, management, physiologi- cal status, and genetics on semen quality (volume of the ejaculate, sperm concentration, sperm motility, number of sperm, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate) of Canadian Holstein bulls. For this purpose, semen production data from 198 bulls were analyzed using mixed linear models. Young bulls

M. Mathevon; M. M. Buhr; J. C. M. Dekkers

1998-01-01

308

Use of date palm leaves in high concentrate diets for lactating Friesian and Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two production experiments of 12 weeks duration, beginning in week 5 of lactation, were conducted in Kuwait with lactating Friesian and Holstein cows offered a high concentrate diet together with freshly cut alfalfa and either barley straw or shredded senescent date palm leaflets (DPL). Milk yields, milk composition and live weight gains of cows given either DPL or barley straw

A. M. Bahman; J. H. Topps; J. A. Rooke

1997-01-01

309

Effect of Feeding Method on Nonnutritive Oral Activities in Holstein Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty Holstein heifer calves were assigned to be fed whole milk from either bucket, bucket with pacifier, nipple bottle, or nipple bottle with pacifier. The pacifier was a nursing bottle with an unperforated nipple. Calves were housed in individual hutches and fed twice daily. Calves were 3 d of age at first observation and were observed biweekly until 42 d

M. B. Kopp; T. H. Friend; G. R. Dellmeier

1986-01-01

310

Trends in Reproductive Performance in Southeastern Holstein and Jersey DHI Herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in average days open and services per concep- tion from 1976 to 1999 were examined in 532 Holstein and 29 Jersey herds from 10 Southeastern states. Three-year averages for eight intervals (time) were cal- culated (first: 1976 to 1978; eighth: 1997 to 1999). Milk, fat, fat-corrected milk, and number of cows increased across time. Herds of both breeds had

S. P. Washburn; W. J. Silvia; C. H. Brown; B. T. McDaniel; A. J. McAllister

2002-01-01

311

Portomesenteric venous gas in a 2-week-old Holstein calf.  

PubMed

A 2-week-old Holstein Friesian female calf was presented with profuse diarrhea and abdominal distension. Clinicopathological findings included marked hypoproteinemia, hypoglycemia and leucopenia, mild hyperlactatemia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. On abdominal ultrasonography, features were consistent with portomesenteric venous gas (PVG), a rare condition reported in the medical literature. The PVG in this calf was associated with severe gastrointestinal illness and sepsis. PMID:24155417

Hirsch, Gaelle; Silva, Goncalo; zur Linden, Alex; Needham, Hank; Arroyo, Luis G

2013-10-01

312

Effect of Protein on Nutrient Digestion and Milk Production by Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four multiparious Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to as- sess effects of increasing dietary protein on ruminal blood and duodenal traits, milk production, and nutrient digestion. Protein percents of 13, 15, 17, and 19 dry matter were achieved by rolled barley replaced with 0, 12, 24, and 36%

J. K. Ha; J. J. Kennelly

1984-01-01

313

Calf and disease factors affecting growth in female holstein calves in Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine calf-level factors that affect performance (growth) between birth and 14 months of age in a convenience sample of approximately 3300 female Holstein calves born in 1991 on two large Florida dairy farms. Data collected on each calf at birth included farm of origin, birth date, weight, height at the pelvis, and serum

G. Arthur Donovan; Ian R Dohoo; David M Montgomery; Fred L Bennett

1998-01-01

314

Diet Digestibility and Growth of Holstein Calves Fed Acidified Milk Replacers Containing Soy Protein Concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of acidification of milk replacers containing soy protein concentrate on diet digestibility and growth of Holstein bull calves. In Experi- ment 1, six calves (6 wk old) were fed at 10% of BW\\/d either acidified milk re- placer containing soy protein concentrate or untreated milk replacer containing soy protein concentrate. Replacers were

P. S. Erickson; D. J. Schauff; M. R. Murphy

1989-01-01

315

Univariate analysis of test day milk yields of British Holstein?Friesian heifers using Gibbs sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of posterior distributions of genetic and phenotypic parameters and functions of them for individual test day milk yield are obtained for 28 873 British Holstein?Friesian heifers, the progeny of 40 proven and 649 unproven sires, using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Gibbs sampling methods with a univariate sire model. Results from the two methods are then compared. It is

Mehmet Z. Firat; Chris M. Theobald; Robin Thompson

1997-01-01

316

Multivariate analysis of test day milk yields of British Holstein?Friesian heifers using Gibbs sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates and posterior distributions of genetic and phenotypic variance matrices for test day milk records are obtained for 23 873 British Holstein?Friesian heifers, the progeny of 40 proven and 649 unproven sires, using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Gibbs sampling methods with two different prior specifications in a multivariate sire model. Results from the two methods are then compared. The

Mehmet Z. Firat; Chris M. Theobald; Robin Thompson

1997-01-01

317

Use of a single injection of long-acting recombinant bovine FSH to superovulate Holstein heifers: A preliminary study.  

PubMed

Our objective was to compare several experimental preparations of a single injection of long-acting recombinant bovine FSH (rbFSH; types A and B) to a porcine pituitary-derived FSH (Folltropin) to superovulate Holstein dairy heifers. Nonlactating, nonpregnant virgin Holstein heifers (n = 56) aged 12 to 15 months were randomly assigned to one of four superstimulatory treatments. Beginning at a random stage of the estrous cycle, all follicles greater than 5 mm were aspirated. Thirty-six hours later, heifers received an intravaginal P4 device and superstimulatory treatments were initiated. Treatments were (1) 300 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (Folltropin) administered in eight decreasing doses over a period of 3.5 days; (2) a single injection of 50 ?g of A-rbFSH; (3) a single injection of 100 ?g of A-rbFSH; and (4) a single injection of 50 ?g of B-rbFSH. All heifers received 25 mg PGF2? at 48 and 72 hours after the insertion of P4 device. At 84 hours after insertion, P4 devices were removed, and ovulation was induced 24 hours later with hCG (2500 IU). Heifers were inseminated at 12 and 24 hours after hCG treatment. The number of ovulatory follicles was greatest for heifers treated with Folltropin and B50-rbFSH, least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH, and was intermediate for heifers treated with A100-rbFSH (25.7 ± 3.2, 18.9 ± 3.2, 5.9 ± 0.9, and 16.6 ± 3.1, respectively; P < 0.001). The number of corpora lutea was greatest for heifers treated with Folltropin, B50-rbFSH, and A100-rbFSH, and least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH (19.1 ± 2.4, 16.1 ± 3.0, 15.9 ± 2.9, and 2.6 ± 0.9, respectively; P < 0.001). The number of good-quality embryos differed among treatments and was greatest for heifers treated with B50-rbFSH, Folltropin, and A100-rbFSH and least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH (7.6 ± 2.4, 6.5 ± 1.7, 4.3 ± 1.5, and 0.8 ± 0.5, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single injection of a preparation of long-acting rbFSH (either 100 ?g of A-rbFSH or 50 ?g of B-rbFSH but not 50 ?g of A-rbFSH) produced similar superovulatory responses resulting in the production of good-quality embryos when compared with a pituitary-derived FSH preparation administered twice daily for 4 days. More studies using different types of cattle and different doses of rbFSH are needed to confirm the findings reported in this preliminary study. PMID:24938802

Carvalho, Paulo D; Hackbart, Katherine S; Bender, Robb W; Baez, Giovanni M; Dresch, Ana R; Guenther, Jerry N; Souza, Alex H; Fricke, Paul M

2014-08-01

318

Health Information in Chinese - Simplified (????): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ???? (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear ????????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) ... PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ??-??(?????) - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) ...

319

Indigenous domestic breeds as reservoirs of genetic diversity: the Argentinean Creole cattle.  

PubMed

Contrary to highly selected commercial breeds, indigenous domestic breeds are composed of semi-wild or feral populations subjected to reduced levels of artificial selection. As a consequence, many of these breeds have become locally adapted to a wide range of environments, showing high levels of phenotypic variability and increased fitness under natural conditions. Genetic analyses of three loci associated with milk production (alpha(S1)-casein, kappa-casein and prolactin) and the locus BoLA-DRB3 of the major histocompatibility complex indicated that the Argentinean Creole cattle (ACC), an indigenous breed from South America, maintains high levels of genetic diversity and population structure. In contrast to the commercial Holstein breed, the ACC showed considerable variation in heterozygosity (H(e)) and allelic diversity (A) across populations. As expected, bi-allelic markers showed extensive variation in He whereas the highly polymorphic BoLA-DRB3 showed substantial variation in A, with individual populations having 39-74% of the total number of alleles characterized for the breed. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of nine populations throughout the distribution range of the ACC revealed that 91.9-94.7% of the total observed variance was explained by differences within populations whereas 5.3-8.1% was the result of differences among populations. In addition, the ACC breed consistently showed higher levels of genetic differentiation among populations than Holstein. Results from this study emphasize the importance of population genetic structure within domestic breeds as an essential component of genetic diversity and suggest that indigenous breeds may be considered important reservoirs of genetic diversity for commercial domestic species. PMID:11683709

Giovambattista, G; Ripoli, M V; Peral-Garcia, P; Bouzat, J L

2001-10-01

320

Admixture analysis of South Asian cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in seven Bos indicus cattle breeds from a variety of locations in South Asia. This is the first such study focusing within this area, which is one of the postulated centres of origin of domestic cattle. An estimate of the influence of Bos taurus ancestry was carried out using three approaches: by

P Kumar; A R Freeman; R T Loftus; C Gaillard; D Q Fuller; D G Bradley

2003-01-01

321

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from

Nigatu Kebede

2008-01-01

322

The control of external parasites of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractThe important external parasites of cattle in New Zealand include the cattle tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, which occurs mainly in northern districts, the biting louse, Damalinia bovis, and the long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli. There are two other lice, Haematopinus eurysternus, and Solenopotes capillatus but they are much less common. The mange mite, Chorioptes bovis, occurs mainly in the winter months

L. K. Whitten

1970-01-01

323

People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

Crain, Robert L.

324

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Cattle, Western Turkey  

PubMed Central

In 2007, an outbreak of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) occurred in Turkey. On the basis of clinical investigation, 41 cattle were suspected to have EHD. Reverse transcription–PCR and sequence analyses indicated that the virus belonged to EHD virus serotype 6, thus confirming EHD virus infection of cattle in Turkey.

Yesilbag, Kadir; Batten, Carrie; Senturk, Sezgin; Maan, Narender S.; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement; Batmaz, Hasan

2009-01-01

325

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2011-01-01

326

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2014-01-01

327

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2012-01-01

328

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2010-01-01

329

Chinese Festivals and Customs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

Green, Sandra Aili

330

Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

Swinson, Derek B.

1992-01-01

331

Awareness in Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness - awakening -- is the single most important quality of life to healing and growth in all therapeutics, religion, and philosophy, since the beginning of recorded history. It is central to the changes we must contemplate in terms of healing for both patient and practitioner. Chinese medicine has a great deal to offer through its diagnostic and treatment modalities

Leon Hammer

332

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

333

Chinese Drywall Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of the defective Chinese drywall product liability including a timeline starting when complaints were received by the Florida Department of Health in June 2008. The overview of the rapidly evolving product liability also discusses the factors that contributed to drywall demand and the production of synthetic gypsum as well as the common allegations that have

John S. Wyckoff; Robert Martin

2009-01-01

334

Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.  

PubMed

While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30-0.86) in comparison to other herding methods. This study indicates that a substantial proportion of cattle-related injuries are associated with work activities related to handling practices and cattle restraining equipment. PMID:23600168

Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

2013-01-01

335

Acute Anaplasmosis in Imported Cattle  

PubMed Central

Of 18 Hereford cattle imported into Quebec from the eastern U.S.A., five exhibited acute hemolytic anemia, icterus, depression, fever, anorexia and died; 11 were killed because they had positive or suspicious anaplasma titers and two were quarantined. Anaplasma marginale organisms were found in the erythrocytes of the sick animals by light and electron microscopy. The partial absence of erythrocytic plasmalemma on several electron photomicrographs suggested exit of the anaplasma bodies. Titers up to 1:320 in infected animals were found by the complement fixation test. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.

Bundza, A.; Samagh, B. S.

1982-01-01

336

Improving accuracy of genomic predictions within and between dairy cattle breeds with imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism panels.  

PubMed

Achieving accurate genomic estimated breeding values for dairy cattle requires a very large reference population of genotyped and phenotyped individuals. Assembling such reference populations has been achieved for breeds such as Holstein, but is challenging for breeds with fewer individuals. An alternative is to use a multi-breed reference population, such that smaller breeds gain some advantage in accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) from information from larger breeds. However, this requires that marker-quantitative trait loci associations persist across breeds. Here, we assessed the gain in accuracy of GEBV in Jersey cattle as a result of using a combined Holstein and Jersey reference population, with either 39,745 or 624,213 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The surrogate used for accuracy was the correlation of GEBV with daughter trait deviations in a validation population. Two methods were used to predict breeding values, either a genomic BLUP (GBLUP_mod), or a new method, BayesR, which used a mixture of normal distributions as the prior for SNP effects, including one distribution that set SNP effects to zero. The GBLUP_mod method scaled both the genomic relationship matrix and the additive relationship matrix to a base at the time the breeds diverged, and regressed the genomic relationship matrix to account for sampling errors in estimating relationship coefficients due to a finite number of markers, before combining the 2 matrices. Although these modifications did result in less biased breeding values for Jerseys compared with an unmodified genomic relationship matrix, BayesR gave the highest accuracies of GEBV for the 3 traits investigated (milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield), with an average increase in accuracy compared with GBLUP_mod across the 3 traits of 0.05 for both Jerseys and Holsteins. The advantage was limited for either Jerseys or Holsteins in using 624,213 SNP rather than 39,745 SNP (0.01 for Holsteins and 0.03 for Jerseys, averaged across traits). Even this limited and nonsignificant advantage was only observed when BayesR was used. An alternative panel, which extracted the SNP in the transcribed part of the bovine genome from the 624,213 SNP panel (to give 58,532 SNP), performed better, with an increase in accuracy of 0.03 for Jerseys across traits. This panel captures much of the increased genomic content of the 624,213 SNP panel, with the advantage of a greatly reduced number of SNP effects to estimate. Taken together, using this panel, a combined breed reference and using BayesR rather than GBLUP_mod increased the accuracy of GEBV in Jerseys from 0.43 to 0.52, averaged across the 3 traits. PMID:22720968

Erbe, M; Hayes, B J; Matukumalli, L K; Goswami, S; Bowman, P J; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Goddard, M E

2012-07-01

337

Cholecystokinin mediates depression of feed intake in dairy cattle fed high fat diets.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of 1) different concentrations of dietary fat and 2) i.v. administration of a cholecystokinin receptor antagonist (MK-329) on feed intake and plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in dairy cattle. In Experiment 1, 4 lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Treatments were diets with 1) no fat added, 2) 30 g fat/kg feed (calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids as fat supplement), 3) 60 g fat/kg, and 4) 90 g fat/kg added. Cows were fed once daily a diet of concentrate, corn silage, alfalfa haylage, and alfalfa pellets. Dry matter intake decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of dietary fat (P < 0.0001). Overall plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001), triacylglycerol (P < 0.0006), and cholecystokinin (P < 0.02), increased linearly with each level of dietary fat, but there was a linear decrease in plasma insulin (P < 0.0008). In Experiment 2, 4 nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein heifers were used in a cross-over design in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were diet (fatty acids, 27 g/kg vs 103 g/kg diet dry matter) and i.v. injections (MK-329 vs vehicle). Heifers were fed once daily a total mixed ration of corn silage, cracked corn and soybean meal with or without fat supplement. Diets were switched by period and either MK-329 (70 microg/kg body weight) or its vehicle was injected i.v. at 2 hr postfeeding. Daily dry matter intake was decreased by feeding the high fat diet (P < 0.02) but was not affected by injections. Injection of MK-329, however, increased dry matter intake by 92% in heifers fed the high fat diet during the first 2 hr postinjection compared to vehicle injection. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide concentration was increased by the high fat diet at 2 hr postfeeding (P < 0.02) but was lowered by MK-329 at 1 hr postinjection (P < 0.001). Plasma insulin was lowered by the high fat diet (P < 0.01) but was not affected by injections. The elevated plasma cholecystokinin concentration may have mediated depressed feed intake of dairy cattle fed the high fat diets. PMID:11064219

Choi, B R; Palmquist, D L; Allen, M S

2000-10-01

338

Eprinomectin: a novel avermectin for use as a topical endectocide for cattle.  

PubMed

Eprinomectin (MK-397 or 4"-epi-acetylamino-4"-deoxy-avermectin B1) is a novel avermectin selected for development as a topical endectocide for all cattle, including lactating dairy cows. Herein, we show its anthelmintic, insecticidal and miticidal activity. To determine its anthelmintic capabilities, eprinomectin was tested topically on Jersey calves at 0.08, 0.2, or 0.5 mg kg-1 in a probe formulation against experimental infections of adult Haemonchus placei, ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, Cooperia oncophora, C. punctata, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Dictyocaulus viviparus. Eprinomectin removed > or = 99% and > or = 98% of the adult stage of every species at the 0.5 and 0.2 mg kg-1 dosage levels, respectively. The lowest dosage (0.08 mg kg-1) produced maximal or near maximal efficacy against most of the adult endoparasites with the exception of T. colubriformis (87%) and C. oncophora (88%). In a separate test, eprinomectin was evaluated topically against the immature stages of species at the same dosages. Results showed > or = 99% and > or = 98% removal of the immature stages of each species at the 0.5 and 0.2 mg kg-1 dosage levels, respectively. The 0.08 mg kg-1 dosage maintained > or = 97% efficacy against 6 species with reduced activity against H. placei (42%) and N. helvetianus (66%). For ectoparasites, eprinomectin was tested topically at 0.16, 0.24, 0.32 or 0.5 mg kg-1 on mixed breed cattle naturally infested with the sucking louse, Linognathus vituli. Complete elimination of lice at all dosages was observed by day 14. Topical delivery of eprinomectin at 0.16, 0.24, 0.32 or 0.5 mg kg-1 to Holstein calves experimentally challenged with horn fly, Haematobia irritans, produced 100% efficacy to challenge by week 2 post-treatment in all dosages groups and 94% and 99% efficacy to challenge at the 0.32 and 0.5 mg kg-1 dosage groups, respectively, at week 4. Topical delivery of eprinomectin at 0.16, 0.24 or 0.5 mg kg-1 to Deutsches Fleckvieh cattle infested with mange mites, Chorioptes bovis, produced > or = 95% control at all dosages levels by day 14 post-treatment and was maintained at or near this efficacious level for the 6-week duration of the trial. No adverse reaction was observed in any animal in any of these tests. In summary, these experimental data indicate that eprinomectin is an excellent broad-spectrum endectocide for cattle and is suitable for topical delivery. PMID:9024867

Shoop, W L; Egerton, J R; Eary, C H; Haines, H W; Michael, B F; Mrozik, H; Eskola, P; Fisher, M H; Slayton, L; Ostlind, D A; Skelly, B J; Fulton, R K; Barth, D; Costa, S; Gregory, L M; Campbell, W C; Seward, R L; Turner, M J

1996-11-01

339

In vivo indices for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle: Comparison with in vitro methods.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) used in the feed industry to estimate the potential for grains to increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. The existing NIRS calibration was developed from in sacco and in vitro measures in cattle and grain chemical composition measurements. To evaluate the existing model, 20 cultivars of 5 grain types were fed to 40 Holstein heifers using a grain challenge protocol and changes in rumen VFA, ammonia, lactic acids, and pH that are associated with acidosis were measured. A method development study was performed to determine a grain feeding rate sufficient to induce non-life threatening but substantial ruminal changes during grain challenge. Feeding grain at a rate of 1.2% of BW met these criteria, lowering rumen pH (P = 0.01) and increasing valerate (P < 0.01) and propionate concentrations (P = 0.01). Valerate was the most discriminatory measure indicating ruminal change during challenge. Heifers were assigned using a row by column design in an in vivo study to 1 of 20 grain cultivars and were reassigned after a 9 d period (n = 4 cattle/treatment). The test grains were dry rolled oats (n = 3), wheat (n = 6), barley (n = 4), triticale (n = 4), and sorghum (n = 3) cultivars. Cattle were adapted to the test grain and had ad libitum access to grass silage 11 d before the challenge. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge feeding with 0.3 kg DM of silage followed by the respective test grain fed at 1.2% of BW. A rumen sample was taken by stomach tube 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after grain consumption. The rumen is not homogenous and samples of rumen fluid obtained by stomach tube will differ from those gained by other methods. Rumen pH was measured immediately; individual VFA, ammonia, and D- and L-lactate concentrations were analyzed later. Rumen pH (P = 0.002) and all concentrations of fermentation products differed among grains (P = 0.001). A previously defined discriminant score calculated at 200 min after challenge was used to rank grains for acidosis risk. A significant correlation between the discriminant score and the NIRS ranking (r = 0.731, P = 0.003) demonstrated the potential for using NIRS calibrations for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle. The overall rankings of grains for acidosis risk were wheat > triticale > barley > oats > sorghum. PMID:23482574

Lean, I J; Golder, H M; Black, J L; King, R; Rabiee, A R

2013-06-01

340

SHORT-PERIOD PRICING MODELS FOR FED CATTLE AND IMPACTS OF WHOLESALE CARCASS BEEF AND LIVE CATTLE FUTURES MARKET PRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattlemen have expressed concern about variation among transaction prices for fed cattle, wholesale beef and fed cattle pricing and have and to determine the impacts of wholesale car- antitrust lawsuits pending against supermarkets, cass beef prices and live cattle futures market meatpackers, trade associations, and a meat prices on fed cattle prices. price reporting firm. Lawsuits allege manipula- tion of

Clement E. Ward

1981-01-01

341

Evaluation of National Research Council and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein Systems for Predicting Requirements of Holstein Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment evaluated the effects of prepuber- tal energy intake and dietary protein source on aver- age daily gain of Holstein heifers. Holstein heifers (n = 273) were assigned to one of three dietary energy treatments that were designed to achieve average daily gains of 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 kg\\/d from 90 to 320 kg of body weight. Within each

M. E. Van Amburgh; D. G. Fox; D. M. Galton; D. E. Bauman; L. E. Chase

1998-01-01

342

Genetic parameters for calving and conformation traits in Charolais x Montbeliard and Charolais x Holstein crossbred calves.  

PubMed

Charolais sires can be mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dairy cows to produce crossbred calves sold for meat production. Heritabilities and correlations between traits can differ when they are calculated within Charolais × Montbéliard or within Charolais × Holstein population. Moreover, the genetic correlation between the same trait measured on Charolais × Montbéliard and on Charolais × Holstein crossbred calves is not necessarily unity. The first objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlation between traits within Charolais × Montbéliard and within Charolais × Holstein population. The second objective was to investigate if those traits are genetically identical between crossbred populations. Traits studied were calving difficulty, birth weight, height, bone thinness, and muscular development. Data included 22,852 Charolais × Montbéliard and 16,012 Charolais × Holstein crossbred calves from 391 Charolais sires. Heritabilities estimated separately within each crossbred population were similar. Stronger genetic correlations were observed in Charolais × Holstein population compared with Charolais × Montbéliard between calving difficulty and height (0.67 vs. 0.54), calving difficulty and bone thinness (0.42 vs. 0.27), birth weight and bone thinness (0.52 vs. 0.20), and birth weight and muscular development (0.41 vs. 0.18). Bivariate analysis considering observations on Charolais × Montbéliard and on Charolais × Holstein as different traits showed that genetic variances and heritabilities were similar for all traits except height. Birth weight and muscular development were genetically identical traits in each crossbred populations, with genetic correlations of 0.96 and 0.99. Genetic correlations were 0.91 for calving difficulty, 0.80 for height, and 0.70 for bone thinness and log-likelihood ratio tests indicated that they were significantly different from 1 (P ? 0.01). Results show evidence for reranking of Charolais sires for calving difficulty, height, and bone thinness depending on whether they are mated to Montbéliard or Holstein cows. PMID:24085407

Vallée, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

2013-12-01

343

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132

Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V; Berg, Stefan

2011-06-01

344

Seroepidemiological study of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BoHV-1, PI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3) in dairy cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province).  

PubMed

Respiratory diseases in calves are responsible for major economic losses in both beef and dairy production. Several viruses, such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPI-3V), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine adenoviruses (BAV), are detected in most clinical cases with respiratory signs. The aim of this study is to define seroprevalences of five major viral causes of bovine respiratory infections in cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province). The population targeted was 642 dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian) from 25 farms. Samples of blood serum from female cattle were examined. Sera were tested by commercial ELISA kits to detect antibody against BRSV, BoHV-1, BPI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test. In the present study, seroprevalences of BRSV, BoHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BAV-3 were 51.1%, 72%, 84.4%, 49.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. The present study shows that infections of bovine respiratory viruses are very common in cattle in Esfahan. PMID:21667075

Shirvani, Edris; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Noaman, Vahid; Bahriari, Masumeh; Morovati, Hasan; Hatami, Alireza

2012-01-01

345

Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of ?13C and ?D of emitted CH4 and rumen water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted ?13CH4, ?13CO2, and ?D-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of ?D-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in ?13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in ?13C between emitted gases and diet. The average ?13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of ?D-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These ?D measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

2001-07-01

346

A first genotyping assay of French cattle breeds based on a new allele of the extension gene encoding the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r).  

PubMed

The seven transmembrane domain melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) encoded by the coat color extension gene (E) plays a key role in the signaling pathway of melanin synthesis. Upon the binding of agonist (melanocortin hormone, alpha-MSH) or antagonist (Agouti protein) ligands, the melanosomal synthesis of eumelanin and/or phaeomelanin pigments is stimulated or inhibited, respectively. Different alleles of the extension gene were cloned from unrelated animals belonging to French cattle breeds and sequenced. The wild type E allele was mainly present in Normande cattle, the dominant E(D) allele in animals with black color (i.e. Holstein), whereas the recessive e allele was identified in homozygous animals exhibiting a more or less strong red coat color (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolaise, Limousine and Salers). A new allele, named E1, was found in either homozygous (E1/E1) or heterozygous (E1/E) individuals in Aubrac and Gasconne breeds. This allele displayed a 4 amino acid duplication (12 nucleotides) located within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor, a region known to interact with G proteins. A first genotyping assay of the main French cattle breeds is described based on these four extension alleles. PMID:14736379

Rouzaud, F; Martin, J; Gallet, P F; Delourme, D; Goulemot-Leger, V; Amigues, Y; Ménissier, F; Levéziel, H; Julien, R; Oulmouden, A

2000-01-01

347

Eradication of Lice in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals.

Nafstad, O; Gr?nst?l, H

2001-01-01

348

Eradication of lice in cattle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals. PMID:11455904

Nafstad, O; Grřnstřl, H

2001-01-01

349

Pheomelanin coat colour dilution in French cattle breeds is not correlated with the TYR, TYRP1 and DCT transcription levels.  

PubMed

In this study we report the isolation of full-length cDNAs and the expression patterns of TYR, TYRP1 and DCT in four e/e cattle breeds exhibiting different pheomelanic coat colours ranging from reddish brown to creamy white phenotypes. Predicted proteins encoded by bovine TYR, TYRP1 and DCT display high levels of homology and contain all characteristic domains shared between their mouse and human counterparts. The full expression of these three genes is observed in melanocytes of black areas of E(D)/E(D) Prim'Holstein's animals. On the other hand, e/e melanocytes of animals belonging to the Blonde d'Aquitaine (blond), Limousine (red) and Salers (reddish brown) breeds present different levels of down-regulated TYR and DCT expression and a complete repression of TYRP1. Surprisingly, e/e melanocytes of animals belonging to the Charolais breed (creamy white) present an inverse relationship between TYR, TYRP1 and DCT expression and its lower melanogenic activity. The sum of these results shows that the dilution of the coat colour in French cattle breeds is not correlated with a transcription level of TYR family genes. Other possible modifier loci are suggested. PMID:15250935

Guibert, Sylvain; Girardot, Michael; Leveziel, Hubert; Julien, Raymond; Oulmouden, Ahmad

2004-08-01

350

Electron motion in a Holstein molecular chain in an electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A charge motion in an electric field in a Holstein molecular chain is modeled in the absence of dissipation. It is shown that in a weak electric field a Holstein polaron moves uniformly experiencing small oscillations of its shape. These oscillations are associated with the chain's discreteness and caused by the presence of Peierls-Nabarro potential there. The critical value of the electric field intensity at which the moving polaron starts oscillating at Bloch frequency is found. It is shown that the polaron can demonstrate Bloch oscillations retaining its shape. It is also shown that a breathing mode of Bloch oscillations can arise. In all cases the polaron motion along the chain is infinite.

Lakhno, V. D.; Korshunova, A. N.

2011-01-01

351

Clinical Study Report on Milk Production in the Offspring of a Somatic Cell Cloned Holstein Cow  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; TSUCHIYA, Hideki; HAMANO, Seizo; INABA, Toshio; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAMADA, Hiromichi

2013-01-01

352

Generalized Holstein model for spin-dependent electron-transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some chemical reactions are described by electron transfer (ET) processes. The underlying mechanism could be modeled as a polaron motion in the molecular crystal—the Holstein model. By taking spin degrees of freedom into consideration, we generalize the Holstein model (molecular crystal model) to microscopically describe an ET chemical reaction. In our model, the electron spins in the radical pair simultaneously interact with a magnetic field and their nuclear-spin environments. By virtue of the perturbation approach, we obtain the chemical reaction rates for different initial states. It is discovered that the chemical reaction rate of the triplet state demonstrates its dependence on the direction of the magnetic field while the counterpart of the singlet state does not. This difference is attributed to the explicit dependence of the triplet state on the direction when the axis is rotated. Our model may provide a possible candidate for the microscopic origin of the avian compass.

Yang, Li-Ping; Ai, Qing; Sun, C. P.

2012-03-01

353

Survey of cattle fascioliasis in Tsuyama Abattoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of fascioliasis in slaughtered cattle in order to provide breeders with\\u000a feedback which may prevent cattle fascioliasis, as well as human fascioliasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The results of meat inspection and the information extracted from the Discriminative Data Base on Individual Livestock in\\u000a Japan were analyzed statistically in 6,224 cattle slaughtered at the

Masahiko Kato; Yasuyuki Murakami; Motota Shimizu; Hideki Yamamoto; Yumi Yonemoto; Ken-ichi Ishii; Shohei Kira

2005-01-01

354

Net Absorption of Glucose and Nitrogenous Compounds by Lactating Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net absorptions from portal-drained viscera of glucose, ammonia nitrogen, a-amino nitrogen, and urea nitrogen were measured in four Holstein cows in first lactations. Cows were fed for ad libitum consumption a completely mixed, 60:40 corn silage:supplement diet (dry basis) in two equal feedings at 12-h intervals daily. Portal blood flow (dye dilution) and net absorption (portal-arterial difference times portal blood

Gerald B. Huntington

1984-01-01

355

Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration; C), propanol (C plus 50g propanol\\/kg DM; P), and propylacetate (C plus 50g propanol\\/kg DM and 15g propylacetate\\/kg

B. M. L. Raun; N. B. Kristensen

356

Effects of dietary urea levels on milk protein fractions of Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting soybean meal for urea on milk protein fractions (casein, whey protein and non-protein nitrogen) of dairy cows in three dietary levels. Nine mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square arrangement, composed of 3 treatments, 3 periods of 21 days each, and 3 squares. The treatments

A. A. Aquino; Y. V. R. Lima; B. G. Botaro; C. S. S. Alberto; K PEIXOTOJR; M. V. Santos

2008-01-01

357

Genetic parameters for major milk proteins in Dutch Holstein-Friesians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for major milk proteins. One morning milk sample was collected from 1,940 first-parity Holstein-Friesian cows in February or March 2005. Each sample was analyzed with capillary zone electrophoresis to determine the relative concentrations of the 6 major milk proteins. The results show that there is considerable genetic variation in milk

G. C. B. Schopen; J. M. L. Heck; H. Bovenhuis; M. H. P. W. Visker; Valenberg van H. J. F; Arendonk van J. A. M

2009-01-01

358

Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37oC) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as

A. Fawzy

2008-01-01

359

Effect of Amino Acid Supplementation on Whole-Body Protein Turnover in Holstein Steers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the (15N)glycine single-dose urea end-product technique to measure whole-body protein turnover in six Holstein steers (250 ± 18 kg). Steers were implanted with Revalor-S and continu- ously infused abomasally with water ( 4 L\\/d) or amino acids (AA; in 4 L\\/d water) in a crossover experiment (two 14-d periods). The AA infusion contained the following (g\\/d): lysine (5.3),

R. H. Wessels; E. C. Titgemeyer

2010-01-01

360

Effects of Excessive Intakes of Iodine upon Growth and Thyroid Function of Growing Holstein Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty Holstein heifer calves averaging 120 days of age and 102 kg of body weight were allocated to one control and four treatment groups of six each. Iodine, as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, was mixed 1 : 9 with dextrose and administered once daily atop feed at .625, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg iodine per kilogram body weight. Calves were housed individually

R. E. Fish; E. W. Swanson

1982-01-01

361

Predicting Ad Libitum Dry Matter Intake and Yield of Holstein Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two data files, one from New Hampshire (n = 3308) and one from Georgia (n = 678), containing 4-wk or weekly means, respectively, of ad libitum dry matter intakes (DMI) and related variables were used to predict DMI and yields of 4% fat-corrected milk and milk protein in lactating Holstein cows. The DMI ranged from 5.9 to 30.4 kg\\/d, and

J. B. Holter; J. W. West; M. L. McGilliard

1997-01-01

362

Effect of Grazing and Fat Supplementation on Production and Reproduction of Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this trial was to investigate the ef- fects of feeding a soybean oil refining by-product (SORB), made up mainly of sodium salts of long-chain fatty acids,on reproductive performanceand productiv- ity of 36 early lactation Holstein cows managed in a free-stall barn or on annual rye-ryegrass pasture. In this 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, cows consumed

S. L. Boken; C. R. Staples; L. E. Sollenberger; T. C. Jenkins; W. W. Thatcher

2005-01-01

363

Presynchronization with Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Does Not Improve Fertility in Holstein Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holstein dairy heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of2treatmentstodeterminewhetherapresynchroniza- tion strategy using GnRH would improve reproductive performance after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination (TAI). Heifers (n = 82) in the first treatment (GPG) received a hormonal protocol for synchronization of ovulation and TAI (100 go f GnRH, d 0; 25 mg of PGF2? ,d6 ; 100g of GnRH

H. Rivera; R. A. Sterry; P. M. Fricke

2006-01-01

364

Genetic Parameters for Tunisian Holsteins Using a Test-Day Random Regression Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields were estimated in the first 3 lactations for registered Tunisian Holsteins. Dataincluded 140,187; 97,404; and 62,221 test-day production records collected on 22,538; 15,257; and 9,722 first-, second-, and third-parity cows, respectively. Records were of cows calving from 1992 to 2004 in 96 herds. (Co)variance components were esti- mated by Bayesian methods and

H. Hammami; B. Rekik; H. Soyeurt; A. Ben Gara; N. Gengler

2008-01-01

365

MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS DOJITE?NOS? KRÁV HOLŠTAJNSKÉHO PLEMENA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter - lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average

Peter Strapák; Zuzana Súkeníková; Peter Antalík

366

Bimodality and the genetics of milk flow traits in the Italian Holstein-Friesian breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of this study was to investigate milk flow traits in Italian Holstein-Friesian cows and, in particular, the bimodality of milk flow, defined as delayed milk ejection at the start of milking. Using a milkometer, 2,886 records were collected from 133 herds in northern Italy from 2001 to 2007. All records included 5 time-period measurements for milk flow,

A. B. Samoré; S. I. Román-Ponce; F. Vacirca; E. Frigo; F. Canavesi; A. Bagnato; C. Maltecca

2011-01-01

367

Pit1 Gene Polymorphism, Milk Yield, and Conformation Traits for Italian Holstein-Friesian Bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth hormone factor-1\\/pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is responsible for the expres- sion of growth hormone in mammals. Mutations in Pit-1 have been found in growth hormone disorders of mice and humans. We studied the eventual associa- tion between Pit-1 polymorphism using the HinfI en- zyme and the milk yield and conformation traits of 89 Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls. A strategy

R. Renaville; N. Gengler; E. Vrech; A. Prandi; S. Massart; C. Corradini; C. Bertozzi; F. Mortiaux; A. Burny; D. Portetelle

1997-01-01

368

Purging of inbreeding depression within the Irish Holstein-Friesian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate whether inbreeding depression in milk production or fertility performance has been partially purged due to selection within the Irish Holstein-Friesian population. Classical, ancestral (i.e., the inbreeding of an individual's ancestors according to two different formulae) and new inbreeding coefficients (i.e., part of the classical inbreeding coefficient that is not accounted for by

Sinéad Mc Parland; Francis Kearney; Donagh P Berry

2009-01-01

369

Effects of Inbreeding in the Dam on Dystocia and Stillbirths in US Holsteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystocia scores were recorded by producers on 120,434 Holsteins (218,213 records) from 1985 through 1996; dystocia scores 3 to 5 were coded as difficult births. Stillbirths were recorded for deaths within the first 48 h after birth. Data were restricted to registered cows for pedigree completeness, and in- breeding coefficients were calculated using 5-genera- tion pedigrees. Computational restrictions required that

V. Adamec; B. G. Cassell; E. P. Smith; R. E. Pearson

2006-01-01

370

Congenital craniofacial and skeletal defects with arthrogryposis in two newborn male Holstein Friesian calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the gross and histopathology of congenital craniofacial and skeletal defects with arthrogryposis in two\\u000a newborn male Holstein Friesian calves. The calves were 38 kg and 34 kg when they were born and they were unable to stand.\\u000a The first calf died after 4 days of birth due to aspiration pneumonia. Both front fetlock joints of this calf were flexed\\u000a and

Ahmad Oryan; Sadegh Shirian; Mohammad Reza Samadian

2011-01-01

371

Chinese Spacesuit Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

Croog, Lewis

2010-01-01

372

Dermatoglyphs of Chinese Children with Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A dermatoglyphic study of a group of 314 Chinese controls and 53 Chinese patients with the clinical and cytogenetic diagnosis of Down's syndrome has been presented, and results compared with other studies of European groups. The Chinese patient group had ...

J. I. Bryant I. Emanuel S. W. Huang R. Kronmal J. Lo

1970-01-01

373

Chinese herb nephropathy  

PubMed Central

In 1994, a 44-year-old woman progressed from normal renal function to advanced renal failure and end-stage renal disease within 8 months. Biopsy revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with focal lymphocytic infiltration. She received a cadaveric renal transplant in January 1996 and had an uneventful posttransplant course. As a result of a minor motor vehicle accident, the patient had received acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine for pain relief approximately 5 months before the onset of renal symptoms. After the transplant, analysis of the herbal remedies clearly indicated the presence of aristolochic acid in 2 of the 6 Chinese herbs ingested. Ingestion of aristolochic acid has been linked to a newly defined entity, Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). This article discusses the history of CHN and its implication in the current case and in other recent similar cases and makes recommendations to avoid future problems caused by unregulated use of herbal medicines. This is the first reported case of CHN in the USA.

2000-01-01

374

Synaptonemal complex analysis of the Holstein-Friesian, Piemontese and Simmental breeds of Bos taurus taurus.  

PubMed

The synaptonemal complex (SC) of specimens of Bos taurus taurus from the Holstein-Friesian, Piemontese, and Simmental breeds, was analysed. The analysis included quantification of the frequency of various types of abnormalities in the SC, and the frequency of cells with SC abnormalities. All animals had 29 autosomal bivalents and one sexual bivalent and the most frequently recorded abnormality was pairing failure. The number of cells with abnormalities in the Holstein-Friesian breed was 29.41%, in the Piemontese breed was 30.00% and in the Simmental breed it was 29.54%. The subspecies Bos taurus taurus had 29.63% of cells showing abnormalities with 57.33% of these abnormalities occurring in zygotene and 42.67% occurring in pachytene. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant differences in the number of cells with SC abnormalities among the breeds studied. The frequency of cells with abnormalities, and the efect on the fertility of the Holstein-Friesian, Piemontese and Simmental breeds are discussed. PMID:11368268

Scavone, M D; Oliveira, C; Trinca, L A; Foresti, F

2001-01-01

375

Natural variability in bovine milk oligosaccharides from Danish Jersey and Holstein-Friesian breeds  

PubMed Central

Free oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and play multiple roles in the health of the neonate, by stimulating growth of selected beneficial bacteria in the gut, participating in development of the brain and exerting anti-pathogenic activity. However, the concentration of oligosaccharides is low in mature bovine milk, normally used for infant formula, compared with both human colostrum and mature human milk. Characterization of bovine milk oligosaccharides in different breeds is crucial for the identification of viable sources for oligosaccharide purification. An improved source of oligosaccharides can lead to infant formula with improved oligosaccharide functionality. In the present study we have analyzed milk oligosaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and performed a detailed data analysis using both univariate and multivariate methods. Both statistical tools revealed several differences in oligosaccharide profiles between milk samples from the two Danish breeds; Jersey and Holstein-Friesians. Jersey milk contained higher relative amounts of both sialylated and the more complex neutral fucosylated oligosaccharides, while the Holstein-Friesian milk had higher abundance of smaller and simpler neutral oligosaccharides. The statistical analyses revealed that Jersey milk contain significantly higher levels of fucosylated oligosaccharides than Holstein-Friesian milk. Jersey milk also possesses oligosaccharides with a higher degree of complexity and functional residues (fucose and sialic acid) suggesting it may therefore offer advantages in term of a wider array of bioactivities.

Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Barile, Daniela; Meyrand, Mickael; Poulsen, Nina A; Larsen, Lotte B; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Bruce, German J.; Bertram, Hanne C

2012-01-01

376

A field evaluation of a footbathing solution for the control of digital dermatitis in cattle.  

PubMed

Footbathing is one of the most commonly used methods for controlling digital dermatitis (DD). A farm-based trial was undertaken using six dairy herds involving over 600 cubicle-housed Holstein-Friesian cattle. Split footbaths (length 2.2m) were used to compare the efficacy of two dips, namely, a positive control (5% copper sulphate) and a non-heavy metal-based proprietary dip. The dips were used from early January 2009 for a minimum of 103 days, bathing twice a day for 3 consecutive days every week, using one footbath (three herds) or two in line (three herds). The lesions of DD on the hind feet of cattle were scored by borescope while the animals were being milked, on three occasions (at approximately days 0, 55 and 110) and then compared both directly and by calculating the change in severity from the previous examination (when possible). Data from the 408 cows that had their feet examined for lesions on all three occasions were analysed separately. A reduction in lesion score was seen for both footbath products, but feet bathed in 5% copper sulphate improved more (OR=1.6, CI: 1.14-2.32; P<0.01), and, irrespective of solution, there was a significantly greater improvement in those herds where two footbaths were used (OR=3.39, CI: 2.07-5.19; P<0.001). Lesion improvement over time also increased with lactation number (OR=1.13, CI: 1.02-1.25; P<0.05). PMID:22867852

Logue, D N; Gibert, T; Parkin, T; Thomson, S; Taylor, D J

2012-09-01

377

Using Genome-Wide Association Analysis to Characterize Environmental Sensitivity of Milk Traits in Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

Genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) has been widely reported in dairy cattle. One way to analyze GxE is to apply reaction norm models. The first derivative of a reaction norm is the environmental sensitivity (ES). In the present study we conducted a large-scale, genome-wide association analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect general production (GP) and ES of milk traits in the German Holstein population. Sire estimates for GP and for ES were calculated from approximately 13 million daughter records by the use of linear reaction norm models. The daughters were offspring from 2297 sires. Sires were genotyped for 54k SNPs. The environment was defined as the average milk energy yield performance of the herds at the time during which the daughter observations were recorded. The sire estimates were used as observations in a genome-wide association analysis, using 1797 sires. Significant SNPs were confirmed in an independent validation set (500 sires of the same population). To separate GxE scaling and other GxE effects, the observations were log-transformed in some analyses. Results from the reaction norm model revealed GxE effects. Numerous significant SNPs were validated for both GP and ES. Many SNPs that affect GP also affect ES. We showed that ES of milk traits is a typical quantitative trait, genetically controlled by many genes with small effects and few genes with larger effect. A log-transformation of the observation resulted in a reduced number of validated SNPs for ES, pointing to genes that not only caused scaling GxE effects. The results will have implications for breeding for robustness in dairy cattle.

Streit, Melanie; Wellmann, Robin; Reinhardt, Friedrich; Thaller, Georg; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Bennewitz, Jorn

2013-01-01

378

Inbreeding in Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to monitor current and predict future rates of inbreeding in the Danish dairy breeds. Calves born from 1999 until 2003 and registered as Danish Holstein (1,883,983), Danish Jersey (336,966), or Danish Red (261,047) were reference popu- lations. Average complete generation equivalent was approximately 7. For calves born in 2003, average in- breeding was 3.9,

A. C. Sřrensen; M. K. Sřrensen; P. Berg

2005-01-01

379

Feeding Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes Economically.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes four papers titled, 'Feeding Dairy Cattle Economically', 'Feeding of Buffaloes', 'Green Feeding to Cross-Bred Cows and Buffaloes for Milk Production' and 'Silage Making'. Subjects covered are protein, water and minerals, roughage, meta...

V. D. Mudgal S. P. Arora C. K. Kurar

1979-01-01

380

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle' computer program includes all requirements for energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A and D. Dry matter intake and energy concentration assumptions have been made more consistent from table to tabl...

L. Browne

1988-01-01

381

Cattle Feedlots and the Environment. Control Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pollution from cattle feedlots is a serious problem in certain areas of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. However, feedlots can be built and operated in a manner which will eliminate the majority of the pollution problems. These guidelines have been prepared...

1972-01-01

382

Demographics of cattle positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by faecal culture, from submissions to the Cork Regional Veterinary Laboratory  

PubMed Central

The demography of bovine infections caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Ireland is poorly defined. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics of cattle positive to MAP on faecal culture, based on submissions to the Cork Regional Veterinary Laboratory (Cork RVL) from 1994 to 2006. The study focused on all available faecal samples from adult cattle with non-responsive chronic diarrhoea that were submitted by private veterinary practitioners to Cork RVL for MAP culture. For each MAP-positive by faecal culture animal, data were collated from Cork RVL and Cattle Movement Monitoring Scheme (CMMS) records. Johne's disease (JD) was confirmed in 110 animals from 86 herds by the Cork RVL between 1994 and 2006, with a rate of positive cases between 15% and 18% over last four years of the study. Two breeds (Holstein/Friesian or Limousin) made up 78% of submissions. Movements were assessed for the 57 study animals with available movement information, 90% died within one year of the test and 26% tested positive in the herd they were born into. The study provides preliminary information about movement trends and demographics of animals with MAP positive submissions. Although the study area is restricted, it includes the most intensive (and economically-important) dairy region in Ireland. The demographics of JD infection from the study area are in agreement with international reports. Further work is required to determine demographic trends, incidence and prevalence of JD throughout Ireland. It is hoped this work may contribute to the development of a surveillance strategy for MAP by regional veterinary laboratories.

2009-01-01

383

Cerebrospinal fluid constituents collected at the atlanto-occipital site of xylazine hydrochloride sedated, healthy 8-week-old Holstein calves.  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at the atlanto-occipital site and serum were obtained from 10 male, 8-week-old, Holstein calves after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Glucose, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Optical characteristics, specific gravity, total red blood cell and nucleated cell counts and differentials were also evaluated in the CSF. Additionally, CSF protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations were determined. Then, albumin quotients (AQ) were derived. Erythrocytes were observed in 9 of 10 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0-10 cells x 10(6)/L with a mean of 3 cells x 10(6)/L. Differential nucleated cell count in the CSF consisted primarily of lymphocytes/small mononuclear cells (57%), fewer monocytes/ large mononuclear cells (38%), and scant neutrophils (4%) and eosinophils (0.05%). The concentration of sodium (134 to 139 mEq/L) was similar to that of serum, but the concentration of potassium (2.8 to 3 mEq/L) was lower than that of serum. Creatine kinase activity (0 to 4 U/L) of CSF was markedly lower than serum activity. The CSF glucose concentration was approximately 80% of the serum value. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentration determined by electrophoresis ranged from 110 to 330 mg/L with a mean of 159 mg/L. Cerebrospinal fluid albumin ranged from 48 to 209 mg/L with a mean of 86 mg/L. In all CSF samples, radial immunodiffusion of unaltered CSF and concentrated CSF (four-fold concentration) revealed quantities undetectable by the present techniques in which the lowest standard values for IgG1, IgG, and IgM determinations was 70 mg/L and IgG2 was 30 mg/L. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.15 to 0.65 with a mean of 0.25. Based on the results of this study, CSF may be collected at the atlanto-occipital site safely and efficiently in calves, and reported values for CSF from adult cattle may not be suitable for evaluation of CSF collected from immature cattle.

St Jean, G; Yvorchuk-St Jean, K; Anderson, D E; Moore, W E

1997-01-01

384

Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

385

Decision analysis for fracture management in cattle.  

PubMed

Bovine fractures are common and each bovine patient is unique, presents innumerable challenges, and requires careful judgment. In cattle the fracture repair usually should be of acceptable quality to not cause a decrease in milk or meat production or interfere with natural breeding. The decision to treat a fracture in cattle is made by evaluating the cost and success rates of the treatment, the value of the animal, and the location and type of fracture. PMID:24534657

St Jean, Guy; Anderson, David E

2014-03-01

386

Relationship between pregnancy per artificial insemination and early luteal concentrations of progesterone and establishment of repeatability estimates for these traits in Holstein-Friesian heifers.  

PubMed

Pregnancy per insemination is a major determinant of reproductive efficiency in cattle and is affected by concentrations of progesterone (P4) during early pregnancy. The relationship between pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) and early luteal concentrations of P4, and repeatability of concentrations of P4 was examined on d 4, 5, 6, and 7 (day of standing estrus=d 0) in 118 Holstein Friesian heifers following 2 rounds of AI to 1 high-fertility sire. Repeatability estimates (R(e)) for P/AI were established following 4 rounds of AI. We found a linear and quadratic relationship between P/AI and concentrations of P4 on d 4 to 7 after estrus, as well as a linear and quadratic relationship between P/AI and the change in concentration of P4 from d 4 to 7 and from d 5 to 7. Optimum concentrations of P4 to maximize probability of P/AI were 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 5.2, and 3.5 ng/mL for d 4, 5, 6, and 7, and the change from d 4 to 7, respectively. Repeatability of P/AI following 4 rounds of AI was low (R(e)=0.07). Repeatability estimates for concentrations of P4 from cycle to cycle indicated low repeatability between d 4 (R(e)=0.05) and 7 (R(e)=0.20). These data indicated the importance of P4 in the early luteal phase for pregnancy survival, but also demonstrated that high concentrations of P4 on these days have a deleterious effect on embryo viability. Early luteal (d 4 to 5) concentrations of P4 were a reasonable predictor of concentrations on d 7 and could be used as a diagnostic tool to identify animals at risk of subsequent embryo loss. PMID:22541467

Parr, M H; Mullen, M P; Crowe, M A; Roche, J F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Diskin, M G

2012-05-01

387

Genomic Prediction for Tuberculosis Resistance in Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the UK and the limitations of the currently available diagnostic and control methods require the development of complementary approaches to assist in the sustainable control of the disease. One potential approach is the identification of animals that are genetically more resistant to bTB, to enable breeding of animals with enhanced resistance. This paper focuses on prediction of resistance to bTB. We explore estimation of direct genomic estimated breeding values (DGVs) for bTB resistance in UK dairy cattle, using dense SNP chip data, and test these genomic predictions for situations when disease phenotypes are not available on selection candidates. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated DGVs using genomic best linear unbiased prediction methodology, and assessed their predictive accuracies with a cross validation procedure and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Furthermore, these results were compared with theoretical expectations for prediction accuracy and area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC). The dataset comprised 1151 Holstein-Friesian cows (bTB cases or controls). All individuals (592 cases and 559 controls) were genotyped for 727,252 loci (Illumina Bead Chip). The estimated observed heritability of bTB resistance was 0.23±0.06 (0.34 on the liability scale) and five-fold cross validation, replicated six times, provided a prediction accuracy of 0.33 (95% C.I.: 0.26, 0.40). ROC curves, and the resulting AUC, gave a probability of 0.58, averaged across six replicates, of correctly classifying cows as diseased or as healthy based on SNP chip genotype alone using these data. Conclusions/Significance These results provide a first step in the investigation of the potential feasibility of genomic selection for bTB resistance using SNP data. Specifically, they demonstrate that genomic selection is possible, even in populations with no pedigree data and on animals lacking bTB phenotypes. However, a larger training population will be required to improve prediction accuracies.

Tsairidou, Smaragda; Woolliams, John A.; Allen, Adrian R.; Skuce, Robin A.; McBride, Stewart H.; Wright, David M.; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Matika, Oswald; McDowell, Stanley W. J.; Glass, Elizabeth J.; Bishop, Stephen C.

2014-01-01

388

Association of Length of Pregnancy with Other Reproductive Traits in Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

The experiment involved observations of 2,514 Holstein-Friesian cows to determine the effects of environmental factors (cow’s age, calving season, weight and sex of calves, housing system) and genetic factors on gestation length in dairy cattle and the correlation between gestation length and other reproductive traits (calving ease, stillbirth rates and placental expulsion). Genetic parameters were estimated based on the sires of calved cows (indirect effect) and the sires of live-born calves (direct effect). The following factors were found to contribute to prolonged gestation: increasing cow’s age, male fetuses and growing fetus weight. Optimal gestation length was determined in the range of 275–277 days based on calving ease and stillbirth rates. The heritability of gestation length was estimated at 0.201–0.210 by the direct effect and 0.055–0.073 by the indirect effect. The resulting genetic correlations suggest that the efforts to optimize (prolong) gestation length could exert an adverse influence on the breeding value of bulls by increasing perinatal mortality and calving difficulty. The standard errors of the investigated parameters were relatively high, suggesting that any attempts to modify gestation length for the purpose of improving calving ease and reducing stillbirth rates should be introduced with great caution.

Nogalski, Zenon; Piwczynski, Dariusz

2012-01-01

389

Characterization and identification of hepatic mRNA related to copper metabolism and homeostasis in cattle.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential trace mineral required for growth and development. Copper homeostasis within the cell is mediated by the expression of the Cu transporter protein (CTR1), ATPase7A (ATP7A), ATPase7B (ATP7B), Cox17, and Cu chaperone for Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (CCS) which helps to regulate Cu uptake, export, and intracellular compartmentalization in non-ruminants. Copper also serves as a cofactor of antioxidant, superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1). Liver tissue from eighteen Holstein bull calves (average BW 201 +/- 58.5 kg, 7.3 +/- 1.9 months) from a previous experiment were utilized to characterize and identify hepatic mRNA related to Cu metabolism and homeostasis in cattle. Hepatic Cu concentration was determined via flame atomic absorption, and total RNA was extracted using TRI reagent and purified using RNeasy. Hepatic Cu concentrations ranged from 86 to 801 mg of Cu/kg DM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B mRNA expressions were negatively correlated with hepatic Cu concentration, while CCS (P = 0.0887) and SOD1 had a tendency (P = 0.0733) to be negatively correlated to hepatic Cu concentration. These data indicate that higher than normal hepatic Cu concentration downregulates gene expression of CTR1, ATP7A, ATP7B, and Cox17, which are involved in bovine liver copper homeostasis. PMID:19099205

Han, Hyungchul; Archibeque, Shawn L; Engle, Terry E

2009-01-01

390

Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

Galey, F. D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M. A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.

2000-01-01

391

Nutritive value of potato processing wastes in total mixed rations for dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The nutritive value of wet potato processing waste for dairy cattle was determined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, rations contained, on a dry matter basis, 0, 10, 15, and 20% potato waste and were substituted for high moisture corn in diets for 32 lactating Holstein cows for 12 wk. Substituting potato waste for corn did not significantly affect milk yield, milk composition, milk production persistency, or dry matter intake. Cows fed 20% potato waste tended to decrease in milk fat percent and to shift molar proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids toward a decrease in acetate: propionate ratio. In Experiment 2, six steers were used in a 3 X 3 Latin square design to test digestibility and nitrogen utilization of potato waste substituted for high moisture corn at 0, 10, and 20% of the ration dry matter. A second group of four steers with rumen fistulas were used in a 4 X 4 Latin square to test rumen fermentation parameters. Diets contained 0, 10, 20, and 30% potato wastes and were similar to Experiment 1. Potato waste did not significantly affect digestibility of crude protein or dry matter, but at 20% substitution digestibility of acid detergent fiber decreased. Rumen ammonia, acetate, acetate to propionate ratios, and total volatile fatty acids were lower at high intakes of potato waste and pH was increased. The shift in rumen fermentation when large amounts of potatoes were fed explains the depressed butter fat on these rations. PMID:3842858

Onwubuemeli, C; Huber, J T; King, K J; Johnson, C O

1985-05-01

392

Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle.

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

393

Dairy cattle’s choice of handling treatments in a Y-maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to study dairy cattle’s preferences for handling practices by allowing animals to choose treatments in a Y-maze. Animals were first trained to expect one treatment on one side of the maze and another treatment on the other side of the maze. Animals were then allowed to choose between the two sides. In all experiments treatments were balanced

E. A Pajor; J Rushen; A. M. B de Passillé

2003-01-01

394

Microbiological differences between cull cattle slaughtered at an abattoir and cull cattle slaughtered on farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue samples from 27 casualty adult dairy cattle slaughtered on farms and 32 ‘normal’ cull dairy cattle were analysed microbiologically for total viable counts (tvc), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia colio157, Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter species. Overall the counts of Enterobacteriaceae and tvc were higher in the animals slaughtered on farms, particularly in the spleen. One ‘normal’ animal yielded E coli O157, and

M. J. Sarnago Coello; A. Small; S. Buncic

2007-01-01

395

Teaching Chinese as Tomorrow's Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively few public school students are currently learning the Chinese language, but experts predict the number of K-12 schools offering such instruction will soon soar. With China poised to become the next global economic superpower, policymakers say it is essential that American schools expand their Chinese studies. Here, the author discusses…

Chmelynski, Carol

2006-01-01

396

CHINESE-MANDARIN, LEVEL II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DESIGNED FOR USE BY 10TH GRADE STUDENTS AFTER COMPLETION OF THE LEVEL I TEXT, THIS VOLUME ALSO COMPRISES 15 LESSON UNITS PLUS APPENDED INDEXES AND A SECTION ON WRITING NEW CHINESE CHARACTERS. THESE MATERIALS WERE DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CHINESE LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IN CALIFORNIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS. ACCORDING TO THEIR…

HSU, KAI-YU; AND OTHERS

397

An Introduction to Chinese Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit will introduce secondary level students to Chinese literature. The first part of the unit discusses poetry which has always been the most highly prized form of Chinese literature. The discussion examines the "Complete Tang Poems," the "Book of Songs" compiled by Confucius, the "Songs of Chu," and the "Li Sao." Students learn about the…

Kane, Tony

398

Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge. PMID:23031138

Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

2013-03-01

399

Chinese Children's Attitudes Toward Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to: (1) examine Chinese children's attitudes toward mental retardation, (2) investigate cross-cultural similarities or differences in these attitudes, and (3) extend the use of Western-attitude questionnaires to Chinese samples. The present study included 489 Chinese children (265 boys and 224 girls), aged from 4 to 15 years. Results showed that Chinese children demonstrated favorable attitudes toward

Catherine So-kum Tang; Cindy Davis; Anize Wu; Christopher Oliver

2000-01-01

400

What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

Chang, Shirley

401

Modulatory Effect of Cattle on Risk for Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

To determine the effect of cattle on the risk for Lyme disease, we compared the prevalence of spirochete infection in questing vector ticks collected from a pasture with low-intensity cattle grazing with the prevalence in those collected from a site on which no cattle grazed. The presence of cattle limited the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., but not B. miyamotoi, in vector ticks. The reintroduction of traditional, nonintensive agriculture in central Europe may help reduce risk for Lyme disease.

Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

2006-01-01

402

Predicting complex traits using a diffusion kernel on genetic markers with an application to dairy cattle and wheat data  

PubMed Central

Background Arguably, genotypes and phenotypes may be linked in functional forms that are not well addressed by the linear additive models that are standard in quantitative genetics. Therefore, developing statistical learning models for predicting phenotypic values from all available molecular information that are capable of capturing complex genetic network architectures is of great importance. Bayesian kernel ridge regression is a non-parametric prediction model proposed for this purpose. Its essence is to create a spatial distance-based relationship matrix called a kernel. Although the set of all single nucleotide polymorphism genotype configurations on which a model is built is finite, past research has mainly used a Gaussian kernel. Results We sought to investigate the performance of a diffusion kernel, which was specifically developed to model discrete marker inputs, using Holstein cattle and wheat data. This kernel can be viewed as a discretization of the Gaussian kernel. The predictive ability of the diffusion kernel was similar to that of non-spatial distance-based additive genomic relationship kernels in the Holstein data, but outperformed the latter in the wheat data. However, the difference in performance between the diffusion and Gaussian kernels was negligible. Conclusions It is concluded that the ability of a diffusion kernel to capture the total genetic variance is not better than that of a Gaussian kernel, at least for these data. Although the diffusion kernel as a choice of basis function may have potential for use in whole-genome prediction, our results imply that embedding genetic markers into a non-Euclidean metric space has very small impact on prediction. Our results suggest that use of the black box Gaussian kernel is justified, given its connection to the diffusion kernel and its similar predictive performance.

2013-01-01

403

Ruminal epithelium transcriptome dynamics in response to plane of nutrition and age in young Holstein calves.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of enhanced dietary plane of nutrition (early nutritional program (ENH)) on the gene expression pattern of ruminal epithelial tissue of young Holstein calves. Male Holstein calves were fed (3 to 42 days of age) with reconstituted control milk replacer (MR) (20 % crude protein, 20 % fat; 1.25 lb solids/calf) plus conventional starter (CON; 19.6 % crude protein, dry matter basis) or a high-protein MR (ENH; 28.5 % crude protein, 15 % fat; at around 2 % of body weight) plus high-crude protein starter (25.5 % crude protein, dry matter basis). The calves were weaned on day 43. Groups of calves in CON and ENH treatment were harvested after 5 and 10 weeks of feeding. The ruminal epithelium from five calves in each group was used for transcript profiling using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. The postweaning mass of the reticulo-rumen was greater (P?Holstein calves elicited a strong transcriptomic response in the ruminal epithelial tissue. PMID:24318765

Naeem, Aisha; Drackley, James K; Lanier, Jennifer Stamey; Everts, Robin E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

2014-03-01

404

Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, 75.26 cm2, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea.

Alam, M.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, S. S.; Choy, Y. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. I.; Choi, T. J.

2013-01-01

405

Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas Cattle.  

PubMed

To our knowledge the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas has not been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the point seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Texas cattle persistently infected with A. marginale. This was a cross-sectional observational study examining serum collected from 12,000 adult cattle marketed in 23 selected Texas auction markets during the second week of July 2011. A random subset of those cattle comprising 1835 individuals was evaluated for persistent infection with A. marginale using a commercial cELISA for antibody detection. The pooled apparent seroprevalence for cattle tested at auction markets across the state was 15.02% (95% CI: 11.02-19.53%), with markets in the western portion of the state demonstrating prevalence?30%. The winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus is involved in the biological transfer of A. marginale and is prevalent in west Texas. Producers in endemic and non-endemic areas should be encouraged to determine the infection status of replacement cattle in order to implement effective management strategies for the control bovine anaplasmosis. PMID:24931130

Hairgrove, Thomas B; Craig, Thomas M; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy J; Gill, Ronald J

2014-09-01

406

Pathogenesis of tuberculosis in cattle.  

PubMed

There has been a renewed interest in the pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis in many countries, in an attempt to understand better its transmission, to improve diagnosis and assess the potential of vaccination. This paper, which overviews current knowledge of aspects of the pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis, draws from studies of field cases and experimental infections and highlights deficiencies in current understanding. The pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis has not received the same level of attention as with human tuberculosis, and in many instances, the processes involved in bovine tuberculosis have been drawn from studies of human tuberculosis or from small animal models of infection. This paper however, considers the successful emulation of naturally acquired tuberculosis using experimental cattle models and identifies the complex and integrated nature of microbiological, immunological and pathological events involved. Current understanding of the initiation of infection, immune responses, and subsequent pathology, which can vary significantly in individual animals are discussed. Whilst there are aspects of M. bovis that still remain elusive to scientific investigation, further studies on the pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis are advocated as necessary to provide a better scientific basis on which to review control and eradication strategies, which are currently less than effective in many regions. PMID:11463227

Neill, S D; Bryson, D G; Pollock, J M

2001-01-01

407

Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Ethiopian cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia. Information relating to genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium bovis strains affecting the cattle population in Ethiopia is limited. We carried out molecular characterization of M. bovis strains isolated from BTB infected cattle using the spoligotyping technique. The relationship between distribution of spoligotypes and recorded variables was also

Demelash Biffa; Eystein Skjerve; James Oloya; Asseged Bogale; Fekadu Abebe; Ulf Dahle; Jon Bohlin; Berit Djřnne

2010-01-01

408

Tracing the Origins of the Ancient Egyptian Cattle Cult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of ancient Egyptian religion have examined texts for evidence of cattle worship, but the picture given by the texts is incomplete. Mortuary patterns, ceremonial buildings, grave goods, ceramics and other remains also contain evidence of cattle worship and underline its importance to early Egypt. The recently discovered cattle tumuli at Nabta Playa in the Western Desert are identified here

Michael Brass

409

New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events  

PubMed Central

Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ?10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment.

McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

2013-01-01

410

Physiological and cellular adaptations of zebu cattle to thermal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their separate evolution from Bos taurus, zebu cattle (Bos indicus) have acquired genes that confer thermotolerance at the physiological and cellular levels. Cattle from zebu breeds are better able to regulate body temperature in response to heat stress than are cattle from a variety of B. taurus breeds of European origin. Moreover, exposure to elevated temperature has less deleterious

P. J. Hansen

2004-01-01

411

Contract Pricing and Packer Competition in Fed Cattle Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a game-theoretical framework to analyze the coexistence of spot and contract markets in the cattle industry. A duopsony scenario with two packers and N feeders is used to reflect the reality in the cattle industry. Our main contribution is to incorporate the risk components and the pricing of hedonic attributes of cattle quality. Our preliminary results show that

Moon-Soo Park; H. Alan Love; Yanhong H. Jin

2006-01-01

412

Effects of Milk Replacer Composition on Growth, Body Composition, and Nutrient Excretion in Preweaned Holstein Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four newborn Holstein heifer calves were fed 1 of 4 milk replacers (MR): control (20% CP, 21% fat; MR fed at 441 g\\/d); high protein\\/low fat (HPLF; 28% CP, 20% fat; MR fed at 951 g\\/d); high protein\\/high fat (HPHF;27%CP,28%fat;MRfedat951g\\/d);andHPHF MR fed at a higher rate (HPHF+; 27% CP, 28% fat; MR fed at 1,431 g\\/d). Dry calf starter (20%

S. R. Hill; K. F. Knowlton; K. M. Daniels; R. E. James; R. E. Pearson; A. V. Capuco; R. M. Akers

2008-01-01

413

Scaling of temperature dependence of charge mobility in molecular Holstein chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on a Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for four types of homogeneous