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Brachyspina syndrome (BS) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary disorder identified in the Holstein breed caused by a 3.3-kb deletion in the bovine Fanconi anemia complementation group I (FANCI) gene on chromosome 21. In previous reports, the BS mutant allele was identified in North American and European Holstein populations. Because frozen semen and embryos have been imported into China from such regions during the past few years, BS has potentially spread into the dairy cattle population in China. In the present study, 206 Holstein bulls and 136 Holstein cows were tested for BS, with 10 BS carrier bulls and 3 carrier cows identified. Pedigree analysis showed that all 10 BS carrier bulls could be traced back to a common ancestor, the U.S. Holstein sire Sweet Haven Tradition. It is recommended that effective selection and mating strategies should be carried out to gradually eliminate this recessive gene from the ChineseHolstein population. PMID:23674463
PCR-RFLP was applied to analyze the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in 218 Qinchuan cattle (QQ) and ChineseHolsteincattle (HC). Results demonstrated Hinf I polymorphisms in the 451 bp PCR product in the two populations. The frequencies of alleles A/B in QQ and HC populations were 0.232/0.768 and 0.132/0.868, respectively. The frequencies of three genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.030/0.403/0.567 and 0.007/0.251/0.742, respectively. Qinchuan cattle population was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at this locus, but ChineseHolsteincattle population was not. The gene heterozygosity/effective allele gene number/Shannon information entropy/polymorphism information content of Qinchuan cattle and ChineseHolsteincattle populations were listed for 0.356/1.553/0.541/0.292 and 0.229/1.297/0.390/0.203, respectively. All indices were higher in the Qinchuan cattle population. PMID:17098704
We assessed SLC27A1, a candidate gene for milk production traits in ChineseHolsteincattle. DNA was extracted from the blood of 48 top ChineseHolsteinCattle selected according to phenotypic character and mixed into DNA pool for SNP detection. We tested blood samples of these cattle for SNPs in exon 3 and the 3?-flanking region of the SLC27A1 gene by
Yanfei Lv; Caihong Wei; Li Zhang; Guobin Lu; Kaidong Liu; Lixin Du
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding and untranslated regions of heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A (HSP70A1A), an inducible molecular chaperone that is responsible for cellular protection against heat stress, have been reported as being associated with heat tolerance. A fragment of the HSP70A1A gene was amplified in ChineseHolsteincattle and eight novel mutations were found. We performed comprehensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analyses of the eight SNPs of the HSP70A1A gene and examined their involvement in heat resistance in 600 ChineseHolsteincattle. Our results revealed the presence of significant differences between individuals carrying haplotype 1 and those without haplotype 1 for most of the heat-tolerance traits. Haplotype 1 increased the risk of heat stress; however, association analysis of its combination with haplotype 2 showed the lowest rectal temperature and red blood cell K(+) level, moderate respiratory rate, and the highest red blood cell NKA level, suggesting a heterozygote advantage in the penetration of the phenotype. Protein expression levels in white blood cells among haplotype combinations further confirmed the hypothesis that heterozygotes for haplotypes 1 and 2 are more sensitive to heat stress. We presume that these mutations may be useful in the future as molecular genetic markers to assist selection for heat tolerance in cattle. PMID:23543596
Background In China, the reference population of genotyped Holsteincattle is relatively small with to date, 80 bulls and 2091 cows genotyped with the Illumina 54?K chip. Including genotyped Holsteincattle from other countries in the reference population could improve the accuracy of genomic prediction of the ChineseHolstein population. This study investigated the consistency of linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers between the Chinese and Nordic Holstein populations, and compared the reliability of genomic predictions based on the Chinese reference population only or the combined Chinese and Nordic reference populations. Methods Genomic estimated breeding values of ChineseHolsteincattle were predicted using a single-trait GBLUP model based on the Chinese reference dataset, and using a two-trait GBLUP model based on a joint reference dataset that included both the Chinese and Nordic Holstein data. Results The extent of linkage disequilibrium was similar in the Chinese and Nordic Holstein populations and the consistency of linkage disequilibrium between the two populations was very high, with a correlation of 0.97. Genomic prediction using the joint versus the Chinese reference dataset increased reliabilities of genomic predictions of ChineseHolstein bulls in the test data from 0.22, 0.15 and 0.11 to 0.51, 0.47 and 0.36 for milk yield, fat yield and protein yield, respectively. Using five-fold cross-validation, reliabilities of genomic predictions of Chinese cows increased from 0.15, 0.12 and 0.15 to 0.26, 0.17 and 0.20 for milk yield, fat yield and protein yield, respectively. Conclusions The linkage disequilibrium between the two populations was very consistent and using the combined Nordic and Chinese reference dataset substantially increased reliabilities of genomic predictions for ChineseHolsteincattle.
Three novel SNPs were found by DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and CRS-PCR methods were used for genotyping in 979 ChineseHolsteincattle. One SNP, G1178C, was identified in exon 2 of POU1F1 gene. Two novel SNPs, A906G and A1134G, were identified in 5'-flanking regulatory region (5'-UTR) of PRL gene. The association between polymorphisms of the two genes and milk performance traits were analyzed with PROC GLM of SAS. The results showed that GC genotype at 1178 locus of POU1F1 gene was advantageous for milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk fat yield. AG genotype at 906 locus was advantageous for milk yield. There was no significant difference between 1134 locus and milk performance traits of 5'-UTR of PRL gene. Analysis of genotype combination effect on milk production traits showed that the effect of combined genotype was not simple sum of single genotypes and the effects of gene pyramiding seemed to be more important in molecular breeding. PMID:22207382
Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...
Researchers in Canada and the United States are collaborating to develop and integrate genomic evaluations into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. There are substantially more genotyped Holstein bulls with MACE proofs than with domestic Canadian proofs in Canada. The use of...
Bonnier's equation is used to mathematically estimate the frequency of monozygotic (MZ) twinning in epidemiologic studies of twinning in dairy cattle; however, no empirical determination of MZ twinning has been reported in the literature. Our objectives were to empirically determine the frequency of MZ twinning in lactating Holstein cows and to compare this result with published estimates predicted using Bonnier's
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin protein family that binds a broad range of microorganisms and activates the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with an increased risk for various infections and arises from five polymorphisms in the promoter and first exon of the MBL gene in humans. In this study, three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region and two previously reported SNPs in exon 2 of the MBL1 gene were detected using PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequencing in 537 cattle from three Chinese breeds. Analysis of the genotypes and haplotypes was used to investigate the polymorphisms and their possible implications, especially their association with serum MBL-A levels, complement activity (CH50 and ACH50), and milk production traits was investigated. The g.2651G > A SNP in exon 2 affected the serum MBL-A concentrations and the serum CH50 values, whereas the g.-1330G > A SNP significantly affected CH50 and the somatic cell scores (SCSs). Statistical analysis revealed that cows with the ATGGC/ACAAC combined genotype and those with the AAGGT/ACGGT combined genotype exhibited the lowest and highest SCSs, respectively. Serum antibacterial activities were also conducted to verify the effect of the SNPs on resistance to mastitis pathogens. Results of real-time PCR showed that the liver of cows with clinical mastitis exhibited a higher MBL1 expression compared with healthy ones (P ? 0.05). Findings of this study indicate that the MBL1 gene possibly contributes to bacterial infection resistance and can be used as a molecular marker of milk production traits to control mastitis. PMID:21695551
Background Factor XI (FXI) is a plasma protein that participates in the formation of blood clots. Factor XI deficiency is autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that may be associated with excess bleeding in Holsteincattle. Methods In this study, 225 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened in order to identify FXI genotypes. DNA extractions were obtained from the fresh blood of the cows. Amplicons of FXI exon 12 were obtained by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. Additionally, all cows were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether or not there was a mutant allele. Results Carriers of the FXI deficiency have two DNA fragments of 320 bp and 244 bp in size. The results of our study demonstrated that only four out of the 225 Holstein cows tested in Turkey carried the FXI deficiency. The frequency of the mutant FXI allele and the prevalence of heterozygous cows were found as 0.9% and 1.8%, respectively. Conclusion The DNA-based test determines all genotypes, regardless of phenotype or FXI activity. The mutation responsible for the FXI deficiency had not been detected in Holsteincattle in Turkey before prior to this study. The frequency of the mutant FXI allele needs to be confirmed by carrying out further analyses on cattle in Turkey and the selection programs should be developed to eliminate this genetic disorder.
Recent studies of mammalian genomes have uncovered the vast extent of copy number variations (CNVs) that contribute to phenotypic diversity. Compared to SNP, a CNV can cover a wider chromosome region, which may potentially incur substantial sequence changes and induce more significant effects on phenotypes. CNV has been becoming an alternative promising genetic marker in the field of genetic analyses. Here we firstly report an account of CNV regions in the cattle genome in ChineseHolstein population. The Illumina Bovine SNP50K Beadchips were used for screening 2047 Holstein individuals. Three different programes (PennCNV, cnvPartition and GADA) were implemented to detect potential CNVs. After a strict CNV calling pipeline, a total of 99 CNV regions were identified in cattle genome. These CNV regions cover 23.24 Mb in total with an average size of 151.69 Kb. 52 out of these CNV regions have frequencies of above 1%. 51 out of these CNV regions completely or partially overlap with 138 cattle genes, which are significantly enriched for specific biological functions, such as signaling pathway, sensory perception response and cellular processes. The results provide valuable information for constructing a more comprehensive CNV map in the cattle genome and offer an important resource for investigation of genome structure and genomic variation underlying traits of interest in cattle.
Recent studies of mammalian genomes have uncovered the vast extent of copy number variations (CNVs) that contribute to phenotypic diversity. Compared to SNP, a CNV can cover a wider chromosome region, which may potentially incur substantial sequence changes and induce more significant effects on phenotypes. CNV has been becoming an alternative promising genetic marker in the field of genetic analyses. Here we firstly report an account of CNV regions in the cattle genome in ChineseHolstein population. The Illumina Bovine SNP50K Beadchips were used for screening 2047 Holstein individuals. Three different programes (PennCNV, cnvPartition and GADA) were implemented to detect potential CNVs. After a strict CNV calling pipeline, a total of 99 CNV regions were identified in cattle genome. These CNV regions cover 23.24 Mb in total with an average size of 151.69 Kb. 52 out of these CNV regions have frequencies of above 1%. 51 out of these CNV regions completely or partially overlap with 138 cattle genes, which are significantly enriched for specific biological functions, such as signaling pathway, sensory perception response and cellular processes. The results provide valuable information for constructing a more comprehensive CNV map in the cattle genome and offer an important resource for investigation of genome structure and genomic variation underlying traits of interest in cattle. PMID:23144949
The traits particularly important for milk production include milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, and the somatic cell score. Alpha-lactalbumin (?-LA) is an important whey protein of cow milk, and is also present in the milk of many other mammalian species. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of the ?-LA gene and their relationship to milk production traits (milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, and somatic cell score) in ChineseHolstein cows. The goal of this study was to contribute further molecular genetic information related to dairy cattle, to determine the molecular markers that are most closely linked with milk production traits, and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of economically relevant traits in cows. Fluorescence-based conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing, and ligation detection reaction techniques were used to analyze genetic variations of the ?-LA gene (5'-UTR, exons 1, 2, 3, 4, and 3'-UTR) in 923 ChineseHolstein cows. One novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), ?-LA2516, was identified in exon 4 of the ?-LA gene. Allele frequencies were as follows: T 0.674, C 0.326. Association analysis revealed that ?-LA2516 was not associated with milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, or somatic cell score (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that the SNP ?-LA2516 in the ?-LA gene likely does not have potential as a molecular marker for milk production traits in ChineseHolstein cows. PMID:24065678
On the basis of sequence variation in the displace- ment loop region of mtDNA, 588 Japanese and North American Holstein cows were classified into 5 mito- chondrial haplotypes, which were found in Japanese Black cattle. One of the haplotypes (named type 1), whichwaspresentatthehighestfrequencyinJapanese Black cattle, was not observed in either European or African cattle. This haplotype is characterized by 2
S. Tsuji; H. Mannen; F. Mukai; M. Shojo; K. Oyama; T. Kojima; C. Kano; Y. Kinoshita; E. Yamaguchi
In dairy cattle, 4 important recessive hereditary diseases exist: complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), citrullinemia (CTLN), and deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS). Holstein Associations in developed countries have established monitoring systems for such disorders in Holstein bulls for decades. Over the past decades, China has continuously imported Holstein semen and embryos, mainly from North America
D. X. Sun; X. H. Fan; Y. Xie; Q. Chu; Y. Sun; Y. Zhang; S. L. Zhang; W. J. Gong; S. H. Chen; Y. H. Li; W. H. Shi
Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holsteincattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...
A total of 321 individuals from six cattle populations of four species in a bovine subfamily in China were studied using 12 pairs of microsatellite markers. The genetic diversities within and between populations were calculated. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by (delta mu)(2) and DA distances, and the divergence times between populations were estimated by (delta mu)(2). Altogether, 144 microsatellite alleles were detected including 24 private alleles and nine shared alleles. ChineseHolstein had the largest number of private alleles (10), whereas, Bohai black and Buffalo had the smallest number of private alleles (2). ChineseHolstein showed the highest genetic variability. Its observed number of alleles (Na), mean effective number of alleles (MNA), and mean heterozygosity (He) were 7.7500, 4.9722, and 0.7719, respectively, whereas, the Buffalo and Yak showed low genetic variability. In the phylogenetic trees, Luxi and Holstein grouped first, followed by Bohai and Minnan. Yak branched next and buffalo emerged as the most divergent population from other cattle populations. Luxi and Bohai were estimated to have diverged 0.039-0.105 million years ago (MYA), however, buffalo and Holstein diverged 0.501-1.337 MYA. The divergence time of Yak versus Minnan, Holstein and buffalo was 0.136-0.363, 0.273-0.729, and 0.326-0.600 MYA, respectively. PMID:18222406
Records on 558,654 Holstein cows in the northeastern United States were used to calculate sire summaries for milk, fat, and stayability for 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 mo. Predicted Difference Type was ob- tained from the Holstein-Friesian Associ- ation of America. Genetic correlations between production and stayability ranged from .20 to .55 with the lowest genetic correlations with 36-
Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holsteincattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416 microsatellite markers. Single trait breeding values were used for 12 traits relating to female fertility and female reproductive disorders. Data were analyzed by least squares regression analysis within and across families. Twenty-six QTL were detected on 17 different chromosomes. The best evidence was found for QTL segregating on Bos taurus chromosome (BTA)1, BTA7, BTA10, and BTA26. On each of these chromosomes, several QTL were detected affecting more than one of the fertility traits investigated in this study. Evidence for segregation of additional QTL on BTA2, BTA9, and BTA24 was found. PMID:19389971
Höglund, J K; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S
The present study examines the impact of chronic lameness, where animals remained the same locomotion score for 3 consecutive months on lying behaviour of dairy cattle.The 59 lactating Holstein dairy cows recruited to the study, were grouped according to locomotion score (LS) where low scores indicate normal gait. LS-1 (n=16), LS-2 (n=21) and LS-3 (n=22) were used. Locomotion score groups
Nicola Blackie; Jonathan Amory; Emma Bleach; Jes Scaife
The objective of the research was to study the changes of the major organelles, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, in mammary epithelial cells of the ChineseHolstein dairy cow during mammogenesis. For this purpose, a mammary epithelial cell bank was established from 9 selected ChineseHolstein dairy cows using collagenase I digestion and attachment culture biotechniques. This cell bank included
Bo Qu; Yujun Jiang; Feng Zhao; Jianhua Xiao; Qing Zhang Li
Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel) between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs). Ten randomly selected CNVs, five genic and five non-genic, were successfully validated using quantitative real-time PCR. The CNVs are enriched for immune system genes and include genes that may contribute to lactation capacity. The majority of the CNVs (69%) were detected as regions with higher abundance in the Holstein bull. Conclusions Substantial genetic differences exist between the Black Angus and Holstein animals sequenced in this work and the Hereford reference sequence, and some of this variation is predicted to affect evolutionarily conserved amino acids or gene copy number. The deeply annotated SNPs and CNVs identified in this resequencing study can serve as useful genetic tools, and as candidates in searches for phenotype-altering DNA differences.
The objective was to test the hypothesis that dopamine regulates prolactin (PRL) secretion by determining acute changes in catecholamine concentrations in hypophyseal portal blood of cattle, and their relation to peripheral blood concentration of PRL in hypophyseal stalk-transected (HST) and sham-operated controls (SOC). Holstein heifers (606 ± 21 kg BW; mean ± SE) were subjected to neurosurgery for 8 h
D. L. Hard; R. K. Bhatnagar; J. R. Molina; L. L. Anderson
When a genetic marker and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) are in linkage disequilibrium (LD) in one population, they may not be in LD in another population or their LD phase may be reversed. The objectives of this study were to compare the extent of LD and the persistence of LD phase across multiple cattle populations. LD measures r and r(2) were calculated for syntenic marker pairs using genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were genotyped in Dutch and Australian Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls, Australian Angus cattle, and New Zealand Friesian and Jersey cows. Average r(2) was approximately 0.35, 0.25, 0.22, 0.14, and 0.06 at marker distances 10, 20, 40, 100, and 1000 kb, respectively, which indicates that genomic selection within cattle breeds with r(2) >or= 0.20 between adjacent markers would require approximately 50,000 SNPs. The correlation of r values between populations for the same marker pairs was close to 1 for pairs of very close markers (<10 kb) and decreased with increasing marker distance and the extent of divergence between the populations. To find markers that are in LD with QTL across diverged breeds, such as HF, Jersey, and Angus, would require approximately 300,000 markers. PMID:18622038
de Roos, A P W; Hayes, B J; Spelman, R J; Goddard, M E
Factor XI (F XI) is a plasma protein that participates in the blood coagulation process. A study of the expression of F XI activity in Holsteincattle has confirmed that the inheritance of F XI deficiency is autosomal with severe deficiency in homozygotes (mean F XI level 2%, SD 1%), and partial deficiency in heterozygotes (mean F XI level 38%, SD 10%; normal mean F XI level 94%, SD 21%). In a total of 1469 males evaluated for F XI levels, 47 or 3.1% were identified as heterozygous and only one as homozygous for the disorder. In part because of the lack of a discrete distinction in the expression of F XI between heterozygous and normal animals, not all of the animals tested could be uniquely classified on the basis of the plasma F XI values. A mean F XI value of 53% (SD 7%) was found in a group of animals that were categorized as low normal/high heterozygous. If this group of cattle had been classified on the basis of the criterion used to classify human beings then these animals would have been categorized as heterozygous since the mean F XI value for proven bovine heterozygotes is approximately 20% lower than the values found in the human counterpart. Like the human form of the disease, however, there appears to be a low frequency of hemorrhagic episodes associated with F XI deficiency in cattle.
The purpose of this study was to estimate and discuss the genetic variation, heritability, and effects of nongenetic factors on the ability of Holstein-Friesian cows to produce an immune response by producing IgG antibodies to Ostertagia ostertagi. Total IgG (IgG(1) and IgG(2)) antibody levels were determined using an ELISA and measured using optical density ratio (ODR=OD(sample) - OD(negative control)/OD(positive control) - OD(negative control)) from milk samples collected from 1,276 Holstein-Friesian cattle in 229 commercial dairy farms from 2002 to 2004 during their first (82%) and other (2 to 12) lactations. A sire (n=461) model was fitted to the ODR data using ASREML software, and variance components were estimated. The ability to produce O. ostertagi antibodies as measured by ODR had a heritability of 0.13+/-0.12, and both season of sample and herd had a significant effect on total IgG levels. To conclude, this study has ascertained that genetic variation is present in the ability of dairy cows to mount an immune response to the parasite O. ostertagi. Inasmuch as evidence exists that IgG is linked to protective immunity against the parasite via a reduction in its reproductive ability, this trait may be of potential interest to genetic selection programs as an aid to reduce the effect of O. ostertagi in dairy herds. PMID:20412939
Hayhurst, C; Bradley, A; Forbes, A B; Hunter, K; Royal, M D
A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic values of 15 milk production, functional, growth and carcass traits for Hungarian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The calculations were carried out for the situation in Hungary from 2000 to 2007, assuming no production quotas. The marginal economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a production system with dairy cow herds and with sales of surplus male calves. The economic weights for maternal and direct components of traits were calculated multiplying the marginal economic values by the number of discounted expression summed over a 25-year investment period for 2-year-old bulls (candidates for selection). The standardized economic weight (economic weight x genetic standard deviation) of the trait or trait component expressed as percentage of the sum of the standardized economic weights for all traits and trait components represented the relative economic importance of this trait or trait component. The highest relative economic importance was obtained for milk yield (25%), followed by productive lifetime of cows (23%), protein yield and the direct component of a cow's total conception rate (9% each), the maternal effect of the total conception rate of cows and the somatic cell score (approximately 7% each), fat yield (5%) and mature weight of cows and daily gain in rearing of calves (approximately 4% each). Other functional traits (clinical mastitis incidence, calving difficulty score, total conception rate of heifers and calf mortality) reached a relative economic importance between 0.5% and 2%. Birth weight and dressing percentage were least important (<0.5%). Based on these results, the inclusion of productive lifetime and cow fertility in the breeding programme for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary is advisable. PMID:20433523
Komlósi, I; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Farkas, B; Szendrei, Z; Béri, B
Background Copy number variation (CNV) has been recently identified in human and other mammalian genomes, and there is a growing awareness of CNV's potential as a major source for heritable variation in complex traits. Genomic selection is a newly developed tool based on the estimation of breeding values for quantitative traits through the use of genome-wide genotyping of SNPs. Over 30,000 Holstein bulls have been genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, which includes 54,001 SNPs (~SNP/50,000 bp), some of which fall within CNV regions. Results We used the BeadChip data obtained for 912 Israeli bulls to investigate the effects of CNV on SNP calls. For each of the SNPs, we estimated the frequencies of occurrence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and of gain, based either on deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or on signal intensity (SI) using the PennCNV "detect" option. Correlations between LOH/CNV frequencies predicted by the two methods were low (up to r = 0.08). Nevertheless, 418 locations displayed significantly high frequencies by both methods. Efficiency of designating large genomic clusters of olfactory receptors as CNVs was 29%. Frequency values for copy loss were distinguishable in non-autosomal regions, indicating misplacement of a region in the current BTA7 map. Analysis of BTA18 placed major quantitative trait loci affecting net merit in the US Holstein population in regions rich in segmental duplications and CNVs. Enrichment of transporters in CNV loci suggested their potential effect on milk-production traits. Conclusions Expansion of HWE and PennCNV analyses allowed estimating LOH/CNV frequencies, and combining the two methods yielded more sensitive detection of inherited CNVs and better estimation of their possible effects on cattle genetics. Although this approach was more effective than methodologies previously applied in cattle, it has severe limitations. Thus the number of CNVs reported here for the Holstein breed may represent as little as one-tenth of inherited common structural variation.
The aim of this study was to estimate the allele frequencies in polymorphic site of exon six of POU1F1 gene in three Iranian native and Holsteincattle. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3 Iranian native cattle breeds, including 97 Mazandarani, 87 Sarabi, 112 Golpaygani and also 110 Holsteincattle. A 451 bp fragment of intron 5 and exon 6 were amplified and digested with HinfI restriction enzyme. Frequencies of allele A were 0.37, 0.27, 0.34 and 0.21 for Mazandarani, Sarabi, Golpaygani and Holsteincattle, respectively. Significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Mazandarani or Golpaygani and Holsteincattle. No significant differences in genotype frequencies were found between Sarabi and Holsteincattle. Transition A to G in nucleotide 1256 is responsible for HinfI(-) allele. No significant association was observed between POU1F1 polymorphism and milk production. Differences in allelic frequency between native Bos indicus breeds (Mazandarani, Golpaygani) and Holstein at the present study might be due to differences in origin breeds, low number of samples and/or as the effect of natural selection in native breeds. PMID:19070133
Zakizadeh, S; Reissmann, M; Rahimi, G; Javaremi, A Nejati; Reinecke, P; Mirae-Ashtiani, S R; Shahrbabak, M Moradi
The decline in the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle has become a challenging problem worldwide. Female fertility is now taken into account in breeding goals while generally less attention is given to male fertility. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study in Holstein bulls to identify genetic variants significantly related to sire conception rate (SCR), a new phenotypic evaluation of bull fertility. The analysis included 1755 sires with SCR data and 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the entire bovine genome. Associations between SNPs and SCR were analyzed using a mixed linear model that included a random polygenic effect and SNP genotype either as a linear covariate or as a categorical variable. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs because of linkage disequilibrium. After genome-wide correction, eight SNPs showed significant association with SCR. Some of these SNPs are located close to or in the middle of genes with functions related to male fertility, such as the sperm acrosome reaction, chromatin remodeling during the spermatogenesis, and the meiotic process during male germ cell maturation. Some SNPs showed marked dominance effects, which provide more evidence for the relevance of non-additive effects in traits closely related to fitness such as fertility. The results could contribute to the identification of genes and pathways associated with male fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:22742504
The objectives of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for body condition score (BCS) and locomotion (LOC), and to assess their relationships with angularity (ANG), milk yield, fat and protein content, and fat to protein content ratio (F:P) in the Italian Holstein Friesian breed. The Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association collects type trait data once on all registered first lactation cows. Body condition score and LOC were introduced in the conformation scoring system in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Variance (and covariance) components among traits were estimated with a Bayesian approach via a Gibbs sampling algorithm and an animal model. Heritability estimates were 0.114 and 0.049 for BCS and LOC, respectively. The genetic correlation between BCS and LOC was weak (-0.084) and not different from zero; therefore, the traits seem to be genetically independent, but further investigation on possible departures from linearity of this relationship is needed. Angularity was strongly negatively correlated with BCS (-0.612), and strongly positively correlated with LOC (0.650). The genetic relationship of milk yield with BCS was moderately negative (-0.386), and was moderately positive (0.238) with LOC. These results indicate that high-producing cows tend to be thinner and tend to have better locomotion than low-producing cows. The genetic correlation of BCS with fat content (0.094) and F:P (-0.014) was very weak and not different from zero, and with protein content (0.173) was weak but different from zero. Locomotion was weakly correlated with fat content (0.071), protein content (0.028), and F:P (0.074), and correlations were not different from zero. Phenotypic correlations were generally weaker than their genetic counterparts, ranging from -0.241 (BCS with ANG) to 0.245 (LOC with ANG). Before including BCS and LOC in the selection index of the Italian Holstein breed, the correlations with other traits currently used to improve type and functionality of animals need to be investigated. PMID:23726426
Battagin, M; Sartori, C; Biffani, S; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M
A genome-wide association study was conducted using a mixed model analysis for QTL for fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holsteincattle. The analysis incorporated 2,531 progeny tested bulls, and a total of 36,387 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Eleven fertility traits were analyzed for SNP association. Furthermore, mixed model analysis was used for association analyses where a polygenic effect was fitted as a random effect, and genotypes at single SNPs were successively included as a fixed effect in the model. The Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied to adjust the significance threshold. Seventy-four SNP-trait combinations showed chromosome-wide significance, and five of these were significant genome-wide. Twenty-four QTL regions on 14 chromosomes were detected. Strong evidence for the presence of QTL that affect fertility traits were observed on chromosomes 3, 5, 10, 13, 19, 20, and 24. The QTL intervals were generally smaller than those described in earlier linkage studies. The identification of fertility trait-associated SNPs and mapping of the corresponding QTL in small chromosomal regions reported here will facilitate searches for candidate genes and candidate polymorphisms. PMID:20477799
Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S
Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.
The involvement of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) in immune system and its role in susceptibility/resistance to infectious diseases has been extensively studied. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the association between BoLA and gait scores. Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in BoLA gene are associated with susceptibility of lameness in 435 ChineseHolstein cows. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3.2 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with three restriction endonucleases (BstUI, BstYI and HaeIII). The relationship between the polymorphisms in BoLA-DRB3.2 gene and gait scores was analyzed by least-squares linear model. The gait score was non-significant among all five BstUI-RFLP and BstYI-RFLP genotypes. However, analysis of seven HaeIII-RFLP genotypes revealed a significantly higher gait score for AB genotype than others. In conclusion, BoLA-DRB3.2 may be a candidate gene for lameness susceptibility in ChineseHolstein cows. PMID:23065285
BLAD (Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency) and DUMPS (Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase) are monogenic autosomal, recessive inherited diseases of Holsteincattle. Single nucleotide changes (point mutations) responsible for the genetic disorders were detected by polymerase chain reaction coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism assays (PCR-RFLP). Using oligonucleotide primers, DNA fragments of predicted sizes were amplified, and the products' specificity was assessed by nucleotide sequencing. Mutations were detected in DNA samples from bovine blood and semen by the presence or absence of restriction sites within the PCR amplification products (Taq I, Hae III for BLAD, Ava I for DUMPS). The test included 104 bulls and 950 cows of Argentinean Holstein breed. Defective alleles frequencies were as follows: 2.88% BLAD in bulls used in artificial insemination, 1.79% in cows; 0.96% DUMPS in bulls and 0.11% in cows. PMID:8693839
Poli, M A; Dewey, R; Semorile, L; Lozano, M E; Albarińo, C G; Romanowski, V; Grau, O
A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either
Gobena Ameni; Abraham Aseffa; Howard Engers; Douglas Young; Stephen Gordon; Glyn Hewinson; Martin Vordermeier
Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature ChineseHolstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 ChineseHolstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM. PMID:22327646
This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO) gene locus on milk composition in German Holsteincattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans. PMID:23691044
An experiment was carried out to study the glucose kinetics of crossbred Holsteincattle feeding on either hay or 5% urea treated rice straw during late pregnancy (21 days prepartum) and early lactation (30 days postpartum). In all 16 pregnant heifers (23-25 months of age) were selected for the experiments, including eight animals of two breed types, Holstein Friesian x Red Sindhi (50:50 = 50% HF) and Holstein Friesian x Red Sindhi (87.5:12.5 = 87.5% HF). They were divided into four groups of four animals each. Animals from the same breed type in each group were fed with either rice straw treated with 5% urea or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage throughout the experiments. The glucose turnover rate in both types of crossbred Holsteincattle was determined using a continuous infusion of [U-14C] and 3-[3H]glucose during late pregnancy and early lactation. Total glucose entry and utilization rates increased significantly during lactation for all groups. Recycling of [C]glucose was, approximately 20% in both crossbred cattle fed either hay or urea treated rice straw and was unaffected by the stage of late pregnancy or early lactation. Comparing 50 and 87.5% HF animals, arterial plasma glucose concentrations were slightly higher during pregnant periods but significantly higher in lactating periods in 50% HF animals. The ratio of specific radioactivity of arterial blood bicarbonate relative to that of arterial blood [14C]glucose in the lactating period, significantly decreased in 50% HF animals fed either urea treated rice straw or hay. An increase in udder blood flow during early lactation was significantly higher in 87.5% HF animals than in 50% HF animals. The uptake, arteriovenous differences and extraction ratio for glucose across the udder, significantly increased in the lactating period for all crossbred animals. Glucose uptake by the udder of 87.5% HF animals accounted for 65% of the total glucose turnover rate compared to a value of 46% in the lactating 50% HF animals. It can be concluded that both crossbred cattle fed either urea treated rice straw or hay exhibit the same body glucose turnover rate. The 87.5% HF animal has the genetic potential for a high milk yield and has high body and udder glucose metabolisms compared with 50% HF animals. PMID:9773484
Chaiyabutr, N; Komolvanich, S; Sawangkoon, S; Preuksagorn, S; Chanpongsang, S
Viability and health disorders were compared for straightbred Holsteins and crosses between Holsteins, Brown Swiss, Jerseys, and Red Sindhis. In addition, effects of mating systems and effects of various parts of Red Sindhi heredity on these traits were evaluated. Losses before first calving per 100 females born alive were: Holsteins 22; Holstein-sired crosses 20: Brown Swiss-sired crosses 26; daughters of crossbred sires group I (sires had from 1/4 to 1/16 Red Sindhi heredity) 24; and group II (sires were all European breeds) 31. Losses in first-gestation from abortions and stillbirths were: Holsteins 20% and crossbreds 9%. In first lactation, incidence of foot rot and anaplasmosis was higher among Holsteins (13% and 16%) than in crossbreds (5% and 8%) whereas the incidence was less among crosses with Red Sindhi heredity (3% and 2%) than in all European breed crosses (9% and 17%). When progeny produced by criss-crossing to purebred sires were compared with progeny from random mating to crossbred sires, the former had a greater incidence of mastitis (30% versus 19%) and anaplasmosis (11% versus 2%). There was no differences between Holsteins and crossbreds in overall viability. However, there was considerable variation between breeds at the various ages. PMID:1112938
We have constructed, and are currently characterizing a normalized cDNA library developed from intestinal tissues of Holstein dairy cattle. The library was synthesized from mRNA isolated from duodenal, jejunal and ileal segments of the small intestines of a lactating dairy cow and neonatal calf. A...
Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holsteincattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...
The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in ChineseHolstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from ChineseHolstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal ChineseHolstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of ChineseHolstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter.
Favorable uterine involution and ovarian activity are very important for the next reproductive cycle of postpartum cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parity on uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in ChineseHolstein dairy cows after calving under similar postpartum nutritional conditions. Traits of the status of uterus and ovaries detected by ultrasonography, dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, body condition score (BCS), and estradiol concentration in milk samples were analyzed for 46 ChineseHolstein dairy cows in various parities (primiparous=18; biparous=13; multiparous=15). The results showed that there was no significant difference for DMI, BCS, and milk yield among different parities; all cows were considered to be under similar nutritional conditions. Days of the previous gravid uterine horn involution were significantly greater in primiparous dairy cows than in biparous and multiparous dairy cows. Days from calving to ovulation (first and second) and the number of follicular waves to first ovulation were significantly greater in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows. In summary, there was a significant negative relationship between parity and postpartum uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in ChineseHolstein cows under similar body conditions. PMID:20412911
Zhang, J; Deng, L X; Zhang, H L; Hua, G H; Han, L; Zhu, Y; Meng, X J; Yang, L G
Trait uniformity, or micro-environmental sensitivity, may be studied through individual differences in residual variance. These differences appear to be heritable, and the need exists, therefore, to fit models to predict breeding values explaining differences in residual variance. The aim of this paper is to estimate breeding values for micro-environmental sensitivity (vEBV) in milk yield and somatic cell score, and their associated variance components, on a large dairy cattle data set having more than 1.6 million records. Estimation of variance components, ordinary breeding values, and vEBV was performed using standard variance component estimation software (ASReml), applying the methodology for double hierarchical generalized linear models. Estimation using ASReml took less than 7 d on a Linux server. The genetic standard deviations for residual variance were 0.21 and 0.22 for somatic cell score and milk yield, respectively, which indicate moderate genetic variance for residual variance and imply that a standard deviation change in vEBV for one of these traits would alter the residual variance by 20%. This study shows that estimation of variance components, estimated breeding values and vEBV, is feasible for large dairy cattle data sets using standard variance component estimation software. The possibility to select for uniformity in Holstein dairy cattle based on these estimates is discussed. PMID:23415533
Rönnegĺrd, L; Felleki, M; Fikse, W F; Mulder, H A; Strandberg, E
Recently, selective breeding was proposed as a means of changing the fatty acid composition of milk to improve its nutritional quality. Before implementing such breeding objectives, effects on other economically important traits should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to examine 1) the effect of milk fat composition, and 2) the effect of polymorphisms of DGAT1 and SCD1 genes on female fertility in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,745 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. We found that higher concentrations of trans fatty acids within total milk fat negatively affected reproductive performance. Furthermore, results suggested a potential effect of the DGAT1 polymorphism on nonreturn rates for insemination 28 and 56 d after the first service. Our results can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk fat composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation. PMID:19841232
Demeter, R M; Schopen, G C B; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Meuwissen, M P M; van Arendonk, J A M
Relationships between polymorphism type at nine genetic loci and first lactation production of Holstein cows were investi- gated. The total data included 3,107 lacta- tions, which represented 18 years, 126 sires, and 8 herds. The analyses included adjustments for herd, sire, year, and sea- son effects. Significant milk and fat yield differences were indicated for the F blood group system.
E. W. Brum; W. H. Rausch; H. C. Hines; T. M. Ludwick
We examined pedigrees of 440,702 males and 526,956 females born during 1960 through 1979 and registered in the herdbook of the Holstein Association. Annual trends in genetic merit of sires, dams, maternal grandsires, and maternal granddams were determined from their estimated transmitting abilities. Genetic merit of parents changed substantially after more accurate procedures for estimating transmitting abilities were introduced in
Two point mutations were identified within the gene encoding bovine CD18 in a Holstein calf afflicted with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD). One mutation causes an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the highly conserved extracellular region of this adhesion glycoprotein, a region where several mutations have been found to cause human LAD. The other mutation
Dale E. Shuster; Marcus E. Kehrli Jr.; Mark R. Ackermann; Robert O. Gilbert
Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cows to determine the influence of time of day (AM vs PM), parity, and lactation phase [ 60 d in milk (DIM)] on shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), Escherichia coli (EC),...
Background The focus in dairy cattle breeding is gradually shifting from production to functional traits and genetic parameters of calving traits are estimated more frequently. However, across countries, various statistical models are used to estimate these parameters. This study evaluates different models for calving ease and stillbirth in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian cattle. Methods Data from first and later parity records were used. Genetic parameters for calving ease, stillbirth and gestation length were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method, considering different models i.e. sire (?maternal grandsire), animal, univariate and bivariate models. Gestation length was fitted as a correlated indicator trait and, for all three traits, genetic correlations between first and later parities were estimated. Potential bias in estimates was avoided by acknowledging a possible environmental direct-maternal covariance. The total heritable variance was estimated for each trait to discuss its theoretical importance and practical value. Prediction error variances and accuracies were calculated to compare the models. Results and discussion On average, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving traits were low, except for direct gestation length. Calving ease in first parity had a significant and negative direct-maternal genetic correlation. Gestation length was maternally correlated to stillbirth in first parity and directly correlated to calving ease in later parities. Multi-trait models had a slightly greater predictive ability than univariate models, especially for the lowly heritable traits. The computation time needed for sire (?maternal grandsire) models was much smaller than for animal models with only small differences in accuracy. The sire (?maternal grandsire) model was robust when additional genetic components were estimated, while the equivalent animal model had difficulties reaching convergence. Conclusions For the evaluation of calving traits, multi-trait models show a slight advantage over univariate models. Extended sire models (?maternal grandsire) are more practical and robust than animal models. Estimated genetic parameters for calving traits of UK Holsteincattle are consistent with literature. Calculating an aggregate estimated breeding value including direct and maternal values should encourage breeders to consider both direct and maternal effects in selection decisions.
. Seventy to 75 sons of each of six Holstein sires were assayed for genotypes at a number of microsatellite loci spanning Chromosomes\\u000a (Chrs) 1 and 6. The number of informative loci varied from three to eight on each chromosome in different sire families. Linkage\\u000a order and map distance for microsatellite loci were estimated using CRI-MAP. Estimates of QTL effect
Jeyakumary Nadesalingam; Yves Plante; John P. Gibson
ABSTRACT Sons (n = 71 to 75) of each of six Holstein sires were genotyped,at 69 microsatellite,loci covering,a total of 676 cM on chromosomes 3, 5, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 23, and 26. Estimates,of quantitative,trait loci (QTL) effect and location were,made,using a least squares,interval mapping,approach,based,on daughter,yield deviations of sons for 305 d milk, fat, and protein yield and
Y. Plante; J. P. Gibson; J. Nadesalingam; H. Mehrabani-Yeganeh; S. Lefebvre; G. Vandervoort; G. B. Jansen
Calving records from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, collected from January 1991 to December 2007 and comprising 1,163,594 Holstein calving events from 2,552 herds, were analyzed using a linear animal model, linear sire model, threshold animal model, and threshold sire model to estimate variance components, heritabilities, genetic correlations, and genetic trends for twinning rate in the first, second, and
N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh; A. Nejati-Javaremi; S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani; H. Kohram
To determine the origin and genetic diversity of Chinesecattle, we analyzed the complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of 84 cattle from 14 breeds\\/populations from southwest and west China, together with the available cattle sequences in GenBank. Our results showed that the Chinesecattle samples converged into two main groups, which correspond to the two species Bos taurus and Bos indicus.
Song-Jia Lai; Yi-Ping Liu; Yan-Xing Liu; Xue-Wei Li; Yong-Gang Yao
Background: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the pro...
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) belongs to the transforming growth factor ? superfamily and plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate. We examined the bovine GDF9 gene polymorphism and analyzed its association with superovulation performance. Based on the sequence of the bovine GDF9 gene, six pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of two exons and intron 1 of GDF9 using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism. Only the products amplified by primer 3-1 displayed polymorphisms. Sequencing revealed two mutations of A485T and A625T in intron 1 of the GDF9 gene in 171 ChineseHolstein cows treated for superovulation. Association analysis showed that these two single nucleotide polymorphisms of A485T and A625T had significant effects on the number of transferable embryos (P < 0.05), and the A625T polymorphism was significantly associated with the total number of ova (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant additive effect on the number of transferable embryos was detected in polymorphisms of A485T (P < 0.05). This study is the first to identify two polymorphisms in bovine GDF9 and describe their correlation with superovulation traits in ChineseHolstein cows. PMID:23420363
The objective of the research was to study the changes of the major organelles, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, in mammary epithelial cells of the ChineseHolstein dairy cow during mammogenesis. For this purpose, a mammary epithelial cell bank was established from 9 selected ChineseHolstein dairy cows using collagenase I digestion and attachment culture biotechniques. This cell bank included 9 samples at stages of pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes of ER and mitochondria in the mammary cells were observed at the subcellular level using living cell fluorescent labeling and laser confocal microscopy. Subsequently, the area of integrated optical density of each sample was calculated to determine changes of ER and mitochondria in the mammary epithelial cells. The results showed clear differences in the epithelial major organelles during the various mammary gland development stages. The ER and mitochondria, as an indicator of lactogenic activity of alveolar secretory cells, increased in number from pregnancy to lactation by an average 37.32% and 18.44%, respectively, which was followed by a reduction at involution by an average 38.04% and 22.91% compared to lactation. Our study shows that the stages of mammogenesis are accompanied by changes in activity of the major organelles of the mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21920588
Selective breeding can change milk protein composition to improve the manufacturing properties of milk. However, the effects of such breeding strategies on other economically important traits should be investigated before implementation. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between cow fertility traits and (1) milk protein composition and (2) milk protein variants (?-lactoglobulin, ?-casein, ?-casein, and ?-?-casein) in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,644 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. Greater relative concentration of ?(S1)-casein within total milk protein had a positive phenotypic relationship with nonreturn rates and calving rate after first insemination. Furthermore, results showed virtually no significant relationship between cow fertility and concentration of other milk proteins or milk protein variants. Results of this study can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk protein composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation. Our findings suggest that selecting cows based on milk protein composition or milk protein variants for improved manufacturing properties would have no negative influence on reproductive performance. PMID:20965365
Demeter, R M; Markiewicz, K; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H
Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics.
Background The impact of additive-genetic relationships captured by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the accuracy of genomic breeding values (GEBVs) has been demonstrated, but recent studies on data obtained from Holstein populations have ignored this fact. However, this impact and the accuracy of GEBVs due to linkage disequilibrium (LD), which is fairly persistent over generations, must be known to implement future breeding programs. Materials and methods The data set used to investigate these questions consisted of 3,863 German Holstein bulls genotyped for 54,001 SNPs, their pedigree and daughter yield deviations for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield and somatic cell score. A cross-validation methodology was applied, where the maximum additive-genetic relationship (amax) between bulls in training and validation was controlled. GEBVs were estimated by a Bayesian model averaging approach (BayesB) and an animal model using the genomic relationship matrix (G-BLUP). The accuracy of GEBVs due to LD was estimated by a regression approach using accuracy of GEBVs and accuracy of pedigree-based BLUP-EBVs. Results Accuracy of GEBVs obtained by both BayesB and G-BLUP decreased with decreasing amax for all traits analyzed. The decay of accuracy tended to be larger for G-BLUP and with smaller training size. Differences between BayesB and G-BLUP became evident for the accuracy due to LD, where BayesB clearly outperformed G-BLUP with increasing training size. Conclusions GEBV accuracy of current selection candidates varies due to different additive-genetic relationships relative to the training data. Accuracy of future candidates can be lower than reported in previous studies because information from close relatives will not be available when selection on GEBVs is applied. A Bayesian model averaging approach exploits LD information considerably better than G-BLUP and thus is the most promising method. Cross-validations should account for family structure in the data to allow for long-lasting genomic based breeding plans in animal and plant breeding.
PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed to screen the genetic variation of VEGF gene in 671 individuals belonging to three Chinese indigenous cattle breeds including Nanyang, Jiaxian Red and Qinchuan. Three haplotypes (A, B and C), four observed genotypes (AA, AB, BB and AC) and three new SNPs (6765T>C ss130456744, 6860A>G ss130456745, 6893T>C ss130456746) were detected. The analysis suggested that one SNP (ss130456744) in the bovine VEGF gene had significant effects on birth weight, body weight and heart girth at 6 months old in the Nanyang breed (P < 0.05). The results showed that the SNP (ss130456744) in intron 2 of the VEGF gene is associated with early development and growth of Chinesecattle. These findings raise hope that this polymorphism can be a molecular breeding marker in breeding strategies through marker assisted selection (MAS) in Chinese domestic cattle. PMID:20376703
Grooming is a normal behavior that may contribute to relief of stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of access to a mechanical brush on auto-grooming behavior in parturient cows. The hypothesis was that cows would increase the total time spent scratching using the brush if they had access to a brush around the time of calving, whereas auto-grooming would be lower for the brush group compared with the no-brush group. The use of a mechanical brush was analyzed both in a group-housed pen (72 to 48 h before calving) and in an individual maternity pen (6h before to 6h after calving) in 16 multiparous Holstein cows. In the maternity pen, cows were randomly assigned to have access to the brush or not. The provision of a mechanical brush in the individual maternity pen did not change the amount of time spent auto-grooming but cows did use the brush before calving and after the calf was removed. Despite being housed in pens containing a brush, cows failed to use it when the calf was present. However, cows with access to a brush spent more time licking their calves in the first hour postcalving (?=8.7 min; 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 15.8) than cows that did not have access to a brush. Regardless of treatment, cows increased the time spent auto-grooming and scratching following separation of their newborn calf (?=1.4 min; 95% confidence interval: 0.46, 2.3 and ?=0.07 min; 95% confidence interval: 0.02, 0.12, respectively). Further research is warranted to investigate possible benefits of mechanical brush devices at the time of calving, particularly for cows that experience difficult calving and require manual or mechanical assistance. PMID:23462171
Newby, Nathalie C; Duffield, Todd F; Pearl, David L; Leslie, Ken E; Leblanc, Stephen J; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G
We report on a complete genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk protein percentage (PP) in the Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle population, applying a selective DNA pooling strategy in a daughter design. Ten Holstein-Friesian sires were chosen, and for each sire, about 200 daughters, each from the high and low tails of estimated breeding value for PP, were used to construct milk DNA pools. Sires and pools were genotyped for 181 dinucleotide microsatellites covering all cattle autosomes. Sire marker allele frequencies in the pools were obtained by shadow correction of peak height in the electropherograms. After quality control, pool data from eight sires were used for all subsequent analyses. The QTL heterozygosity estimate was lower than that of similar studies in other cattle populations. Multiple marker mapping identified 19 QTL located on 14 chromosomes (BTA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 27). The sires were also genotyped for seven polymorphic sites in six candidate genes (ABCG2, SPP1, casein kappa, DGAT1, GHR and PRLR) located within QTL regions of BTA6, 14 and 20 found in this study. The results confirmed or excluded the involvement of some of the analysed markers as the causative polymorphic sites of the identified QTL. The QTL identified, combined with genotype data of these candidate genes, will help to identify other quantitative trait genes and clarify the complex QTL patterns observed for a few chromosomes. Overall, the results are consistent with the Italian Holstein population having been under long-term selection for high PP. PMID:22742505
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle causes Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL). About 30% of infected cattle develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL), a 0.1-5% develops tumors, and a 70% remains asymptomatic in an aleukemic stage (AL). Regulatory genes of BLV (Tax, Rex, R3 and G4) are located in a region known as pX(BLV). The variability of those genes had been postulated with the progression of the disease. The aim of this work was to compare the wild-type proviral pX(BLV) region at different stages of BLV natural infected cattle from Argentine Holstein. Pairs of primers were designed to amplify the proviral pX region of 12 cattle by PCR, and products were then sequenced, aligned and compared both with each other and with the reference sequence. Results show a divergence percentage from 0 to 6.1 for the Tax gene, from 0 to 9.4% for the Rex gene, from 0 to 12.1% for the R3 gene and finally from 0 to 6.5% for the G4 gene. Results obtained with hierarchical clustering showed two clusters well differentiated, where the members of each cluster are cattle that had tumor, PL and AL, not allowing differentiate those two cluster by clinical stage. PMID:23165139
Panei, Carlos Javier; Serena, María Soledad; Metz, Germán Ernesto; Bravi, María Emilia; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela
PCR-SSCP was used to analyze the polymorphism of leptin gene in 539 samples of six cattle breeds, namely Nanyang (NY), Qinchuan (QC), Jiaxianred (JXR), Xizhen (XZ), Luxi (LX), and Holstein cow (HOL) breeds. PCR products with a 330 bp were amplified and sequenced. The results showed that the frequencies of alleles A\\/B of NY, QC, JXR, XZ, LX, and HOL
Dongying Yang; Hong Chen; Xinzhuang Wang; Zhihuan Tian; Ligang Tang; Zhengfeng Zhang; Chuzhao Lei; Liangzhi Zhang; Yimin Wang
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5? promoter, intronic, and 3? regulatory regions, encompassing ~5?kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P?0.05) were identified between six SNPs (four novel and two previously identified) and milk composition, survival, body condition score, and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T) in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P?0.05) with increased cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3? region of IGF-1 were associated (P?0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P?0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.
Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of polymer-coated urea on nitrogen retention, rumen microbial growth, and milk production and composition. Coated urea (CU) that is more slowly hydrolyzed to ammonia than unprotected urea could potentially be used more efficiently by rumen microorganisms. Eight cows were offered each of three diets in a randomized crossover design. Each treatment period consisted of a 14-d adjustment period and a 5-d collection period. Diets were formulated to maintain milk production while reducing plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and urinary nitrogen excretion. Diets consisted of corn silage, mixed grass/legume haylage, chopped alfalfa hay, corn meal, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements, in a total mixed ration and fed ad libitum. The diets contained 17.9%, 18.1%, and 16.4% CP and 0, 0.77%, and 0.77% CU (dry matter basis) and are denoted as CP18-CU, CP18+CU, and CP16+CU, respectively. Individual feed intakes were measured, and total fecal, and urine collections were conducted. Cows were milked twice daily at 0500 and 1700 h, and the milk sampled for composition and milk urea N analysis. Dry matter intake averaged 23.5 +/- 0.2 kg/d and was not altered by diet. Also, milk fat and true protein were not altered by diet and averaged 3.72 and 3.07%, respectively. Milk yield was highest for diets CP18-CU and CP18+CU. Significant differences were observed in N intake and excretion in urine, feces, and milk between dietary treatments. Cows fed CP16+CU consumed 11% less N than in CP18-CU. Cows fed CP18+CU showed the highest excretion of N in urine, and together with CP16+CU, the lowest N excretion in feces. Nitrogen excretion in milk was lower for cows fed CP16+CU. Calculated N balance was not significantly different between diets nor was it significantly different from zero. Efficiency of N capture in milk protein as a function of N intake was higher for animals on CP16+CU. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives was not different between diets, and estimated microbial CP was also similar. Coated urea was not effective at reducing nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle. PMID:12836952
Galo, E; Emanuele, S M; Sniffen, C J; White, J H; Knapp, J R
Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (ORallele?=?0.64; ?log10Pallele?=?6.8, ?log10Pgenotype?=?7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holsteincattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA.
Genetic association analysis was applied to examine the effect of the Na+\\/K+-ATPase beta 2 subunit (ATP1B2) gene on rectal temperature, milk traits, K+ levels and Na+\\/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity in the red blood cells of 1001 ChineseHolstein cows under normal and heat-stress conditions. We detected\\u000a two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms, G2258A and C2833T, in the second and fourth introns, respectively,
The objective of this research was to estimate herita- bilities of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and lactose in the first 3 parities and their genetic relationships with milk,fat,protein,andSCS inCanadianHolsteins.Data were a random sample of complete herds (60,645 test day records of 5,022 cows from 91 herds) extracted from the edited data set, which included 892,039 test-day records of 144,622 Holstein
F. Miglior; A. Sewalem; J. Jamrozik; J. Bohmanova; D. M. Lefebvre; R. K. Moore
Previously, our laboratory showed that Holsteincattle experimentally infected with Neospora caninum develop parasite-specific CD-4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that lyse infected, autologous target cells through a perforin-granzyme pathway. To identify specific parasite antigens inducing bovine C...
The objective of this study was to identify alternative transcripts and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of bovine malic enzyme (ME1) gene and to evaluate the extent to which polymorphisms were associated with meat quality and carcass traits in Chinese red cattle. Two transcripts, long transcript and short transcript that differ in the length of the 3' UTR were cloned. A single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in 3' UTR and a restriction site for endonuclease ME1-Dra I was also found. The result revealed that the ME1-Dra I genotypes had a significant effect on cooking loss, pH measured 24h post-mortem (pH(24h)) and eye muscle area (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the SNPs may be used as DNA markers to select for meat quality and carcass traits in Chinese red cattle. PMID:21504841
Body weights and five linear body mea- surements of reciprocal crossbred and pure- bred Holstein and Guernsey females were analyzed and compared. Weights and measurements were taken at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 months of age. Means of the crossbreds were larger than those of the purebreds at all ages for all variables. Effects of crossbreeding
Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low- heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (>= 1.7; n=288) or low (<= -2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was geno...
PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed to screen the genetic variation of VEGF gene in 671 individuals belonging to three Chinese indigenous cattle breeds including Nanyang, Jiaxian Red and Qinchuan.\\u000a Three haplotypes (A, B and C), four observed genotypes (AA, AB, BB and AC) and three new SNPs (6765T>C ss130456744, 6860A>G\\u000a ss130456745, 6893T>C ss130456746) were detected. The analysis suggested
Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinesecattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinesecattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232
Background The somatic cell score (SCS) is implemented in routine sire evaluations in many countries as an indicator trait for udder health. Somatic cell score is highly correlated with clinical mastitis, and in the German Holstein population quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SCS have been repeatedly mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18). In the present study, we report a refined analysis of previously detected QTL regions on BTA18 with the aim of identifying marker and marker haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with SCS. A combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium approach was implemented, and association analyses of marker genotypes and maternally inherited two-marker-haplotypes were conducted to identify marker and haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with a locus affecting SCS in the German Holstein population. Results We detected a genome-wide significant QTL within marker interval 9 (HAMP_c.366+109G>A - BMS833) in the middle to telomeric region on BTA18 and a second putative QTL in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A). Association analyses with genotypes of markers flanking the most likely QTL positions revealed the microsatellite marker BMS833 (interval 9) to be associated with a locus affecting SCS within the families investigated. A further analysis of maternally inherited two-marker haplotypes and effects of maternally inherited two-marker-interval gametes indicated haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) to be associated with SCS in the German Holstein population. Conclusion Our results confirmed previous QTL mapping results for SCS and support the hypothesis that more than one locus presumably affects udder health in the middle to telomeric region of BTA18. However, a subsequent investigation of the reported QTL regions is necessary to verify the two-QTL hypothesis and confirm the association of two-marker-haplotype 249-G in marker interval 12-13 (BB710 - PVRL2_c.392G>A) with SCS. For this purpose, higher marker density and multiple-trait and multiple-QTL models are required to narrow down the position of the causal mutation or mutations affecting SCS in German Holsteincattle.
The object of this study was to investigate the effect of two altitudes (1600 vs. 3600?m) with two nutritional levels [5.88?MJ/kg dry matter (DM) vs. 7.56?MJ/kg DM] on apparent total tract digestibility, rumen fermentation, energy metabolism, milk yield and milk composition in ChineseHolstein cows. Sixteen ChineseHolstein cows in their third lactation with close body weights, days in milk and milk yield were randomly divided into four groups, of which two were directly transferred from Lanzhou (altitude of 1600?m) to Lhasa (altitude of 3600?m). Four treatments (high plateau and high nutrition level, HA-HN; high plateau and low nutrition level, HA-LN; low plateau and high nutrition level, LA-HN; and low plateau and low nutrition level, LA-LN) were randomly arranged in a 2?×?2 factorial experimental design. Results indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of a diet's DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre and DM intake were not affected by either altitude or nutrition level (p?>?0.05). Milk protein percentage was higher for the diet with the high level of nutrition than for the diet with low nutrition level irrespective of altitude (p?0.05). Percentages of milk fat and milk lactose were not affected by either altitude or nutrition level (p?>?0.05). The metabolizable energy used for milk energy output was decreased by high altitude in comparison with that at low altitude (p?0.05). No differences were observed in the live body weight or body condition score (BCS) of ChineseHolstein cows among all of the four treatments (p?>?0.05). PMID:22882230
Qiao, G H; Shao, T; Yu, C Q; Wang, X L; Yang, X; Zhu, X Q; Lu, Y
We measured effects of continuous vs twice-daily feeding, the addition of unsaturated fat to the diet, and monensin on milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and CO2-methane production in four experiments in a herd of 88 to 109 milking Holsteins. Methane and CO2 production increased with twice-daily feeding, but the CO2:CH4 ratio remained unchanged. Soybean oil did not affect the
F. D. Sauer; V. Fellner; R. Kinsman; J. K. G. Kramer; H. A. Jackson; A. J. Lee; S. Chen
Summary The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont enrolled in longitudinal herd studies between January 1999 and November 2007 were assessed for
M. Settles; R. Zanella; S. D. McKay; R. D. Schnabel; J. F. Taylor; R. Whitlock; Y. Schukken; J. S. Van Kessel; J. M. Smith; H. Neibergs
BACKGROUND: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that non-synonymous mutations in
Brenda M Murdoch; Michael L Clawson; William W Laegreid; Paul Stothard; Matthew Settles; Stephanie McKay; Aparna Prasad; Zhiquan Wang; Stephen S Moore; John L Williams
The somatotrophic axis consisting of pituitary-derived growth hormone and circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 has been well established as key regulators of animal health, metabolism, lactation, fertility, body composition and growth rate. The aim of this study was to simultaneously quantify the associations between SNPs in candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis (i.e., IGF-1, GH1 and GHR) with performance traits in Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle. Both novel SNPs identified previously by this group alongside other published SNPs within these genes were analysed for associations with performance in dairy cattle. Multiple regression analyses regressing genetic merit of up to 848 HF sires on novel SNPs (n = 76) and published SNPs (n = 33) were undertaken using weighted animal mixed linear models. Twenty-three SNPs were significantly associated with at least one of 18 traits analysed and involved in milk production, udder health, fertility and growth. Eight traits including milk fat composition, carcass conformation, stature, chest width, body depth, rump width, carcass and cull cow weight were independently associated with SNPs in two genes. Furthermore, for several traits including milk fat yield, somatic cell count, survival and carcass fat, SNPs in all three genes were independently associated with performance. Milk fat yield and carcass fat showed the highest number of independent associations across all three genes with five SNPs associated with both traits. The cumulative effects of the favourable alleles of all five SNPs across GH1, GHR and IGF-1 result in an increase of 5.9 kg and 28.6 units of milk fat and carcass fat, respectively. Cow survival was associated with a single SNP in each of the three genes with a cumulative allele effect of 1.5%. Independent effects of polymorphisms in GH1, GHR and IGF-1 reinforce the central role of the somatotrophic axis on animal development and performance. PMID:22225586
The objective of this research was to estimate heritabilities of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and lactose in the first 3 parities and their genetic relationships with milk, fat, protein, and SCS in Canadian Holsteins. Data were a random sample of complete herds (60,645 test day records of 5,022 cows from 91 herds) extracted from the edited data set, which included 892,039 test-day records of 144,622 Holstein cows from 4,570 herds. A test-day animal model with multiple-trait random regression and the Gibbs sampling method were used for parameter estimation. Regression curves were modeled using Legendre polynomials of order 4. A total of 6 separate 4-trait analyses, which included MUN, lactose, or both (yield or percentage) with different combinations of production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score) were performed. Average daily heritabilities were moderately high for MUN (from 0.384 to 0.414), lactose kilograms (from 0.466 to 0.539), and lactose percentage (from 0.478 to 0.508). Lactose yield was highly correlated with milk yield (0.979). Lactose percentage and MUN were not genetically correlated with milk yield. However, lactose percentage was significantly correlated with somatic cell score (-0.202). The MUN was correlated with fat (0.425) and protein percentages (0.20). Genetic correlations among parities were high for MUN, lactose percentage, and yield. Estimated breeding values (EBV) of bulls for MUN were correlated with fat percentage EBV (0.287) and EBV of lactose percentage were correlated with lactation persistency EBV (0.329). Correlations between lactose percentage and MUN with fertility traits were close to zero, thus diminishing the potential of using those traits as possible indicators of fertility. PMID:17430951
Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Lefebvre, D M; Moore, R K
The reliability of genomic evaluations depends on the proportion of genetic variation explained by the DNA markers. In this study, we have estimated the proportion of variance in daughter trait deviations (DTDs) of dairy bulls explained by 45 993 genome wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for 29 traits in Australian Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. We compare these proportions to the proportion of variance in DTDs explained by the additive relationship matrix derived from the pedigree, as well as the sum of variance explained by both pedigree and marker information when these were fitted simultaneously. The proportion of genetic variance in DTDs relative to the total genetic variance (the total genetic variance explained by the genomic relationships and pedigree relationships when both were fitted simultaneously) varied from 32% for fertility to approximately 80% for milk yield traits. When fitting genomic and pedigree relationships simultaneously, the variance unexplained (i.e. the residual variance) in DTDs of the total variance for most traits was reduced compared to fitting either individually, suggesting that there is not complete overlap between the effects. The proportion of genetic variance accounted by the genomic relationships can be used to modify the blending equations used to calculate genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) from direct genomic breeding value (DGV) and parent average. Our results, from a validation population of young dairy bulls with DTD, suggest that this modification can improve the reliability of GEBV by up to 5%. PMID:23317062
Haile-Mariam, M; Nieuwhof, G J; Beard, K T; Konstatinov, K V; Hayes, B J
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neuro- degenerative disease of cattle caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. Two regulatory region polymor- phisms in the bovine prion gene are associated with resistancetoclassicalBSEdisease:a23-bpregioninthe promoter that contains a binding site for the repressor protein RP58, and a 12-bp region in intron 1 that has abinding sitefor thetranscription factorSP1.The pres- ence of these binding
B. W. Brunelle; M. E. Kehrli Jr.; J. R. Stabel; D. Moody Spurlock; L. B. Hansen; E. M. Nicholson
As a signaling molecule, bone morphogenetic protein 8B (BMP8B) plays an essential role in bone metabolism and is able to regulate thermogenesis and energy balance, which suggests that BMP8B gene may be a new candidate for growth traits. Here, to characterize the effects of BMP8B gene on growth traits, we first used three Chinese indigenous cattle breeds (n=845) to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five novel SNPs of BMP8B gene (g.-242C>T, g.2164C>T, g.2639T>C, g.2900C>G and g.10817C>T) were identified by DNA pool sequencing and forced PCR-RFLP. And then we associated the five SNPs with four growth traits (body weight, body length, heart girth, and hucklebone width). Results from association analysis showed that the SNPs 1, 2, and 3 affected growth trait(s) markedly (P<0.05). Further, 6 combined haplotypes were constructed to guarantee the reliability of analysis results. There were also significant differences in body length, heart girth and body weight between the 6 combined haplotypes (P<0.05), but not in hucklebone width (P>0.05). Collectively, our results suggest a modulatory role of BMP8B gene in cattle growth and development, and 3 SNPs could be used as molecular markers in early marker assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:24076131
A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL. PMID:23647142
Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S
Purebred Holstein-Friesian cows are the main exotic breed used for milk production on large, medium, and small farms in Kenya. A study was undertaken on seven large-scale farms to investigate the genetic trends for milk production and fertility traits between 1986 and 1997 and the genetic relationships between the traits. This involved 3,185 records from 1,614 cows, the daughters of 253 sires. There was a positive trend in breeding value for 305-d milk yield of 12.9 kg/ yr and a drop in calving interval of 0.9 d/yr over the 11-yr period. Bulls from the United States (U.S.) had an average total milk yield breeding value 230 kg higher than the mean of all bulls used; Canada (+121 kg), Holland (+15 kg), the United Kingdom (U.K., 0 kg), and Kenya (-71 kg) were the other major suppliers of bulls. Average breeding values of bulls for calving interval by country of origin were -1.31 (Canada), -1.27 (Holland), -0.83 (U.S.), -0.63 (Kenya), and 0.68 d (U.K.). The genetic parameters for 305-d milk yield were 0.29 (heritability), 0.05 (permanent environment effect as proportion of phenotypic variance) resulting in an estimated repeatability of 0.34. Using complete lactation data rather than 305-d milk yield resulted in similar estimates of the genetic parameters. However, when lactation length was used as a covariate heritability was reduced to 0.25 and the permanent environment effect proportion increased to 0.09. There was little genetic control of either lactation length (heritability, 0.09) or calving interval (heritability, 0.05); however, there were strong genetic correlations between first lactation milk yield, calving interval, and age at first calving. PMID:11465361
Prediction of genetic merit using dense SNP genotypes can be used for estimation of breeding values for selection of livestock, crops, and forage species; for prediction of disease risk; and for forensics. The accuracy of these genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the difference among three traits in distribution of effects and the consequences for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Proportion of black coat colour in Holsteincattle was used as one model complex trait. Three loci, KIT, MITF, and a locus on chromosome 8, together explain 24% of the variation of proportion of black. However, a surprisingly large number of loci of small effect are necessary to capture the remaining variation. A second trait, fat concentration in milk, had one locus of large effect and a host of loci with very small effects. Both these distributions of effects were in contrast to that for a third trait, an index of scores for a number of aspects of cow confirmation (“overall type”), which had only loci of small effect. The differences in distribution of effects among the three traits were quantified by estimating the distribution of variance explained by chromosome segments containing 50 SNPs. This approach was taken to account for the imperfect linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the QTL affecting the traits. We also show that the accuracy of predicting genetic values is higher for traits with a proportion of large effects (proportion black and fat percentage) than for a trait with no loci of large effect (overall type), provided the method of analysis takes advantage of the distribution of loci effects.
Hayes, Ben J.; Pryce, Jennie; Chamberlain, Amanda J.; Bowman, Phil J.; Goddard, Mike E.
In this study, polymorphism in the exon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 of bovine NUCB2 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in 686 individuals from three Chinesecattle breeds. Two haplotypes (M and N), three observed genotypes (MM, MN and NN) and two SNPs (NC_007313: g. 27451G>A, NC_007313: g. 27472T>C) were detected. The frequencies of haplotypes M and N in inland Chinese three breeds were 0.531-0.721 and 0.279-0.469 respectively. The studied showed that Nanyang, Jiaxian Red and Qinchuan cattle populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at SNPs locus of NUCB2 gene (P > 0.05). Polymorphism of the NUCB2 gene was shown to be associated with growth traits in Qingchuan and Nanyang cattle breed. The linkage of two mutant sites in the bovine NUCB2 gene had significant effects on body length, body weight, heart girth, and average daily gain at 24 months (P < 0.05). Results of this study suggested that the NUCB2-gene-specific SNP may be a useful marker for growth traits in future marker-assisted selection programmes in inland Chinesecattle. PMID:19728157
Li, F; Chen, H; Lei, C Z; Ren, G; Wang, J; Li, Z J; Wang, J Q
Previously, our laboratory showed that Holsteincattle experimentally infected with Neospora caninum develop parasite-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that lyse infected, autologous target cells through a perforin-granzyme pathway. To identify specific parasite antigens inducing bovine CTL and helper T-lymphocyte responses for vaccine development against bovine neosporosis, the tachyzoite major surface proteins NcSAG1 and NcSRS2 were targeted. In whole tachyzoite antigen-expanded bovine T-lymphocyte lines, recombinant NcSRS2 induced potent memory CD4+- and CD8+-T-lymphocyte activation, as indicated by proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-?) secretion, while recombinant NcSAG1 induced a minimal memory response. Subsequently, T-lymphocyte epitope-bearing peptides of NcSRS2 were mapped by using overlapping peptides covering the entire NcSRS2 sequence. Four experimentally infected cattle with six different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II haplotypes were the source of immune cells used to identify NcSRS2 peptides presented by Holstein MHC haplotypes. NcSRS2 peptides were mapped by using IFN-? secretion by rNcSRS2-stimulated, short-term T-lymphocyte cell lines, IFN-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay of rNcSRS2-stimulated effector cells. Four N. caninum-infected Holsteincattle developed NcSRS2 peptide-specific T lymphocytes detected ex vivo in peripheral blood by IFN-? ELISPOT and in vitro by measuring T-lymphocyte IFN-? production and cytotoxicity. An immunodominant region of NcSRS2 spanning amino acids 133 to 155 was recognized by CD4+ T lymphocytes from the four cattle. These findings support investigation of subunit N. caninum vaccines incorporating NcSRS2 gene sequences or peptides for induction of NcSRS2 peptide-specific CTL and IFN-?-secreting T lymphocytes in cattle with varied MHC genotypes.
Staska, Lauren M.; Davies, Christopher J.; Brown, Wendy C.; McGuire, Travis C.; Suarez, Carlos E.; Park, Joo Youn; Mathison, Bruce A.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Baszler, Timothy V.
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is one of five G-protein-coupled receptors binding melanocortins that is implicated in the\\u000a control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Six cattle populations (n = 594), including four Chinese indigenous breeds, ChineseHolstein, and a meat type breed (Angus), were used to detect single\\u000a nucleotide polymorphisms in 5?-untranslated region of MC4R gene by means of PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) has important functions in the regulation of the growth hormone axis and the development and proliferation of pituitary somatotropes. Moreover, some mutations in mouse GHRHR can induce the dwarfism. The objective of this paper is to reveal the association of GHRHR with growth traits in three Chinesecattle breeds, including Nanyang cattle (NY, 220), Qinchuan cattle (QC, 114), and Jiaxian cattle (JX, 142). A novel single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_181020:c.102C>T) in 5'UTR of GHRHR was identified using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. The frequency of NM_181020:c.102C allele ranged from 0.926 to 0.956. We found that the locus was significantly associated with NY cattle's body weight (BW) of 6 months, with average daily gain (ADG) of 0-6 months, and as well as with ADG of 6-12 months (p < 0.05). The data suggested that the polymorphism (NM_181020:c.102C>T) of the GHRHR could be a molecular marker candidate for breeding of NY cattle in favor of BW. PMID:23053950
Zhang, C F; Chen, H; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, L Z; Yang, D Y; Qu, Y J; Hua, L S; Zhang, B; Hu, S R
The effects of increased pedigree inbreeding in dairy cattle populations have been well documented and result in a negative impact on profitability. Recent advances in genotyping technology have allowed researchers to move beyond pedigree analysis and study inbreeding at a molecular level. In this study, 5,853 animals were genotyped for 54,001 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); 2,913 cows had phenotypic records including a single lactation for milk yield (from either lactation 1, 2, 3, or 4), reproductive performance, and linear type conformation. After removing SNP with poor call rates, low minor allele frequencies, and departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 33,025 SNP remained for analyses. Three measures of genomic inbreeding were evaluated: percent homozygosity (FPH), inbreeding calculated from runs of homozygosity (FROH), and inbreeding derived from a genomic relationship matrix (FGRM). Average FPH was 60.5±1.1%, average FROH was 3.8±2.1%, and average FGRM was 20.8±2.3%, where animals with larger values for each of the genomic inbreeding indices were considered more inbred. Decreases in total milk yield to 205d postpartum of 53, 20, and 47kg per 1% increase in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively, were observed. Increases in days open per 1% increase in FPH (1.76 d), FROH (1.72 d), and FGRM (1.06 d) were also noted, as well as increases in maternal calving difficulty (0.09, 0.03, and 0.04 on a 5-point scale for FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively). Several linear type traits, such as strength (-0.40, -0.11, and -0.19), rear legs rear view (-0.35, -0.16, and -0.14), front teat placement (0.35, 0.25, 0.18), and teat length (-0.24, -0.14, and -0.13) were also affected by increases in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively. Overall, increases in each measure of genomic inbreeding in this study were associated with negative effects on production and reproductive ability in dairy cows. PMID:23684028
Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Vukasinovic, N; Nkrumah, J D
The objective of this research was to detect bovine GDF10 gene polymorphism and analyze its association with body measurement\\u000a traits (BMT) of animals sampled from 6 different Chinese indigenous cattle populations. The populations included Xuelong (Xl),\\u000a Luxi (Lx), Qinchuan (Qc), Jiaxian red (Jx), Xianang (Xn) and Nanyang (Ny). Blood samples were taken from a total of 417 female\\u000a animals stratified
C. AdoligbeLinsen; Linsen Zan; S. Farougou; Hongbao Wang; J. A. Ujjan
Liu, H.Y., Zan, L.S., Xin, Y.P. and Tian, W.Q. 2010. Association of polymorphism in the bovine leptin gene exon2 with carcass traits in Chinese qinchuan cattle. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 37: 221–224.Leptin gene plays an important role in the regulation of feed intake, fat deposition, energy metabolism, fertility and immune functions. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of
In this study, polymorphism in the exon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 of bovine NUCB2 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in 686 individuals from three Chinesecattle breeds. Two haplotypes\\u000a (M and N), three observed genotypes (MM, MN and NN) and two SNPs (NC_007313: g. 27451G>A, NC_007313: g. 27472T>C)
F. Li; H. Chen; C. Z. Lei; G. Ren; J. Wang; Z. J. Li; J. Q. Wang
Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ? 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ? 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ? 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ? 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ? 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ? 0.01), angularity (P ? 0.01), body depth (P ? 0.01), rump width (P ? 0.01) and animal stature (P ? 0.01). Conclusions Of the eight candidate bovine imprinted genes assessed, DNA sequence polymorphisms in six of these genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, RASGRF1, ZIM2 and ZNF215) displayed associations with several of the phenotypes included for analyses. The genotype-phenotype associations detected here are further supported by the biological function of these six genes, each of which plays important roles in mammalian growth, development and physiology. The associations between SNPs within the imprinted PEG3 gene cluster and traits related to calving, calf performance and gestation length suggest that this domain on chromosome 18 may play a role regulating pre-natal growth and development and fertility. SNPs within the bovine ZNF215 gene were associated with bovine growth and body conformation traits and studies in humans have revealed that the human ZNF215 ortholog belongs to the imprinted gene cluster associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome--a genetic disorder characterised by growth abnormalities. Similarly, the data presented here suggest that the ZNF215 gene may have an important role in regulating bovine growth. Collectively, our results support previous work showing that (candidate) imprinted genes/loci contribute to heritable variation in bovine performance traits and suggest that DNA sequence polymorphisms within these genes/loci represents an important reservoir of genomic markers for future genetic improvement of dairy and beef cattle populations.
Somatostatins play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development in vertebrates, especially muscle growth. We assessed the association of somatostatin gene polymorphisms with growth traits by PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing methods in 694 individuals from six Chinesecattle breeds. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism, G126A, was detected, and significant associations were found with body length, body height, hip width, heart girth, and hucklebone width index. Polymorphism of the somatostatin gene was found to be highly associated with growth traits in the Qinchuan breed at various ages. Gene frequency analysis showed significant differences among the breeds. Individuals with genotype AA had significantly lower body height, body length, hip width, and hucklebone width values compared to AG at 1.5 years old, and had significantly lower hip width, body length and hucklebone width compared to AG at 2 years old. At 2.5 years old, populations with genotype AA had significantly lower body length, hip width and hucklebone width than AG individuals, with the exception of the Luxi breed, in which two genotypes were found. The Luxi and Ximentaer crossbreed had the lowest frequency of the G allele, while the highest G allele frequencies were found in the Luxi breed. PMID:21523659
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin protein family that binds a broad range of microorganisms and activates\\u000a the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with an increased risk for various infections\\u000a and arises from five polymorphisms in the promoter and first exon of the MBL gene in humans. In this study, three novel single-nucleotide
Effects and interactions of corn and soybean oil supplementation and forage source on feed intake and digestibility by mature and growing cattle were determined. Eight mature beef cattle (571 ± 17 kg initial body weight) were used in two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Cattle in each square consumed long?stemmed alfalfa (AL; 16% crude protein, 54% neutral detergent fibre and 6.1%
B. Kouakou; A. L. Goetsch; A. R. Patil; D. L. Galloway Sr; Z. B. Johnson; K. K. Park
BACKGROUND: Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up
Linda Giblin; Stephen T Butler; Breda M Kearney; Sinead M Waters; Michael J Callanan; Donagh P Berry
Data from three separate experiments were used to evaluate the dry matter intake (DMI) predictions of version 5.0 of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS). Experiment 1 was conducted with 12 lactating Holstein cows confined in individual stalls, receiving known amounts of supplements and fresh, chopped Panicum maximum cv Tobiatá grass. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted with
D. O Molina; I Matamoros; Z Almeida; L Tedeschi; A. N Pell
Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of suspension method and aging time on quality traits of Chinese fattened cattle M. Longissimus dorsi (LD). At the end of the slaughter line, the right sides of carcasses were re-hung from the pelvic bone obturator foramen, while the left sides remained hung by Achilles tendon suspension (AS). LD muscles were aged for 1, 7, 14 and 21days and were then evaluated for quality index. Pelvic suspension (PS) significantly decreased the WBSF of beef muscle at 1d and 7d postmortem compared with AS. The tenderness with PS at 7d postmortem was similar with that of AS at 14d. Moreover, PS increased sarcomere length and decreased purge loss of LD significantly. In addition, aging time had a significant effect on pH, meat color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and myofibril fragmentation index of LD muscle. To conclude, PS is valuable to be introduced to the beef industry in China for rapid (within 7days) improvement of beef tenderness and decreased aging time of Chinese fattened cattle. PMID:24056407
Holstein genes spread from Europe to much of the world through live cattle more than 100 yr ago. By the advent of artificial insemination, selection emphasis in North America had led to a specialized dairy strain that was in demand internationally. From 1995, genetic evaluations through Interbull mo...
Homogentisate 1, 2 dioxygenase (HGD) is one of six enzymes required for the catabolism of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. Here we present the nucleotide sequence of transcripts of the bovine HGD gene. The full length cDNA of bovine HGD has been identified, encoding a deduced protein of 445 amino acids (Accession No. FJ515744). The bovine HGD gene comprises 14 exons and 13 introns. This is the first published cDNA bovine sequences that share high sequence similarity with other species. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the bovine HGD transcript was mainly expressed in liver and kidney tissues. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, five in the coding region and four intronic. Four of the SNPs change an amino acid in the HGD protein sequence. Genotype and allelic frequencies were determined in Chinese red cattle breeds. Ten haplotypes were determined based upon the genotype of 9 SNPs. Moreover, for the first time an association was reported between HGD gene polymorphism and meat quality traits in Chinese red cattle (n = 224). Marker-trait association analyses showed that the HGD/PvuII genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, muscle fiber diameter, and shear force (P < 0.05). The HGD DraIII genotypes showed a significant effect on muscle fiber diameter, shear force, and drip loss (P < 0.05). The HGD/AluI genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, shear force, and drip loss (P < 0.05). The HGD/DraI genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate and shear force (P < 0.05). The HGD/EcoRV genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, muscle fiber diameter, and shear force (P < 0.05). In all loci, no statistically significant differences were observed for pHu (P > 0.05). This is the first incidence where polymorphisms of a bovine HGD gene have demonstrated a correlation with meat traits in Chinese red cattle. PMID:19816789
BACKGROUND: In cattle, the gene coding for the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) is known to be the main regulator of the switch between the two coat colour pigments: eumelanin (black pigment) and phaeomelanin (red pigment). Some breeds, such as Charolais and Simmental, exhibit a lightening of the original pigment over the whole body. The dilution mutation in Charolais (Dc) is
Beatriz Gutiérrez-Gil; Pamela Wiener; John L Williams
To analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism and host range with respect to the integrin receptor, we cloned cDNAs encoding the integrin ??, ?1, ?3, ?6 and ?8 subunits from Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine and carried out comparative analysis of their molecular characteristics. The lengths of the mature proteins and the functional domains of the four integrin ? subunits were the same between bovine and swine; however, the number of putative N-linked glycosylation sites and cysteine residues and their arrangement varied. Homology analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed that FMDV integrin receptors of Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine are highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all FMDV integrin receptor subunits of cattle and swine are clustered into the Artiodactyla group; however, Chinese yellow cattle are phylogenetically closer to sheep than to Gansu black swine. We postulate that the host tropism of FMDV may, in part, be related to the divergence of integrin subunits among different species. PMID:23620003
Haplotypes are available for 220,671 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in August 2012. Differences in least squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosomes 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lifetime net merit were significant in all but one case. Those chromosomes were chosen to represent cases with and without known quantitative trait loci, and other chromosomes may differ as well. Paternal haplotypes had higher DGV than maternal haplotypes in most cases, and differences were larger when quantitative trait loci were present. Longer chromosomes generally accounted for more variance than shorter chromosomes, and differences among breeds were consistent with known mutations of large effect. For example, Bos taurus autosome 18 accounted for 2.5, 7, and 2.6% of the variance in lifetime net merit for Brown Swiss (BS), Holsteins, and Jerseys, respectively. Distributions of the number of positive DGV inherited from sires and dams were negatively skewed in all breeds, and modes were slightly higher for paternally than maternally derived haplotypes in Holsteins and BS (22 vs. 20 and 22 vs. 21, respectively) and slightly lower in BS (17 vs. 19). Graphical representations of DGV are available to all users through a query on the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD) web site. Query results were also used to illustrate several quantitative genetic principles using genotype information from real animals. For example, offspring DGV can be compared with parental DGV to demonstrate that a parent transmits the average value of its 2 chromosomes to its progeny. The frequency of DGV with positive and negative values in animals of different ages can be used to show how selection affects allele frequencies. The effect of selection for alleles with large effects versus those with small effects is demonstrated using an animal with undesirable alleles for a marker with a large effect but many desirable alleles for markers with small effects. Strategies for the use of those data in selection programs are being studied, and work is underway to add data on conformation traits to the system. PMID:23375973
Genetic polymorphism of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene was detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in 665 individuals from five Chinesecattle breeds. The results showed that at the P1 locus, three observed genotypes (AA, AB and BB), two linked SNPs (G1267A and T1268C), and one missense mutation (S18N) within a putative signal peptide were determined. The frequencies of haplotypes A and B in the five breeds were 0.596-0.802 and 0.198-0.404, respectively. Polymorphism of the PRLR gene was shown to be significantly associated with growth traits in the Nanyang breed. Individuals with genotype BB had greater hucklebone width, body weight and average daily gain than those with genotype AA at 6 months old (P<0.01), as well as better body height, body length and heart girth when 6 months (P<0.05). This study revealed for the first time that the PRLR gene is a promising candidate gene that affects growth traits in cattle. PMID:20349144
Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holsteincattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a glyphosate-tolerant (event nk603) and a corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn hybrid on feed intake and milk production compared with the nontransgenic hybrid and two reference hybrids. In Experiment 1, 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 28-d periods. Diets contained 40% (dry matter [DM] basis) of either 1) glyphosate-tolerant corn silage (GT), 2) nontransgenic control corn silage, or 3) two nontransgenic reference hybrids which are commercially available. Each diet also contained 23% corn grain from the same hybrid that supplied the silage. At ensiling, rapid drying conditions prevailed and the GT hybrid was the last to be harvested which resulted in greater DM content at similar physiological maturity. The 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield and DMI were reduced for cows fed the GT corn diet due to the higher DM content of the GT silage (37.1 vs. 33.2 kg/d and 4.05 vs. 3.61% of BW, respectively). There was no effect of the GT diet on milk composition or efficiency of 4% FCM production that averaged 1.43 kg/kg of DM intake for all diets. In Experiment 2, 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Diets contained 26.7% (DM basis) corn grain from either 1) corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn hybrid, 2) nontransgenic control corn hybrid, or 3) the same two nongenetically enhanced reference hybrids used in Experiment 1. The 4% FCM yield (34.8 kg/d) and DM intake (4.06% of BW) were unaffected by diet. Efficiency of FCM production (average 1.32 kg/kg of DMI) was not affected by diet. In summary, these two studies indicated that insertion of a gene for glyphosate tolerance or corn rootworm protection into a corn hybrid did not affect its nutritional value (as measured by efficiency of milk production) for lactating dairy cows compared with conventional corn hybrids. PMID:12778581
Grant, R J; Fanning, K C; Kleinschmit, D; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F
In this study, polymorphism in the exon 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of bovine GAD1 gene was detected by PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing methods\\u000a in 726 individuals from three Chinesecattle breeds. Two haplotypes (T and C) and three observed genotypes (TT, TC, and CC)\\u000a were detected. The result of DNA sequence showed one mutations (T12345C) by comparisons with
F. Li; H. Chen; C. Z. Lei; G. Ren; J. Wang; Z. J. Li; J. Q. Wang
The objective of this study was to determine the genotype effects of the bovine insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) genes on growth and development traits in beef cows, including 130 Chinese Simmental, 42 Nanyang, and 47 Luxi Yellow cattle. Sequence variations in the bovine IGF-I and IGFBP3 genes were investigated by single strand conformation
Identification of regulatory elements in 5' regions of chemokine genes is fundamental for understanding chemokine gene expression in response to infection diseases. The CXCR1 receptor is expressed on the surface of neutrophils and interacts primarily with CXCL8 (IL-8), the most potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. The aim of this study was to characterize the 5' upstream region (2.1 kb) of the bovine CXCR1 chemokine receptor gene for polymorphism content and to identify in silico potential transcription-factor binding sites. The 5' flanking region was found by mining the NCBI GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). A DNA sequence from the whole genome shotgun sequence project with reference number AC150887.4 contained the CXCR1 5' flanking sequence. Computer analysis revealed potential binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), binding factor GATA-1, barbiturate inducible element (Barbie), nuclear factor of activated T-cells, and activator protein 1. Polymorphism discovery in this region was conducted by constructing an inclusive DNA pool including 2 phenotypic extreme groups, 20 bulls with high estimated breeding values (EBV) for somatic cell score (SCS), and 20 bulls with low EBV for SCS. Independent amplicons along the 5' flanking region of bovine CXCR1 were generated for polymorphism discovery by sequencing. Three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), CXCR1c.-344T>C, CXCR1c.-1768T>A, and CXCR1c.-1830A>G, and a previously identified SNP in the coding region, CXCR1c.777G>C, were identified. The 4 SNP were genotyped in Canadian Holstein bulls (n = 338) using tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR. Average allele substitution effects were estimated to investigate associations between the 4 SNP and EBV for SCS in first, second, and third and later lactations. Multiple trait analysis revealed that the SNP CXCR1c.-1768T>A was associated with EBV for SCS in the first and second lactations and over all 3 lactations. Haplotype analysis substantiated this association with EBV for SCS in the first lactation. Given the location of SNP CXCR1c.-1768T>A and the surrounding potential binding recognition sequences for NF-kappaB, GATA-1, and Barbie transcription-factors, this SNP may be implicated in gene regulation and warrants further research. PMID:18096965
Leyva-Baca, I; Schenkel, F; Martin, J; Karrow, N A
Summary The effects of live weight on carcass weight and of carcass weight on carcass characteristics were quantified using 145 large and small cattle represented by Holstein and small-framed Angus steers. Cattle were fed to one of five final weights ranging from 363 to 544 kg for Angus and from 454 to 612 kg for Holstein. Hot carcass weight increased
We investigated the effect of homogentisate 1, 2 dioxygenase (HGD) gene on meat quality and carcass traits in 287 Chinese red cattle. The PCR-SSCP method was used to identify polymorphism of the HGD gene in the exon 1 and intron 1. Two polymorphisms were detected in intron 1 and two restriction sites for endonuclease HGD-BstXI and HGD-HaeIII have also been found. The HGD-BstXI genotypes showed significant effects on cooking loss, drip loss, net meat weight, carcass weight, and eye muscle area (P<0.05). The HGD-HaeIII genotypes significant affected cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force, drip loss, and carcass yield ratio (P<0.05). Moreover, we found significant effects of diplotypes on cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force, drip loss, net meat weight, carcass weight, and eye muscle area (P<0.05). PMID:20374897
Zhou, G L; Cao, Y; Li, M; Zhang, L C; Yu, Y S; Jin, H G
In this study, polymorphism in the exon 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of bovine GAD1 gene was detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods in 726 individuals from three Chinesecattle breeds. Two haplotypes (T and C) and three observed genotypes (TT, TC, and CC) were detected. The result of DNA sequence showed one mutations (T12345C) by comparisons with NC_007300: g.12345T>C. The mutation was at the exon 3, and was identified a missense mutation Phe (TTT)>Leu (CTT) at position 51 (p.F51L). Polymorphism of the GAD1 gene was shown to be associated with growth traits in the Nanyang breed. The SNP in the bovine GAD1 gene had significant effects on body length, body weight, heart girth, and average daily gain at 24 months (P < 0.05). Therefore, these results suggest that the GAD1 gene is a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in cattle. PMID:19728158
Li, F; Chen, H; Lei, C Z; Ren, G; Wang, J; Li, Z J; Wang, J Q
We analyzed 20 exons, with their intron-exon boundaries, of the bovine Flt-1 gene, using a strategy combining PCR amplification and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis (PCR-SSCP), followed by nucleotide sequence analysis, in 675 cattle. We then looked for associations between polymorphisms and growth traits. Twelve novel SNPs (ss#184956516, ss#184956517, ss#184956518, ss#184956519, ss#251343993, ss#251343994, ss#251343995, ss#251343996, ss#251343997, ss#251343998, ss#251343999, and ss#251344000) were detected in the bovine Flt-1 gene in all three breeds. We observed no significant associations between these polymorphisms and birth weight, body weight and average daily gain during different growth periods (6, 12, 18, and 24 months old) (P > 0.05), or in body height, body length, heart girth, or height at the hip in Nanyang cattle breeds. PMID:21365552
Pang, Y H; Lei, C Z; Zhang, C L; Lan, X Y; Shao, S; Gao, X M; Wang, J Q; Chen, H
Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in the human or animal genome and are a significant source of genetic variation, which has been demonstrated to play an important role in phenotypic diversity. Advances in technology have allowed for identification of a large number of CNVs in cattle. Comprehensive explore novel CNVs in the bovine genome would provide valuable information for functional analyses of genome structural variation and facilitating follow-up association studies between complex traits and genetic variants. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide CNV detection based on high-density SNP genotyping data of 96 ChineseHolsteincattle. A total of 367 CNV regions (CNVRs) across the genome were identified, which cover 42.74Mb of the cattle genome and correspond to 1.61% of the genome sequence. The length of the CNVRs on autosomes range from 10.76 to 2,806.42 Kb with an average of 96.23 Kb. 218 out of these CNVRs contain 610 annotated genes, which possess a wide spectrum of molecular functions. To confirm these findings, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed for 17 CNVRs and 13(76.5%) of them were successfully validated. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the high density SNP array can significantly improve the accuracy and sensitivity of CNV calling. Integration of different platforms can enhance the detection of genomic structure variants. Our results provide a significant replenishment for the high resolution map of copy number variation in the bovine genome and valuable information for investigation of genomic structural variation underlying traits of interest in cattle.
Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...
Four U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that could have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein AI bulls (106,471) were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25...
Factor XI (F XI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive coagulopathy found in Holsteincattle. Affected animals have a 50% greater prevalence of repeat breeding. Therefore, several parameters describing ovarian function were studied. Daily blood sampling revealed that progesterone concentrations were slower to decline from a peak at day 16 (p2a (PGF2a) or oxytocin (OT) involved in luteolysis. No significant differences
R. M. Liptrap; P. A. Gentry; M. L. Ross; E. Cummings
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forestripping as a premilking stimulation technique on milk yield, milking unit attachment time, and milk flow rates in Holstein dairy cattle. Multiparous Hol- stein cows (n = 24) were divided into two groups (HPE, high producing, early lactation; LPL, low producing, late lactation) based on prestudy milk yield and
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is considered to be a regulator of post-natal growth and differentiation of the mammary gland. In the present work, associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine IGF2 gene with milk production traits were studied in dairy Holstein-Friesian cows: the already described g.8656C>T transition in exon 2 (RFLP-BsrI) and the newly found g.24507G>T transversion in exon 10 (RFLP-HaeIII), found by sequencing 273-bp exon 10 of the IGF2 gene in six individuals. Associations were analysed individually and in combination with the multi-trait repeatability test-day animal model. The CT/GT haplotype appeared to be associated with most of the milk traits studied (differences were significant at P < or = 0.001). The most frequent CT/GG haplotype seemed inferior to others in fat and protein content and daily yield of fat and protein but superior (together with the TT/GG genotype) when the daily milk yield is considered. PMID:19785908
The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria, in healthy, asymptomatic, post-weaned and mature cattle was investigated on three Maryland farms. One farm, a dairy research facility, had 150 multiparous Holstein milking cows; 24 were examined and Cryptosporidium andersoni was detected in three (12.5%) but neither Giardia nor Eimeria was detected. The second farm, a commercial dairy, had 57 multiparous Holstein
Correlated genetic responses in feed con- sumption, feed efficiency, growth, and body size in Holstein and Ayrshire cattle se- lected for 180-day milk solids yield were estimated. The two breeds differed in cor- related responses to selection. Growth from 180 to 240 days of age increased sig- nificantly in both breeds with increased feed efficiency of the Holsteins but in-
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sex on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in cattle at different ages. Ten female and 10 male Holsteincattle were subject to a caffeine test when they were aged 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 18 months. Caffeine, 5 mg kg–1body weight, was given intravenously as a sterile isotonic
The sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies; to Babesia bovis was evaluated in 1000 sera from Holstein heifers. Five hundred of them were from cattle naturally or experimentally infected with B. bovis and 500 from uninfected heifers born and raised in a region free of the vector of cattle babesiosis. Additionally, the ELISA was
S. T. de Echaide; I. E. Echaide; A. B. Gaido; A. J. Mangold; C. I. Lugaresi; V. R. Vanzini; A. A. Guglielmone
Energy and protein metabolism were investigated in lactating Holstein (n=6) and Charolais (n=8) heifers, thus in cattle with different potential for milk production and nutrient accretion, but comparable body size. Insulin responses to glucose challenge during lactation were also investigated. Feed intake, milk production and nutrient loss through faeces and urine were measured for 5 days to calculate energy and nitrogen
N. Pareek; J. Voigt; O. Bellmann; F. Schneider; H. M. Hammon
It has been proven that early establishment of microbial flora in digestive tract of ruminants, has a beneficial effect on their health condition and productivity. A probiotic compound, made from five bacteria isolated from adult bovine cattle, was dosed to 15 Holstein newborn calves in order to measure its capacity of improving body weight gain and reduce diarrhea incidence. The
Camilo Aldana; Sara Cabra; Carlos A. Ospina; Fredy Carvajal; Fernando Rodríguez
Pour-on formulations of endectocides are extensively used to treat and control systemic parasitic diseases in cattle, worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the natural licking behaviour of cattle on the plasma and faecal disposition of topically administered ivermectin. Twelve Holsteincattle were given one single intravenous (i.v.) (200 ?g\\/kg) and topical (500 ?g\\/kg)
Ce Line M. Laffont; Michel Alvinerie; Alain Bousquet-Mélou; Pierre-Louis Toutain
Twinning rate was analyzed in the Israeli Holstein dairy cattle population by the multiple-trait animal model,andadaughterdesigngenomescanforquantita- tive trait loci was performed. Each parity was consid- ered a separate trait. Heritabilities of twinning rate were very low, but increased by parity from 0.01 in first parity to 0.03 in fifth parity. All genetic correlations among paritieswere >0.77, but allenvironmental corre- lations
J. I. Weller; M. Golik; E. Seroussi; M. Ron; E. Ezra
Feces from each of 30 Holsteincattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...
ABSTRACT A study was conducted to determine whether feeding sodium,bicarbonate (SB) reduces the risk of subacute acidosis (SARA) in cattle receiving high concentrate diets. Twelve Hereford cross heifers (Exp.1) and six ruminally cannulated animals (Exp. 2; three Jersey steers and three Holstein cows), previously adapted to a high concentrate diet, were used in 3 _ 3 Latin square designs to
This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged <1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r = 0.89, P = 0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472
The ruminant trophoblast produces pregnancy- associated glycoproteins (PAG) that can be detected in the blood of pregnant animals. The objective was to determine the accuracy of a rapid ELISA PAG- based test for the purpose of pregnancy detection in cattle. Blood was sampled from dairy cattle (539 Hol- stein cows, 173 Holstein heifers, 73 Guernsey cows, 22 Guernsey heifers, and
J. C. Green; D. H. Volkmann; S. E. Poock; M. F. McGrath; M. Ehrhardt; A. E. Moseley; M. C. Lucy
Genetic variation of 31 blood protein loci in 236 cattle from eight South China populations (including mithan, Bos frontalis) and a Holstein population was investigated by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Thirteen loci (ALB, CAR, Hb-b, Np, PGM, Amy-I, PEP-B, AKP, 6PGD, Cp, Pa, EsD, and TF) were found to be polymorphic. The comparison of average heterozygosities (H) shows that all the native cattle embrace a rich genetic diversity. Our results on protein polymorphism suggest that cattle in China originated mainly from Bos indicus and Bos taurus; Xuwen, Hainan, Wenshan, and Dehong cattle and the Dehong zebu are close to zebu-type cattle, and Diqing and Zhaotong cattle are close to the taurine. The mithan was very different from other native cattle, and we suggest that its origin was complicated and may be influenced by other cattle species. PMID:10624516
Nie, L; Yu, Y; Zhang, X Q; Yang, G F; Wen, J K; Zhang, Y P
First-calf pure Holsteins and Normande\\/Holstein, Montbeliarde\\/Holstein, and Scandinavian Red\\/Hol- stein crossbreds were compared for days to first breed- ing, first-service conception rate, days open, and sur- vival. First-calf heifers were in 7 commercial dairies in California and calved from June 2002 to October 2004. Holsteins were required to have a recorded sire with a National Association of American Breeders code
Artificial selection has been practiced for generations to enhance animal or plant species for specific desirable traits. However, very little is known at the molecular level about how intensive or prolonged selection affects genome sub-structure. Such investigations are typically limited by the a...
The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of season on pregnancy odds and the effect of specific herd management practices to modify seasonal effects. Pregnancy odds were significantly associated with herd, season, days in milk, and milk production, and with 3 interactions: milk production-by-days in milk, milk production-by-parity, and season-by-days in milk. The estimate of relative risk
J. A. Thompson; D. D. Magee; M. A. Tomaszewski; D. L. Wilks; R. H. Fourdraine
The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of season on pregnancy odds and the effect of specific herd management practices to modify seasonal effects. Pregnancy odds were significantly associated with herd, season, days in milk, and milk production, and with 3 interactions: milk production-by-days in milk, milk production-by-parity, and season-by-days in milk. The estimate of relative risk for summer insemination resulting in pregnancy was 0.66 at 60 d post calving and 0.53 at 160 d post calving. Shade in the lounging area, holding pen or dry cow areas, and fans in the lounging area had positive effects on summer pregnancy odds. Fans in the dry cow area were associated with a reduced odds of pregnancy. Sprinklers did not significantly modify the effect of season on pregnancy odds. The strong seasonal decrease in pregnancy odds was less severe on farms that provided shade in the lounging areas, holding pens and dry cow areas and fans in lounging areas. Insemination strategies can also be adapted to increase the pregnancy odds. PMID:16727922
Thompson, J A; Magee, D D; Tomaszewski, M A; Wilks, D L; Fourdraine, R H
Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...
BACKGROUND: Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to
DUMPS (Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase) is a hereditary recessive disorder in Holsteincattle causing early embryo mortality during its implantation in the uterus. The only way to avoid the economic losses is early detection of DUMPS carriers. Because American Holstein semen has been intensively imported to Poland since 1970, there was a risk that DUMPS could have spread in Polish dairy cattle. In our study, 2209 dairy cattle of the Polish Holstein breed have been screened by the DNA test. The dominant group was young bulls entering the testing program (1171) and proven bulls (781). They represented all sires entering Polish breeding programs between 1999 and 2003. Also, 257 sire dams were included in the screening program. No DUMPS carrier has been found. Our results then indicate that the population of dairy cattle reared in Poland is free from DUMPS. Because of the economical significance of the DUMPS mutation and its recessive mode of inheritance, attention has to be paid to any case of a bull having in his origin any known DUMPS carrier. Such a bull should be tested and if positive eliminated from the active population. Also, young bulls (testing bulls) should be screened for DUMPS if in their progeny a high incidence of embryo mortality is observed and their genealogy cannot exclude their relatedness to any DUMPS carriers. PMID:16278513
Kaminski, Stanis?aw; Grzybowski, Grzegorz; Prusak, Beata; Ru??, Anna
Systematic review of published cases and a hospital-based case-control study were completed to evaluate breed as a risk factor for atresia coli in cattle. Systematic review of 37 published studies indicated that atresia coli has been diagnosed in 10 cattle breeds and 12 countries, with the marked preponderance of cases occurring in Holstein-Friesian calves (485\\/514 cases, 94%). Epidemiologic analysis based
P. D. Constable; R. D. Shanks; J. Huhn; D. E. Morin
Monte Carlo simulations are performed to examine superconductivity and charge-density-wave fluctuations in the infinite-dimensional electron-phonon Holstein model. The electron-phonon system interpolates between an attractive, static, Falicov-Kimball model that always exhibits charge-density-wave order and an attractive, instantaneous, Hubbard model that always superconducts as a function of phonon frequency. The maximum charge-density-wave transition temperature at half-filling is an order of magnitude smaller than the effective electronic bandwidth and is virtually independent of the phonon frequency. The maximum superconducting transition temperature depends strongly on phonon frequency and is bounded from above by the maximum charge-density-wave transition temperature. The exact solution is compared to both weak-coupling expansions and strong-coupling expansions. The effective phonon potential becomes anharmonic and develops a double-well structure that deepens as the electron-phonon interaction increases.
Freericks, J.K. (Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030 (United States)); Jarrell, M. (Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)); Scalapino, D.J. (Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030 (United States))
The article looks at the background to the KIDS (a German acronym for ‘Communication and Information in the Remote Data Transmission Network for Schools') experiment, in Schleswig?Holstein, and the use of remote data transmission (RDT).
One 5-month-old female native Korean calf and a 2-year-old female Holstein cow raised in two farms about 4 km apart from each other in Korea, were found to have the left eye opaque, which included motile white worms in the aqueous humor. The parasite removed from the left eye of the calf was identified as Setaria digitata based on both light and electron microscopic features. The ocular infection with S. digitata reported herein may document the first aberrant case in Korean cattle. PMID:11853150
Summary Pubertal characters of bulls and heifers pro- duced in a diallel mating of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey cattle were analyzed. Ninety-one heifers and 138 bulls in individual pens and 286 bulls in drylots were fed a 72% TDN diet ad libitum; another 384 heifers were placed on pasture with supple- mental feed. Puberty in heifers was defined
Students will learn about different breeds of cattle, the history of cattle, and why cattle are considered ruminants. History of cattle CLick on the above link to explore the history of cattle. breeds of cattle Click on the above link to explore different breeds of cattle. Can you find any breeds that are new to you? Are any of these breeds found in this area? Ruminants Click on the above link to discover why cows ...
In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics.
Detection of recessive mutations that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM) and bovine leukocyte adhesion defi ciency (BLAD) in Holsteincattle is especially required for bulls, which are used for artifi cial insemination (A.I.); these enable elimination of carriers from the A.I. programs and therefore prevent transmission of unwanted mutations to a large number of offspring. Some breeders are also interested
The performance of lactating dairy cattle fed on a maize silage (S) dry?lot scheme was compared with that of lactating dairy cattle switched abruptly from a dry?lot regime to graze endophyte?free Johnstone (J), Kentucky 31 (K), or AU Triumph (T) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as components of dairy diets. Twenty?four mature Holsteins either grazed pasture or received maize silage
J. F. Kabiligi; B. R. Moss; D. I. Bransby; J. L. Holliman; J. C. Lin
Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus that affects only cattle. It is associated with decreased milk production and increased cull rates due to development of lymphosarcoma. The virus also affects the immune system. Infected cows display a weak response to some vaccinations. It is important to determine if the heritability of BL susceptibility is greater than zero, or if the environment is the only factor that can be used to reduce the transmission and incidence of the disease. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability for BL incidence and the genetic merit of sires for leukosis resistance in Holstein and Jersey cattle. Continuous scores and binary milk ELISA results for 13,217 Holstein cows from 114 dairy herds across 16 states and 642 Jersey cows from 8 dairy herds were considered. Data were obtained from commercial testing records at Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). Out of the 13,859 animals tested, 38% were found to be infected with the disease. Linear and threshold animal models were used to analyze the continuous and binary data, respectively. Results from both models were similar in terms of estimated breeding values and variance components in their respective scales. Estimates of heritability obtained with the 2 approaches were approximately 8% for both breeds, indicating a considerable genetic component underlying BL disease incidence. The correlation between the estimated breeding values from the 2 models was larger than 0.90, and the lists of top 10% bulls selected from each model had about 80% overlap for both breeds. In summary, results indicate that a simple linear model using the continuous ELISA scores as the response variable was a reasonable approach for the genetic analysis of BL incidence in cattle. In addition, the levels of heritability found indicate that genetic selection could also be used to decrease susceptibility to bovine leukosis virus infection in Holstein and Jersey cattle. Further research is necessary to investigate the genetic correlations of BL with other production and reproduction traits, and to search for potential genomic regions harboring major genes affecting BL susceptibility. PMID:23831095
The progesterone receptor (PGR) gene is a key factor in the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy and in embryo development. Currently, it is unknown what variants of the PGR gene are related to fertility traits in cattle. Identification of such variants would allow the implementation of marker-assisted selection in breeding schemes. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PGR with fertility traits in Holstein dairy cattle. An in vitro fertilization system was used to maximize the efficiency of the identification of genetic factors affecting fertility. This in vitro fertilization system would allow the assessment of fertilization and embryonic survival rates independently of influences from the uterine environment. A total of 5,566 fertilization attempts were performed, and a total of 3,679 embryos were produced using oocytes from 324 Holstein cows and semen from 10 Holstein bulls. Sequencing of pooled DNA samples from ovaries revealed an SNP (G/C) in intron 3 of PGR. A generalized linear model was used to analyze the association of this SNP with fertilization and embryonic survival rates for each ovary. Oocytes obtained from CC ovaries showed a 61% fertilization rate, compared with 68 and 69% for GC and GG ovaries, respectively. The survival rate of embryos produced from GG ovaries was 5 and 6% higher than that of GC and CC ovaries . These results indicate that the PGR SNP could be used in marker-assisted selection breeding programs in Holstein dairy cattle. PMID:19620692
Driver, A M; Huang, W; Gajic, S; Monson, R L; Rosa, G J M; Khatib, H
Babesia parasites are intraerytrocytic Protozoa that infect wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally man causing babesiosis (piroplasmosis). Babesiosis also known in cattle as tick fever or red water fever is most important arthropod-borne disease of bovinae ungulates worldwide with areas of Africa, Asia, South and Central America, Australia and finally Europe. Since Smith and Kilborne had first described potential role of ticks in spread of piroplasmosis within animals, only United States till end of 50 of XX century eradicated the disease from the continent. In other, especially African countries, the problem seems to be of great economic importance. In this review all species of Babesia known to date to be infective to cattle are described with emphasis on geographical distribution of piroplasmosis, tick vector and pathogenicity of particular species and strains. PMID:17912800
Hepatic and intestinal expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of lactating German Holstein and Charolais cows were used to identify and map genes potentially involved in the regulation of metabolic processes in cattle. Seventeen ESTs were homologous to human gene sequences and six ESTs identified unknown coding sequences in human genomic DNA clones. A cattle-hamster somatic hybrid cell panel and cattle-hamster 5000 rad whole genome radiation hybrid (WGRH) panel were used to assign the ESTs in the bovine genome. Fifteen of the mapped genes and the six ESTs represent new assignments in the established cattle WGRH5000 map. Calculation of the radiation hybrid (RH) mapping data was performed with the software RHMAPPER. The new loci contribute to the completion of the bovine transcript maps and their comparative assignments increase our knowledge about genome evolution between cattle and human. PMID:12296524
Goldammer, Tom; Dorroch, Ute; Brunner, Ronald M; Kata, Srinivas R; Womack, James E; Schwerin, Manfred
In previous studies, we reported significant associations of the POU1F1 pathway genes with reproduction and production traits in several dairy cattle populations. Polymorphisms in genes of this pathway were found to be associated with both female and male fertility traits in dairy cattle. The POU1F1 gene is a direct downstream target for the regulation of the prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) gene, also known as PROP paired-like homeobox 1. Interestingly, the position of PROP1 coincides with a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether PROP1 affects fertility and milk production traits in Holsteincattle. Using the DNA pooling sequencing approach, a missense single nucleotide polymorphism that replaces a histidine amino acid with an arginine was detected in exon 3 of PROP1. The arginine allele was found to be associated with a decrease in sire conception rate and an increase in productive life, protein yield, and net merit index in a population of 1,951 Holstein bulls. The transcription factors produced from the histidine and arginine isoforms are known to have different transcription, DNA binding, and regulation activities. As such, we propose that the association of the arginine isoform with decreased bull fertility is likely caused by reduced activity of this allele in male functions. The findings of this study suggest PROP1 polymorphisms as candidates in selection programs for fertility, health, and milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:23245960
Lan, X Y; Peńagaricano, F; DeJung, L; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H
The objective of the present study was to assess the predictive ability of subsets of single nucleotide poly- morphism (SNP) markers for development of low-cost, low-density genotyping assays in dairy cattle. Dense SNP genotypes of 4,703 Holstein bulls were provided by the USDA Agricultural Research Service. A subset of 3,305 bulls born from 1952 to 1998 was used to fit
K. A. Weigel; G. de los Campos; O. González-Recio; H. Naya; X. L. Wu; N. Long; G. J. M. Rosa; D. Gianola
Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit per cow-day than did pure HO cows. PMID:22281364
The objective of this study was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding and drinking behav- ior and intake in group-housed cattle. A total of 42 Holstein cows were tested with access to 24 feed bins and 4 water bins. For the purposes of this validation experiment, we focused our observations on 4 water bins and 13 feed bins.
N. Chapinal; D. M. Veira; D. M. Weary; M. A. G. von Keyserlingk
A field study was conducted in central Argentina to evaluate the efficacy of ear tags containing 36% ethion against pyrethroid resistant populations of Haematobia irritans on grazing dairy cattle. The treated group consisted of 45 milking Holstein cows which received two tags per head and the control consisted of 22 dry cows from the same cohort. Treated and control groups
O. S. Anziani; G. Zimmermann; A. A. Guglielmone; M. Forchieri; M. M. Volpogni
The existence of time-periodic localized solutions near the anticontinuous limit in a generalized Holstein model with anharmonic on-site oscillators has been rigorously proved [S. Aubry, Physica D 103 (1997) 201]. In the present work we calculate explicitly such solutions, called polarobreathers, starting from the anticontinuous limit with the use of an efficient numerical method. We also study the linear stability
As a complement to the Bovine HapMap Consortium project, we initiated a systematic study of the copy numbervariation (CNV) within the same cattle population using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Oligonucleotide CGH arrays were designed and fabricated to cover all chromosomes with an average interval of 6 kb using the latest bovine genome assembly. In the initial screening, three Holstein bulls were selected to represent major paternal lineages of the Holstein breed with some maternal linkages between these lines. Dual-label hybridizations were performed using either Hereford L1 Dominette 01449 or L1 Domino 99375 as reference. The CNVs were represented by gains and losses of normalized fluorescence intensities relative to the reference. The data presented here, for the first time, demonstrated that significant amounts of germline and fewer somatic CNVs exist in cattle, that many CNVs are common both across diverse cattle breeds and among individuals within a breed, and that array CGH is an effective tool to systematically detect bovine CNV. Selected CNVs have been confirmed by independent methods using real-time (RT) PCR. The strategy used in this study, based on genome higher-orderarchitecture variation, is a powerful approach to generating resources for the identification of novel genomic variation and candidate genes for economically important traits. PMID:18817307
Liu, G E; Van Tassel, C P; Sonstegard, T S; Li, R W; Alexander, L J; Keele, J W; Matukumalli, L K; Smith, T P; Gasbarre, L C
Infertility in cattle herds is a growing problem with multifactorial causes. Embryonic genotype and level of inbreeding are among the many factors that can play a role on reproductive efficiency. To investigate this issue, we produced purebred and crossbred bovine embryos by in vitro techniques from Holstein oocytes and Holstein or Brown Swiss semen and analyzed several cellular and molecular features. In the first experiment, purebred and crossbred embryos, obtained from abattoir oocytes, were analyzed for cleavage, development to morula/blastocyst stages, amino acid metabolism and gene expression of developmentally important genes. The results indicated significant differences in the percentage of compacted morulae, in the expression of three genes at the blastocyst stage (MNSOD, GP130 and FGF4) and in the utilization of serine, asparagine, methionine and tryptophan in day 6 embryos. In the second experiment, bovine oocytes were collected by ovum pick up from ten Holstein donors and fertilized with the semen of the respective Holstein sires or with Brown Swiss semen. The derived embryos were grown in vitro up to day 7, and were then transferred to synchronized recipients and recovered on day 12. We found that purebred/inbred embryos had lower blastocyst rate on days 7-8, were smaller on day 12 and had lower expression of the trophoblast gene PLAC8. Overall, these results indicate reduced and delayed development of purebred embryos compared with crossbred embryos. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that embryo genotype and high inbreeding can affect amino acid metabolism, gene expression, preimplantation development and therefore fertility in cattle. PMID:21310813
Lazzari, G; Colleoni, S; Duchi, R; Galli, A; Houghton, F D; Galli, C
Some IgM cattle antibodies are amongst the largest known to exist in jawed vertebrates where CDR3H size may extend up to 61 amino acids. To understand the origin of such an exceptionally long CDR3H, bovine DH gene locus was completely characterized from Holsteincattle that revealed the presence of a total of eight DH genes, including DHQ52, with a distinct
We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.
Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL
This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…
|This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…
Writing forms - whether in terms of Chinese characters and Chinese ideographs, phonetic alphabet or numeric systems - are created by and thus reflect culture, mind, and social reality. In turn, these writing forms exert great impact on the culture and mind of their users. This article contends that in addition to the cultural content that the Chinese writing system
The objective of this study was to compare the immune response of Holstein and Norwegian Red x Holstein calves on 13 commercial Canadian dairy farms. Data were collected on 135 calves, 68 Holstein and 67 Norwegian Red x Holstein calves aged between 2 and 6 mo. The calves were immunized with hen egg white lysozyme to induce antibody-mediated immune response. Candida albicans was used as an in vivo indicator of cell-mediated immune response, with delayed-type hypersensitivity used as the indicator. Antibody response to hen egg white lysozyme (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2) was measured by ELISA. Calves of both breed groups produced a significant primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune response, as well as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The Norwegian Red x Holstein produced a greater primary IgG antibody-mediated immune response (d 14, and d 14 minus d 0) when compared with the Holstein. No differences were observed between the breeds for secondary response or antihen egg white lysozyme isotype (IgG1 or IgG2) production or the ratio of IgG1:IgG2. There was no effect of breed on delayed-type hypersensitivity. Nonetheless, high and low immune responders could be identified in both breed groups, but with no difference in the proportion of high and low responders observed for either antibody-mediated immune response or cell-mediated immune response between breed groups. PMID:19164662
Begley, N; Buckley, F; Burnside, E B; Schaeffer, L; Pierce, K; Mallard, B A
PureHolsteincowsandNormande\\/Holstein,Montbe- liarde\\/Holstein, and Scandinavian Red\\/Holstein cross- bred cows were compared for calving difficulty and still- birth rates. Scandinavian Red was a combination of Norwegian Red and Swedish Red. All cows calved from June 2001 to August 2004 at 7 commercial dairies. Sta- tistical models for analysis included effects of herd- year-season of calving and sex of calf in addition to
We previously reported that administration of flunixin meglumine two times at a critical stage approaching pregnancy recognition associated with maintenance of the corpus luteum (CL) increased early embryo survival and pregnancy rate via an additive antiluteolytic effect with the conceptus [Vet Rec 160 (2007) 404]. In this study, the objective was to determine if a single administration of meloxicam, a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug with a longer half-life, could be used instead of flunixin meglumine. This would avoid repeated injections in heifers following insemination at a critical stage to increase pregnancy rate due to its inhibitory effect on prostaglandin F(2alpha) synthesis. Eighty-five, 15- to 18-month-old Holstein heifers were synchronized, and following insemination (day 0) heifers were assigned to receive subcutaneous meloxicam injection (0.5 mg/kg; n = 37) on the afternoon of day 15 or were untreated as a control (n = 48). Pregnancy rates were defined as the percentage of heifers inseminated that were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasound between days 31 and 38 after artificial insemination. Effect of the treatment on pregnancy rates was analysed by chi-square test. Meloxicam treatment on day 15 after insemination dramatically decreased pregnancy rates in the heifers (52%; 25 of 48 in the control group vs 24.3%; 9 of 37 in the meloxicam-treated group; p < 0.01). This result indicates that administration of meloxicam at the time associated with pregnancy recognition processes to maintain the CL was harmful to the pregnancy even though the drug is considered to be safe during pregnancy in cattle. PMID:19144041
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forestripping as a premilking stimulation technique on milk yield, milking unit attachment time, and milk flow rates in Holstein dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) were divided into two groups (HPE, high producing, early lactation; LPL, low producing, late lactation) based on prestudy milk yield and stage of lactation. Within the production group, cows were randomly assigned into treatment (n = 6) and control groups (n = 6) in a switchback design. Cows were milked twice daily and treatments were switched after 20 milkings. Premilking udder preparation for the treatment group was as follows: forestripping, predipping with 0.5% iodine, and drying with paper towels followed by unit attachment. Udder preparation for the control group was identical except forestripping was not performed. Data were analyzed by using the PROC Means and PROC Mixed models described by SAS. During the study, cows in the HPE group produced significantly more milk and had longer milking unit attachment times compared with cows in the LPL group. The milk flow rate was 0.36 kg/min faster for the HPE cows compared with the LPL cows. There was no significant effect of order of treatment administration on any outcome variable. There were no significant differences in milk yield, milk unit attachment time, or milk flow for animals that were forestripped compared with animals that were not forestripped. In this study, the addition of forestripping to an otherwise acceptable premilking udder preparation routine did not increase milking performance of multiparous Holstein dairy cows. PMID:12018426
Bovine hemoplasmas are bacteria found on the erythrocyte surface or free in the plasma of cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' ('C. M. haemobos') in Holstein and Jersey cattle raised in Londrina and surroundings, northern region of the State of Parana, Southern Brazil. PCR testing directed to 16S rRNA gene fragment was performed to investigate the occurrence and characterize the molecular identity of 'C. M. haemobos'. A total of 264/433 (60.97%) blood samples were positive by PCR. Further alignment of 500-bp amplicons to available sequences at the GenBank database showed high identity (100%) to 'C. M. haemobos'. To the author's knowledge, this is the first molecular confirmation of the hemoplasma 'C. M. haemobos' in cattle from Brazil. Moreover, 'C. M. haemobos' was observed in high occurrence in dairy cattle, and may have significant impact in livestock production. PMID:23070456
Girotto, Aline; Zangirólamo, Amanda Fonseca; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; Souza, Arnaldo Sotero Luz E; da Silva, Gislaine Cristina Ferreira; Garcia, Joăo Luis; Vilas Boas, Laurival Antônio; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon
Over a one-year period, based on a random cluster sampling design, 661 faecal samples from natural cases of diarrheic calves were taken in Fars province of Iran. The samples were taken from the 267 diarrheic calves of high and 394 diarrheic calves of average producing Holstein dairy cows. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum. Herd selection was based on geographical location and density of cattle in the region. Samples were collected based on 5 percent of herd population in 4 geographical regions: North, West, East and South of Fars province. The herds were stratified into small, medium and large size. Laboratory investigation consisted of a direct identification test for antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum. All herds had HPDC and APDC Cryptosporidium-infected diarrheic calves in their population. Diarrheic Cryptosporidium infected HPDC calves in southern region of Fars province were at much lower risk (P<0.05) than APDC calves. The rate of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic APDC calves in southern region of Fars province was highest when compared to other geographical locations. When considering the effect of age, diarrheic Cryptosporidium affected APDC Holstein calves of younger dams (>2 to 3years) showed a higher rate of infection when compared to diarrheic HPDC Cryptosporidium infected ones. There were no differences among the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic HPDC and APDC calves of different herd size groups. PMID:22041760
To determine the effect of monensin, a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic, on the bacterial population structure of\\u000a dairy cattle colonic contents, we fed six lactating Holstein cows a diet containing monensin (600 mg day?1) or an identical diet without monensin. Fresh waste samples were taken directly from the animals once a month for 3 months\\u000a and assayed for their bacterial population structure via
Jeffery A. McGarvey; Scott W. Hamilton; Edward J. DePeters; Frank M. Mitloehner
Immune function measured by Staphylococcus aureus- and phytohemagglutinin- (PHA-) induced cell proliferationwasassessedinapopulationof445geneti- cally defined, F2 and backcross Charolais-Holstein crossbred cattle when the animals were approximately 5 mo of age. Variation in Staph. aureus-induced, PHA- induced, and control proliferation (peripheral blood mononuclearcell(PBMC)andmediaonly)wasobserved at d 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10 of in vitro culture. The levels of Staph. aureus-induced, PHA-induced,
F. J. Young; J. A. Woolliams; J. L. Williams; E. J. Glass; R. G. O’Neill; J. L. Fitzpatrick
Summary Eight rumen-fistulated cattle (four Angus steers and four nonlactating Holstein cows) were fed a cracked corn-based concentrate (65% of dry matter) and corn silage (35% of dry matter) diet containing: (1) no buffer, (2) 2.5% limestone, (3) 2% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or (4) 1.25% limestone and 1.25% NaHCO3. Each diet was fed at approximately maintenance and-two times maintenance levels
A survey of 169 Holstein-Friesian cattle showed 21 heterozygous for Factor XI activity having activities of .43 +/- .10 units per milliliter compared with the normal .99 +/- .32 units per milliliter. The frequency of the mutant gene was .06; the 95% confidence limits for the frequency of homozygotes in the population were .1 to .8%, and for heterozygotes the frequency was 7.0 to 16.0%. Test matings indicated this disorder is transmitted as an autosomal recessive gene. PMID:7381085
The work assess the effect of the quality of rearing on milk production of a herd of Holstein (H) and Czech Pied (C) cattle. An evaluation was made of the impact of selected factors (breed, lactation sequence, age at first mating, live weight at the ages of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months) on indices of milk production and
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses or molasses-urea supplementation with or without soybean hulls on digestibility, intake and animal performance in cattle fed bahiagrass hay. In experiment 1, Holstein steers were fed one of six treatment diets: 1) hay only; 2) hay pl...
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- 11 transformation event in two parental corn hybrids differing in date of maturity on beef and dairy cattle performance. Sixteen lactating Holstein dairy cows in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares were assigned to four diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: Bt vs non-Bt trait
Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).
Cattle are often fed high concentrate (HC) diets to increase productivity, although HC diets cause changes in ruminal environment such as pH reduction. Despite those well-documented changes in cattle fed HC diets, there is currently a paucity of data describing the molecular events regulating the ruminal environment. Our objective was to gain an understanding of which genes are differentially expressed in ruminal tissue from Holstein cows fed a HC comparing to low concentrate (LC) diet using microarray analysis using a bovine 24 k microarray. A total of 5,200 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were detected for cows fed HC relative to LC. The DEG were firstly annotated with gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), indicating that the DEG were associated with catalytic activity and MAPK pathway, respectively. Further characterization using GeneCodis identified patterns of interrelated annotations for the DEG to elucidate the relationships among annotation groups revealed that a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunit beta (PRKACB), may be associated with ruminal tissue maintenance. The results contributed to understanding of the regulatory mechanisms at the mRNA level for Holstein cows fed at different concentrate ratio diets. PMID:20732839
Taniguchi, Masaaki; Penner, Gregory B; Beauchemin, Karen A; Oba, Masahito; Guan, Le Luo
To develop a modern appraisal of growth of Holstein dairy heifers, height at withers and heart girth (body weight) data were collected for 5723 heifers representing 163 commercial Holstein dairy herds from October 1983 through May 1985. Quadratic regression equations of height and weight on age were com- puted for each herd. Estimated weight and height of heifers at 24
The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian Holsteins. Data of 942,941 Holstein calving events from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, recorded between January 1996 and December 2007, were used in the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to model the logit of the probability of a male
ABSTRACT The Cornell Net Carbohydrate,and Protein System,(CNCPS) and,NRC (1985) models were evaluated,for accuracy,in predicting metaboliza- ble protein,(MP) and,essential amino,acid (EAA) allowable ADG, using chemical body and feed composi- tion data,from,feeding,trials with,Holstein steers. Nine Holstein steers (1 13 , 200 kg) were slaughtered
S. J. Ainslie; D. G. Fox; T. C. Perry; D. J. Ketchen; M. C. Barry
OESTRUS synchronisation is a useful technique in cattle practice as it allows the use of fixed-time artificial insemination (Al) or improved heat detection efficiency. It can also be used to prepare donor and recipient cattle in embryo transfer programmes. As synchronisation techniques have improved, the number of beef cattle being served by Al has steadily increased. Not only does oestrus
We provide a critical summary of the literature on maternal behavior in cattle. The studies we review increase our basic understanding of this behavior and provide insights into practical problems in cattle production. When domesticated cattle are permitted to rear their young, the behaviors associated with maternal care are for the most part similar to those observed in wild ungulates.
Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite of animals. It is a major cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. Domestic dogs and coyotes are the only known definitive hosts for N. caninum. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted infection of cattle and up to 90% of cattle in some herds a...
We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.
Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
Eight of 600 Holstein heifers and cows died after ingestion of sweet clover silage (Melilotus sp) that contained excessive concentrations of dicumarol caused by mold infestation. The cattle developed subcutaneous hemorrhages and bled from the vagina, became weak, were unable to move, and died. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of sweet clover poisoning in cattle from California and is discussed in light of previous findings in the Midwest and Canada. Sweet clover poisoning is caused by dicumarol, a fungal metabolite produced from substrates in sweet clover, and is a common livestock problem in the Northern Plains and Canada. Sweet clover poisoning should be considered in livestock animals with clinical evidence of hemostatic dysfunction, prolonged coagulation times, subcutaneous hemorrhages, and hemorrhagic abortions. Definite diagnosis of moldy sweet clover poisoning can be accomplished by analysis of serum and feed samples for dicumarol concentrations. PMID:9530428
Puschner, B; Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Palazoglu, M
|The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…
In Chile, the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L., 1758), is a major pest of grazing cattle and affects livestock production during the summer. Previous studies in Europe and the United States have shown that cattle flies, including H. irritans, are differentially attracted to individual cattle within herds and that volatile semiochemicals are responsible for this phenomenon. This study provides evidence that similar differential attractiveness occurs for the interaction between Chilean Holstein-Friesian cattle herds and local H. irritans populations. Thus, Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, Bos taurus, which were of similar age and physiological condition, were shown to possess an uneven distribution of H. irritans. Heifers h6904 and h8104 were defined as low-carrier heifers and h5804, h2304 and h1404 as high-carrier heifers. Gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of samples collected from heifers revealed the presence of compounds previously reported as semiochemicals for cattle flies, including meta- and para-cresol, methylketones (C8-C11), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Other compounds identified included carboxylic acids (butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, pentanoic, and hexanoic acids), 1-hexanol, and 3-octanone. In Y-tube olfactometer studies, both m- and p-cresol attracted H. irritans at the highest doses tested (10(-6) g), as did the positive control 1-octen-3-ol. Of the other compounds tested, only 2-decanone and 2-undecanone produced a behavioral response, with significantly more flies being recorded in the control arm when the former compound was tested (at 10(-6) and 10(-8) g), and more flies being recorded in the treated arm for the latter compound (at 10(-7) g). This demonstration of behavioral activity with the identified compounds represents a first step for research into the application of semiochemicals in monitoring and control of cattle flies in Chile. PMID:19960676
Oyarzún, M P; Palma, R; Alberti, E; Hormazabal, E; Pardo, F; Birkett, M A; Quiroz, A
The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews Scotland offers this website on the history of Chinese Mathematics. Key features highlighted in the overview include: a discussion of the Chinese version of Pythagoras's theorem, a famous Chinese mathematics book commonly known as the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, and the work of several Chinese mathematicians. Visitors to the website can also browse a chronological listing of several Chinese mathematicians and read about their careers. Other features of the website include a section summarizing each chapter from the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a section highlighting ten other mathematical classics, a review of the Chinese numeral system, and a collection of Chinese problems, which are extracted from various articles in their archive.
Background Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to obtain an indication on the importance of these defects in Turkish Holsteins. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from blood and the amplicons of BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID were obtained by using PCR. PCR products were digested with TaqI, AvaI and AvaII restriction enzymes for BLAD, DUMPS, and BC, respectively. These digested products and PCR product of FXID were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. CVM genotypes were detected by DNA sequencing. Additionally, all genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether there was a mutant allele or not. Results Fourteen BLAD, twelve CVM and four FXID carriers were found among the 350 Holstein cows examined, while carriers of DUMPS and BC were not detected. The mutant allele frequencies were calculated as 0.02, 0.017, and 0.006 for BLAD, CVM and FXID, respectively with corresponding carrier prevalence of 4.0% (BLAD), 3.4% (CVM) and 1.2% (FXID). Conclusion This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are present in the Turkish Holstein population, although at a low frequency. The actual number of clinical cases is unknown, but sporadic cases may appear. As artificial insemination is widely used in dairy cattle breeding, carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are likely present within the population of breeding sires. It is recommended to screen breeding sires for these defective genes in order to avoid an unwanted spread within the population.
In two different dairy farms six calves exhibiting bilateral flexion of the fetlock joints in front or rear legs were born in 2000 to 2002. Four of the affected calves from the same farm were crossbred between German Holstein cows with red and white coat colour and a bull of the breed Limousin. The other two affected calves born on another farm were purebred German Holsteins with a black and white coat colour. The tests for BVD virus antigen and antibodies were negative in all affected calves. Three of the calves showed a lower selen and a higher glutamate dehydrogenase concentration in the analyses of blood metabolites. Two crossbred calves showed a degeneration of the liver with a progressive periportal fibrosis in a histological examination. In one calf an edema of astrocytes of the central nervous system was seen. The analysis of the pedigrees revealed for the four crossbred calves the Limousin bull as common ancestor and the mothers of the calves as relatives. For the affected purebred German Holstein calves also a sire was identified as a common ancestor. The pedigrees support inheritance through a monogenic autosomal recessive locus or more recessive gene loci with variable expressivity. However, the analysis could not clarify whether different gene loci are responsible for the congenital anomalies observed in the calves from the two farms and thus, the observed anomalies may be different genetic entities. Obvious environmental reasons were not found. PMID:15714874
Bähr, C; Baum, B; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Scholz, H; Distl, O
This study investigated potential effects of feeding ground linseed on enteric CH4 production, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in cattle when it was added to diets containing grass hay or barley silage. Twelve non-lactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin Square design experiment with four diets and four 21d periods. Experimental diets (500:500 forage to
Y.-H. Chung; M. L. He; S. M. McGinn; T. A. McAllister; K. A. Beauchemin
Data were collected on the heart girth (n = 8,565; a measure of body weight) and height at withers (n = 8,568) of Holstein dairy heifers from 659 dairy farms as part of the National Dairy Heifer Evaluation Project during 1991 and 1992. Means and standard deviations for weight and height were determined for ages .5 to 23.5 mo. Third-order polynomial regression equations were derived to study the relationship of weight and height to age. Stepwise mixed-model regression, using REML estimation, was used to identify factors associated with Holstein heifer growth and to build a multivariate model describing Holstein heifer growth across the United States. Holstein heifers on the sample of dairy farms in this study were heavier and taller at the withers than standards published 30 to 50 yr ago. Increased rolling herd average milk production was associated with a greater rate of growth in Holstein heifers. Holstein heifers in the West and Midwest were larger at a given age than those in the Northeast and Southeast. PMID:9621930
Serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B) is one of the 14 different identified serotonin receptors which are involved in the regulation of behaviors such as sleep, fear, aggression, mood, and feeding. The aims of this study were to characterize polymorphisms in the 5? coding and the 3? flanking regions of the bovine HTR1B gene among ChineseHolsteins and to identify the association
C. L. Zhang; H. Chen; Y. H. Wang; R. F. Zhang; X. Y. Lan; C. Z. Lei; L. Zhang; A. L. Zhang; S. R. Hu
A study was performed to determine if the number of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) adults differ significantly on Holstein (black and white coat color), Holstein x Holstein Friesian (black and white coat color) and Holstein x Jersey (black coat color) steers, 10-12 months old at the onset of the study. All steers were run together on lucerne paddocks and the number of flies counted at 30-day intervals from September 2000 to August 2001. No significant differences (P > 0.05, test of Kruskal-Wallis) were found in fly numbers, even in the period April-May 2001 when the infestation reached its peak. We were unable to demonstrate that coat color influenced horn fly abundance in the present study. It appears that none of the biotypes evaluated had any advantage for natural control of H. irritans. PMID:12383633
Guglielmone, A A; Volpogni, M M; Castro, H; Mangold, A J; Anziani, O S
This study presents genetic parameters for conformation traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with milk production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in three Swiss dairy cattle breeds. Data on first lactations from Holstein (67,839), Brown Swiss (173,372) and Red & White breeds (53,784) were available. Analysed conformation traits were stature and heart girth (both in cm), and linear scores of body depth, rump width, dairy character or muscularity, and body condition score (only in Holstein). A sire model, with relationships among sires, was used for all breeds and traits and variance components were estimated using AS-REML. Heritabilities for stature were high (0.6-0.8), and for the linear type traits ranged from 0.3 to 0.5, for all breeds. Genetic correlations with production traits (milk, fat and protein yield) and SCS differed between the dairy breeds. Most markedly, stronger correlations were found between SCS and some conformation traits in Brown Swiss and Red & White, indicating that a focus on a larger and more 'dairy' type in these breeds would lead to increased SCS. Another marked difference was that rump width correlated positively with milk yield traits in Holstein and Red & White, but negative in Brown Swiss. Results indicate that conformation traits generally can be used as predictors for various purposes in dairy cattle breeding, but may require specific adaptation for each breed. PMID:17302955
High levels of inbreeding in East African dairy cattle are a potential concern because of use of a limited range of imported germplasm coupled with strong selection, especially by disease, and sparse performance recording. To address this, genetic relationships and breed composition in an admixed population of Kenyan dairy cattle were estimated by means of a 50K SNP scan. Genomic DNA from 3 worldwide Holstein and 20 Kenyan bulls, 71 putative cow-calf pairs, 25 cows from a large ranch and 5 other Kenyan animals were genotyped for 37?238 informative SNPs. Sires were predicted and 89% of putative dam-calf relationships were supported by genotype data. Animals were clustered with the HapMap population using Structure software to assess breed composition. Cows from a large ranch primarily clustered with Holsteins, while animals from smaller farms were generally crosses between Holstein and Guernsey. Coefficients of relatedness were estimated and showed evidence of heavy use of one AI bull. We conclude that little native germplasm exists within the genotyped populations and mostly European ancestry remains. PMID:20831558
Gorbach, D M; Makgahlela, M L; Reecy, J M; Kemp, S J; Baltenweck, I; Ouma, R; Mwai, O; Marshall, K; Murdoch, B; Moore, S; Rothschild, M F
The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite ?-?-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed ?-?-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent ?-?-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The ?-?-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of ?-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the ?-?-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively. PMID:22981570
Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jőudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E
|This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…
The instructional guide to business Chinese consists of 12 two-part specially composed narrative essays on all aspects of Chinese foreign trade ranging from broad principles and policies to details of operation and procedure. Each lesson is followed by a summary of its main points, 10 questions to guide discussion or conversational practice, and a…
During the past decade, Neospora caninum infection has emerged as an important reproductive disease in cattle throughout the world. Abortion, occurring during the middle of gestation, is the primary clinical sign of the infection in cattle. Surveys in several countries from three continents have identified N. caninum infection as the major diagnosed cause of bovine abortion. Both endemic and epidemic
The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT< or =4 degrees C), no stress (NS=ADMnT>4 degrees C and ADMxT<29 degrees C), and heat stress (HS=ADMxT> or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH<340 kg); moderate (MD=340-365 kg); and heavy (HY>365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. PMID:17045427
Chebel, Ricardo C; Braga, Fernando A; Dalton, Joseph C
Some dairy producers resist using bovine somatotropin (bST) beginning at 9 wk postpartum because of the concern that fertility is compromised. We conducted a trial with a total of 205 Holstein cows, 100 multiparous and 105 primiparous, to evaluate reproductive performance in two high producing herds in Arizona and southern California. Rolling herd averages for both herds for milk production exceeded 10,700 kg/yr. Data were collected for cows calving December 1996 through August 1997. The voluntary waiting period was 60 d postcalving, with cows randomly assigned to receive bST or no treatment (controls). In the 180-d interval after calving, 65.4% (68/104) of the control cows were diagnosed pregnant. With bST-treated cows, 48.5% (49/101) were pregnant in that same interval. A chi-square value from a linear model indicated that pregnancy outcome differed significantly between treatment groups. With a similar method of analysis, first-service conception rate was not significantly different between treatment groups. An extended voluntary wait and breeding interval is recommended for cows receiving bST, similar to suggestions from other published reports. PMID:10908052
Luna-Dominguez, J E; Enns, R M; Armstrong, D V; Ax, R L
Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models...
In cattle, infestations with P. ovis are responsible for a severe dermatitis. The disease is very common in some breeds of beef cattle whereas dairy cattle such as Frisian Holstein are considered as resistant. In order to investigate the factors responsible for this marked breed susceptibility, the immune response to P. ovis under experimental and field conditions has been studied using serology, lymphocyte transformation assay, intradermal tests and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in susceptible Belgian White and Blue (BWB) and resistant Frisian Holstein (FH) cattle. The results of published studies are reviewed in this paper; original data on specific hypersensitivity reactions to P. ovisare also presented. The use of a sandwich ELISA allowed the detection of specific antibodies as early as 7 days post-infestation and very high titres were observed. There was a clear positive correlation between the antibody titre and the extent of lesions. This antibody response was associated with a marked in vitro lymphocyte proliferation but there was no difference between susceptible and resistant cattle. The passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test revealed the presence of specific Ig E in actively infested animals irrespective of the breed. Specific Ig E were detected fairly late during the course of an experimental infestation with P. ovis. The intradermal injection of P. cuniculi antigenic extract induced an immediate reaction in all animals including the controls; in contrast, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction was observed in infected BWB animals only. It is concluded that immunological as well as non-immunological factors may be responsible for the breed related susceptibility or resistance to P. ovis. PMID:10423004
Genetic susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) has been observed in many species including humans and sheep. Evidence for the presence of susceptibility genes on several bovine chromosomes has been reported. More recently, there have been reports of associations w...
In mammals, red\\/yellow and brown\\/black colorations are determined by the distribution of two pigments, phaeomelanin and eumelanin, respectively, the relative amounts of which are controlled primarily by two loci, extension and agouti. Dominant alleles at the extension locus increase brown\\/black pigmentation, while recessive alleles block eumelanin synthesis, thereby extending red\\/ yellow pigmentation within the hair follicle melanocyte. Robbins and associates
H. Joerg; H. R. Fries; E. Meijerink; G. F. Stranzinger
The effects of additive, dominance, additive by dominance, additive by additive and dominance by dominance genetic effects on age at first service, non-return rates and interval from calving to first service were estimated. Practical considerations of computing additive and dominance relationships using the genomic relationship matrix are discussed. The final strategy utilized several groups of 1000 animals (heifers or cows) in which all animals had a non-zero dominance relationship with at least one other animal in the group. Direct inversion of relationship matrices was possible within the 1000 animal subsets. Estimates of variances were obtained using Bayesian methodology via Gibbs sampling. Estimated non-additive genetic variances were generally as large as or larger than the additive genetic variance in most cases, except for non-return rates and interval from calving to first service for cows. Non-additive genetic effects appear to be of sizeable magnitude for fertility traits and should be included in models intended for estimating additive genetic merit. However, computing additive and dominance relationships for all possible pairs of individuals is very time consuming in populations of more than 200 000 animals.
Palucci, Valentina; Schaeffer, Lawrence R; Miglior, Filippo; Osborne, Vern
The effects of additive, dominance, additive by dominance, additive by additive and dominance by dominance genetic effects on age at first service, non-return rates and interval from calving to first service were estimated. Practical considerations of computing additive and dominance relationships using the genomic relationship matrix are discussed. The final strategy utilized several groups of 1000 animals (heifers or cows) in which all animals had a non-zero dominance relationship with at least one other animal in the group. Direct inversion of relationship matrices was possible within the 1000 animal subsets. Estimates of variances were obtained using Bayesian methodology via Gibbs sampling. Estimated non-additive genetic variances were generally as large as or larger than the additive genetic variance in most cases, except for non-return rates and interval from calving to first service for cows. Non-additive genetic effects appear to be of sizeable magnitude for fertility traits and should be included in models intended for estimating additive genetic merit. However, computing additive and dominance relationships for all possible pairs of individuals is very time consuming in populations of more than 200 000 animals. PMID:17306200
Palucci, Valentina; Schaeffer, Lawrence R; Miglior, Filippo; Osborne, Vern
This study evaluated the bovine angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) gene as a functional and positional candidate gene underlying a previously fine mapped quantitative trait locus (QTL) for somatic cell score on bovine chromosome 27. The gene product angiopoietin-2 is directly involved in the extravasation of neutrophils, making it a promising candidate to control the amount of somatic cells in milk. A total of 11 polymorphisms were identified within the gene by comparatively resequencing the entire open reading frame of the gene as well as adjacent intronic regions. Four selected variants were genotyped in the same granddaughter design used for QTL mapping and an association study was carried out applying 2 complementary approaches. A variable number of tandem repeats in intron 7 of the gene was found to be significantly associated with cell score in all approaches and explains approximately half of the QTL variance. Analysis of ANGPT2 mRNA expression in different localizations of the udder in animals putatively carrying divergent QTL alleles revealed differential expression in the udder lymph node. Together with the physiological role of angiopoietin-2, these results support a role of ANGPT2 in the genetic control of somatic cell score. Further studies are, however, needed to further underpin this hypothesis. PMID:23726425
Tetens, J; Baes, C; Kühn, C; Reinsch, N; Thaller, G
Background Bovine tuberculosis is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Although many factors influence infection and progression of the disease, there is a host genetic component and dissection of this may enlighten on the wider biology of host response to tuberculosis. However, a binary phenotype of presence/absence of infection presents a noisy signal for genomewide association study. Methodology/Principal Findings We calculated a composite phenotype of genetic merit for TB susceptibility based on disease incidence in daughters of elite sires used for artificial insemination in the Irish dairy herd. This robust measure was compared with 44,426 SNP genotypes in the most informative 307 subjects in a genome wide association analysis. Three SNPs in a 65 kb genomic region on BTA 22 were associated (i.e. p<10?5, peaking at position 59588069, p?=?4.02×10?6) with tuberculosis susceptibility. Conclusions/Significance A genomic region on BTA 22 was suggestively associated with tuberculosis susceptibility; it contains the taurine transporter gene SLC6A6, or TauT, which is known to function in the immune system but has not previously been investigated for its role in tuberculosis infection.
Finlay, Emma K.; Berry, Donagh P.; Wickham, Brian; Gormley, Eamonn P.; Bradley, Daniel G.
ABSTRACT The purpose,of this study was to evaluate,the impact of polymer-coated urea on nitrogen retention, rumen microbial growth, and milk production and composi- tion. Coated urea (CU) that is more,slowly hydrolyzed to ammonia,than unprotected,urea could potentially be used more,efficiently by rumen,microorganisms.,Eight cows,were,offered each,of three diets in a randomized crossover,design. Each treatment,period consisted,of a 14-d adjustment,period,and,a 5-d collection,period. Diets were,formulated,to maintain,milk,production
E. Galo; S. M. Emanuele; C. J. Sniffen; J. H. White; J. R. Knapp
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a feasible way to utilize sex-sortedspermtoproduceoffspringofapredetermined sex in the livestock industry. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of various factors on bovine IVF and to systematically improve the efficiency ofIVFproductionusingsex-sortedsperm.Bothbullsand sorting contributed to the variability among differential development rates of embryos fertilized by sexed sperm. Increased sorting pressures (275.8 to
J. Xu; Z. Guo; L. Su; T. L. Nedambale; J. Zhang; J. Schenk; J. F. Moreno; A. Dinnyés; W. Ji; X. C. Tian
The effects of additive, dominance, additive by dominance, additive by additive and dominance by dominance genetic effects on age at first service, non-return rates and inter- val from calving to first service were estimated. Practical considerations of computing additive and dominance relationships using the genomic relationship matrix are discussed. The final strategy utilized several groups of 1000 animals (heifers or
The effects of additive, dominance, additive by dominance, additive by additive and dominance by dominance genetic effects on age at first service, non-return rates and interval from calving to first service were estimated. Practical considerations of computing additive and dominance relationships using the genomic relationship matrix are discussed. The final strategy utilized several groups of 1000 animals (heifers or cows)
Valentina Palucci; Lawrence R Schaeffer; Filippo Miglior; Vern Osborne
Background The gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, is a thread-like spirurid nematode found in a variety of mammals worldwide. Its incidences in Iranian cattle of different breed or age have not been reported. The aims of the present study are to disclose the infection status of G. pulchrum in cattle slaughtered in northern region of Iran. Methods Full-length esophagi of cattle of 97 native dairy breed and 41 Holstein-Friesian breed were collected at four local abattoirs in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, from March 2006 to August 2007, and were examined parasitologically. Eight overlapping segments of the small- and large-subunits of rDNA were amplified by PCR, and the obtained nucleotide sequences were characterized. Results The incidences of G. pulchrum in female and male native dairy breed were 38.9% and 24.0%, respectively, whereas those in female and male Holstein-Friesian breed were 4.2% and 0%, respectively. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of G. pulchrum rDNA showed an intra-individual variation in the sequence and length, and the variation was ascribed to some unstable repeats of "A" or "CA". Conclusion Distinct incidences of G. pulchrum infection in native dairy breed and Holstein-Friesian breed might be ascribed to different animal husbandry manners for each breed in Iran; the former breed grazes freely in the pasture, but the latter breed is usually held in a pen. The rDNA sequence of Iranian G. pulchrum, obtained for the first time by us, might facilitate a reliable species identification of the parasite with a wide spectrum of morphological variations.
Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Salehi, N; Ashrafi-Helan, J; Sato, H
Small components and metabolites in milk are significant for the utilization of milk, not only in dairy food production but also as disease predictors in dairy cattle. This study focused on estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in bovine milk. For this purpose, milk samples were collected in mid lactation from 371 Danish Holstein cows in first to third parity. A total of 31 metabolites were detected and identified in bovine milk by using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cows were genotyped using a bovine high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Based on the SNP data, a genomic relationship matrix was calculated and used as a random factor in a model together with 2 fixed factors (herd and lactation stage) to estimate the heritability and breeding value for individual metabolites in the milk. Heritability was in the range of 0 for lactic acid to >0.8 for orotic acid and ?-hydroxybutyrate. A single SNP association analysis revealed 7 genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci [malonate: Bos taurus autosome (BTA)2 and BTA7; galactose-1-phosphate: BTA2; cis-aconitate: BTA11; urea: BTA12; carnitine: BTA25; and glycerophosphocholine: BTA25]. These results demonstrate that selection for metabolites in bovine milk may be possible. PMID:23497994
Buitenhuis, A J; Sundekilde, U K; Poulsen, N A; Bertram, H C; Larsen, L B; Sřrensen, P
A 5-˝-month-old female Holstein-Friesian calf was presented with a history of recurring ruminal tympany and poor development. The absence of lung sounds on the right hemithorax suggested a right-sided intrathoracic pathology. Radiography and computed tomography revealed a large thin-walled cavernous lesion with a gas-fluid interface which almost completely filled the right thoracic cavity. Fluid aspirated from the lesion was clear, yellowish and odorless. These findings led to the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The cyst strongly adhered to the adjacent lung tissue. After removal of the free wall, the adjacent lung tissue was sealed using surgical stapling instruments, and the non-removable part of the wall was curetted and rinsed. The intensive postoperative management included antibiotic therapy, oxygen supplementation and regional lidocaine infusion. Anti-inflammatory drugs were administered for further pain control. The calf recovered well and was released from the clinic on postoperative day 11. Intra- or extrathoracic bronchogenic cysts result from abnormal budding during the embryonic development of the tracheobronchial system. Successful treatment of this calf despite the size of the lesion and the invasive character of the surgical intervention indicates that resection of bronchogenic cysts in cattle may be an option for valuable animals.
Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is considered as a crucial gene for the proper development of bovine embryos. However, the complete nucleotide sequences of the structural genes encoding FGF4 in identified breeds are still unknown. In the present study, direct sequencing of PCR products derived from genomic DNA samples obtained from three Japanese Black, two Japanese Shorthorn and three Holsteincattle, revealed that the nucleotide sequences of the structural gene encoding FGF4 matched completely among these eight cattle. On the other hand, differences in the nucleotide sequences, leading to substitutions, insertions or deletions of amino acid residues were detected when compared with the already reported sequence from unidentified breeds. We cannot rule out a possibility that the structural gene elucidated in the present study is widely distributed in cattle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the structural gene encoding bovine FGF4 in identified breeds. PMID:22435631
The objective of present study was the comparison of trans-11 18:1 (VA) and cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations in the rumen and different tissues in beef cattle, and to examine the diet and breed effects on the\\u000a compound concentration and deposition. Sixty-four German Holstein and German Simmental bulls were randomly assigned to two\\u000a dietary treatments, based on concentrate or pasture. The concentration
Xiangzhen Shen; Karin Nuernberg; Gerd Nuernberg; Ruqian Zhao; Nigel Scollan; Klaus Ender; Dirk Dannenberger
The objective was to determine the relative effects of a specific increase in grass silage sucrose concentration, or a specific supplement of a starch-based concentrate, on rumen fermentation and nutrient supply to the omasum in beef cattle. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein–Friesian steers were fed grass silage only (G), G plus 3kgconcentrates\\/day (GC), G plus 90gsucrose\\/kgdry matter (DM) (GS) and G
Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen- thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchro- nized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2? and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows
J. D. Ambrose; M. Drost; R. L. Monson; J. J. Rutledge; M. L. Leibfried-Rutledge; M.-J. Thatcher; T. Kassa; M. Binelli; P. J. Hansen; P. J. Chenoweth
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether administration of GnRH postinsemination would improve reproductive performance in heat-stressed dairy cattle. Estrous cycles of Holstein cows were synchronized using the OvSynch protocol and cows were artificially inseminated. Cows were then administered the following treatments: control (no GnRH; n=37), GnRH (100?g) on Day 5 (GnRH-D5; n=34), or GnRH (100?g) on Day
S Willard; S Gandy; S Bowers; K Graves; A Elias; C Whisnant
The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood serum and diet concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in Holstein dairy\\u000a cattle kept under semi-industrial farming in Isfahan province, central Iran. Moreover, the effects of season, pregnancy, and\\u000a daily milk yield on serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were also evaluated. The study was carried out on 12 semi-industrial
Vahid Noaman; Mohsen Rasti; Ahmad Reza Ranjbari; Edris Shirvani
Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy cattle using RFI for milk production. PMID:22038990
Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D
A longitudinal study was conducted to examine the relationship between lameness and delayed ovarian cy- clicity during the first 60 d postpartum and days to first luteal activity during the first 300 d postpartum in Holstein cows. Two hundred thirty-eight cows from a 600-cow dairy that calved during a 12-mo period were used. Cows were classified into 1 of 6
E. J. Garbarino; J. A. Hernandez; J. K. Shearer; C. A. Risco; W. W. Thatcher
In final scores of type from classifying 12,890 Holstein cows in 96 herds in Michi- gan, 1963 to 1966, the official classifiers underemphasized dairy character and body capacity and correspondingly weighted general appearance and mammary system excessively in relation to weights specified by the Dairy Cow Unified Score Card. In weighting designed to emphasize each com- ponent of type appropriately
The objective of this study was to determine effects of monensin on ovarian follicular development and re- productive performance in postpartum dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either a control total mixed ration (n = 24) or the same diet plus 22 mg of monensin\\/kg (n = 24) from 21 d before anticipated calving until
S. K. Tallam; T. F. Duffield; K. E. Leslie; R. Bagg; P. Dick; G. Vessie; J. S. Walton
Dairy Herd Improvement data with service dates from 2,195,643 Holstein and 171,981 Jersey sire-identified lactations from 1995 through 2000 were used to assess genetic variation in and relationships among fertility traits: days to first service (D1), days to last reported service (DL), nonreturn rat...
A national data set of artificial inseminations in US Holsteins was used to obtain genetic evaluations for conception rate (CR). This objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and resulting accuracy from using all available phenotypic, pedigree and genomic information. Evaluations w...
Genomic evaluations for 73,749 Holsteins were computed using 636,967 of the 777,000 markers on the Illumina high density (HD) chip. Observed data included 342 animals with HD genotypes, 54,676 animals with 42,503 marker (50K) genotypes, 17,371 animals with 2,614 marker (3K) genotypes, and 1,360 nong...
Effects of twinning on lactation and days open in Holsteins were studied from calving records compiled by member surveys of Eastern Artificial Insemination Cooperative. Records of cows with 305-day mature-equivalent records from the Northeast Dairy Records Processing Laboratory were grouped according to whether the twin calving was associated with dystocia. Records of each cow that had a twin calving were
Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...
A number of anthelmintics are available for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In North America, O. ostertagi, Cooperia spp., lung worm, and F. hepatica probably cause the greatest losses in production. The older anthelmintics are often deficient in their action against some of these parasites. Recently, the Paratect morantel tartrate slow-release bolus has provided a mechanism for the prevention of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worm, to some extent, and this has been shown to produce considerable economic benefits. Fenbendazole removes arrested O. ostertagi larvae; thus, its availability is an important step in the prevention of type-2 ostertagiasis. It also has a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most other nematodes and tapeworms and is a very safe anthelmintic. Ivermectin is highly effective against almost all cattle nematodes and also has great value for the control of arthropod ectoparasites. In addition, it and levamisole are the only anti-nematode drugs that can be administered to cattle by injection. Clorsulon is a new, safe anthelmintic that provides good control of liver fluke and, thus, fills a gap in the control of helminths of cattle in North America. The efficient use of anthelmintics in association with management based on a knowledge of parasite epidemiology can ensure that cattle do not rapidly become re-infected. In this way, the benefits from the use of anthelmintics can be very considerable and far greater than the costs of control. PMID:3488116
The objective of this study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the IGF-IR\\/TaqI, m-calpain\\/HhaI, and UCP-3\\/BglI polymorphisms and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and growth traits in Chinese indigenous cattle breeds.\\u000a Genotyping was performed on 321 animals including 135 Nanyang, 80 Qinchuan, and 106 Jiaxian cattle. No significant differences\\u000a in growth traits were observed between the
During a 7-year period, failure of omasal transport attributable to a perireticular abscess was diagnosed in 29 cows. Affected cattle were examined because of anorexia, hypogalactia, and bilateral abdominal distention. The cows were all female Holsteins, 15 months to 10 years old. The abscess was identified during exploratory celiotomy and rumenotomy or at necropsy. Traumatic reticuloperitonitis was believed to be the cause. Twenty-seven cattle (93%) were treated surgically. The abscess was drained into the reticulum or omasum in 25 cows (86%). Twenty-four cows (83%) survived to the time of discharge from the hospital, and 20 (69%) survived for at least 1 year and became productive members of the herd. This is a better survival rate than that reported for other causes of vagal indigestion. PMID:2925501
Fubini, S L; Ducharme, N G; Erb, H N; Smith, D F; Rebhun, W C
Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows (all primiparous) were used in a repeated 2 (genotype) × 2 (concentrate level) factorial design study involving a total of 4 periods (each of 6-wk duration), designed to examine the effect of cross-breeding on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. The 4 periods began at 5, 11, 27, and 33 wk of lactation, respectively. Animals were offered a completely mixed diet containing grass silage and concentrates, with the level of concentrate in the diet either 30 or 70% of dry matter (DM). During the final 10 d of each period, ration digestibility and energy use was measured, the latter in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeters. No significant interaction existed between cow genotype and dietary concentrate level for feed intake, milk production, or any of the energy use parameters measured. Across the 2 genotypes, total DM intake, milk yield, and milk protein and lactose concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrate level. Thus, cows offered the high-concentrate diet had a higher gross energy (GE) intake, and a higher energy output in feces, urine, milk as heat, and a higher metabolizable energy (ME) intake as a proportion of GE intake and as a proportion of digestible energy intake. Across the 2 levels of concentrates, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher total DM intake and body condition score, and produced milk with higher fat, protein, and energy concentrations, compared with those of the Holstein cows. In addition, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher GE intake and energy output in urine, methane, and milk. However, crossbreeding had no significant effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, energy partitioning between milk and body tissue, or the efficiency of ME use for lactation. Relating ME intake to milk energy output and heat production indicated that crossbreeding did not influence ME requirement for maintenance or energy efficiencies. The energy metabolism data were also used to compare energy efficiencies between "early" (data pooled for the first 2 periods) and "late" (data pooled for the second 2 periods) stages of lactation. Stage of lactation had no effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, whereas increasing stage of lactation increased the rate of energy partitioning into body tissue and reduced the rate of energy partitioning into milk, irrespective of cow genotype. In conclusion, crossbreeding of Holstein dams with Jersey sires had no adverse effects on the overall production efficiency of Holstein dairy cows in terms of milk production, efficiency of ME use for lactation, and energy partitioning between milk and body tissue. PMID:21338810
|When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…
Objectives of this study were to measure both daily and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers during prolonged undernutrition. Following an acclimation period, Holstein heifers [n=10; 339.5±8.6kg of body weight (BW)] were fed ad libitum [well fed (WF); n=5] or restricted to 50% of ad libitum intake [underfed (UF); n=5) for 8wk. Body condition scores (BCS) were recorded at the beginning and end of the treatment period, and weekly measurements of BW, plasma ghrelin, progesterone, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were obtained. Ovarian follicular and luteal structures were measured twice weekly via transrectal ultrasonography. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were also measured during a periprandial window bleed conducted at the end of the experiment. During the window bleed, samples were collected every 15min between 0500 and 0900h, with feed offered at 0700h. Underfed heifers lost BW and BCS, whereas WF heifers gained weight and either increased or maintained BCS. Chronic underfeeding increased circulating ghrelin and NEFA concentrations. By wk 4 of the treatment period, circulating ghrelin concentrations of the UF heifers reached a plateau. Periprandial fluctuations in ghrelin concentrations were apparent as plasma ghrelin concentrations changed over time. Overall differences in periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations were primarily due to prefeeding effects of plane of nutrition. Plasma ghrelin concentrations and change in BCS were negatively correlated such that heifers that lost the most BCS had the highest concentrations of circulating ghrelin. Two of the 5 UF heifers became anestrus by wk 3 of the treatment period. Despite being of similar age, the heifers that became anestrus had lower BW and plasma ghrelin concentrations than the UF heifers that continued to ovulate. In the current experiment, long-term undernutrition elicited ghrelin responses similar to those reported for shorter durations of nutrient restriction in cattle and other ruminants. These results demonstrate that plane of nutrition is a chronic regulator of plasma ghrelin concentrations, and that these concentrations can be experimentally manipulated in postpubertal heifers for up to 8wk with no evidence of an adaptive response. PMID:23958007
Field, M E; Deaver, S E; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Rhoads, M L
A bioeconomic model for dairy cattle production was used to estimate economic values of 18 traits for dairy sires in purebred Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh populations. Economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a closed production system with dairy cow herds and integrated fattening of bulls. All revenues and costs associated with cows calving in the herds within one year and with their progeny were discounted at 5% per annum back to the date of calving. Calculations were carried out for the situation in the Czech Republic in 2005 (scenario 1: market quotas for milk yield and fat percentage) and for the expected situation in 2015 (scenario 2: free market). The relative economic importance of each trait was expressed as a ratio of the standardized economic value of that trait (its marginal economic value multiplied by its genetic standard deviation) to the standardized economic value of 305-d milk yield, with average fat and protein percentages. In addition to milk yield, somatic cell score was the second most important trait, achieving 32% to 43% of the value for milk yield in both scenarios. The relative importance of milk components differed notably between scenarios. The relative importance was approximately zero for protein and from -14 to -23% for fat percentage in scenario 1, but changed to 38% for protein and 27 to 31% for fat percentage in scenario 2. In both scenarios and for both breeds, the relative economic values for somatic cell score and length of productive life of cows were similar to those for fat and protein percentages in scenario 2. The smallest relative economic values (less than 4% of the relative importance of milk yield) were for birth weight, conception rate of heifers, and carcass traits. In conclusion, relative emphasis among traits in the breeding objective for Czech dairy cattle should be reassessed according to the expected situation after shifting to a free market economy in 2015. PMID:17430949
Eighteen Chinesecattle were experimentally infected with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and randomly assigned to 6 groups. Five groups of cattle were treated with a single oral dose of triclabendazole at a dose rate of 12 mg kg-1. At necropsy, the reduction in fluke burden compared with the untreated group was 85, 99.6, 99.8, 100 and 100% for cattle treated 2, 6, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after infection, respectively. Data are also presented on body weight changes during the experimental period and on serum gamma-GT activity in cattle from selected groups. Triclabendazole is considered to be safer and more efficacious than currently available fasciolicides in China. PMID:2800300
Shi, F H; Lin, B F; Qian, C G; Li, M; Fang, M B; Ma, J L; Shen, W; Wang, S W; Jian, X L
|China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…
The aim of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of indicators of poor welfare among 5 Italian cattle breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian, Italian Bruna, Pezzata Rossa Italiana, Grigia Alpina, and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) kept in tie-stalls in the Italian Alps under similar housing and management conditions. We recorded the presence of integument alterations (hairless patch areas, lesion/swollen areas, or overgrown claws) and lameness in 612 cows. Additionally, we checked 834 cows for the presence of physical malformations ("open" shoulders). In general, the prevalence of welfare problems showed a decreasing trend from the more productive to the less productive breeds. Local breeds (Grigia Alpina and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) showed a significantly lower prevalence of welfare problems compared with the other 3 breeds, whereas Italian Holstein-Friesian usually had the highest percentage of individuals with problems. No differences were found between Pezzata Rossa Italiana and Italian Bruna, both of which showed fewer problems than Italian Holstein-Friesian. The effect of the breed significantly affected the welfare of dairy cows in tie-stalls in alpine traditional husbandry systems. The prevalence of the negative welfare indicators studied was lower in local breeds, which are better adapted to local breeding conditions. Our results indicate an urgent need to promote changes in the criteria used for genetic selection in the dairy industry and underline the importance of maintaining the diversity of local breeds, which should be carefully chosen for each specific environmental condition. PMID:21524530
Mattiello, S; Battini, M; Andreoli, E; Barbieri, S
Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses. PMID:16888919
What's "Jurassic Park" in Mandarin? That isn't easy to say, but if you're interested in Chinese dinosaurs, then you will love the new online (and real) exhibit hosted by the Australian Museum in Sydney. A vast land containing many of the world's best-preserved dinosaur specimens, China offers remnants of many species not commonly available in Western exhibits. With lots to explore, the site features a readily accessible list of dinosaurs, each arranged under its Chinese-derived species name. Not like anything most of us have ever heard, many of the specimens look and seem familiar, at least as members of the dinosaur family. While generally well-executed, particularly worthy of note is the site's presentation of China's celebrated feathered dinosaurs, Caudipteryx zoui and Protarchaeopteryx, two curious figures believed to represent part of the great reptilian leap from land to air.
An 8-month-old Holstein heifer with cervical enlargement was suspected of thymic lymphosarcoma given clinical signs of depression, tendency to lie down, cervical mass, jugular vein distension, conjunctival hyperemia, and ruminal tympany. Unilateral Horner's syndrome was also observed. Increased serum total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), LDH isozyme (LDH-2, and LDH-3) and serum thymidine kinase activity were observed. The findings of fine needle aspiration cytology of the cervical mass revealed large lymphoblasts with mitoses present. These findings strongly suggested the diagnosis of lymphosarcoma. Necropsy revealed a large mass in the cervical thymic region, which compressed the esophagus and trachea. Cranial masses in the frontal sinus and multiple extradural sites throughout the cranial vault were also recorded. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thymic lymphosarcoma and demonstrated the brain involvement of neoplastic lymphoid cells in the cerebrum. This is a rare clinical case of thymic lymphosarcoma accompanied by brain metastasis in a Holstein heifer. PMID:22785125
This report details Chinese perceptions about space warfare and U.S. space policy. While China lacks a published space policy outlining the guiding principles of the Chinese space program, Chinese scholars and leaders make their opinions about space warfa...
H. Rademacher J. Cantone J. Cowin M. Caldararo R. Huggins
The objectives of this study were to assess the gestational, periparturient and preweaning growth traits of Holstein vs Gir x Holstein (G x H F1) cross-bred dairy calves. Holstein cows (n=64) pregnant with Holstein (H x H) calves (bulls, n=16; heifers, n=18) or G x H (bulls, n=8; heifers, n=22) calves were sampled from 60 days of gestation through calving for serum progesterone (P4) and in utero placentome sizes, and at parturition for calving ease scores (CES), calf vigour scores (CVS), and placental characteristics. Post-calving calf measures included birth weight (day 0) and body weight (kg), hip width (HW), body length (BL), wither height (WH), hip height (HH) and heart girth (HG) through 42 days of age. Serum IgG and calf vital function tests (respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (RT) and fecal scores) were recorded on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 of age (a.m. and p.m.). Serum gestational P4 was higher (p < 0.05) for cows with H x H than G x H calves. Placentome measurements in utero were greater (p < 0.01) for H x H calves than for G x H calves, while at parturition placental characteristics did not differ (p > 0.10). Gestation length, CES and CVS also did not differ (p > 0.10) between H x H and G x H calves. Calf RR and HR were higher (p < 0.05) for H x H than G x H calves at both a.m. and p.m., while RT, fecal scores and serum IgG did not differ (p > 0.10) between H x H and G x H calves. Birth weight did not differ (p > 0.10) between H x H and G x H calves within sex. Moreover, bulls did not differ (p > 0.10) in any of the growth measures between H x H and G x H calves, whereas H x H heifers at days 28 and 42 of age were greater (p < 0.05) in all growth traits than G x H heifers. Nevertheless, the relative change in growth measures over time (days 0 to 42) did not differ (p > 0.10) between H x H and G x H calves. While subtle differences in gestational, early growth and vital function characteristics were observed, these data suggest very similar developmental profiles between H x H and G x H calves. PMID:16986772
Schmidt, S J; Bowers, S D; Dickerson, T; Gandy, B S; Holholm, F; Graves, K B; White, J; Vann, R C; Willard, S T
A number of experimental and theoretical works have suggested the relevance of polaronic effects for charge migration in DNA. We have previously introduced the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model as an appropriate model for the description of such effects. The polaron normal modes are expected to manifest themselves through the response of the system in an external time-periodic field. Here, following a brief
P. Maniadis; G. Kalosakas; K. Ř. Rasmussen; A. R. Bishop
The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091
Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A
We pool three previously published data sets and present population genetic analyses of microsatellite variation in 48 Bos taurus cattle breeds from a wide range of geographical origins in Eurasia, mostly its northern territory. Bayesian model-based clustering reveals six distinct clusters: besides a single-population cluster of the Yakutian Cattle from Far Eastern Siberia and a cluster of breeds characteristic of an early origin, the other four major clusters largely correspond to previously defined morphological subgroups of Red Lowland, Lowland Black-Pied, Longhorned Dairy and North European Polled cattle breeds. The results highlighted past expansion events of the productive breeds such as Danish Red, Angeln, Holstein-Friesian and Ayrshire in northern and Eastern Europe. Based on genetic assignment of the breeds and the availability of breed information, we provide a preliminary classification of the five breeds that were to date undefined. Furthermore, in the analysis of molecular variance, despite some correspondence between geographical proximity and genetic similarity, the breed classification appears to be a better predictor of genetic structure in the cattle populations (the among-group variance component: breed classification, 2.47%, P < 0.001; geographical division, 0.77%, P < 0.001). PMID:19845598
Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR) is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison. Results Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves. Conclusions The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females.
We show that information on the probability density of local fluctuations can be obtained from a numerical renormalization group calculation of a reduced density matrix. We apply this approach to the Anderson-Holstein impurity model to calculate the ground state probability density ?(x) for the displacement x of the local oscillator. From this density we can deduce an effective local potential for the oscillator and compare its form with that obtained from a semiclassical approximation as a function of the coupling strength. The method is extended to the infinite dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model using dynamical mean field theory. We use this approach to compare the probability densities for the displacement of the local oscillator in the normal, antiferromagnetic and charge ordered phases. PMID:21389469
A seroprevalence study of bovine neosporosis was conducted among 1,927 dairy cattle and 341 water buffaloes from Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states in plateau of southern peninsular India by employing competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 12.61 and 9.97 % sera samples were found positive for the presence of Neospora caninum antibody, respectively, among cattle and water buffaloes. Out of 1,927 sera samples from cattle, 912 and 1,015 samples were collected from unorganized and organized herds, respectively. The cattle screened were of upgraded Holstein-Friesian and water buffaloes were of graded Surti breed. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence was found in the cattle in unorganized herds (16.66 %) in comparison to organized herds (8.96 %). The highest seroprevalence was recorded in the age group of 4 years and above in both type of cattle herds and water buffaloes. There was a significant variation of seroprevalence (p < 0.05) observed between different age groups of cattle. The rate of seroprevalence increased with the increment in the age of the animals suggesting a possibility of horizontal mode of transmission of the infection from the environment. The percentage of abortion history was more in seropositive group (51.65 %) in comparison to the seronegative group (5.84 %) and the seropositive cattle were 8.84 times more likely to experience abortion than the seronegative cattle. The occurrence of abortion among different age groups varied significantly (p < 0.05). The findings revealed the presence of neosporosis in the southern peninsular India among cattle and water buffaloes and a strong association between the seroprevalence and abortion. PMID:22644733
Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Raghavendra, A G; Honnappa, T G; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K
Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed energy for maintenance and growth also become efficient at converting feed energy to milk. Future research will also be necessary to identify the consequences of selection for RFI on other traits (especially fertility and other fitness traits) and if any interactions exist between RFI and feeding level. PMID:21854946
Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J
The major objectives of this study were 1) to assess the statistical properties of models commonly used for the estimation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects under the assumption of various modes of inheritance and various parameterizations of SNP genotypes using simulated data, and 2) to compare effects of the selected polymorphisms located within butyrophilin (BTN1A1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), leptin (LEP), and leptin receptor (LEPR) candidate genes on milk production traits using data from 2 dairy cattle breeds (190 Jersey cows and 475 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows). Simulation results showed that type I error and power were not dependent on the assumed parameterization, but differences were observed regarding confidence intervals of estimated SNP effects. In the presence of epistasis, correct confidence intervals for all (epistatic and nonepistatic) SNP and all modes of inheritance were provided only by the parameterization proposed by C. H. Kao and Z. B. Zeng in 2002. However, if no dominance effect was included in the model, confidence intervals for SNP effects were correct for all parameterizations. Results based on real data showed that for both breeds the additive effects of polymorphisms were generally similar, except for LEPR, which had a different allele associated with increased fat content in Holstein-Friesians than in Jerseys. In both breeds, DGAT1 had the largest additive effect of the polymorphisms considered, but its effect on most milk traits was more pronounced in Jerseys than in Holstein-Friesians. Evidence of epistasis was found between LEPR and DGAT1, as well as between LEPR and BTN1A1, but only for milk content traits and only in the Holstein-Friesian breed. There was also more evidence for dominance in the Holstein-Friesian breed than in the Jersey breed. PMID:20494180
Milk urea concentration (MU) used by dairy producers for management purposes can be affected by selection for milk traits. To assess this problem, genetic parameters for MU in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle were estimated for the first three lactations. The genetic correlation of MU with milk production traits, lactose percentage, fat to protein ratio (FPR) and somatic cell score (SCS) were computed with two 5-trait random regression test-day models, separately for each lactation. Data used for estimation (159,044 daily observations) came from 50 randomly sampled herds. (Co)variance components were estimated with the Bayesian Gibbs sampling method. The coefficient of variation for MU in all three parities was high (40-41 %). Average daily heritabilities of MU were 0.22 for the first parity and 0.21 for the second and third lactations. Average genetic correlations for different days in milk in the first three lactations between MU and other traits varied. They were small and negative for protein percentage (from -0.24 to -0.11) and for SCS (from -0.14 to -0.09). The weakest genetic correlation between MU and fat percentage, and between MU and lactose percentage were observed (from -0.10 to 0.10). Negative average genetic correlation with the fat to protein ratio was observed only in the first lactation (-0.14). Genetic correlations with yield traits were positive and ranged from low to moderate for protein (from 0.09 to 0.33), fat (from 0.16 to 0.35) and milk yield (from 0.20 to 0.42). These results suggest that the selection on yield traits and SCS tends to increase MU slightly. PMID:23934506
In the field of dairy cattle research, it is of great interest to improve the detection and prevention of diseases (e.g., mastitis and ketosis) and monitor specific traits related to the state of health and management. During the standard milk performance test, traditional milk traits are monitored, and quality and quantity are screened. In addition to the standard test, it is also now possible to analyze milk metabolites in a high-throughput manner and to consider them in connection with milk traits to identify functionally important metabolites that can also serve as biomarker candidates. We present a study in which 190 milk metabolites and 14 milk traits of 1,305 Holstein cows on 18 commercial farms were investigated to characterize interrelations of milk metabolites between each other, to milk traits from the milk standard performance test, and to influencing factors such as farm and sire effect (half-sib structure). The effect of influencing factors (e.g., farm) varied among metabolites and traditional milk traits. The investigations of associations between metabolites and milk traits revealed groups of metabolites that show, for example, positive correlations to protein and casein, and negative correlations to lactose and pH. On the other hand, groups of metabolites jointly associated with the investigated milk traits can be identified and functionally discussed. To enable a multivariate investigation, 2 machine learning methods were applied to detect important metabolites that are highly correlated with the investigated traditional milk traits. For somatic cell score, uracil, lactic acid, and 9 other important metabolites were detected. Lactic acid has already been proposed as a biomarker candidate for mastitis in the recent literature. In conclusion, we found sets of metabolites eligible to predict milk traits, enabling the analysis of milk traits from a metabolic perspective and discussion of the possible functional background for some of the detected associations. PMID:23438684
We estimated the allele and genotype frequencies of IGF-I/SnaBI gene polymorphism and the concentration of this protein in Holstein dairy cows. We also examined the association with milk yield (305-day milk yield) and milk components (fat and protein percentage, and 305-day milk protein and fat yield). Blood IGF-I levels were measured and genotyping was performed on 250 Holstein cows of four different herds. In the association studies, traits of interest were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS; means of the IGF-I level among genotypes were compared by the LSMeans test. The AB and AA genotypes were the most (0.583-0.661) and least (0.083-0.192) frequent in the herds, respectively; the frequency of the BB genotype ranged from 0.201 to 0.333. The frequency of the A allele ranged from 0.375 to 0.495, while the frequency of the B allele ranged from 0.504 to 0.625, being the dominant allele. The mean level of IGF-I was 107 +/- 22 ng/mL for all groups, without any significant correlation with the production traits. Association of IGF-I/SnaBI genotypes with percentage of fat and protein in the milk was relatively high (P < 0.1 and P < 0.05, respectively); the AB genotype was superior to AA and BB genotypes. We concluded that this marker should be considered for milk component selection in Holstein dairy cattle. PMID:20812193
Bonakdar, E; Rahmani, H R; Edriss, M A; Sayed Tabatabaei, B E
Recombinant human Insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-1) was administered to one ovary of prepubertal and postpubertal cattle to determine its effects on (1) oocyte developmental competence, (2) the expression pattern of six developmentally important genes (GLUT3, GLUT8, AKT1, BCL-XL, BAD, and BAX), and (3) its relationship with apoptosis (female Holstein-Friesian). Oocytes were retrieved from 7- to 10-mo-old prepubertal dairy calves (preP),
J. Zaraza; A. Oropeza; M. A. Velazquez; K. Korsawe; D. Herrmann; J. W. Carnwath; H. Niemann
BackgroundThe objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro.MethodologyMammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and
Han Hu; Jiaqi Wang; Dengpan Bu; Hongyang Wei; Linyun Zhou; Fadi Li; Juan J. Loor
A street rabies virus (RV) isolate, GXHXN, was obtained from brain tissue of rabid cattle in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China in 2009. GXHXN is the first isolate from cattle in China with its entire genome sequenced and is closely related to BJ2011E from horse in Beijing, WH11 from donkey in the Hubei Province, and isolates from dogs in the Guangxi and Fujian Provinces, with homologies of 97.6% to 99.6%. It is more distantly related to isolates from domestic cat, pig, Chinese ferret badger, and vaccine strains, with homologies of 83.1% to 88.0%.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate sea- sonal variation in oocyte competence in Holstein cows and to test whether oocyte quality in summer is af- fected by the magnitude of heat stress. In the first experiment, ovaries of Holstein cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and used to harvest oocytes over 1 yr (n = 18 replicates). After in vitro
Y. M. Al-Katanani; F. F. Paula-Lopes; P. J. Hansen
Scrotal circumference of 585 Holstein sires and testicular consistency of 490 Holstein sires were available to compute genetic correlations between these mea- surements and the bull's predicted differ- ence for milk and fat production by Northeast Artificial Insemination Sire Comparison. The genetic correlation coef- ficients and standard errors between scro- tal circumference and predicted differ- ence for milk and fat
International Bull Evaluation Service Holstein evaluations from February 1995 through August 2002 were used to determine characteristics of progeny testing for Holstein bulls in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United St...
Forty-eight cows were assigned ran- domly to shade (15 Holsteins, 8 Jerseys) or no shade (16 Holsteins, 9 Jerseys) for 102 days beginning 12 June 1977 to examine effects of solar heat load on milk yield and composition. Rectal temper- atures, respiration rates, and rumen contractions\\/min were monitored between 1200 and 1700 h on 20 randomly selected days. Morning and
R. J. Collier; R. M. Eley; A. K. Sharma; R. M. Pereira; D. E. Buffington
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition fromfeedingrationsthatcontaineddifferentsourcesof genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multipa- rous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square de- sign, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk
A. R. Castillo; M. R. Gallardo; M. Maciel; J. M. Giordano; G. A. Conti; M. C. Gaggiotti; O. Quaino; C. Gianni; G. F. Hartnell
Influence of sire, dietary regimen and slaughter weight on wither height, body depth, heart girth, hip width and percentage of total muscle in each of nine commercial cuts of F 1 Holstein X Friesian bulls (N = 260) was studied. Sires were full-blooded or percentage Holstein; dams were commercial and purebred Danish Friesians. The young bulls received 100, 75, 50
Curtiss M. Bailey; T. Liboriussen; B. Bech Andersen
The average additive genetic relation- ship and degree of connectedness be- tween American and Canadian Holstein AI bull populations were estimated. This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a joint United States- Canadian sire evaluation to estimate genetic base differences between the two countries' Holstein bull populations. Data were provided by USDA and Agriculture Canada for bulls evaluated
The objective of this study was to determine the im- pact of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency on clinical mastitis incidence, severity, and duration in Holstein cows. Genomic DNA from milk of 847 Holstein cows in six Pennsylvania herds was used to determine bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency genotypes (82 or 9.7% carriers). Data on clinical mastitis incidence, severity, duration, and pathogen
J. M. Wanner; G. W. Rogers; M. E. Kehrli; J. B. Cooper
Inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection. In some breeds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Veterinarians, animal scientists, and cattle breeders should be aware of inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal phenotypes. This review will
Testosterone was measured by radio-immunoassay in the blood plasma collected from 197 and 195 Holstein bulls in the spring and fall seasons, respectively. Bulls ranged in age from 8 mo to 13.5 yr. The average value for spring was 8.0 ng/ml, higher than the value of 5.7 ng/ml in the fall. Also, there was a tendency for testosterone to increase with age of the bulls up to 6 to 7 yr. The concentration of circulating testosterone was unrelated to libido or semen quality. PMID:993418
An 8-day-old female Holstein Friesian calf was examined because of congenital spastic paresis of the hind limbs. Myelography revealed deviation and thinning of subarachnoid contrast medium columns in the lumbar segment. Upon magnetic resonance imaging, the 'hour-glass' subdural compression appeared as a T1-hypointense, T2-hyperintense ovoidal area suggestive of cerebral spinal fluid collection, compatible with hydrosyringomyelia. The calf was euthanized and the necropsy confirmed the diagnosis of segmental spinal cord hypoplasia of the lumbar tract associated to hydromyelic and syringomyelic cavities. PMID:23094595
Binanti, D; Fantinato, E; De Zani, D; Riccaboni, P; Pravettoni, D; Zani, D D
The temperature dependence of the electric dipolar susceptibility ?P is discussed on the basis of the Anderson-Holstein model with the use of a numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique. Note that ? P is related to the phonon Green's function D. In order to obtain a correct temperature dependence for ? P at low temperatures, we propose a method to evaluate ? P through the Dyson equation from the charge susceptibility ? c calculated by using the NRG instead of the direct NRG calculation of D. We find that the irreducible charge susceptibility estimated from ? c agree with the perturbation calculation, suggesting that our method works well.
Calving records of Iranian Holsteins from April 1998 to September 2006 comprising 16 herds with 104,572 calving events representing 4045 twin births were used to evaluate reported open days, calving difficulties and calf birth weight in single- and twin-births and the relationship exists between twinning and milk production. A logistic regression model was constructed to analyse dystocia for single- and twin-births. In addition, statistical analyses of 305-day milk yield, open days and calf birth weight were performed using the general linear models procedure. The odds of dystocia was greater after twin births [p < 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 2.32]. The odds of dystocia decreased from parity 1 to parity 2 and beyond (p < 0.0001; OR = 0.44). Open days were significantly different between single (129.28 days) and twin (144.88 days) births (p < 0.05). Calf birth weights were significantly greater for singletons than twins (43.33 kg vs. 34.36 kg; p < 0.05). In addition, twin-calved cows had greater 305-day milk production than single-calved cows (p < 0.05). In general, development of practical management strategies to cope with the negative effects associated with twinning on dairies is critical, especially if the trend towards increased twinning in the dairy cattle population continues. PMID:20455970
Background The number and diversity of uncultured ruminal bacterial and archaeal species revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences greatly exceeds that of cultured bacteria and archaea. However, the significance of uncultured microbes remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to assess the numeric importance of select uncultured bacteria and cultured bacteria and the impact of diets and microenvironments within cow rumen in a comparative manner. Results Liquid and adherent fractions were obtained from the rumen of Jersey cattle fed hay alone and Holsteincattle fed hay plus grain. The populations of cultured and uncultured bacteria present in each fraction were quantified using specific real-time PCR assays. The population of total bacteria was similar between fractions or diets, while total archaea was numerically higher in the hay-fed Jersey cattle than in the hay-grain-fed Holsteincattle. The population of the genus Prevotella was about one log smaller than that of total bacteria. The populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the genus Butyrivibrio, and R. albus was at least one log smaller than that of genus Prevotella. Four of the six uncultured bacteria quantified were as abundant as F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and the genus Butyrivibrio. In addition, the populations of several uncultured bacteria were significantly higher in the adherent fractions than in the liquid fractions. These uncultured bacteria may be associated with fiber degradation. Conclusions Some uncultured bacteria are as abundant as those of major cultured bacteria in the rumen. Uncultured bacteria may have important contribution to ruminal fermentation. Population dynamic studies of uncultured bacteria in a comparative manner can help reveal their ecological features and importance to rumen functions.
Background In order to maintain cohesion of groups, social animals need to process social information efficiently. Visual individual recognition, which is distinguished from mere visual discrimination, has been studied in only few mammalian species. In addition, most previous studies used either a small number of subjects or a few various views as test stimuli. Dairy cattle, as a domestic species allow the testing of a good sample size and provide a large variety of test stimuli due to the morphological diversity of breeds. Hence cattle are a suitable model for studying individual visual recognition. This study demonstrates that cattle display visual individual recognition and shows the effect of both familiarity and coat diversity in discrimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether 8 Prim'Holstein heifers could recognize 2D-images of heads of one cow (face, profiles, ľ views) from those of other cows. Experiments were based on a simultaneous discrimination paradigm through instrumental conditioning using food rewards. In Experiment 1, all images represented familiar cows (belonging to the same social group) from the Prim'Holstein breed. In Experiments 2, 3 and 4, images were from unfamiliar (unknown) individuals either from the same breed or other breeds. All heifers displayed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Subjects reached criterion sooner when recognizing a familiar individual than when recognizing an unfamiliar one (Exp 1: 3.1±0.7 vs. Exp 2: 5.2±1.2 sessions; Z?=?1.99, N?=?8, P?=?0.046). In addition almost all subjects recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, however with greater difficulty. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that cattle have efficient individual recognition based on categorization capacities. Social familiarity improved their performance. The recognition of individuals with very different coat characteristics from the subjects was the most difficult task. These results call for studies exploring the mechanisms involved in face recognition allowing interspecies comparisons, including humans.
Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L.; Heyman, Yvan; Baudoin, Claude
A voluntary, risk-based control program for paratuberculosis in dairy herds was started in 2006 in Denmark. The program does not include non-dairy herds, and the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in these herds is unknown. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of MAP infected adult non-dairy cattle in Denmark. Serum samples were collected between October, 2008 and January, 2009 from every 6th animal over 24 months of age, sent to slaughter to Danish slaughterhouses from non-dairy herds. The final sample included 2345 cattle of 13 different breeds, with the largest breed group being crossbreds (of unknown breeds) (30%) and three dairy breeds (Danish Holstein, Danish Jersey and Danish Red Cattle) comprising 27% of the samples. The serum samples were tested using a MAP specific antibody ELISA (IDScreen) and positives were defined as the sample-to-positive ratio greater than 0.60. Estimation of the breed-specific apparent prevalences, true prevalences (TP), and true prevalences with a random effect of breed was done in a Bayesian analysis. Information about test sensitivity and specificity were based on literature data and expert information. Regardless of the method of analysis, the estimated prevalences showed similar differences between breeds. The dairy breeds Danish Jersey, Danish Holstein and Danish Red Cattle were ranked highest (i.e. with highest prevalence) (TP medians: 13, 10, and 6, respectively). Combined, the dairy breeds had a significantly higher prevalence than the other breeds, median TP (dairy)=15.7% vs. median TP (non-dairy)=0.8%. For the individual non-dairy breeds, the median estimates were generally higher, illustrating the problems of ranking groups based on relatively small sample sizes. PMID:20153536
Phenotypic and genetic performance of US Holstein clones from embryo splitting (ETS) and nuclear transfer (ETN) was documented for yield and fitness traits. Holstein Association USA has registered 2319 ETS and 215 ETN clones. The number of male clones has decreased. Animals selected for cloning were slightly superior genetically to population mean for yield traits. For females, mean superiority of pedigree merit of ETS clones was 186 kg for milk, 9 kg for fat, and 7 kg for protein compared with the population for the same birth year; for ETN clones, superiority to the population was 165, 10, and 8 kg. Advantage in pedigree merit for male clones generally was slightly greater. The small pedigree advantage for female clones of <1 standard deviation above breed mean indicates that selection of animals to clone was not based primarily on yield. Yield deviations were lower for ETS clones than for their full siblings, which indicates a possible impact of the technology on performance. Yields were lower for ETN clones than for their noncloned full siblings, but differences were small and based on small numbers of clones. Milk composition for cloned cows was not different from that for the population. Estimated genetic merit based on daughter yield was more similar for male clone pairs with apparent identical genotype than for clone pairs from the same biotechnology but nonidentical as confirmed by blood typing. For ETS clones with confirmed identical genotypes, identical genetic merit should be assigned. PMID:15202658
Norman, H D; Lawlor, T J; Wright, J R; Powell, R L
Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen activity may lead to decreased methane production and concomitantly to improved feed efficiency. A major effort should be dedicated to this new field of research and particularly to rumen flora metagenomics. Low input in cattle production is very important and tomorrow's cow will need to adapt to a less intensive production environment, particularly lower feed quality and limited care. Finally, global climate change will increase pathogen pressure, thus more accurate predictors for disease resistance will be required. PMID:22436268
Pigmentation traits expressed in animals are visual characteristics that allow us to distinguish between breeds and between strains within breed. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the pigmentation traits in approximately 800 F(2) grand daughter dairy cattle from a Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cross breed cattle. Traits analyzed included pigmentation phenotypes on the body, teat and hoop. The phenoypes were collected from digital photos or visual inspection of live animals. QTL mapping was implemented using half-sib and line-of-descent inheritance models. Our analysis initially detected a number of significant QTLs on chromosomes: 2, 6, 13, 15, 18 and 22. The significant QTLs were divided into two groups: one group influencing the pigmentation color and the other group affecting the absence or level of pigmentation. The most significant QTL peaks were observed on Bovine taurus autosome 18 (BTA18) close to melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) for the color traits, on BTA6 close to the receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) and BTA22 close to microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene for the spotting traits. Association studies were conducted for candidate regions or genes known to affect pigmentation in dairy cattle. PMID:19932462
Abstract This study was designed to assess the impact of a controlled release capsule (CRC) of monensin, administered prior to calving, on postcalving haptoglobin levels. The role of disease on haptoglobin levels was also studied. The study population consisted of 1010 cows from 25 Holstein dairy herds near Guelph, Ontario. Monensin CRC or placebo capsules were randomly assigned within each herd 3 wk prior to the expected calving date. Serum from week 1 and week 6 postcalving was submitted for quantification of haptoglobin concentrations. Haptoglobin results were analyzed for associations with treatment, health data, and individual cow factors up to 95 d in milk. Haptoglobin concentrations were higher in week 1 than week 6 (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, several diseases were significantly associated with haptoglobin concentrations. However, occurrence of disease appeared to be a confounding factor in the data interpretation. Thus, the analysis was stratified by the presence or absence of disease. There appeared to be associations between factors other than clinical disease contributing to increased haptoglobin levels in both clinically healthy and unhealthy cattle. Haptoglobin served as a good indicator of inflammatory disease. Monensin CRC treatment was associated with increased haptoglobin concentrations in clinically unhealthy cattle, perhaps reflecting a better ability to respond to disease challenge. The lower haptoglobin concentrations in monensin CRC treated cattle that were clinically normal may be a reflection of reduced subclinical disease.
For decades, it has remained unknown whether artiodactyls, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, express immunoglobulin D (IgD), although the ? gene was identified in these species nearly 10 years ago. By developing a mouse anti-bovine IgD heavy chain monoclonal antibody (13C2), we show that secreted bovine IgD was present mainly as a monomer in serum and was heavily glycosylated by N-linked saccharides. Nonetheless, IgD was detectable in some but not all of the Holsteincattle examined. Membrane-bound IgD was detected in the spleen by western blotting. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IgD-positive B cells constituted a much lower percentage of B cells in the bovine spleen (?6.8% of total B cells), jejunal Peyer's patches (?0.8%), and peripheral blood leukocytes (?1.2%) than in humans and mice. Furthermore, IgD-positive B cells were almost undetectable in bovine bone marrow and ileal Peyer's patches. We also demonstrated that the bovine ? gene can be expressed via class switch recombination. Accordingly, bovine ? germline transcription, which involves an I? exon and is highly homologous to I?, was confirmed. However, we could not identify an I? promoter, despite bovine E? demonstrating both enhancer and promoter activity. This study has answered a long-standing question in cattle B cell biology and significantly contributes to our understanding of B cell development in this species. PMID:23028592
Different alleles of the human and ovine prion protein gene correlate with a varying susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the pathogenic implications of specific polymorphisms in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) are only poorly understood. Previous studies on the bovine PRNP gene investigated common European and North American cattle breeds. As a consequence of decades of intensive breeding for specific traits, these modern breeds represent only a small fraction of the bovine gene pool. In this study, we analysed PRNP polymorphisms in the native Brazilian Caracu breed, which developed in geographical isolation since the 16th century. A total of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered in the coding region of the Caracu PRNP gene. Eight of the SNPs occurred at high frequencies in Caracu cattle (variant allele frequencies = 0.10-0.76), but were absent or only rarely observed in European and North American breeds. One of the Caracu SNPs was associated with an amino acid exchange from serine to asparagine (f = 0.17). This SNP was not detected in Holstein-Friesian, Simmental and German Gelbvieh and was only rarely detected in beef cattle (f = 0.01). We found 17 haplotypes for PRNP in the Caracu breed. PMID:16965405
Kues, W A; Ollhoff, R D; Carnwath, J W; de Souza, F P; Madeira, H M F; Niemann, H
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is one of the fatal neurodegenerative diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) caused by infectious prion proteins. Genetic variations correlated with susceptibility or resistance to TSE in humans and sheep have not been reported for bovine strains including those from Holstein, Jersey, and Japanese Black cattle. Here, we investigated bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) variations in Hanwoo cattle [Bos (B.) taurus coreanae], a native breed in Korea. We identified mutations and polymorphisms in the coding region of PRNP, determined their frequency, and evaluated their significance. We identified four synonymous polymorphisms and two non-synonymous mutations in PRNP, but found no novel polymorphisms. The sequence and number of octapeptide repeats were completely conserved, and the haplotype frequency of the coding region was similar to that of other B. taurus strains. When we examined the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the non-coding region of PRNP, Hanwoo cattle had a lower deletion allele and 23-bp del/12-bp del haplotype frequency than healthy and BSE-affected animals of other strains. Thus, Hanwoo are seemingly less susceptible to BSE than other strains due to the 23-bp and 12-bp indel polymorphisms.
Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS|) and population differentiation index (FST)--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases) the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p < 0.05) from the expectation assuming a random distribution. However, significant FST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life and fertility traits in Holsteincattle. We conclude that high-resolution genome scans of selection signatures can be used to identify genomic regions contributing to within- and inter-breed phenotypic variation.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection. PMID:20059813
Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourăo, Gerson Barreto
Protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) using DNA technology has been documented for sheep and pigs but not for the highly susceptible species of cattle. Twenty-five Holstein Friesian cross-bred cattle were vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with a DNA vaccine containing the capsid coding region (P1) along with the non-structural proteins 2A, 3C and 3D (pcDNA3.1/P1-2A3C3D) of O(1) Kaufbeuren alone or coated onto PLG (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. In some pcDNA3.1/P1-2A3C3D was also combined with an adjuvant plasmid expressing bovine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). DNA vaccinations were administered intramuscularly with, or without, the use of electroporation and at 42 days post primary vaccination cattle received a protein boost of 146S FMD virus (FMDV) antigen and non-structural protein 3D. For comparison, four cattle were vaccinated with a conventional FMD vaccine and two more included as unvaccinated controls. Apart from those immunised with PLG microparticles all cattle were challenged with 10(5) TCID(50) cattle adapted O(1) Lausanne FMDV virus at day 93 post primary vaccination. All DNA vaccinated cattle regardless of regime developed good humoral and cell mediated responses prior to challenge. The best overall virus neutralising antibody, IFN-? and clinical protection (75%) were seen in the cattle whereby the DNA was delivered by electroporation. In contrast, only 25% of cattle vaccinated with the DNA vaccine without electroporation were clinically protected. The addition of GM-CSF in combination with electroporation further improved the efficacy of the vaccine, as demonstrated from the reduction of clinical disease and virus excretions in nasal swabs. We thus demonstrate for the first time that cattle can be clinically protected against FMDV challenge following a DNA prime-protein boost strategy, and particularly when DNA vaccine is combined with GM-CSF and delivered by electroporation. PMID:22330893
This thesis examines the People's Republic of China's (PRC) overseas Chinese policy from its founding to the present. Over time China's overseas Chinese policy has evolved to reflect changing migration patterns and favorable international conditions. The ...
POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1) is a member of the tissue-specific POU-containing transcription factor family. The expression of POU1F1 in mammalian pituitary gland controls the transcription of the genes encoding growth hormone, prolactin (PRL) and the subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone. In addition, some genes in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway downstream of POU1F1 have been shown to be associated with different production traits in dairy cattle. To investigate whether the POU1F1 gene is associated with economically important traits in dairy cattle, a pooled DNA sequencing approach was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene. An SNP in exon 3 of POU1F1 that changes a proline to a histidine was identified. A total of 2141 individuals from two North American Holsteincattle resource populations were genotyped for this SNP using a modified PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analyses revealed significant association of POU1F1 variants with milk yield and productive life, which makes POU1F1 a possible candidate for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programmes. PMID:18557974
Despite the widespread belief in the significance of Confucianism on the behaviour of Mainland Chinese people, limited empirical studies have been conducted to examine the Chinese cultural and philosophical ideology in a tourism context. As an exploratory attempt, this paper investigates the influence of Confucian values on Mainland Chinese corporate travellers at leisure on the Gold Coast, Australia. Based on
This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…
Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Lungs in four cases contained multiple spicules of metaplastic bone within alveolar walls. This disease was associated with high doses of vitamin D3 in three cows and one heifer. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4.
Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle.
We investigate the dimensionality effects of the Holstein polaron from the fully quantum regime, where the crossover between large and small polaron solutions is known to be continuous in all dimensions, into the limit described by the semiclassical discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation, where the crossover is continuous in one dimension (1D) but discontinuous in higher dimensions. We use exact numerics on one hand and a two variable parametrization of the Toyozawa ansatz on the other in order to probe the crossover region in all parameter regimes. We find that a barrier appears also in 1D separating the two types of solutions, seemingly in contradiction to the common paradigm for the DNLS according to which the crossover is barrier-free. We quantify the polaron behavior in the crossover region as a function of the exciton overlap and find that the barrier remains small in 1D and tunneling through it is not rate-limiting.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian Holsteins. Data of 942,941 Holstein calving events from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, recorded between January 1996 and December 2007, were used in the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to model the logit of the probability of a male calf being born. Male births accounted for 49.6% of the total observations. The ratio of males to females varied from 52.5:47.5 in calving year 1996-1999 (odds ratio (OR)=1.18; P<0.0001), to 48.5:51.5 in calving year 2004-2007. The greatest occurrence of male births was observed in spring (OR=1.02; P<0.0001), and the lowest incidence of male births was for summer or fall calvings. Also, the frequency of male births decreased from parity 1 to parity 4 and beyond (P<0.0001; OR=1.11). The greatest number of sires had the SSR equal to 0.5 with a minimum SSR of 32% while the maximum was 97%. Among cows that had a male birth, the chance of delivering a male calf again was 25.5% when cows had delivered a male once (OR=1.14; P<0.0001), and 12.7% if a male calf was delivered twice by a cow. This indicated that characteristics peculiar to the dam influence the sex of her offspring and suggests some degree of repeatability of calf sex within cows. PMID:21924467
We study a pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model of a magnetic impurity level that hybridizes with a conduction band whose density of states vanishes in power-law fashion at the Fermi energy, and couples, via its charge, to a nondispersive bosonic mode (e.g., an optical phonon). The model, which we treat using poor-man's scaling and the numerical renormalization group, exhibits quantum phase transitions of different types depending on the strength of the impurity-boson coupling. For weak impurity-boson coupling, the suppression of the density of states near the Fermi energy leads to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (Kondo) and local-moment phases. For sufficiently strong impurity-boson coupling, however, the bare repulsion between a pair of electrons in the impurity level becomes an effective attraction, leading to quantum phase transitions between strong-coupling (charge Kondo) and local-charge phases. Even though the Hamiltonian exhibits different symmetries in the spin and charge sectors, the thermodynamic properties near the two types of quantum phase transition are closely related under spin-charge interchange. Moreover, the critical responses to a local magnetic field (for small impurity-boson coupling) and to an electric potential (for large impurity-boson coupling) are characterized by the same exponents, whose values place these quantum-critical points in the universality class of the pseudogap Anderson model. One specific case of the pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model may be realized in a double-quantum-dot device, where the quantum phase transitions manifest themselves in the finite-temperature linear electrical conductance.
The ?1 presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle can negatively impact a state's economy and cattle industry. In Michigan, USA, wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are a reservoir for reinfecting cattle herds. Although direct TB transmission between deer and cattle is rare, infected deer may contaminate cattle feed. To mitigate this risk, we designed and evaluated a deer-resistant cattle
Feeders NATHAN W. SEWARD; GREGORY E. PHILLIPS; JARED F. DUQUETTE; KURT C. VERCAUTEREN
Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).
This study measured a physiological effect of known horn fly (Haematoba irritans L.) population densities on dairy cattle. Urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy mandelic acid, was an indicator of physiological response to the parasites. Six lactating Holstein cows were acclimated to the test room prior to a 3-wk control at 21 C. Animals were then exposed to approximately 500 horn flies per cow per day for 4 wk. On days 1 and 21 of exposure, two urine samples were obtained from each cow. Mean urinary values for cows were 13.3 +/- 3.1 mug/100 ml in the control period and 18.9 +/- 3.4 mug/100 ml during fly exposure. We believe that increased vanilmandelic acid reflects an increase in standing time and nervous activity associated with the physical disturbance due to the biting of the flies. PMID:1249298
The polymorphism of 23 microsatellites in the four main cattle breeds in Belgium (Holstein Friesian, Belgian Blue, Belgian Red Pied and East Flemish) was analysed. Heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, the effective number of alleles, exclusion probability and the probability of genotypic identity for two random individuals were calculated for all microsatellites and all breeds. The Belgian Blue breed is generally a little less polymorphic in comparison with the other three breeds. Estimates of the genetic distances between these breeds confirmed the widely accepted proposition that the Belgian Blue is the most genetically distinct of these breeds. The three other breeds are likely to become one population, given current breeding strategies. Exclusion probabilities in parentage control cases are > 0.9999 in all four breeds when all 23 microsatellites are used and > 0.98 with only the two most polymorphic multiplexes. PMID:9720173
Peelman, L J; Mortiaux, F; Van Zeveren, A; Dansercoer, A; Mommens, G; Coopman, F; Bouquet, Y; Burny, A; Renaville, R; Portetelle, D
The rate and extent of estimated energy mobilization and the relationship between fat depth at the rib and thurl and body condition score (BCS) were investigated in Jersey and Holstein cows in early lactation. Twenty-six cows were paired by breed, parity, and calving date, and were individually fed a total mixed ration ad libitum from parturition through 120 d in milk. Feed intake and milk production were measured daily; body weight (BW), BCS, subcutaneous fat depth, milk composition, and concentration of plasma nonesterified fatty acids were measured every 2 wk. Estimated tissue energy balance (TEB) was calculated using 1989 NRC equations. Net energy intake was greater in early lactation for Holsteins compared with Jerseys, 37.8 and 28.2 Mcal/d, respectively. Milk energy was greater for Holsteins relative to Jerseys, 30.5 versus 21.2 Mcal/d. Fat depth and BCS did not differ between breeds. A positive relationship existed between fat depth and BCS for Jerseys; however, there was no significant relationship for Holsteins. The best-fit regression model for predicting TEB for Holsteins and Jerseys in early lactation included week of lactation, milk composition, and BCS. Jerseys remained in negative TEB for a shorter period of time relative to Holsteins. The TEB nadir was -6.19 and -12.9 Mcal/d, for Jerseys and Holsteins, respectively. Expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW(0.75)), net energy intake did not differ between breeds, yet milk energy and estimated tissue energy loss were greater for Holsteins compared with Jerseys. PMID:11384047
Rastani, R R; Andrew, S M; Zinn, S A; Sniffen, C J
Background Hanwoo (Korean cattle), which originated from natural crossbreeding between taurine and zebu cattle, migrated to the Korean peninsula through North China. Hanwoo were raised as draft animals until the 1970s without the introduction of foreign germplasm. Since 1979, Hanwoo has been bred as beef cattle. Genetic variation was analyzed by whole-genome deep resequencing of a Hanwoo bull. The Hanwoo genome was compared to that of two other breeds, Black Angus and Holstein, and genes within regions of homozygosity were investigated to elucidate the genetic and genomic characteristics of Hanwoo. Results The Hanwoo bull genome was sequenced to 45.6-fold coverage using the ABI SOLiD system. In total, 4.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 0.4 million small indels were identified by comparison with the Btau4.0 reference assembly. Of the total number of SNPs and indels, 58% and 87%, respectively, were novel. The overall genotype concordance between the SNPs and BovineSNP50 BeadChip data was 96.4%. Of 1.6 million genetic differences in Hanwoo, approximately 25,000 non-synonymous SNPs, splice-site variants, and coding indels (NS/SS/Is) were detected in 8,360 genes. Among 1,045 genes containing reliable specific NS/SS/Is in Hanwoo, 109 genes contained more than one novel damaging NS/SS/I. Of the genes containing NS/SS/Is, 610 genes were assigned as trait-associated genes. Moreover, 16, 78, and 51 regions of homozygosity (ROHs) were detected in Hanwoo, Black Angus, and Holstein, respectively. ‘Regulation of actin filament length’ was revealed as a significant gene ontology term and 25 trait-associated genes for meat quality and disease resistance were found in 753 genes that resided in the ROHs of Hanwoo. In Hanwoo, 43 genes were located in common ROHs between whole-genome resequencing and SNP chips in BTA2, 10, and 13 coincided with quantitative trait loci for meat fat traits. In addition, the common ROHs in BTA2 and 16 were in agreement between Hanwoo and Black Angus. Conclusions We identified 4.7 million SNPs and 0.4 million small indels by whole-genome resequencing of a Hanwoo bull. Approximately 25,000 non-synonymous SNPs, splice-site variants, and coding indels (NS/SS/Is) were detected in 8,360 genes. Additionally, we found 25 trait-associated genes for meat quality and disease resistance among 753 genes that resided in the ROHs of Hanwoo. These findings will provide useful genomic information for identifying genes or casual mutations associated with economically important traits in cattle.
Muscle fiber development during gestation determines the muscle structure at birth and establishes the conditions for muscle development in growing cattle. Differences in muscle structure among beef cattle breeds and between beef and dairy cattle are obvious already shortly after birth. The objective of the study was to investigate the development of muscle fibers and muscle fiber bundle structure in semitendinosus muscle of divergent cattle breeds from 3 mo of gestation until birth. Fetuses of German Angus (GA), Galloway (GW), Belgian Blue (BB), and Holstein Friesian (HF) were harvested at 3, 4.5, 6, or 9 mo of gestation. Muscle sections were analyzed for fiber size and types as well as for bundle structure. The results confirmed that primary muscle fiber development occurs mainly during the first trimester of gestation. All fibers were initially positive for fetal fast myosin. Slow myosin as a marker for fiber maturation was detected in primary fibers at 3 mo of gestation showing a weak immunostaining. During the second trimester, the intensity of immunostaining strongly increased indicating increased slow myosin protein expression. Concurrently, the shape of primary fibers changed from myotubes to myofibers whereas the size stayed nearly constant. The main increase in muscle mass during the second trimester was caused by secondary fiber development. As an example, the ratio between secondary and primary fibers increased in Holstein Friesian fetuses from 5.9 at 4.5 mo of gestation to 21.6 at 6 mo of gestation. Primary and secondary fibers continued to growth during the third trimester. Regional differences in the density of slow muscle fibers were detected leading to greater variation within the muscle than among breeds. Structural organization of muscle fibers in muscle fiber bundles developed early in fetal life. At first, large main bundles were visible. Smaller structural units defined as primary bundles were measurable at 6 mo of gestation when most fibers were developed. The size of primary bundles nearly doubled from 6 mo of gestation to birth in all breeds. In summary, differences among breeds in the early fetal muscle fiber development were detected in contractile differentiation and partly in muscle fiber bundle structure. A prolonged secondary fiber generation and altered contractile differentiation may be involved in breed differences of postnatal muscle development. PMID:23658343
Background Low cost genotyping of individuals using high density genomic markers were recently introduced as genomic selection in genetic improvement programs in dairy cattle. Most implementations of genomic selection only use marker information, in the models used for prediction of genetic merit. However, in other species it has been shown that only a fraction of the total genetic variance can be explained by markers. Using 5217 bulls in the Nordic Holstein population that were genotyped and had genetic evaluations based on progeny, we partitioned the total additive genetic variance into a genomic component explained by markers and a remaining component explained by familial relationships. The traits analyzed were production and fitness related traits in dairy cattle. Furthermore, we estimated the genomic variance that can be attributed to individual chromosomes and we illustrate methods that can predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by sets of markers with different density. Results The amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by markers was estimated by an analysis of the matrix of genomic relationships. For the traits in the analysis, most of the additive genetic variance can be explained by 44?K informative SNP markers. The same amount of variance can be attributed to individual chromosomes but surprisingly the relation between chromosomal variance and chromosome length was weak. In models including both genomic (marker) and familial (pedigree) effects most (on average 77.2%) of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. Conclusions Most of the additive genetic variance for the traits in the Nordic Holstein population can be explained using 44?K informative SNP markers. By analyzing the genomic relationship matrix it is possible to predict the amount of additive genetic variance that can be explained by a reduced (or increased) set of markers. For the population analyzed the improvement of genomic prediction by increasing marker density beyond 44?K is limited.
Psoroptic cattle scabies is a dermatitis that causes harmful itching, crusting, scurfing, and depilitation. Psoroptes ovis mites are the specific cause of common scabies in cattle. A major reason for the inadequacy of formerly successful eradication progr...
Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal
The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before adulthood. The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variation in several metabolites and hormones in calves, and to determine their genetic relationships with fertility and production through sire predicted transmitting abilities (PTA; sires of calves sampled). Circulating concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age +/- SD; 126 +/- 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2 (n = 326 females, n = 256 males; 2002-2006; multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding scheme). Univariate mixed models were fitted to the data using ASREML. Basal concentrations of FFA, glucose, GH, insulin and total IGF-1 were all moderately heritable in both sexes (heritability range +/- SE; 0.09 +/- 0.05 to 0.66 +/- 0.14). The sire PTA for protein percentage had significant regression coefficients and approximate genetic correlations with FFA and insulin, and the sire PTA for calving interval had significant regression coefficients and approximate genetic correlations with GH. Additive genetic variance seems responsible for a moderate proportion of the phenotypic variation in important metabolites and regulatory hormones in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves, therefore supporting further investigation into their use as juvenile predictors for fertility in the mature female. PMID:19620683
Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Lřvendahl, P; Woolliams, J A; Royal, M D
In the present study, the exon 2 and 3' end sequence of intron 1 of BoLA-DRB3 gene of 211 Beijing Holstein cows was amplified and a uniform fragment of 284 bp was obtained. The genetic polymorphism was investigated by PCR-RFLP using two restriction endonucleases HaeIII and BstYI. Seven genotypes were detected by digesting the PCR products with HaeIII. The frequency of AA, AB, AC, AD, BB, BC and BF genotypes was 0.4638, 0.0193, 0.0193, 0.3478, 0.0290, 0.0386 and 0.0822, respectively. Three genotypes were found by digesting the PCR products with BstYI. The frequency of AA, AB and BB genotypes was 0.0569, 0.2844 and 0.6587, respectively. The relationship between the polymorphisms in exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 gene and somatic cell score (SCS) in Beijing Holstein cows was analyzed by least squares linear model. No significant difference was detected among least squares means of SCS for seven HaeIII-RFLP genotypes (P > 0.05). As for BstYI-RFLP analysis, least squares mean of SCS for AA was significantly lower than that for AB (P < 0.05) or BB (P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected between AB and BB genotypes (P > 0.05). BstYI AA was the most favorable genotype and BstYI BB was the most unfavorable genotype for mastitis resistance. The information found in the present study is very important for improving mastitis resistance in dairy cattle by marker assisted selection. PMID:21687974
Chu, M X; Ye, S C; Qiao, L; Wang, J X; Feng, T; Huang, D W; Cao, G L; Di, R; Fang, L; Chen, G H
When residues of nortestosterone (NT) were found in the urine of cattle, racehorses or bodybuilders, exogenic administration was thought to be proven. In previous literature, no records were found of the endogenic presence of this molecule. In the horse-racing world, Houghton and Courthot found that NT is normally present in the urine of the stallion. Belgian and Dutch researchers found that NT is also present in the urine and edible parts of the intact boar. Vandenbroeck et al. (1991) suggested the endogenous presence of NT (in the beta form) in the pregnant cow. Meyer (1992) reported the presence of NT (in the alpha form) in relatively high amounts in the urine of the cow peri-partum and the neo-natal calf. These observations may have important consequences for veterinary meat inspection in the EU. Therefore, in Belgium a large scale experiment was set up in co-operation with the EU Community Reference Laboratory (RIVM). In this paper the present state of the results in this area is presented. A large number of urine samples (> 50) of pregnant non-treated cows were collected and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in 4 different laboratories. Further samples (> 100) were taken, but only analysed in one laboratory. The results proved clearly that NT may indeed be detectable in the alpha form in the urine of pregnant cows, from at least 2 months, but most probably from 4-5 months before partus. PMID:7879858
de Brabander, H F; van Hende, J; Batjoens, P; Hendriks, L; Raus, J; Smets, F; Pottie, G; van Ginkel, L; Stephany, R W
Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen causing respiratory disease, otitis media, arthritis, mastitis, and a variety of other diseases in cattle worldwide. It is increasingly recognized by the veterinary and livestock communities as having an important impact on the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy and beef cattle. M. bovis diseases can be difficult to diagnose and control because of inconsistent disease expression and response to treatments and vaccines, and large gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these diseases. There are limited data on which to base evidence-based decisions for treatment and control, and the literature contains differing clinical biases and opinions. This document is intended for veterinarians dealing with cattle and is focused on the cattle production systems of North America. The goal of the consensus statement panel was to encourage an evidence-based approach to M. bovis problems. The scientific literature was critically reviewed, including peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews obtained by database searches using the terms "Mycoplasma bovis" or "mycoplasma + cattle." Where other data were lacking, conference proceedings were reviewed as a source of expert opinion. PMID:21745245
Maunsell, F P; Woolums, A R; Francoz, D; Rosenbusch, R F; Step, D L; Wilson, D J; Janzen, E D
The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and
Miia Lindström; Jan Myllykoski; Seppo Sivelä; Hannu Korkeala
Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman)] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian)] (p ? 0.001). These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE20605.
A total of 220 cows and heifers were treated with 3 mg/kg ketoprofen immediately after calving and 24 hours later, and 227 were left untreated as controls. The treated animals tended to have a lower incidence of retained fetal membranes and were 1.7 times less likely to develop the condition than the untreated animals. The treatment did not affect the incidence of milk fever, the endometritis score or the presence of a corpus luteum by 20 to 25 days after calving, and did not affect the cows' early lactation milk yield. There was no particular level of dystocia or periparturient conditions other than retained fetal membranes for which there might be a reproductive or productive advantage following the use of ketoprofen. The intervals from calving to first insemination or to pregnancy, the numbers of inseminations per pregnancy and the pregnancy rate to first insemination were also unaffected by ketoprofen treatment. PMID:19633322
Richards, B D; Black, D H; Christley, R M; Royal, M D; Smith, R F; Dobson, H
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a monensin controlled-release capsule on the proportion of cows with subclinical ketosis (SK). During July to August 2001, 300 cows dried-off 50-70 days before expected parturition were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 150, oral...
Theaimofthisstudywastoinvestigatewhetherquan- titative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mas- titis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mas- titis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second par- ity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL
L. P. Sřrensen; B. Guldbrandtsen; J. R. Thomasen; M. S. Lund
Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661
Background Two key findings from genomic selection experiments are 1) the reference population used must be very large to subsequently predict accurate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV), and 2) prediction equations derived in one breed do not predict accurate GEBV when applied to other breeds. Both findings are a problem for breeds where the number of individuals in the reference population is limited. A multi-breed reference population is a potential solution, and here we investigate the accuracies of GEBV in Holstein dairy cattle and Jersey dairy cattle when the reference population is single breed or multi-breed. The accuracies were obtained both as a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix and from the realised accuracies of GEBV. Methods Best linear unbiased prediction with a multi-breed genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) and two Bayesian methods (BAYESA and BAYES_SSVS) which estimate individual SNP effects were used to predict GEBV for 400 and 77 young Holstein and Jersey bulls respectively, from a reference population of 781 and 287 Holstein and Jersey bulls, respectively. Genotypes of 39,048 SNP markers were used. Phenotypes in the reference population were de-regressed breeding values for production traits. For the GBLUP method, expected accuracies calculated from the diagonal of the inverse of coefficient matrix were compared to realised accuracies. Results When GBLUP was used, expected accuracies from a function of elements of the inverse coefficient matrix agreed reasonably well with realised accuracies calculated from the correlation between GEBV and EBV in single breed populations, but not in multi-breed populations. When the Bayesian methods were used, realised accuracies of GEBV were up to 13% higher when the multi-breed reference population was used than when a pure breed reference was used. However no consistent increase in accuracy across traits was obtained. Conclusion Predicting genomic breeding values using a genomic relationship matrix is an attractive approach to implement genomic selection as expected accuracies of GEBV can be readily derived. However in multi-breed populations, Bayesian approaches give higher accuracies for some traits. Finally, multi-breed reference populations will be a valuable resource to fine map QTL.
Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP) in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF) population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs) for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P?=?8.91×10?198) and BTA20 (P?=?7.03×10?12) within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P?=?2.00×10?13) and BTA27 (P?=?9.83×10?5) encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P?=?1.40×10?12) and GPAT4 (P?=?5.18×10?5), respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle.
0000e are comparatively few books about Chinese foreign policy in Chinese or English. Aside from the writings of Mao Zedong, there are virtually no specific books in Chinese about Chinese 'grand strategy.' Contemporary Chinese writers actually write very ...
Of 174 cattle dipped in an emulsified preparation of benzene hexachloride labeled for plant use, 18 were fatally poisoned. The preparation contained 0.14% active ingredient, gamma isomer of benzene hexachloride (BHC), a normally safe concentration for cattle. Analyses revealed 0.08% gamma BHC in the used dip and 0.5, 7.9, and 198 ppm in liver, kidney, and hairskin specimens, respectively, from a fatally affected cow. Microscopic examination of the freshly prepared dip demonstrated emulsion droplets ranging from 5 to 60 mu in diameter. PMID:49345
The objective was to determine luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and follicular dynamics in cattle following administration of 3 gonadorelin formulations that are commercially available in Canada. In experiment 1, nonlactating Holstein cows (n = 4 per group) were randomly assigned to receive 100 ?g gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate, intramuscularly (C; Cystorelin, or FE; Fertagyl). Blood samples (for LH analysis) were collected 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours after treatment. In experiment 2, nonlactating Holstein cows (n = 10 per group) were randomly allocated to receive 100 ?g gonadorelin, intramuscularly as follows: 2 mL of C; 1 mL of FE; or 2 mL of Factrel (FA, gonadorelin hydrochloride). Gonadorelin treatment was done on days 6 or 7 after ovulation and blood samples for LH analysis were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after treatment. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography, twice daily, to detect ovulation. A replicate was conducted using only C (n = 10) or FE (n = 10); blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours. In experiment 3, beef heifers (n = 10 per group) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 GnRH gonadorelin treatments (as in the first phase of experiment 2) on days 6 or 7 after ovulation and blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 hours. In experiments 2 and 3, both mean and mean peak plasma LH concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in cattle treated with C. The proportion of dominant follicles that ovulated was higher (P < 0.02) in Holstein cows treated with C than in those treated with FE or FA (18/19, 11/19, and 4/7, respectively), but there was no significant difference among the products in beef heifers (6/10, 6/10, and 4/10, respectively). No significant differences were found in the interval from treatment to the emergence of the next follicular wave. In summary, C induced a greater LH release and this resulted in a higher ovulatory rate in Holstein cows but not in beef heifers.
Martinez, Marcelo F.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.; Kastelic, John P.; Carruthers, Terry
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a gene complex closely linked to the vertebrate immune system due to its importance in antigen recognition and immune response to pathogens. To improve our understanding of the MHC and disease resistance in dairy cattle, we gathered 5119 test day records of somatic cell count (SCC) and performance traits of 262 Holstein dairy cows to determine whether the DRB region of the MHC contains alleles that are associated with elevated SCC, milk yield, protein and fat percent of milk. To this purpose, genotyping of animals for DRB3 gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. A two-step PCR was carried out so as to amplify a 284 base-pair fragment of exon 2 of the target gene. Second PCR products were treated with three restriction endonuclease enzymes RsaI, BstYI and HaeIII. Twenty-eight BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified including one novel allele (*40). The results in general are in good accordance with allele frequencies of Holsteincattle populations reported by previous studies. Analyses of associations were modeled based on repeated measurement anova and generalized logistic linear methods for production traits and SCC data, respectively. The results of this study showed a significant relationship between the elevated SCC reflecting an increased probability of occurrence to subclinical mastitis and DRB3.2 allele *8 (p < 0.03). The results also revealed significant positive relationships of alleles*22 (p < 0.01) and allele*11 (p < 0.05) with milk fat percent as well as of alleles*24 (p < 0.03) and *22 (p < 0.05) with protein percent. The present study failed to find any association between milk yield and tested alleles. Because of the lack of consistency among results of similar studies, we suggest further investigations to determine the precise nature of these associations with the high polymorphic bovine MHC region to be performed based on haplotypes. PMID:19630880
Pashmi, M; Qanbari, S; Ghorashi, S A; Sharifi, A R; Simianer, H
Eight calcitic and three dolomitic limestones were examined for particle size and reactivity with hydrochloric acid at pH 3.5 and 5.5. Reactivity was higher in calcitic than dolomitic limestone. Within calcitic limestones, reactivity was highly related to particle size. A highly reactive limestone was selected for use in two digestion trials with Holstein steers. In Trial 1, 4 steers (approximately 300 kg) were fed diets consisting of 40% corn silage and 60% concentrate (DM basis) with .62 or 2.34% limestone in a single reversal trial with 3-wk experimental periods. Added limestone affected only starch digestibility, which increased from 91.3 to 93.2%. Fecal pH increased from 5.7 to 6.4 by limestone addition. In trial 2, four rumen and duodenally cannulated steers (approximately 475 kg) were fed the same diets in the same design. Limestone addition increased fecal pH from 5.7 to 6.5. There were no effects of limestone on rumen or total tract digestion of starch or other nutrients. Limestone addition had no effect on rumen pH, buffering capacity, or VFA concentrations. Addition of a highly reactive limestone to diets containing high amounts of starch had little effect on starch digestion in either the rumen or lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:3372818
. Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.
An efficient, yet very accurate trial wave function, constructed from projecting the well-known Davydov D1 Ansatz onto momentum eigenstates, is employed to study the ground state properties of the generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal coupling. Ground-state energies have been obtained with a precision matching that of the computationally much more demanding density-matrix renormalization group method. The delocalized D1 Ansatz lowers the ground-state energies at the Brillouin zone boundary significantly compared with the Toyozawa and Global-Local Ansa?tze in the weak coupling regime, while considerable improvement is demonstrated to have been achieved over the entire Brillouin zone in the strong coupling regime. Unique solutions are obtained with the delocalized D1 for different initial conditions when the transfer integral is 20 times the phonon frequency at the zone center, implying the absence of any self-trapping discontinuity. The scaled correlation variance is found to fit satisfactorily well with the predictions of the perturbation theories. PMID:23656123
The objectives of this study were to evaluate antibody (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR), survival, and somatic cell score (SCS) between purebred Holstein (HO) and crossbred Norwegian Red × Holstein (NRHO) first-calf heifers postpartum. Additionally, immune response traits observed as calves in a previous study were correlated with their immune response traits as first-calf heifers. Heifers, previously immunized as calves, were bled and reimmunized 6 to 9 d postcalving with known type 1 and type 2 antigens and human serum albumin (HSA). Seven days later, heifers were rebled, and background skinfold measurements of the tail fold were taken. Intradermal injections of PBS and type 1 antigen were administered on either side of the tail fold. On d 9 final skinfold measurements were taken and used to assess delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) as an indicator of CMIR. Blood samples were also collected for a final time on d 14 from heifers that received the antigen HSA. Serum was obtained from blood collected on d 0, 7, and 14 and analyzed by ELISA to assess AMIR. Data on survival and somatic cell count, which was converted to SCS, were obtained from CanWest Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI). All SCS, survival, and immune response data were analyzed using general linear models to determine significance between HO and NRHO first-calf heifers. To determine residual correlations between immune response traits observed in calves to their responses as first-calf heifers, residuals were obtained from models, and correlations between traits were determined using PROC CORR in SAS. Results showed NRHO had a greater primary IgG antibody response to HSA and greater tertiary IgG antibody response to the type 2 antigen compared with HO. Crossbreds (NRHO)also had significantly greater DTH response (P < 0.05) and, in general, greater survival from calving to 100 d in milk (dim), 100 to 305 dim, calving to 305 dim, and age at immune response testing as calf to 305 dim. No difference was observed between breeds for SCS. Results also showed most correlations between calf and first-calf heifer immune response traits were found to be positive and significant (P < 0.05). In conclusion, NRHO heifers have greater survival, which likely relates at least in part to increases in aspects of both AMIR and CMIR and could indicate that crossbred heifers have enhanced disease resistance. PMID:22585796
Cartwright, S L; Schaeffer, L R; Burnside, E B; Mallard, B A
As an extension of a former study, the objectives of this study were to evaluate purebred Holstein (HO; n=140) and crossbred Norwegian Red × Holstein (NRFX; n=142) calves for antibody (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) as well as survival. Blood was collected on d 0, 14, and 21, and calves were immunized on d 0 and 14 with type 1 (Candida albicans) and type 2 (hen egg white lysozyme) antigens, which have been shown to induce CMIR and AMIR, respectively. Day 21 background skin-fold measurements of either side of the tail-fold were taken and intradermal injections of test (type 1 antigen) and control (phosphate saline buffer) were administered. Day 23 final skin-fold measurements were taken to assess delayed type hypersensitivity as an indicator of CMIR. Survival data were obtained from CanWest Dairy Herd Improvement. Statistical Analysis System general linear models were used to analyze all immune response and survival data and to determine statistical significance between breeds. Results showed that NRFX had greater primary IgM, IgG, IgG1, and secondary IgG1 antibody response, as well as greater primary IgG1:IgG2 ratio to the type 2 antigen compared with HO. The NRFX also had greater primary IgG1 and IgG2, and secondary IgG2 antibody response as well as greater primary IgG1:IgG2 ratio to the type 1 antigen. The NRFX calves had a tendency toward greater survival from age at immune response testing to calving. No difference was observed between breeds for other secondary antibody response traits or delayed type hypersensitivity. Results indicate NRFX have greater AMIR and therefore may have enhanced defense against extracellular pathogens. This may contribute to increased survival compared with HO. Both breeds, however, likely have similar defense against intracellular pathogens, because no differences in CMIR were observed. In general, these results may suggest that crossbreeding could improve resistance to certain diseases in dairy calves, resulting in decreased input costs to producers for crossbred calves compared with purebred calves. However, more research with larger sample sizes and different breeds should be conducted to confirm these results and obtain a complete picture of the benefits of crossbreeding on immune response traits in calves. PMID:21338823
Cartwright, S L; Begley, N; Schaeffer, L R; Burnside, E B; Mallard, B A
The objective of this study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the IGF-IR/TaqI, m-calpain/HhaI, and UCP-3/BglI polymorphisms and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and growth traits in Chinese indigenous cattle breeds. Genotyping was performed on 321 animals including 135 Nanyang, 80 Qinchuan, and 106 Jiaxian cattle. No significant differences in growth traits were observed between the genotypes of IGF-IR/TaqI polymorphism in Nanyang cattle. The m-calpain/HhaI, and UCP-3/BglI polymorphisms were associated with body weight, withers height, and body length of 6 months (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), body length of 18 months (P < 0.05), and body length and heart girth of 24 months (P < 0.01) in Nanyang cattle. In addition, Nanyang cattle aged 12 months with AB genotype of m-calpain/HhaI polymorphism had higher body length and heart girth than those with BB genotype (P < 0.01). The withers height were greater (P < 0.01) in Nanyang cattle aged 12 months with genotype AB of UCP-3/BglI polymorphism than those with genotype BB. The Nanyang cattle aged 24 months with genotype AA had higher withers height than those with genotype BB (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the m-calpain/HhaI and UCP-3/BglI polymorphisms may be used as DNA markers for selection in the breeding process of Nanyang cattle. PMID:20857204
A field study was conducted in central Argentina to evaluate the efficacy of ear tags containing 36% ethion against pyrethroid resistant populations of Haematobia irritans on grazing dairy cattle. The treated group consisted of 45 milking Holstein cows which received two tags per head and the control consisted of 22 dry cows from the same cohort. Treated and control groups were grazed on similar lucerne pastures separated for a minimum distance of 800 m but they were not isolated from other cattle herds on the same or contiguous properties. In both groups, horn fly estimation were made weekly by examining cattle in the pastures with the aid of binoculars. The percentage reduction of fly numbers on treated cows was considered as efficacy of control provided by the tags. The ethion ear tags provided a range of 85-99% reduction in horn fly numbers for 16 weeks. During this period, the weekly mean number of H. irritans on the tagged cows ranged between 0.44 and 28.26 compared with 143.5 and 239.1 in control animals. The ethion ear tags could be a useful tool for the control of H. irritans mainly in areas where populations of this insect have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:10889367
Anziani, O S; Zimmermann, G; Guglielmone, A A; Forchieri, M; Volpogni, M M
Two adult cattle died within 48 h of being fed a large amount of Bryophyllum pinnatum plants collected from a house garden. Clinical signs became apparent the day after feeding and included hypersalivation, ataxia, severe cardiac arrhythmia and laboured respiration. The main necropsy findings were acute rumenitis, reduction of bronchiolar lumens and emphysema. PMID:8929190
Summary Linear programming (LP) and other types of systems analysis procedures are being used more frequently by animal scientists. In this study, we used a LP model to determine the costs and most efficient manner of conducting a multi-year beef cattle breeding experiment designed to compare the initial level of heterosis among the F l crosses of the Angus, Hereford
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 %) of elephant grass by hay of mango tree pruning (HMTP) on intake and digestibility in cattle and on the in vitro gas production. Moreover, the effect of tannin in HMTP on the gas production and in vitro degradability of the dry matter was evaluated, using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The intake and digestibility were evaluated in a double 4 × 4 square Latin design, using eight Holstein intact bulls. To evaluate the gas production and degradability, in vitro semi-automated gas production technique was used. The substitution of elephant grass by HMTP decreased the intake (P<0.05) and the digestibility (P<0.05) of the nutrients and also the gas production (P<0.05). Furthermore, the utilization of PEG as a tannin-complexing agent increased the gas production and degradability of the HMTP (P<0.05). It was concluded that the high cell wall lignification and the presence of tannin limit the use of HMTP as the only source of roughage in cattle diets. PMID:23212837
de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Fernando Santos; de Souza Wanderley, Carlos Wagner; Neto, Alvaro Santos Lisboa
Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…
This paper presents an application, Augmented Reality Chinese Checkers that we created to investigate user interface issues for table top projected augmented reality entertainment applications. A new tangible interaction device, the wireless button enhanced fiducial, is introduced to support selection tasks in mixed reality environments. The Augmented Reality Chinese Checkers game is built on a framework which can be used
Nicholas Cooper; Aaron Keatley; Maria Dahlquist; Simon Mann; Hannah Slay; Joanne Zucco; Ross Smith; Bruce H. Thomas
This study was done to recognize the problem of new Chinese immigrants, and the formation of the group called the Immigrants Development Center of San Francisco, Inc., in order to work toward the alleviation of the unemployment problem of recent Chinese i...
|A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…
In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.
This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…
Objectives: This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods: Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results: The results of exploratory
Past research on Chinese leadership, a style which is different from that practiced in the West, has demonstrated that paternalistic leadership within Chinese society is significantly related to employees' psychological health. This research contributes to the literature by providing results from the interaction between Chinese and non-Chinese society and examining the moderating role played by the cultural value of uncertainty
|Because the conceptual and grammatical constructions of English and Chinese vary drastically, Chinese students often have difficulty learning to think and write in English. Cultural conflicts of young Chinese in America compound their difficulties with the English language. The old values expressed by Chinese affect students' abilities to write…
This paper aims to describe the changes prompted by conversion to organic farming for milk production and fertility of first parity Holstein cows.Data was collected for Dutch organic farms, with a distinction made between long-standing-organic farms, converted organic farms and a reference group of conventional farms. The percentage Holstein blood in the herds, milk production (kg milk, % milk fat,
The aim of this study was to establish whether perturbed gene expression during cumulus oocyte development causes repeat breeding in cattle. In this study, a repeat breeder was defined as a normal estrous cycling animal that did not become pregnant after three inseminations despite the absence of clinically detectable reproductive disorders. Transcripts of genes extracted from cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) that were collected from three repeat breeder and three normally fertile Holstein Friesian heifers were compared. Up to 40 COC were collected from each heifer by means of repeated sessions of ovum pick up in the absence of hormonal stimulation; immediately plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored at -80°C until analysis. For each heifer, RNA was extracted from the pooled COC and hybridized on GeneChip(®) Bovine Gene Array (Affymetrix). Analysis of gene expression profiles of repeat breeder and control COC showed that 178 genes were differentially expressed (log2 fold change>1.5). Of these genes, 43 (24%) were up-regulated and 135 (76%) were down-regulated in repeat breeder relative to control heifers. This altered pattern of expression occurred in genes involved in several cellular biological processes and cellular components such as metabolism, angiogenesis, substrate/ion transport, regulation/signaling, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton. From these, 13 genes potentially involved in cumulus oocyte growth were subjected to validation by qRT-PCR and nine genes (annexin A1, ANXA1; lactoferrin, LTF; interferon stimulated exonuclease 20kDa, ISG20/HEM45; oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1, OLR1; fatty acid desaturase 2, FADS2; glutathione S-transferase A2 and A4, GSTA2 and GSTA4; glutathione peroxidase 1, GPX1; endothelin receptor type A, EDNRA) were confirmed to be differentially expressed. This study identified potential marker genes for fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23911014
Dystocia is a major problem for the dairy cattle industry, and the observed high rates of this condition stem from genetic selection to increase subsequent milk production of the calving female. Because smaller birth size does not adversely affect subsequent milk production, selecting for cows with a smaller birth size would reduce dystocia rates and be beneficial for both the cattle and the farmers. To identify genes that regulate birth weight, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1151 microsatellite markers and identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with birth weight: A-326G in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of solute carrier family 44, member 5 (SLC44A5). Cows with higher birth weights carried the A polymorphism in the SLC44A5 5' UTR, and the presence of the A polymorphism correlated with a high rate of dystocia. Luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assays revealed that SLC44A5 transcripts with the A polymorphism are expressed at lower levels than those carrying the G polymorphism. SLC44A5 encodes a choline transporter-like protein, and choline is a component of the major phospholipids of cell membranes. Uptake studies in HeLa cells demonstrated that SLC44A5 knockdown reduces choline efflux, whereas SLC44A5 overexpression resulted in the opposite effect. Furthermore, cell viability assays indicated that SLC44A5 knockdown increased cell proliferation, whereas SLC44A5 overexpression repressed proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that calves with reduced SLC44A5 expression are larger due to enhanced cell proliferation. This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that control birth weight in Holsteins and suggests that SLC44A5 may serve as a potential target for preventing dystocia. PMID:22815983
Dystocia is a major problem for the dairy cattle industry, and the observed high rates of this condition stem from genetic selection to increase subsequent milk production of the calving female. Because smaller birth size does not adversely affect subsequent milk production, selecting for cows with a smaller birth size would reduce dystocia rates and be beneficial for both the cattle and the farmers. To identify genes that regulate birth weight, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1151 microsatellite markers and identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with birth weight: A-326G in the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of solute carrier family 44, member 5 (SLC44A5). Cows with higher birth weights carried the A polymorphism in the SLC44A5 5? UTR, and the presence of the A polymorphism correlated with a high rate of dystocia. Luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assays revealed that SLC44A5 transcripts with the A polymorphism are expressed at lower levels than those carrying the G polymorphism. SLC44A5 encodes a choline transporter-like protein, and choline is a component of the major phospholipids of cell membranes. Uptake studies in HeLa cells demonstrated that SLC44A5 knockdown reduces choline efflux, whereas SLC44A5 overexpression resulted in the opposite effect. Furthermore, cell viability assays indicated that SLC44A5 knockdown increased cell proliferation, whereas SLC44A5 overexpression repressed proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that calves with reduced SLC44A5 expression are larger due to enhanced cell proliferation. This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that control birth weight in Holsteins and suggests that SLC44A5 may serve as a potential target for preventing dystocia.
The aim of this article is to assist social workers to work with people of Chinese background. The paper is in four parts. Firstly there is an overview of the Chinese community of Australia. This is followed by a description of the main features of traditional Chinese cultural beliefs. Thirdly the human service needs of Chinese people are discussed. Finally
This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)
|This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)|
A case–control study was conducted to evaluate the significance of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in England and Wales. The prevalence of N. caninum in normally calving cattle (the control group; n=418) and aborting cattle (n=633) was estimated using a commercial antibody-detection ELISA. Prevalence estimates for bovine virus diarrhoea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Leptospira hardjo were also obtained
\\u000a Zusammenfassung\\u000a Von August 2004 bis Juni 2005 fhrte das Robert Koch-Institut im Rahmen des Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurveys (KiGGS) die\\u000a Feldarbeit fr das Schleswig-Holstein-Modul durch. Die KiGGS-Studie ist ein bundesweit reprsentativer Survey zum Gesundheitszustand\\u000a von Kindern und Jugendlichen im Alter von 0–17 Jahren. Die Modul-Studie ermglicht durch eine Stichprobenaufstockung in Schleswig-Holstein\\u000a bei den 11- bis 17-Jhrigen reprsentative Aussagen fr dieses Bundesland.
P. Kamtsiuris; M. Lange; A. Schaffrath Rosario; B.-M. Kurth
...Identification and disposal of cattle. 50.18 Section...LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas...Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All...
...Identification and disposal of cattle. 50.18 Section...LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas...Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All...
This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...
A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits but favorably with udder health and longevity. Integrating fertility traits into a total merit selection index can halt or reverse the decline of fertility and improve the longevity of dairy cattle. PMID:18946139
Survey data on dairy cattle production were gathered in two sites [Site I (three-year survey) and Site II (two-year survey)] in Southern Luzon, Philippines. Crossbred (Holstein-Friesian x Sahiwal) dairy cows (n = 122) managed by smallholder farmers belonging to five primary cooperatives under the federation of dairy farmers, were monitored monthly for milk production, feed intake and availability, and reproduction and health status. The purpose of the survey was to identify constraints to productivity. The reproductive status of the cows was monitored by measuring milk and plasma progesterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries. Plasma concentrations of selected metabolites [beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), inorganic phosphorus, albumin, globulin, urea] were also measured at one month before calving and at one month and 2-3 months postpartum, to determine if these could serve as biochemical indicators of nutritional stress. A long calving interval (CI = > 400 days) was identified as the major constraint to productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms. The three main problems related to this reproductive constraint were: (1) poor breeding management, in particular lack of accurate estrus detection; (2) repeat breeding, i.e. three or more services were required before conception; and (3) poor ovarian function, shown by some cows with lose progesterone levels. An important cause of these problems was undernutrition, particularly at critical periods of the cow's reproductive life, reflected in the slow recovery from loss in body weight and condition score during the early postpartum period and the increased plasma BHB values at peripartum period in some cows, indicative of negative energy balance, and the flat lactation profile. These findings are useful and relevant as a database in the development of an appropriate management scheme aimed toward improving dairy cattle production and productivity at smallholder level. It highlights the importance of estrus detection, good breeding management and the use of a practical strategic nutritional supplementation, particularly during stressful periods in the cows's reproductive life. PMID:10081796
Alejandrino, A L; Asaad, C O; Malabayabas, B; De Vera, A C; Herrera, M S; Deocaris, C C; Ignacio, L M; Palo, L P
Strategies aimed at reducing fecal shedding of Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens may be effective for limiting transmission of pathogens from food animals to humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gallium maltolate (GaM) against Salmonella in vitro and to determine whether oral administration of GaM would reduce fecal shedding of Salmonella in cattle. Gallium is a semimetal exhibiting antimicrobial properties against some pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, by exploiting their need for iron to survive and replicate. In vitro growth studies were performed in pure cultures of Salmonella and in mixed cultures from ruminal fluid. Inclusion of GaM in culture medium or in mixed cultures of ruminal fluid resulted in a significant reduction in growth of Salmonella, suggesting that GaM may be effective for limiting growth and survival in vivo. Therefore, we subsequently administered two doses of GaM to Holstein steers, experimentally infected them with Salmonella, and quantitatively and qualitatively monitored fecal shedding at 12-h intervals. Sixty hours after beginning treatment, cattle were euthanized, and luminal contents and tissue were aseptically harvested from the rumen, jejunum, spiral colon, cecum, and rectum. The luminal contents were processed for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the challenge strains of Salmonella, and tissue samples were enriched and plated for qualitative analysis. We found no significant differences between control and treated animals in quantitative levels of Salmonella in the feces or the luminal contents. Likewise, we observed no pattern between control and treated animals in the frequency of positive or negative results from enriched feces, luminal contents, or tissue samples. These results suggest that GaM was not effective for reducing Salmonella in cattle. PMID:21477464
Nerren, J R; Edrington, T S; Bernstein, L R; Farrow, R L; Genovese, K G; Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Krueger, N A; Duke, S E; Nisbet, D J
Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing\\u000a diseases, promoting people’s health and corporeity, and enriching people’s restorative culture. In the course of development\\u000a of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different\\u000a historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in
During marketing, cattle may be exposed to periods of water deprivation. The impact of water and feed access and health status on the physiological well-being and carcass characteristics of Holstein slaughter cows during preslaughter marketing was studied through analysis of serum components, BW loss percentage, and fresh meat composition. Ninety-one multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 89 kg mean BW, 2.9 ± 0.5 mean BCS, varying stage of lactation) were purchased over 3 wk in 3 groups (n = 31, 29, and 31) at a terminal market in central Wisconsin. Each cow was screened to determine health status (sick or not sick) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 water and feed withdrawal treatment pens (AL, ad libitum access to water for 36 h; 18H, 18 h of ad libitum access to water followed by 18 h of water withdrawal; 36H, 36 h of water withdrawal; all 3 treatments included 36 h of feed withdrawal) in a randomized complete block arrangement with repeated measures for serum components. Blood samples were collected by tail venipuncture at 0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 h of each treatment. Ambient temperatures were 1.9 ± 6.2°C during the trial period, which occurred over a 3-wk period in March and April 2007 near Arlington, WI. No difference (P > 0.05) was observed in mean serum cortisol in AL (18.41 ± 2.17 ng/mL) or 36H (22.98 ± 2.17 ng/mL). Mean serum glucose was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (78.15 ± 0.77 mg/dL) than AL (75.91 ± 0.77 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H pens (0.71 ± 0.03 mg/dL) than AL (0.60 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The 36H pens also displayed increased (P < 0.05) serum albumin, anion gap, Ca, Cl, Na, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase over AL. Greater (P < 0.05) mean percentage BW loss was observed in 36H pens (5.2 ± 0.6%) than AL (3.1 ± 0.6%). Mean muscle protein (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in 36H (22.2 ± 0.4%) than 18H (21.3 ± 0.4%). Mean muscle moisture (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in AL and 18H (75.3 ± 0.4% and 75.2 ± 0.4%) than 36H. Mean 24-h pH values were 5.92 (AL), 5.92 (18H), and 5.81 (36H; SE = 0.04) and were not different (P < 0.05). Observed pH and color values indicated a borderline dark-cutter state across all cattle in the study, regardless of water and feed access treatment. Based on these results, water and feed withdrawal in lairage should not exceed 18 h during the marketing of Holstein slaughter cows acclimated to springtime conditions to maintain BW, serum component concentrations, and fresh meat composition. PMID:20935137
Vogel, K D; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Oetzel, G R; Schaefer, D M
ABSTRACT The ?1,presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle can negatively impact a state’s economy and cattle industry. In Michigan, USA, wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are a reservoir for reinfecting cattle herds. Although direct TB transmission between deer and cattle is rare, infected deer may contaminate cattle feed. To mitigate this risk, we designed and evaluated a deer-resistant cattle
NATHAN W. SEWARD; GREGORY E. PHILLIPS; JARED F. DUQUETTE; KURT C. VERCAUTEREN
The horn fly Haematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) has recently spread to Argentina and Uruguay and is believed to cause damage to cattle hides. Four groups of ten Holstein steers each were maintained for 58 weeks under different infestation levels with H. irritans to determine if it was the cause of this problem. Hides (chrome tanned) from steers maintained under minimum infestation level had 4.7 +/- 3.8% of the area damaged. Maintaining the steers under low H. irritans level for the last 44 days of the trial using insecticidal ear-tags, resulted in 29.5 +/- 15.8% of hide area being damaged. Steers that were treated with 5% cypermethrin pour-on, when the H. irritans population was close to 50 flies, showed that 31.3 +/- 16.6% of hide area was injured, and 46.6 +/- 12.8% of damaged hide area was found in hides from non-treated steers. Significant differences were found between mean hide damage from steers maintained continuously under low H. irritans infestation levels and all other groups. Hyperaemia was significantly lower in the skin of steers under low H. irritans infestation level than in the skins of non-treated steers and steers maintained under low-level infestations for the final 44 days. Eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration was significantly lower when the population of H. irritans was less than six per steer than when the population was more than 100 flies per steer. Low numbers of Stomoxys calcitrans were found in all groups, but most hide damage was presumed due to H. irritans. PMID:10514060
Guglielmone, A A; Gimeno, E; Idiart, J; Fisher, W F; Volpogni, M M; Quaino, O; Anziani, O S; Flores, S G; Warnke, O
Swiss Fleckvieh was established in 1970 as a composite of Simmental (SI) and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF) cattle. Breed composition is currently reported based on pedigree information. Information on a large number of molecular markers potentially provides more accurate information. For the analysis, we used Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip data for 90 pure SI, 100 pure RHF and 305 admixed bulls. The scope of the study was to compare the performance of hidden Markov models, as implemented in structure software, with methods conventionally used in genomic selection [BayesB, partial least squares regression (PLSR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variable selection)] for predicting breed composition. We checked the performance of algorithms for a set of 40 492 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), subsets of evenly distributed SNPs and subsets with different allele frequencies in the pure populations, using F(ST) as an indicator. Key results are correlations of admixture levels estimated with the various algorithms with admixture based on pedigree information. For the full set, PLSR, BayesB and structure performed in a very similar manner (correlations of 0.97), whereas the correlation of LASSO and pedigree admixture was lower (0.93). With decreasing number of SNPs, correlations decreased substantially only for 5% or 1% of all SNPs. With SNPs chosen according to F(ST) , results were similar to results obtained with the full set. Only when using 96 and 48 SNPs with the highest F(ST) , correlations dropped to 0.92 and 0.90 respectively. Reducing the number of pure animals in training sets to 50, 20 and 10 each did not cause a drop in the correlation with pedigree admixture. PMID:23061480
Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring ancestor-descendant SNP pairs can be explored as possible epistatic effects for further study. The importance scores generated by RF can be used effectively to identify large additive or epistatic SNP and informative QTL. The consistency in results of our study and previous studies in beef cattle indicates that the genetic architecture of RFI in dairy cattle might be similar to that of beef cattle. PMID:23932129
Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; Vandehaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A
Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Nerium oleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57\\u000a animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from\\u000a offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the
B. Soto-Blanco; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; D. M. Silva; P. F. C. C. Reis; J. E. Nóbrega
This study analyzes Chinese commercial negotiating practices for two reasons. The first is to minimize future misunderstandings in such activities, and the second is to provide guidance for government-to-government negotiations. The research procedure use...
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
Chemical structure studies were made to identify electrophoretically slow haemoglobin variants obtained from nine Chinese subjects living in Taiwan. The subjects had recent family origins in seven provinces of Mainland China as well as Taiwan. In all nine...
Contents: High tibial osteotomy; An investigation of digoxin radioimmunoassay; Comparative studies on the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-gossypol in 4 animal species; Maldimelsu antimicrobial activities; Pharmacognostic study of the Chinese...
The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of metabolic and proliferative genes in the rumen epithelium during ruminal acidosis. To meet our objectives, 16 rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cattle (618±35 kg of body weight, 221±32 d in milk) were used in a randomized complete block design. All cattle were fed a high-forage diet (HF; 88.9% of dry matter) for 5 wk before the experiment. After the baseline week (wk 0), half of the cattle were randomly assigned and transitioned to a high-concentrate diet (HC; 62.2% of dry matter) which was fed for 3 wk (wk 1, 2, and 3). For the last 48 h of each week, continuous ruminal pH, short-chain fatty acids, and plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate were assessed, followed by a rumen papillae biopsy. Milk production was higher in HC cattle compared with HF during wk 1, 2, and 3 (17.4±0.5 vs. 23.4±0.9 kg/d, respectively); however, the mean ruminal pH was decreased (5.75±0.03 vs. 6.30±0.02). The HC cattle spent more time below pH 5.6 (594±54 vs. 3±3 min/d) and displayed greater concentrations of ruminal butyrate (15.8±0.9 vs. 10.2±0.4 mmol) and plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (1,036±63 vs. 778±20 ?M) compared with the HF cattle. The mRNA expression of genes involved in ketogenesis (HMGCS2 and PPARA) and short-chain fatty acid transport (MCT1) was unchanged by treatment. However, a downregulation in HMGCS1 (0.72±0.09), one of the cholesterol biosynthesis genes, was observed in HC cattle during wk 1 of the grain challenge. In addition, the relative mRNA expression value of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 was lower (0.78±0.06), whereas insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 was higher (1.79±0.15) in HC compared with HF cattle. These results suggest that grain-induced ruminal acidosis alters the mRNA expression of IGF-binding proteins and a cholesterolgenic enzyme in the rumen epithelium of lactating dairy cattle. PMID:22192211
Steele, M A; Dionissopoulos, L; AlZahal, O; Doelman, J; McBride, B W
This paper analyzes the country-of-origin effects of Chinese brands going international. To approach this topic, the author uses a comparative case study, in which a Chinese manufacturer of white goods, Haier, and a German manufacturer, Miele, serve as examples. Fueled by â€śChina trashâ€ reports in EU and US media, the image of China as country of origin still has a
Purpose – To examine the nature of Chinese business negotiating style in Sino-Western business negotiations in business-to-business markets involving large industrial projects from a social cultural point of view. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A conceptual approach developed from personal interviews. Findings – This study reveals that the Chinese negotiator does not possess an absolute negotiating style but rather embraces a mixture of
Purpose – China's youthful advertising industry has changed a lot in little more than a quarter of century. A key for this spectacular growth is the enormous potential of the market for children in China. The paper aims to address this issue. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Chinese one-child policy has produced the so-called “Little Emperors factor”: Chinese children determine approximately 68
\\u000a The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese\\u000a liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about\\u000a 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments\\u000a in biotechnology and related fields
Yan Xu; Dong Wang; Wen Lai Fan; Xiao Qing Mu; Jian Chen
Chloride deficiency signs were pro- duced in young Holstein calves by a low chloride diet (.063% chlorine) and daily removal of chloride in abomasal contents. General clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, mild polydipsia, and mild polyuria. In latter stages of the deficiency, severe eye defects (scleral injection, sunken eyes, scaliness around eyes) and reduced respiration rate became evident.
M. W. Neathery; D. M. Blackmon; W. J. Miller; Shelia Heinmiller; Susan McGuire; J. M. Tarabula; R. P. Gentry; J. C. Allen
Five multiparous, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (two lactating and three dry) weighing ( X ± SD) 667 ± 35 kg were used to study the effect of abomasal purine infusion on the excretion of purine derivatives. Cows were fed corn silage four times daily at 90% of ad libitum intake ( X = 9.16 kg of dry matter\\/d). Purines were
D. B. Vagnoni; G. A. Broderick; M. K. Clayton; R. D. Hatfield
Pedigree and performance data sup- plied by seven major artificial insemina- tion (AI) studs were examined to evalu- ate the intensity of pedigree and progeny test selection achieved in choosing young Holstein bulls for future use in AI. The bulls and cows chosen to produce sons for sampling represented a group of in- dividuals highly selected for milk and milk
The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected w...
Rectovaginal injuries can result in subsequent infertility in cows. In a retrospective study, records of 147 Holstein cows with evidence of rectovaginal injuries were reviewed to determine the odds ratio (OR) of these injuries and their related risk factors. The study was conducted in a large dairy (typical herd size 1420 cows) in Tehran between the years 1993 and 1996.
M Farhoodi; I Nowrouzian; P Hovareshti; M Bolourchi; M. Gh Nadalian
High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...
By methods of conditional odds ratio with a set of 2960 Holstein lactation records, relationships between occurrences of disease in a lactation were examined. There were strong positive relationships between retained placenta and metritis and between cystic follicle and luteal cyst. Interaction was among dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis and among retained placenta, cystic follicle, and luteal cyst. Metritis was
The objective was to evaluate the effect of ruminally degraded protein (RPD) source on microbial protein flow measured in the reticulum and duodenum using 15N and in milk, urine and blood using allantoin. Eight early lactation Holstein cows were arranged in a repeated 4x4 Latin square design balanc...
Four nonlactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for residual effects, to evaluate the effects of supple- menting dairy cow diets with yeast culture (Tri- chosporon sericeum; YC), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), or the mixture of YC and GOS on ruminal fer- mentation, microbial N supply,in situ degradation, and energy and nitrogen metabolism.
B. Mwenya; B. Santoso; C. Sar; B. Pen; R. Morikawa; K. Takaura; K. Umetsu; K. Kimura; J. Takahashi
A 7-year-old Holstein cow was presented for reduced appetite and decreased milk production. Based on physical examination, cecal dilatation was the primary differential diagnosis and was confirmed at surgery. However, in addition to the dilated cecum, 2 large cystic masses were found firmly attached to the proximal loop of the ascending colon.
Based on previous in vitro results that showed reduced biohydrogenation of oleamide by ruminal mi- crobes, this study was conducted to determine whether the addition of oleamide to the diets of dairy cows would enhance the C18:1 concentration in milk. Nine first lactation Holstein cows were fed three diets in a 3 × 3 Latin square replicated three times. Each
Three rations were fed to newborn Holstein calves to determine the effect of whole cottonseed on feed intake, body weight, and development of the retic- ulorumen.-Ration s were: 1) concentrate and hay (control); 2) concentrate con- taining 25% whole cottonseed and hay; and 3) concentrate containing 25% whole cottonseed and no hay. Milk was fed at 2.8 liters daily. Morphometric
In the present work, covariance components for milk yield and disease liability were estimated with bivari- ate random regression test-day sire models using a Bayesian approach and implemented via the Gibbs sampler. The data consist of 8075 first-parity Danish Holstein (DH) cows, from 1259 sires, performing in 57 herds from 1992 to 1997. Treatments associated with five different type of
J. H. Jakobsen; R. Rekaya; J. Jensen; D. A. Sorensen; P. Madsen; D. Gianola; L. G. Christensen; J. Pedersen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of environment, management, physiologi- cal status, and genetics on semen quality (volume of the ejaculate, sperm concentration, sperm motility, number of sperm, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate) of Canadian Holstein bulls. For this purpose, semen production data from 198 bulls were analyzed using mixed linear models. Young bulls
We investigate polaron properties in the semiclassical Holstein model in one, two, and three dimensions, using two methods: a simple and efficient numerical scheme and a variational approach. We obtain accurate information on the energy and the existence regimes of the polaron state. We study small oscillations of the polaron through normal-mode analysis, investigate their stability, and evaluate the density
Corn cultivated in Brazil is predominantly of hard texture, and more propense to decreased starch digestibility under late harvesting situations than dent hybrids. This work tested the utilization of dent corn as a way of extending the ensilage period without reducing animal performance, and evaluated the potential of sugarcane as a forage for high-producing dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows
Clóvis Eduardo Sidnei Corręa; Marcos Neves Pereira; Simone Gisele de Oliveira; Marcelo Hentz Ramos
Body measurements, milk production, and body weight data were collected on 1898 lactations of 771 Holstein dairy cows from 1968 to 1986. Body weight and the body measurements of heart girth, paunch girth, wither height, chest depth, pelvic length, pelvic width, and body length were used. Milk production variables were milk yield, fat yield, 4% FCM, fat percentage, and SNF
Lactoferrinisamilkproteinthatexhibitsbroad-spec- trum antimicrobial properties. Previous studies indi- cated that supplemental lactoferrin may alter the mi- crobial populations in the gut of nonruminants and in- crease preweaning weight gains in calves. In the present study, 40 Holstein calves were used to examine the effects of supplemental lactoferrin (0, 1, 2, or 3 g\\/ d) on health, growth, and feed intake from
E. D. Robblee; P. S. Erickson; N. L. Whitehouse; A. M. McLaughlin; C. G. Schwab; J. J. Rejman; R. E. Rompala
Genetic and phenotypic parameters of body weight (BW), hip height, heart girth, and linear conforma- tion traits were estimated from field data for 7344 lactating Holstein heifers from 560 herds. Mean BW was around 540 kg at calving, decreased to a mini- mum of 514 kg by wk 6, and increased to >590 kg by wk 45 of lactation. The
Body measurements (heart and paunch girths, wither height, chest depth, pelvic length and width, and body length), body weight, and calving evaluation data (calf birth weight, calf sex, calf presentation, and calving assistance needed) were col- lected from 1974 parities of 762 Holstein cows between 1968 and 1986. Degree of calving assistance was scored continu- ously from 1 (no assistance)
Two trials were conducted to determine heat tolerance between crossbred ˝ Senepol- (S-) and \\/ Holstein- \\/ Brah- man (HB). Differences between crossbred in trial 1, and cross- bred and ambient temperature (Ta: 25 and 34°C) in trial 2 were evaluated through rectal temperature (Tre), respiration rate (RR), heat tolerance index (HTC), coefficient of adaptability (CA), average daily gain (ADG),
A proteomics approach was used to characterize bio- chemical and cellular mechanisms governing effects of peripubertal feeding on heifer mammary development. Mammary parenchymal tissue from 24 Holstein heifers randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design was used to generate 2-dimensional protein maps of mammary tissue extracts. Heifers were reared on 1 of 2 dietary treatments,
K. M. Daniels; K. E. Webb Jr.; M. L. McGilliard; M. E. Van Amburgh; R. M. Akers
Objectives were to estimate the profit- ability changes in AI sire selection by using alternative independent culling re- strictions. Net present values of semen were calculated for 439 Holstein sires available for purchase after the January 1987 USDA Sire Summary. This measure of profit was used to quantify the net incomes from milk sacrificed by choosing bulls by independent culling
Twenty one male Holstein calves were used to evaluate the effects of vanilla flavour added to starter on preweaning and postweaning calf performance. Following 3 d of colostrum and transition milk feeding, calves were assigned in a completely randomized design to two treatments including: 1. unflavoured starter and 2. flavoured starter. Calves were fed whole milk at 10% of the
Use of milk urea (MU) concentration as a parameter for detection of nutritional imbalances requires identi- fication and quantification of nutritional and nonnutri- tional factors that influence it. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between live body weight (BW) and MU concentration in Holstein cows. Results for the test-day measurements at 7 dairy farms were obtained
The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in conception rate (CR) of Holsteins in the southeastern United States over time across month by milk produc- tion level and month by days in milk (DIM) subclasses. Data were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC) and included service records from 10 states (Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina,
C. Huang; S. Tsuruta; J. K. Bertrand; I. Misztal; T. J. Lawlor; J. S. Clay
The rate and extent of estimated energy mobilization and the relationship between fat depth at the rib and thurl and body condition score (BCS) were investigated in Jersey and Holstein cows in early lactation. Twenty- six cows were paired by breed, parity, and calving date, and were individually fed a total mixed ration ad libi- tum from parturition through 120
R. R. Rastani; S. M. Andrew; S. A. Zinn; C. J. Sniffen
In study of the influence of amount and solubility of dietary protein on calf performance, five male and three female Holstein calves were assigned at birth to each of six diets in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Formulations were for three percents of crude protein in dry complete feeds, each at relatively high and low protein solubilities. Analyzed percent
Thirty-six Holstein calves were fed 3.6 kg of one of three liquid diets once daily from birth until weaning at 4 wk. Diets were: (1) colostrum (collected for five milkings postpartum and frozen), (2) whole milk, and (3) whole milk plus sufficient whey proteinconcentrate to bring diets 1 and 3 to similar whey pro- tein. Compared to whole milk, colostrum
L. D. Muller; M. J. Owens; G. L. Beardsley; D. J. Schingoethe
Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal can- nulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mes- enteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG). Each cow re- ceived 2 treatments: control (no infusion) and infusion of 650 g of PG into the rumen at
Milk production, feed consumption and body weight data were collected on 661 lactations of 318 Holstein cows by 17 sires to study the genetic aspects of gross feed efficiency of milk production. Gross feed efficiency was defined as the ratio kilogram of fat-corrected milk yield per therm of estimated net energy consumed. Least squares analyses of variance were conducted on
The objectives of this study were to compare Holstein (HO), Brown Swiss (BS), and their crosses for milk, fat, and protein yields, somatic cell score (SCS), days open (DO), and age at first calving (AFC), and to estimate the effects of heterosis and recombination. First through fifth lactation records were obtained from 19 herds milking crosses among BS and HO.
C. D. Dechow; G. W. Rogers; J. B. Cooper; M. I. Phelps; A. L. Mosholder
The Kahler geometry of minimal coadjoint orbits of classical Lie groups is exploited to construct Darboux coordinates, a symplectic two-form and a Lie-Poisson structure on the dual of the Lie algebra. Canonical transformations cast the generators of the dual into Dyson or Holstein-Primakoff representations.
Our objective was to examine re- lationships between water intake by dairy cows in early lactation and dry matter intake, milk production, sodium intake, and ambient temperature. After parturi- tion, 19 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to one of four diets for 16 wk. Water consumption, dry matter intake, milk production, and maximum and minimum temperature were recorded daily
The serological response induced by Brucella abortus strain 19 was evaluated in 52 Holstein females from a brucellosis-free herd using seven serological tests. Each calf was vaccinated at an age of 4 and 8 months old with 3 × 10 CFU B. abortus S19 and the antibody response was determined as the proportion of positive results to each test. The
N. P. Aguirre; V. R. Vanzini; S. Torioni de Echaide; B. S. Valentini; G. De Lucca; C. Aufranc; A. Canal; A. Vigliocco; K. Nielsen
Mineral analysis of hair samples was to assess its value as an indicator of excessive salt ingestion. Ten pregnant Holstein heifers averaging 499 + 32 kg were group-fed 9 kg of alfalfa hay cubes and 2 kg of a 14% dairy concentrate mix per head per day. Salt and dicalcium phos- phate were available free choice. Prior to treatment animals
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers by analysis of the cortisol concentrations in hair samples. Cortisol, the primary hormone of the HPA axis, is the biological endpoint for the investigation of the HPA response. The study was conducted on 290 prepubertal heifers; 142 heifers were pure Holstein-Friesian and 148 were crossbreed F1 heifers obtained from the 3-way rotational system with Swedish Red and Montbéliarde breeds. Extraction was performed on the hair using methanol, and cortisol concentrations were determined by a radioimmunoassay method. Cortisol concentrations measured in regrown hair of crossbreed F1 heifers were significantly lower than those in hair of Holstein-Friesian heifers. This result helps us to better understand the differences in HPA activity and allostatic load between Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers and allows us to better assess the adaptability of these animals to the environment and the importance of crossbreed traits for profitability in dairy farming. PMID:23522680
Peric, T; Comin, A; Corazzin, M; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Campanile, G; Prandi, A
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting soybean meal for urea on milk protein fractions (casein, whey protein and non-protein nitrogen) of dairy cows in three dietary lev- els. Nine mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement, composed of 3 treatments, 3 periods of 21 days each, and 3
A. A. Aquino; Y. V. R. Lima; B. G. Botaro; C. S. S. Alberto; K. C. Peixoto Jr; M. V. Santos
The objective of this study was to compare test day (TD) models with autoregressive covariance structures for the estimation of genetic and environmental components of variance for milk, fat and protein yields and somatic cell score (SCS) in Holstein cows. Four models were compared: Model I (CS Mode...
Holstein lactation records from the Dairy Herd Improvement test day files of the New York Dairy Records Processing Lab- oratory at Cornell University were used to study genetic and environmental relation- ships of days dry and days open with milk production. Age and month of calving significantly influenced length of dry period. Within herd heritability estimates of days dry were
Sixty young Holstein calves were fed five diets containing various amounts of rye grain up to 18 wk of age. Average daily gain and feed consumption were similar during the first 6 wk; however, calves receiving 60% rye consumed less feed and gained slower than the barley control and 80% roasted rye fed groups in the next 12 wk. Ratios
H. R. Sharma; J. R. Ingalls; J. A. McKirdy; L. M. Sanford
Official type classifications and pro- duction records of Holstein cows calving between January 1, 1967, and June 1, 1976, were used to estimate contribu- tions of appraisals in first lactation of descriptive type traits to first lactation and lifetime production, herdlife, and first calving intervals. Herdlife, produc- tion variables, and calving intervals were deviations from contemporary averages. Contributions of individual
J. E. Honnette; W. E. Vinson; J. M. White; R. H. Kliewer
A nine-year-old Holstein cow that developed recurrent ruminal tympany and an abnormal forelimb gait and posture ultimately became recumbent and unable to rise, and was euthanased. A postmortem examination demonstrated numerous schwannomas affecting peripheral nerves and several thoracic and abdominal viscera. PMID:9172298
Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada) is the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for milk recording in Québec and Atlantic provinces. Up to 14 first-lactation body condition score (BCS) records were collected per cow (average of 2.5 records per cow), allowing the trait to be described by a random regression animal model so that animals could be ranked by the shape of their BCS curve. However, Valacta's BCS are available from Québec herds only and the long-term objective of this research is to develop a nationwide genetic evaluation of sires and cows for BCS. Alternatively, Holstein Canada (Brantford, Ontario, Canada) collects type trait records nationwide, primarily for first-lactation cows. Holstein Canada typically collects a single record per trait, so that selection for Holstein Canada BCS would be based on overall BCS level rather than the shape of the BCS curve. Several different methods of genetically evaluating Valacta's BCS were investigated, including consideration of average BCS level across lactation, the amount of fluctuation in the BCS curve during lactation, and combinations of BCS level and BCS fluctuation. Sires with ? 25 daughters were compared (as opposed to comparing cows) because their BCS estimated breeding values (EBV) are based on more information, and so should be more reliable. Of the different methods of calculating Valacta BCS EBV, ranking bulls based on overall BCS level gave the best results in that their daughter phenotypic BCS curves showed limited loss in early lactation BCS and replenished condition by the end of lactation. Whereas Valacta's BCS were analyzed using a random regression animal model, Holstein Canada only needs to collect 1 BCS record per cow at classification and the resulting BCS EBV was strongly correlated with Valacta's BCS EBV. Furthermore, because Holstein Canada's BCS are collected nationally and Valacta's BCS are not, a national genetic evaluation for Holstein Canada's BCS is more convenient. The results of this study do not eliminate the possibility of a genetic evaluation of BCS as a longitudinal trait, but indicate that other methods of calculating Valacta BCS EBV should be explored. Until that time, genetically evaluating Holstein Canada's BCS is simple, easily implemented, and may be effective in altering the level and shape of the genetic BCS curve. PMID:23548298
Loker, S; Bastin, C; Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Schaeffer, L R; Jamrozik, J; Osborne, V; Ali, A
The design of and the analysis of data from the Bruch County Beef Cattle Project, particularity the field study, are presented and discussed. A major value of the study may lie in its ability to relate laboratory findings to events in the field. The factor most strongly related to mortality was ration, with cattle on hay based rations having a much lower mortality on average than cattle on corn based rations. In general, management activities associated with growing cattle (as opposed to fattening) over the first winter were sparing for mortality. Groups of cattle given prophylactic vaccines or drugs within two days of arrival tended to experience higher mortality (not statistically higher) than those cattle not receiving those measures, or cattle groups recieving the same prophylactics more than 48 hours after arrival. However, these results require validation in the remaining years of the study. Fibrinous pneumonia was the most frequent diagnosis in the calves on postmortem examination.
Martin, S W; Meek, A H; Davis, D G; Thomson, R G; Johnson, J A; Lopez, A; Stephens, L; Curtis, R A; Prescott, J F; Rosendal, S; Savan, M; Zubaidy, A J; Bolton, M R
...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...
Results of batch studies are presented that establish that manures are readily convertible to synthetic natural gas, SNG, by the direct reaction with hydrogen. Yields of methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, carbon conversions, and hydrogen consumption and their dependency on the hydrogen\\/waste feed ratio and reaction temperature are reported for dried cattle manure. With dried cattle manure, it
BACKGROUND: The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia
Johannes Buitkamp; Bernhard Luntz; Reiner Emmerling; Horst-Dieter Reichenbach; Myriam Weppert; Benjamin Schade; Norbert Meier; Kay-Uwe Götz
Uterine health is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist causing uterine disease, which is a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lac...
The scarcity of data relative to the first importations of cattle into Colonial North America has lent obscurity to one of the most interesting phases of early American husbandry. In fact this paucity and incomplete- ness of information dealing with the introduction of cattle into what is now the United States of America has led many authors in the field
The incidence and severity of many diseases of cattle, particularly the endemic enteric and respiratory diseases, appear from clinical impression or epidemiological survey to be associated with particular types of weather. Infectious diseases of cattle (excluding parasitic ones) for which there appears to be a real association between climate, weather and disease are reviewed. Effects of weather on survival and
Parasitic bronchitis (lungworm, husk) in cattle Lead poisoning in cattle associated with bonfire ash Deaths of ewes associated with faulty administration of boluses Streptococcus suis associated with respiratory and nervous disease in pigs Blackhead and mycoplasmosis causing losses in turkeys These are among matters discussed in the Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (VLA's) disease surveillance report for October. PMID:21262710
Inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection. In some breeds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Veterinarians, animal scientists, and cattle breeders should be aware of inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal phenotypes. This review will
We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...