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Sample records for chinese holstein cattle

  1. A Multiple-SNP Approach for Genome-Wide Association Study of Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Fu, Weixuan; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-SNP analysis has been studied by many researchers, in which the effects of multiple SNPs are simultaneously estimated and tested in a multiple linear regression. The multiple-SNP association analysis usually has higher power and lower false-positive rate for detecting causative SNP(s) than single marker analysis (SMA). Several methods have been proposed to simultaneously estimate and test multiple SNP effects. In this research, a fast method called MEML (Mixed model based Expectation-Maximization Lasso algorithm) was developed for simultaneously estimate of multiple SNP effects. An improved Lasso prior was assigned to SNP effects which were estimated by searching the maximum joint posterior mode. The residual polygenic effect was included in the model to absorb many tiny SNP effects, which is treated as missing data in our EM algorithm. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to validate the proposed method, and the results showed that compared with SMMA, the new method can dramatically decrease the false-positive rate. The new method was also applied to the 50k SNP-panel dataset for genome-wide association study of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Totally, 39 significant SNPs and their nearby 25 genes were found. The number of significant SNPs is remarkably fewer than that by SMMA which found 105 significant SNPs. Among 39 significant SNPs, 8 were also found by SMMA and several well-known QTLs or genes were confirmed again; furthermore, we also got some positional candidate gene with potential function of effecting milk production traits. These novel findings in our research should be valuable for further investigation. PMID:25148050

  2. Altered Molecular Expression of the TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Mammary Tissue of Chinese Holstein Cattle with Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Huang, Shuai; Tang, Juan; Yu, Pan; Wang, Genlin

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated activation of the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by mastitis initiates expression of genes associated with inflammation and the innate immune response. In this study, the profile of mastitis-induced differential gene expression in the mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated by Gene-Chip microarray and bioinformatics. The microarray results revealed that 79 genes associated with the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway were differentially expressed. Of these genes, 19 were up-regulated and 29 were down-regulated in mastitis tissue compared to normal, healthy tissue. Statistical analysis of transcript and protein level expression changes indicated that 10 genes, namely TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and IL-10, were up-regulated, while, CD14, TNF-α, MD-2, IL-β, NF-κB, and IL-12 were significantly down-regulated in mastitis tissue in comparison with normal tissue. Analyses using bioinformatics database resources, such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and the Gene Ontology Consortium (GO) for term enrichment analysis, suggested that these differently expressed genes implicate different regulatory pathways for immune function in the mammary gland. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence for better understanding the differential expression and mechanisms of the TLR4 /NF-κB signaling pathway in Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis. PMID:25706977

  3. Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada Utilizing MACE Proofs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States are collaborating to develop and integrate genomic evaluations into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. There are substantially more genotyped Holstein bulls with MACE proofs than with domestic Canadian proofs in Canada. The use of...

  4. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  5. Reliability of Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...

  6. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  7. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  8. Selection signature analysis in Holstein cattle identified genes known to affect reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using direct comparison of 45,878 SNPs between a group of Holstein cattle unselected since 1964 and contemporary Holsteins that on average take 30 days longer for successful conception than the 1964 Holsteins, we conducted selection signature analyses to identify genomic regions associated with dair...

  9. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  10. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. PMID:26419947

  11. Short communication: Distribution of recessive genetic defect carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Sun, D X; Fan, X H; Xie, Y; Chu, Q; Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S L; Gong, W J; Chen, S H; Li, Y H; Shi, W H; Zhang, Y

    2011-11-01

    In dairy cattle, 4 important recessive hereditary diseases exist: complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), citrullinemia (CTLN), and deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS). Holstein Associations in developed countries have established monitoring systems for such disorders in Holstein bulls for decades. Over the past decades, China has continuously imported Holstein semen and embryos, mainly from North America but also from Europe. The dissemination of such genetic defects was undetermined until now, although efforts were taken to develop molecular techniques and detect carriers for CVM and BLAD in small populations of Chinese dairy cattle. Thus, herein we extensively screened 732 proven bulls participating in artificial insemination programs and 136 young bulls entering progeny test from 15 bull stations in China for CVM, BLAD, CTLN, and DUMPS. The proportion of carriers of the defects was found to be 7.72, 1.38, 0.23, and 0.12%, respectively. Given our findings, early diagnostic and monitoring systems on recessive inherited disorders among proven and young bulls entering the national genetic improvement programs for dairy cattle of China should be established immediately, in which a series of measures will be taken to prevent further spreading of such disorders and gradually eliminate them in the dairy cattle population in China. PMID:22032394

  12. Signature of forty years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle identified by long-range frequency analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of U.S. Holstein cattle were analyzed for selection signature of artificial selection since 1964 using long-range frequency measures. The three groups included Holsteins unselected since 1964, contemporary Holsteins, and an elite line of contemporary Holsteins. Long-range frequencies in...

  13. Genome Signature of Artificial Selection for High Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holstein cattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...

  14. Forty Years Of Artificial Selection In U.S. Holstein Cattle Had Genome-wide Signatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of 40 years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle were identified by comparing allele frequencies and extended haplotype homozygosity in a Holstein resource population composed of a contemporary group, a group born in 1975-1985, and a group unselected since 1964. Results ...

  15. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. PMID:26231801

  16. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-López, Felipe de J.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Montaldo, Hugo H.; Huson, Heather J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO × JE and HO × BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures. PMID:25709615

  17. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96 h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  18. Serum biochemical changes and chemiluminescent responses of whole blood in Holstein cattle with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Tanaka, S; Oba, M; Minami, S; Noda, H

    1994-08-01

    Serum biochemical profile and whole blood chemiluminescent (CL) responses in 8 Holstein cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) were evaluated. Concentrations of sodium, chloride and calcium in serum from cattle affected with LAD were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased as compared with controls. The characteristic changes in serum proteins were hypoalbuminemia and hyperglobulinemia, and the concentrations of albumin and gammaglobulin in serum from normal cattle and cattle affected with LAD were significantly (p < 0.01) different. Significantly (p < 0.01) diminished CL indices and prolonged peak time of CL responses in whole blood were detected in cattle affected with LAD. These findings indicate that the CL response associated with iC3b receptor mediated phagocytic activity is impaired in cattle affected with LAD. The whole blood CL assay appeared to be practical and useful for routine evaluation of blood samples from cattle affected with LAD. PMID:7999886

  19. Initial analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cattle selected for high or low feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cattle selected for high or low feed efficiency. We detected 443 candidate CNV regions, w...

  20. Detection of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Turkish native and Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, B; Ertuğrul, O

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study whether the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) allele is present in native cattle breeds and the Holstein breed in Turkey. Blood samples were obtained from 120 Holstein, 20 Brown Swiss, 20 Anatolian Black, 20 Turkish Grey, 20 South Anatolian Red and 20 East Anatolian Red cattle. The isolated DNA materials were multiplied in PCR using the primer developed by Kriegesmann et al. (1997). In order to determine the area of mutation in PCR products, the PCR products were digested with TaqI endonuclease enzyme. The resulting fragments were analysed on 2% agarose gel for the absence of a TaqI restriction site. It was found that two of the Holstein cattle (a bull and a cow) were heterozygote BLAD carriers. There was no homozygote BLAD animal. The BLAD allele was not found in the other breeds used in the study. The mutant BLAD allele frequency in the 120 Holstein cattle calculations was 0.0084. PMID:16841755

  1. Effect of artificial selection on runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of artifical selection in U.S. Holstein cattle were identified by comparing changes in estimated haplotype homozygosity in a resource population born between 1953 and 2008. The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination have increased simil...

  2. Improved cellular thermotolerance in cloned Holstein cattle derived with cytoplasts from a thermotolerant breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and B cell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P < 0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine

  3. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    PubMed

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  4. A Post-GWAS Replication Study Confirming the PTK2 Gene Associated with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Julong; Xu, Jingen; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated that two SNPs (ARS-BFGL-NGS-33248, UA-IFASA-9288) within the protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) gene were significantly associated with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein dairy cattle. To further validate if the statistical evidence provided in GWAS were true-positive findings, a replication study was performed herein through genotype-phenotype associations. The two tested SNPs were found to show significant associations with milk production traits, which confirmed the associations observed in the original study. Specifically, SNPs lying in the PTK2 gene were also detected by sequencing 14 unrelated sires in Chinese Holsteins and a total of thirty-three novel SNPs were identified. Thirteen out of these identified SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with milk production traits in an independent resource population. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, twelve SNPs were statistically significant for more than two milk production traits. Analyses of pairwise D’ measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between all SNPs were also explored. Two haplotype blocks were inferred and the association study at haplotype level revealed similar effects on milk production traits. In addition, the RNA expression analyses revealed that a non-synonymous coding SNP (g.4061098T>G) was involved in the regulation of gene expression. Thus the findings presented here provide strong evidence for associations of PTK2 variants with dairy production traits and may be applied in Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:24386238

  5. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  6. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  7. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  8. A Clinical Case of an SRY-Positive Intersex/Hermaphrodite Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Bresciani, Carla; Parma, Pietro; De Lorenzi, Lisa; Di Ianni, Francesco; Bertocchi, Mara; Bertani, Valeria; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    A single-born, 15-month-old Holstein cattle, diagnosed as hermaphrodite, was investigated for estrous cycle, hormonal profiles, karyotype, presence of SRY, as well as anatomopathological and histological aspects. Normal continuous estrous cycles and basal testosterone levels were reported. Necropsy showed the presence of a female genital tract that mismatched a vulvar opening and a male pelvic urethra continued within a penis. Moreover, we observed islands of seminiferous tubules with the presence of germline cells, 2 pampiniform plexi, the corpus cavernosum, the penile urethra, the corpus spongiosum and the glans. Cytogenetic analyses of the blood cells showed an XX karyotype, while the molecular analyses revealed the presence of the SRY gene in several tissues, including blood. This is the first report in the scientific literature of an SRY-positive hermaphrodite Holstein cattle with continuous ovarian cycles. PMID:26418730

  9. Frequency of BLAD and CVM alleles in sires and elite heifers of Czech Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Cítek, J; Rehout, V; Schröffelová, D; Hradecká, E

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse the occurrence of BLAD and CVM heterozygous animals in Holstein cattle in the Czech Republic in 1993-2005. The occurrence of BLAD heterozygous sires and heifers (BL) during the period 1993-1998 in Czech Holsteins was 13.9% and 10.7%. Radical measures have been taken to restore the population. Evidently, the measures have been efficient, in 2005 one BLAD heterozygous sire of 101 was found. Continuous testing is necessary, because in commercial herds, the eradication process is not short-term. The found occurrence ofCVM heterozygous sires (CV) decreased from 20% in 2001 to 8% (7 positive of 85) in 2005.This is still quite a high frequency. The occurrence in CV females of 20% remains higher. Therefore, the use of CV sires should be restricted thoroughly. Identification of the molecular basis for inherited diseases, should lead to control measures which would enable the quick recovery of the population. PMID:19113030

  10. Estimation of economic values for milk coagulation properties in Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Cassandro, M; Pretto, D; Lopez-Villalobos, N; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M

    2016-08-01

    The economic values (EV) of production traits, rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), and curd firmness (a30, mm) were derived for Italian Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, based on the Grana Padano cheese industry. Three different sets of EV for RCT and a30 were estimated, assuming +2.5% (scenario 1), +5% (scenario 2), and +10% (scenario 3) increment in cheese yield due to the effect of milk coagulation properties (MCP). A model was developed to simulate the transformation of milk into Grana Padano cheese. The EV of RCT and a30 were -€2.213, -€4.426, and -€8.852/min, and €0.877, €1.755, and €3.509/mm for scenarios 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Relative emphasis of traits in the breeding objectives of the Italian Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population should account for the effect of MCP on cheese yield. Economic values for milk components and MCP were affected by changes of dairy products, whereas variations of feed prices did not influence EV of RCT and a30. PMID:27179872

  11. Relationship of bovine NOS2 gene polymorphisms to the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Yafen; HUANG, ChenShen; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS which is encoded by the NOS2 gene) plays a key role in the immunological control of a broad spectrum of infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variations in the promoter of the NOS2 gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. In this study, the NOS2 genes of 74 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy controls were genotyped using PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Polymorphisms at rs207692718, rs109279434, rs209895548, rs385993919, rs433717754, rs383366213, rs466730386, rs715225976, rs525673647, rs720757654 and g.19958101T>G in the promoter region of the NOS2 gene were detected. The g.19958101T>G SNP produced two different conformation patterns (TT and TG) and the TG genotype was over-represented in the bTB group (20.27%) compared with the control group (2.22%). The TG genotype frequency of the g.19958101T>G variant was significantly higher in bTB cattle than in healthy controls (OR, 11.19; 95% CI, 2.47–50.73; P=0.0002). The G allele of the g.19958101T>G polymorphism was more frequent in bTB group when compared to control group (10.14% versus 1.11%). Furthermore, the G allele was a risk factor for bTB susceptibility (OR, 10.04; 95% CI, 2.26–44.65; P=0.0002). In conclusion, the g.19958101T>G polymorphism of the NOS2 gene may contribute to the susceptibility of Holstein cattle to bTB. PMID:26468216

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype effects associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To better understand the genetic determination of udder health, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a population of 2354 German Holstein bulls for which daughter yield deviations (DYD) for somatic cell score (SCS) were available. For this study, we used genetic information of 44 576 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 725 inferred haplotype blocks. Results When accounting for the sub-structure of the analyzed population, 16 SNPs and 10 haplotypes in six genomic regions were significant at the Bonferroni threshold of P ≤ 1.14 × 10-6. The size of the identified regions ranged from 0.05 to 5.62 Mb. Genomic regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 18 and 19 coincided with known QTL affecting SCS, while additional genomic regions were found on chromosomes 13 and X. Of particular interest is the region on chromosome 6 between 85 and 88 Mb, where QTL for mastitis traits and significant SNPs for SCS in different Holstein populations coincide with our results. In all identified regions, except for the region on chromosome X, significant SNPs were present in significant haplotypes. The minor alleles of identified SNPs on chromosomes 18 and 19, and the major alleles of SNPs on chromosomes 6 and X were favorable for a lower SCS. Differences in somatic cell count (SCC) between alternative SNP alleles reached 14 000 cells/mL. Conclusions The results support the polygenic nature of the genetic determination of SCS, confirm the importance of previously reported QTL, and provide evidence for the segregation of additional QTL for SCS in Holstein cattle. The small size of the regions identified here will facilitate the search for causal genetic variations that affect gene functions. PMID:24898131

  13. Hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Japan: association with hereditary myopathy of the diaphragmatic muscles.

    PubMed

    Furuoka, H; Yagi, S; Murakami, A; Honma, A; Kobayashi, Y; Matsui, T; Miyahara, K; Taniyama, H

    2001-01-01

    This report deals with the pathology and genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy in 10 Holstein-Friesian cows aged 3-6 years, a disease similar to that reported in Simmental-Red Holstein and Holstein-Friesian cattle in several other countries. The main clinical signs were associated with systemic circulatory failure, and at necropsy the animals showed cardiomegaly, severe congestion and fibrosis of the liver, and systemic cardiac oedema. Histologically, hypertrophy and vacuolation of the cardiac muscle fibres and severe fibrosis were noted. Electron microscopically, the sarcoplasm of the hypertrophic fibres was seen to be filled with fine structures of low electron-density, together with thin filamentous material, suggesting myofibrillar lysis. The mitochondria showed increased size, an abnormal cristae pattern and vacuolation due to partial loss of cristae. Pedigree analysis of the affected cattle indicated an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The family line of this cardiomyopathy overlapped with that of hereditary myopathy of the diaphragmatic muscles in Holstein-Friesian cattle, the pathological aspects and inheritance mode of which were reported previously. The available evidence suggested a genetic association between these two pathologically distinct diseases. PMID:11578132

  14. A novel mutation of the bovine EDA gene associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Atsushi; Kohama, Namiko; Ishikawa, Shou; Tomita, Keisuke; Nonaka, Sumie; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Okawa, Hirokazu; Morita, Mitsuo

    2011-02-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) is a genetic disease characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of hair, teeth and eccrine sweat glands that has been reported in humans, the tabby mouse mutants, cattle and dogs. The EDA gene on the X chromosome encodes a protein, ectodysplasin-A (EDA), which is responsible for EDA. Here we describe a novel mutation of the EDA gene in which a 19 bp deletion in exon 1 in male Holstein calves demonstrated the phenotypic features of EDA. The dam and the grand-dam of the affected calves were heterozygous for this deletion. It is assumed that this deletion close to the start codon confuses all transcripts, and leads to the complete loss of pleiotropic functions of the bovine EDA gene. These results suggest that this mutation might be useful as animal models for the investigation of the pathogenic mechanisms of the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. PMID:21410470

  15. Evidence for quantitative trait loci affecting twinning rate in North American Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, J; Dentine, M R; Berger, P J; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2004-06-01

    Twinning in dairy cattle has been associated with many negative health and reproductive events that cause economic loss to the producer. Reports have suggested that twinning rates are increasing and that there may be a positive relationship between milk production and twinning frequency. Putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for twinning and ovulation rate on bovine chromosomes 5, 7, 19 and 23 have been previously identified in other populations. The objective of this study was to detect and possibly confirm the existence and effects of these QTL in the North American Holstein population. Half-sib families of 20 North American Holstein sires with above average twinning rate predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) comprised the sample population under investigation. Twinning rate PTA values had been estimated from calving data. DNA extracted from semen samples was analysed using 45-61 microsatellite markers across the four chromosomes. Marker heterozygosity of the patriarchs averaged 62%. Evidence of twinning QTL was found in multiple families on chromosomes 5, 7 and 23 and in one family on chromosome 19. Four of the sires formed one three-generation family: one sire and three half-sib sons with sons of their own. This extended family was analysed with additional markers confirming a twinning QTL of significant size on chromosome 5. PMID:15147392

  16. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-01-01

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil. PMID:26782564

  17. A transposable element insertion in APOB causes cholesterol deficiency in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Menzi, F; Besuchet-Schmutz, N; Fragnière, M; Hofstetter, S; Jagannathan, V; Mock, T; Raemy, A; Studer, E; Mehinagic, K; Regenscheit, N; Meylan, M; Schmitz-Hsu, F; Drögemüller, C

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol deficiency, a new autosomal recessive inherited genetic defect in Holstein cattle, has been recently reported to have an influence on the rearing success of calves. The affected animals show unresponsive diarrhea accompanied by hypocholesterolemia and usually die within the first weeks or months of life. Here, we show that whole genome sequencing combined with the knowledge about the pedigree and inbreeding status of a livestock population facilitates the identification of the causative mutation. We resequenced the entire genomes of an affected calf and a healthy partially inbred male carrying one copy of the critical 2.24-Mb chromosome 11 segment in its ancestral state and one copy of the same segment with the cholesterol deficiency mutation. We detected a single structural variant, homozygous in the affected case and heterozygous in the non-affected carrier male. The genetic makeup of this key animal provides extremely strong support for the causality of this mutation. The mutation represents a 1.3kb insertion of a transposable LTR element (ERV2-1) in the coding sequence of the APOB gene, which leads to truncated transcripts and aberrant splicing. This finding was further supported by RNA sequencing of the liver transcriptome of an affected calf. The encoded apolipoprotein B is an essential apolipoprotein on chylomicrons and low-density lipoproteins, and therefore, the mutation represents a loss of function mutation similar to autosomal recessive inherited familial hypobetalipoproteinemia-1 (FHBL1) in humans. Our findings provide a direct gene test to improve selection against this deleterious mutation in Holstein cattle. PMID:26763170

  18. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined. PMID:25501190

  19. Fat depot-specific differences in pref-1 gene expression and adipocyte cellularity between Wagyu and Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoya; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2014-03-01

    Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a gatekeeper of adipogenesis by maintaining the preadipocyte state and preventing adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that the breed differences of adipogenic capacity in cattle could be explained by the expression level of pref-1. In this experiment, we studied the expression level of the pref-1 gene and adipocyte cellularity in subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissues of Japanese Black (Wagyu) and Holstein fattening cattle. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, there were no significant differences in the pref-1 gene expression levels and adipocyte sizes between the breeds. In contrast, the expression level of the pref-1 gene in mesenteric adipose tissue of Holsteins was significantly higher than that of Wagyu. In addition, the size of mesenteric adipocytes in Holsteins was significantly smaller than that of Wagyu. These results indicate that the breed differences of fattening cattle affect the expression pattern of the pref-1 gene and adipocyte cellularity in a fat depot-specific manner. PMID:24525120

  20. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  1. Associated effects of copy number variants on economically important traits in Spanish Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ben Sassi, Neila; González-Recio, Óscar; de Paz-Del Río, Raquel; Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; Fernández, Ana I

    2016-08-01

    Copy number variants (CNV) are structural variants consisting of duplications or deletions of genomic fragments longer than 1 kb that present variability in the population and are heritable. The objective of this study was to identify CNV regions (CNVR) associated with 7 economically important traits (production, functional, and type traits) in Holstein cattle: fat yield, protein yield, somatic cell count, days open, stature, foot angle, and udder depth. Copy number variants were detected by using deep-sequencing data from 10 sequenced bulls and the Bovine SNP chip array hybridization signals. To reduce the number of false-positive calls, only CNV identified by both sequencing and Bovine SNP chip assays were kept in the final data set. This resulted in 823 CNVR. After filtering by minor allele frequency >0.01, a total of 90 CNVR appeared segregating in the bulls that had phenotypic data. Linear and quadratic CNVR effects were estimated using Bayesian approaches. A total of 15 CNVR were associated with the traits included in the analysis. One CNVR was associated with fat and protein yield, another 1 with fat yield, 3 with stature, 1 with foot angle, 7 with udder depth, and only 1 with days open. Among the genes located within these regions, highlighted were the MTHFSD gene that belongs to the folate metabolism genes, which play critical roles in regulating milk protein synthesis; the SNRPE gene that is related to several morphological pathologies; and the NF1 gene, which is associated with potential effects on fertility traits. The results obtained in the current study revealed that these CNVR segregate in the Holstein population, and therefore some potential exists to increase the frequencies of the favorable alleles in the population after independent validation of results in this study. However, genetic variance explained by the variants reported in this study was small. PMID:27209136

  2. Low Incidence of an Altered Endometrial Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Profile in Repeat Breeder Holstein Heifers and Differential Effect of Parity on the EGF Profile Between Fertile Holstein (Dairy) and Japanese Black (Beef) Cattle

    PubMed Central

    KATAGIRI, Seiji; MORIYOSHI, Masaharu; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2–4 and 13–14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows. PMID:24064789

  3. CARD15 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Chinese Holstein Cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youtao; Wang, Shengkui; Liu, Tong; Tu, Wenji; Li, Wengui; Dong, Guodong; Xu, Cong; Qin, Bo; Liu, Kaihua; Yang, Jie; Chai, Jun; Shi, Xianwei; Zhang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, have been reported in several species. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CARD15 gene with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. DNA samples from 201 Chinese Holstein cows (103 cases and 98 controls) were collected from Kunming City, Yuxi City, and Dali City in China. SNPs in the CARD15 gene were assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Case-control association testing and statistical analysis identified six SNPs associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. The frequency of genotypes C/T, A/G, A/G, A/G, C/T, and A/G in E4 (-37), 208, 1644, 1648, 1799, and E10 (+107), respectively, was significantly higher in cases than in controls, and also the alleles C, A, A, G, T, and A, respectively, were associated with a greater relative risk in cases than in controls. The distribution of two haplotypes, TGGACA and CAGACA, was significantly different between cases and controls. Overall, this case-control study suggested that E4 (-37)(C/T), 208(A/G), 1644(A/G), 1648(A/G), 1799(C/T), and E10 (+107)(A/G) in the CARD15 gene were significantly associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows and that haplotypes TGGACA and CAGACA could be used as genetic markers in marker-assisted breeding programs for breeding cows with high resistance to BTB. PMID:26244859

  4. CARD15 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Chinese Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Tu, Wenji; Li, Wengui; Dong, Guodong; Xu, Cong; Qin, Bo; Liu, Kaihua; Yang, Jie; Chai, Jun; Shi, Xianwei; Zhang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to mycobacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, have been reported in several species. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the relationship of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CARD15 gene with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. DNA samples from 201 Chinese Holstein cows (103 cases and 98 controls) were collected from Kunming City, Yuxi City, and Dali City in China. SNPs in the CARD15 gene were assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Case-control association testing and statistical analysis identified six SNPs associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows. The frequency of genotypes C/T, A/G, A/G, A/G, C/T, and A/G in E4 (-37), 208, 1644, 1648, 1799, and E10 (+107), respectively, was significantly higher in cases than in controls, and also the alleles C, A, A, G, T, and A, respectively, were associated with a greater relative risk in cases than in controls. The distribution of two haplotypes, TGGACA and CAGACA, was significantly different between cases and controls. Overall, this case-control study suggested that E4 (-37)(C/T), 208(A/G), 1644(A/G), 1648(A/G), 1799(C/T), and E10 (+107)(A/G) in the CARD15 gene were significantly associated with susceptibility to BTB in Chinese Holstein cows and that haplotypes TGGACA and CAGACA could be used as genetic markers in marker-assisted breeding programs for breeding cows with high resistance to BTB. PMID:26244859

  5. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  6. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frédéric; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W

    2009-01-01

    Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position. PMID:19254385

  7. Liver abscesses in cattle: A review of incidence in Holsteins and of bacteriology and vaccine approaches to control in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Amachawadi, R G; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-04-01

    Liver abscesses are the primary liver abnormality of feedlot cattle at slaughter. The incidence of liver abscesses is highly variable, but generally ranges from 10% to 20%. The incidence of total and the proportion of severely abscessed livers (A+) are greater in Holsteins fed for beef production and culled dairy cows than in beef breeds. The reason for the greater incidence of liver abscesses in Holstein steers is not known, but one of the reasons is likely because of increased days on feed. The high prevalence in cull cows is likely because no specific intervention, such as use of tylosin in the feed, is approved for use in dairy cows. Liver abscesses are generally a sequela to ruminal acidosis and rumenitis in cattle fed diets high in readily-fermentable carbohydrates and low in roughages; thus, the term "acidosis-rumenitis-liver abscess complex." Liver abscesses are almost always polymicrobial infections with Gram negative anaerobes constituting the predominant flora. Almost all studies have concluded that , a ruminal bacterium, is the primary causative agent and (formerly ) is the secondary pathogen. A limited number of studies have been done on the bacterial flora of liver abscesses of culled dairy cows and Holstein feedlot steers. A recent study has reported on isolation of from liver abscesses of Holstein cattle. The control of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle has depended on the use of antibiotics, particularly tylosin, in the feed combined with sound nutritional management to minimize occurrence of acidosis and subsequent rumenitis. Although there is no evidence of resistance development in , the future of tylosin use as a feed additive in feedlot cattle is uncertain. Regardless, beginning January 2017, the use of tylosin in feedlot cattle for the prevention of liver abscesses will be under veterinary oversight. Although tylosin is widely used in the feedlot industry, there is considerable interest in evaluating antibiotic alternatives, such as essential

  8. Joint genome-wide association study for milk fatty acid traits in Chinese and Danish Holstein populations.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Li, C; Sun, D; Zhang, Q; Poulsen, N A; Su, G

    2015-11-01

    The identification of causal genes or genomic regions associated with fatty acids (FA) will enhance our understanding of the pathways underlying FA synthesis and provide opportunities for changing milk fat composition through a genetic approach. The linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 486,464 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Bonferroni corrections were applied to adjust the significance thresholds for multiple testing at the genome- and chromosome-wide levels. According to the analysis of either the Chinese or Danish data individually, the total numbers of overlapping SNP that were significant at the chromosome level were 94 for C14:1, 208 for the C14 index, and 1 for C18:0. Joint analysis using the combined data of the 2 populations detected greater numbers of significant SNP compared with either of the individual populations alone for 7 and 10 traits at the genome- and chromosome-wide significance levels, respectively. Greater numbers of significant SNP were detected for C18:0 and the C18 index in the Chinese population compared with the joint analysis. Sixty-five significant SNP across all traits had significantly different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA. A large region (14.9-24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97-73.69 Mbp

  9. Alimentary and respiratory tract lesions in eight medically fragile Holstein cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD).

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M R; Kehrli, M E; Laufer, J A; Nusz, L T

    1996-05-01

    Lesions in the alimentary tract were studied in eight medically fragile Holstein cattle homozygous for the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) allele as determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis. These cattle received institutional medical care but died or were euthanatized because of chronic debilitation associated with diarrhea (6/8) and pneumonia (4/8). The six cattle with diarrhea had acute (n = 3) or chronic (n = 3) intestinal ulcers, but the other two remained relatively healthy for 3 years and did not develop intestinal tract ulcers. Ulcerated areas were present in the small intestine in six animals, and two of these also had ulcers in the large intestine. Ulcers were covered by thick exudates that, in chronic lesions, partially occluded the intestinal lumen. Intramural and serosal fibrosis also contributed to lumen constriction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the intestine of four cattle. Bovine viral disease virus and Salmonella were not isolated from the five cattle that were tested. Respiratory tract lesions consisted of dense infiltrates of neutrophils in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. This study suggests that intestinal lesions are integral to the demise of BLAD cattle that receive intensive medical care and that neutrophils do infiltrate the lung and enter airway lumina, despite the adhesion deficiency. PMID:8740700

  10. PCR screening for carriers of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) in Argentine Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Poli, M A; Dewey, R; Semorile, L; Lozano, M E; Albariño, C G; Romanowski, V; Grau, O

    1996-05-01

    BLAD (Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency) and DUMPS (Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase) are monogenic autosomal, recessive inherited diseases of Holstein cattle. Single nucleotide changes (point mutations) responsible for the genetic disorders were detected by polymerase chain reaction coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism assays (PCR-RFLP). Using oligonucleotide primers, DNA fragments of predicted sizes were amplified, and the products' specificity was assessed by nucleotide sequencing. Mutations were detected in DNA samples from bovine blood and semen by the presence or absence of restriction sites within the PCR amplification products (Taq I, Hae III for BLAD, Ava I for DUMPS). The test included 104 bulls and 950 cows of Argentinean Holstein breed. Defective alleles frequencies were as follows: 2.88% BLAD in bulls used in artificial insemination, 1.79% in cows; 0.96% DUMPS in bulls and 0.11% in cows. PMID:8693839

  11. An assessment of linkage disequilibrium in Holstein cattle using a Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Morota, G; Valente, B D; Rosa, G J M; Weigel, K A; Gianola, D

    2012-12-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is defined as a non-random association of the distributions of alleles at different loci within a population. This association between loci is valuable in prediction of quantitative traits in animals and plants and in genome-wide association studies. A question that arises is whether standard metrics such as D' and r(2) reflect complex associations in a genetic system properly. It seems reasonable to take the view that loci associate and interact together as a system or network, as opposed to in a simple pairwise manner. We used a Bayesian network (BN) as a representation of choice for an LD network. A BN is a graphical depiction of a probability distribution and can represent sets of conditional independencies. Moreover, it provides a visual display of the joint distribution of the set of random variables in question. The usefulness of BN for linkage disequilibrium was explored and illustrated using genetic marker loci found to have the strongest effects on milk protein in Holstein cattle based on three strategies for ranking marker effect estimates: posterior means, standardized posterior means and additive genetic variance. Two different algorithms, Tabu search (a local score-based algorithm) and incremental association Markov blanket (a constraint-based algorithm), coupled with the chi-square test, were used for learning the structure of the BN and were compared with the reference r(2) metric represented as an LD heat map. The BN captured several genetic markers associated as clusters, implying that markers are inter-related in a complicated manner. Further, the BN detected conditionally dependent markers. The results confirm that LD relationships are of a multivariate nature and that r(2) gives an incomplete description and understanding of LD. Use of an LD Bayesian network enables inferring associations between loci in a systems framework and provides a more accurate picture of LD than that resulting from the use of pairwise

  12. Genome-wide association study for calving traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Purfield, D C; Bradley, D G; Kearney, J F; Berry, D P

    2014-02-01

    Dystocia and perinatal mortality are quantitative traits that significantly impact animal productivity and welfare. Their economic importance is reflected by their inclusion in the national breeding goals of many cattle populations. The genetic architecture that influences these traits, however, has still yet to be thoroughly defined. Regions of the bovine genome associated with calving difficulty (direct and maternal) and perinatal mortality were detected in this study using a Bayesian approach with 43 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on up to 1970 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Several SNPs on chromosomes 5, 6, 11, 12, 17,18 and 28 were detected to be strongly associated with these calving performance traits. Novel genomic regions with previously reported associations with growth, stature, birth weight and bone morphology were identified in the present study as being associated with the three calving performance traits. Morphological abnormalities are a known contributor to perinatal mortality and the most significantly associated SNP for perinatal mortality in the present study was located in a region in linkage disequilibrium with the gene SLC26A7. This gene, SLC26A7, has similarities and colocalises with SLC4A2, which has previously been associated with osteoporosis and mortality in cattle populations. The HHIP gene that is known to be associated with stature in humans was strongly associated with direct calving difficulty in the present study; large calves are known to, on average, have a greater likelihood of dystocia. A stemloop microRNA, bta-mir-1256, on chromosome 12, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression was associated with maternal calving difficulty. Previously reported quantitative trait loci associated with calving performance traits in other populations were again identified in this study; with one genomic region on chromosome 18 supporting very strong evidence of an underlying causative mutation and accounting for 2

  13. Heritability estimates for enteric methane emissions from Holstein cattle measured using noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritability of enteric methane emissions from dairy cattle. Methane (CH4) and CO2 were measured with a portable air-sampler and analyzer unit based on Fourier transform infrared detection. Data were collected on 3,121 Holstein dairy cows from 20 herds using automatic milking systems. Three CH4 phenotypes were acquired: the ratio between CH4 and CO2 in the breath of the cows (CH4_RATIO), the estimated quantified amount of CH4 (in g/d) measured over a week (CH4_GRAMSw), and CH4 intensity, defined as grams of CH4 per liter of milk produced (CH4_MILK). Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight data were also derived for the analysis. Data were analyzed using several univariate and bivariate linear animal models. The heritability of CH4_GRAMSw and CH4_MILK was 0.21 with a standard error of 0.06, and the heritability of CH4_RATIO was 0.16 with a standard error of 0.04. The 2 CH4 traits CH4_GRAMSw and CH4_RATIO were genetically highly correlated (rg=0.83) and they were strongly correlated with FPCM, meaning that, in this study, a high genetic potential for milk production will also mean a high genetic potential for CH4 production. The genetic correlation between CH4_MILK and FPCM and live weight showed similar patterns as the other CH4 phenotypes, although the correlations in general were closer to zero. The genetic correlations between the 3 CH4 phenotypes and live weight were low and only just significantly different from zero, meaning there is less indication of a genetic relationship between CH4 emission and live weight of the cow. None of the residual correlations between the ratio of CH4 and CO2, CH4 production in grams per day, FPCM, and live weight were significantly different from zero. The results from this study suggest that CH4 emission is partly under genetic control, that it is possible to decrease CH4 emission from dairy cattle through selection, and that selection for higher milk yield will lead to

  14. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rs(b)) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5' regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  15. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rsb) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077). Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01). In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  16. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  17. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P < 0.05). PCR-RFLP analysis leads to three banding patterns for CXCR1c.735C>G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations. PMID:26126595

  18. Identification of a nonsense mutation in APAF1 that is likely causal for a decrease in reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A haplotype on cattle chromosome 5 carrying a recessive lethal allele was found to originate in a Holstein-Friesian foundation sire. Resequencing led to the identification of a stop-gain mutation in exon 11 of APAF1, a gene known to cause embryonic lethality and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ...

  19. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TO ASSESS THE VALIDITY OF BONNIER'S EQUATION FOR ESTIMATING THE FREQUENCY OF MONOZYGOUS TWINNING IN A POPULATION OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holstein cattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...

  20. Relationship of bovine TNF-α gene polymorphisms with the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Yafen; HUANG, ChenShen; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. TNF-α promotes inflammation and induces apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. We genotyped the TNF-α gene in 74 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy control animals. The influence in the exon 3 region of TNF-α polymorphisms on bTB susceptibility was subsequently investigated by association analysis. Our finding demonstrated that the g.27534932A>C polymorphism of the TNF-α is associated with bTB in Holstein cattle. The susceptibility of cattle with the g.27534932A>C genotype compared with the CC genotype was 4.11-fold (95% CI, 1.27–13.36; P=0.02) higher. The g.27534932A>C polymorphism located in exon 3 of the TNF-α gene, and the functional consequence was missense. The deduced amino acid sequence for the protein product revealed an arginine to serine conversion at position 159, which may affect initiation of protein synthesis and disrupt normal TNF-α function that protects animals against mycobacterial infection. A significant association was observed with the A allele as a risk factor for bTB susceptibility (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.21–12.17; P=0.02). In conclusion, this is the first report showing that the g.27534932A>C polymorphism may contribute to TNF-α-mediated bTB susceptibility. PMID:26876219

  1. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...

  2. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P < 0.05) movements in fetuses of Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. PMID:26341422

  3. Analysis of mononuclear cell functions in Holstein cattle with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Nochi, H; Sanada, Y; Tamoto, K; Noda, H; Kociba, G J

    1994-08-01

    Lymphocyte functions in cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD, termed BLAD in cattle) were evaluated by lymphocyte markers, blastogenic response, and immunoglobulin concentrations; mononuclear phagocyte functions were assessed by chemotactic and luminol-dependent chemiluminescent (CL) responses to determine the effects of impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 on mononuclear cell functions. Deficient CD18 expression on lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with BLAD was clearly detected by use of flow cytometric analysis. There were no significant differences in the population of peanut agglutinin (PNA)-positive and surface immunoglobulin-bearing blood lymphocytes from clinically normal cattle and cattle with BLAD, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Lymphocytes from cattle with BLAD had strong mitogen-induced blastogenic responses, which were greater than those from controls. Adherence of mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with BLAD was markedly impaired, and their chemotactic responses had diminished values, compared with those of controls. Luminol-dependent CL of mononuclear phagocytes from affected cattle, stimulated by opsonized zymosan, had significantly (P < 0.01) decreased values, compared with those of controls. Concentrations of IgG were markedly increased in serum from cattle with BLAD, compared with those in controls. These results indicated that impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 has marked effects on adhering activity of mononuclear phagocytes, and significantly inhibits CL response of mononuclear phagocytes mediated by inactivated-complement 3b-dependent functions. High selective immunoglobulin concentrations indicated that lymphocytes of B-cell lineage may have normal function. PMID:7978649

  4. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P < 0.05) were developed for prediction of N (g/d) and OM (kg/d) excretion in feces and urine. The present data were also used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is

  5. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  6. Effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle on consumer palatability ratings.

    PubMed

    Mehaffey, J M; Brooks, J C; Rathmann, R J; Alsup, E M; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Johnson, B J; Miller, M F

    2009-11-01

    The need to provide consumer data for beef steak tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability ratings from zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) beef to the processor, retailers, restaurants, and consumers is paramount. Consumer palatability responses were studied for 14- and 21-d aged USDA Choice and USDA Select quality grade beef and USDA Choice calf-fed Holstein New York Strip steaks from cattle that had been fed ZH for 0, 20, and 30 d before slaughter. Strip loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick New York strip steaks and assigned to a 14- or 21-d aging treatment. The first and fourth steaks were assigned for 14- or 21-d WBSF analysis, and the second, third, fifth, and sixth steaks were reserved for consumer sensory panel evaluation. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis was conducted at Texas Tech University (TTU, Lubbock), Kansas State University (Manhattan), Oklahoma State University (Stillwater), and West Texas A&M University (Canyon) with values used to sort steaks for consumer evaluation. Slice shear force analysis was performed at TTU on available paired consumer steaks. Consumers (n = 3,007) in 4 metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were asked to rate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Consumers were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Steaks were cooked to a medium degree of doneness (71 degrees C), cut into 1 cm(3) pieces, and served warm to consumers. Consumers tasted samples from each of 3 separate steaks from each ZH treatment (0, 20, and 30 d) and within each USDA quality grade and within the 14- and 21-d aging treatments. Steaks were selected to represent the distribution of tenderness for the first, second, and third SD either side of the mean for each treatment. A second calf-fed Holstein consumer study (n = 240) was conducted with consumers eating USDA Choice 14- and 21-d aged steaks from Holstein cattle fed

  7. Characterization of naturally occurring cutaneous neurofibromatosis in Holstein cattle. A disorder resembling neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, E. A.; Doran, S. E.; Riddell, M. G.; Herrera, G. A.; Tennyson, G. S.; D'Andrea, G.; Whitley, R. D.; Collins, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis in cattle is typically a noncutaneous disease. A small group of cows in a Holstein dairy herd developed cutaneous neurofibromatosis. This unique condition was investigated and compared with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in humans. All cutaneous lesions but one were consistent with neurofibromas in noncutaneous sites in cattle and neurofibromas in patients with NF1. One bovine lesion was classified as a neurofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy supported Schwannian differentiation in benign and malignant lesions. Linkage analysis with a polymorphism in the bovine NF1 gene confirmed that two affected animals from the same sire inherited the same paternal NF1 allele. Bovine cutaneous neurofibromatosis is a naturally occurring disease in this group of animals, characterized by skin tumors morphologically identical to those of NF1. An informative polymorphism at the NF1 locus of two animals and their sire suggests this disorder may be caused by hereditary mutations at the bovine NF1 locus. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7977647

  8. Effect of Artificial Selection on Runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B.; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Crooker, Brian A.; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S.

    2013-01-01

    The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins. PMID:24348915

  9. Genome-wide association mapping and pathway analysis of leukosis incidence in a US Holstein cattle population.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, E A; Peñagaricano, F; Byrem, T M; Weigel, K A; Rosa, G J M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine leukosis virus is an oncogenic virus that infects B cells, causing bovine leukosis disease. This disease is known to have a negative impact on dairy cattle production and, because no treatment or vaccine is available, finding a possible genetic solution is important. Our objective was to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis of leukosis incidence in dairy cattle. Data on leukosis occurrence, pedigree and molecular information were combined into multitrait GBLUP models with milk yield (MY) and somatic cell score (SCS) to estimate genetic parameters and to perform whole-genome scans and pathway analysis. Leukosis data were available for 11 554 Holsteins daughters of 3002 sires from 112 herds in 16 US states. Genotypes from a 60K SNP panel were available for 961 of those bulls as well as for 2039 additional bulls. Heritability for leukosis incidence was estimated at about 8%, and the genetic correlations of leukosis disease incidence with MY and SCS were moderate at 0.18 and 0.20 respectively. The genome-wide scan indicated that leukosis is a complex trait, possibly modulated by many genes. The gene set analysis identified many functional terms that showed significant enrichment of genes associated with leukosis. Many of these terms, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling Pathway, Regulation of Nucleotide Metabolic Process and different calcium-related processes, are known to be related to retrovirus infection. Overall, our findings contribute to a better understanding of the genetic architecture of this complex disease. The functional categories associated with leukosis may be useful in future studies on fine mapping of genes and development of dairy cattle breeding strategies. PMID:27090879

  10. Genetic analysis of superovulation and embryo transfer traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and investigate genomic regions of interest associated with superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle. Superovulation and embryo transfer are methods commonly used by dairy producers to increase the rate of genetic gain achie...

  11. PRNP haplotype associated with classical BSE incidence in European Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the pro...

  12. Identification of copy number variable gene families in Holstein and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variants (CNV) represent a large proportion of genetic variation within the cattle genome that has yet to be accurately characterized by SNP genotyping arrays. While significant progress has been made in the identification of CNVs within individual animals using next generation sequence ...

  13. In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Han; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Wei, Hongyang; Zhou, Linyun; Li, Fadi; Loor, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. Methodology Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. Principal Findings The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n = 60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing β-casein (CSN2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACACA) and butyrophilin (BTN1A1). An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. Conclusions The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs). PMID:19888476

  14. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility to infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E; Collins, Michael T; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of Susceptibility to Infection by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H.; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  16. Identification of alleles and genotypes of beta-casein with DNA sequencing analysis in Chinese Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ronghua; Fang, Yu; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Shuyun; Ding, Jinmei; Xu, Ke; Yang, Lingyu; He, Chuan; Ding, Fangmei; Meng, He

    2016-08-01

    The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0·353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0·432 and 0·459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of β-casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes. PMID:27600965

  17. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-01-01

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  18. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  19. Genetic evaluation of Ethiopian Boran cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian for growth performance in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile, A; Joshi, B K; Ayalew, W; Tegegne, A; Singh, A

    2011-04-01

    Breed additive and non-additive effects, and heritabilities of birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6 months weight (SMWT), yearling weight (YWT), eighteen months weight (EWT), 2 years weight (TWT) and average daily weight gain from birth to 6 months (ADG1) and from 6 months to 2 years (ADG2) were estimated in Ethiopian Boran (B) cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian (F) in central Ethiopia. The data analysed were spread over 15 years. Ethiopian Boran were consistently lighter (p < 0.01) than the B-F crosses at all ages. Ethiopian Boran also gained lower weight than all the crosses. At birth, 50% F crosses were significantly (p < 0.01) lighter than all the other crosses. However, the differences in SMWT, YWT, EWT, TWT, ADG1 and ADG2 were all non-significant among the crosses. The individual additive breed differences between B and F breeds were positive and significant (p < 0.01) for all traits. The individual heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.05) for all traits except WWT for which the effect was non-significant. The maternal heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.01) for BWT (2.5 kg) and WWT (-3.0 kg). The heritability estimates for all traits in B and crosses were generally moderate to high indicating that there is scope for genetic improvement through selection. Selection within B and crossbreeding should be the strategy to enhance the growth performance under such production systems. PMID:21385228

  20. Effect of LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1 gene polymorphisms on reproductive traits in the Iranian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Asadollahpour Nanaei, H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Edriss, M-A

    2014-10-01

    During the last decades, genetic selection for milk production traits has led to increased fertility and health problems in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three polymorphisms located in the ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes on reproductive traits and somatic cell count (SCC). The analysis was conducted on 408 randomly selected cows. The SNPs within the genes (LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1) were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. All three possible genotypes were observed for SCD1-T878C and LEPR-T945M SNPs, but not for ABCG2-Y581S SNP. LEPR-T945M and ABCG2-Y581S SNPs had no statistically significant effect on the studied reproductive traits and SCC. However, SCD1-T878C SNP were negatively and significantly related to pregnancy length, dry days and open days (p < 0.05), which lead to decreased profitability in dairy herds. The results suggest that the T878C SNP of SCD1 might be useful as a DNA marker to decrease reproductive problems and improve production traits in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25130486

  1. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

    PubMed Central

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Bongiorni, Silvia; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics. PMID:22253986

  2. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, C. I.; Alam, M.; Choi, T. J.; Choy, Y. H.; Choi, J. G.; Lee, S. S.; Cho, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3–L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  3. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cho, C I; Alam, M; Choi, T J; Choy, Y H; Choi, J G; Lee, S S; Cho, K H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3-L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  4. Prevalence and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Miura, T; Tagaki, K; Ohtake, M; Noda, H; Yasuda, T; Nioka, K

    1997-04-01

    Blood samples from 796 Holstein dairy cows in 20 herds from 6 districts in Japan from June 1994 to August 1995 were examined to determine whether they were BLAD-free, BLAD carriers, or BLAD-affected by use of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The usage of semen of confirmed BLAD-carriers for artificial insemination in the Hokkaido district and two selected dairy farms was examined to estimate the gene frequency of BLAD carriers of sires. BLAD-carrier prevalence in 20 herds (796 cows, over 2.5 years old) ranged from 0 to 23.5%, and the mean BLAD-carrier prevalence was 8.1%. The BLAD-carrier prevalence in 10 herds (363 cows) in which the occurrence of BLAD was not detected by the DNA-PCR test ranged from 0 to 12.5% with a mean of 5.4%. The BLAD-carrier prevalence in 10 herds (433 cows) in which the occurrence of BLAD was confirmed by DNA-PCR analysis ranged from 2.6 to 23.5% with a mean of 10.8%, and these values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of dairy herds in which the occurrence of BLAD was not detected. The age distribution in BLAD carriers in these cows ranged from 2.5 to 11 years. The mean gene frequencies of BLAD among 796 cows from 20 herds and 433 cows from 10 herds in which the occurrence of BLAD was detected were 0.041 and 0.054, respectively. The proportional usage of semen of BLAD carriers for artificial insemination in the Hokkaido district in 1992 was 12.6%, and its gene frequency was 0.058. On two selected farms in which higher BLAD-carrier rates were detected, the prevalences were 35.5% and 25.8%, and their gene frequencies were 0.177 and 0.129, respectively. The occurrence of BLAD-affected in Holstein dairy cattle was estimated to be 0.16-0.31% at birth in Japan without genetic control. PMID:9152929

  5. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (−0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

  6. Genome Wide Analysis of Fertility and Production Traits in Italian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Alessandra; Biffani, Stefano; Negrini, Riccardo; Lazzari, Barbara; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Williams, John L .

    2013-01-01

    A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits. PMID:24265800

  7. Genetic and non-genetic parameters of replacement rate component traits in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Goshu, Gebeyehu; Singh, Harpal

    2013-01-01

    Records on 3092 pregnancies distributed over a period of 24 years (1986 to 2010) were used to estimate genetic and non genetic parameters of threshold traits in Holstein Friesian. Parity, season and year of calving were included in the model to estimate their effect on replacement traits. A total of 105 sires' records were used to study the genetic component of the characters. The overall averages for abnormal and normal births, male-female sex ratios, mortality and culling rate in females up to age at first calving and female replacement rates based on female births and total pregnancies were estimated as 12.0% and 88.0%, 52.5% and 47.5%, 23.0% and 7.0% and 70.0% and 29.0% respectively. The effects of parity and year of calving on above traits were found to be significant, except parity effects on culling rate and replacement rate based on total pregnancies, which were non-significant. The season effects for all traits were non-significant. Average 3.45 pregnancies were required to produce one heifer that becomes replacement of the old and low producer cow. The heritability culling and replacement rate from total pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.66 suggesting sufficient additive genetic variance for selecting sires in these traits. Better feeding and health management could reduce mortality and force culling female calves. PMID:25674410

  8. Genetic association between parameters of inmate immunity and measures of mastitis in periparturient Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelm, S C; Detilleux, J C; Freeman, A E; Kehrli, M E; Dietz, A B; Fox, L K; Butler, J E; Kasckovics, I; Kelley, D H

    1997-08-01

    Relationships between genetic measures of mastitis (somatic cell score, score for clinical mastitis, and scores for IMI with major or minor pathogens) and immunological parameters (physiological and molecular markers) were examined for periparturient Holstein cows. Physiological markers included 11 in vitro immunological assays. Molecular markers included the second exon of the DRB3 locus of the bovine major histocompatibility complex, the IgG2 isotype genotype, and the CD18 genotype (the locus responsible for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency). A gene substitution model was used to estimate the additive genetic effects of alleles of the three molecular markers on estimated breeding value (EBV) for mastitis measures. Pearson correlation coefficients between EBV for immunological assays and EBV for mastitis measures were computed. Molecular markers explained up to 40% of the variation in EBV for measures of mastitis. The presence of allele DRB3.2*16 was associated with higher EBV for SCS. Allele DRB3.2*8 was associated with increased EBV for clinical mastitis, as was the IgG2b allele and the normal CD18 allele. Alleles DRB3.2*11, *23, IgG2a, and the recessive allele for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency were associated with decreased clinical mastitis. A positive genetic association was found between allele DRB3.2*24 and EBV for IMI by major pathogens and between DRB3.2*3 and IMI by minor pathogens. Several correlations between EBV for immunological assays and EBV for mastitis measures were significantly different from 0. Cows with low EBV for SCS tended to have neutrophils that had greater functional ability at maximal immunosuppression, low serum IgG1, and high numbers of circulating mononuclear cells. Immunological parameters, including physiological and molecular markers, are useful aids to understand the genetics of resistance to mastitis. PMID:9276818

  9. Genetic parameters for producer-recorded health data in Canadian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, T F-O; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Berke, O; Kelton, D F; Schaeffer, L R

    2012-04-01

    Health traits are of paramount importance for economic dairy production. Improvement in liability to diseases has been made with better management practices, but genetic aspects of health traits have received less attention. Dairy producers in Canada have been recording eight health traits (mastitis (MAST), lameness (LAME), cystic ovarian disease (COD), left displaced abomasum (LDA), ketosis (KET), metritis (MET), milk fever (MF) and retained placenta (RP)) since April 2007. Genetic analyses of these traits were carried out in this study for the Holstein breed. Edits on herd distributions of recorded diseases were applied to the data to ensure a sufficient quality of recording. Traits were analysed either individually (MAST, LAME, COD) or were grouped according to biological similarities (LDA and KET, and MET, MF and RP) and analysed with multiple-trait models. Data included 46 104 cases of any of the above diseases. Incidence ranged from 2.3% for MF to 9.7% for MAST. MET and KET also had an incidence below 4.0%. Variance components were estimated using four different sire threshold models. The differences between models resulted from the inclusion of days at risk (DAR) and a cow effect, in addition to herd, parity and sire effects. Models were compared using mean squared error statistic. Mean squared error favoured, in general, the sire and cow within sire model with regression on DAR included. Heritabilities on the liability scale were between 0.02 (MET) and 0.21 (LDA). There was a moderate, positive genetic correlation between LDA and KET (0.58), and between MET and RP (0.79). PMID:22436272

  10. Seasonal changes in hemograms and Theileria orientalis infection rates among Holstein cattle pastured in the mountains in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Jinho

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, we compared seasonal changes in complete blood counts (CBCs) and rates of infection with a tick-borne pathogen between Holstein cattle housed indoors and those maintained outside on pasture. There were differences in white blood cell (WBC) parameters, but the changes were not associated with seasons or the housing type. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) parameters showed lower values in August and November versus March, and in the cattle maintained on pasture versus the housed cattle. In comparison with the RBC count of the housed cattle in March (10.1M/μL), the RBC counts of the pastured cattle were significantly lower in August (7.8M/μL; p<0.01) and November (7.5M/μL; p<0.01). The hematocrit (HCT) also showed a decrease in March (33.5%), August (30.0%, p<0.01) and November (28.5%, p<0.01). According to PCR analysis, the Theileria infection rate among the pastured cattle in March was only 11%, but this rate increased to 22% and 60% in August and November, respectively. The RBC count (7.4M/μL) and HCT (27.7%) values in Theileria-positive pastured cattle in November showed a dramatic decrease compared to those of cattle examined in March. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Theileria isolates correspond to T. orientalis. These results suggest that a remarkable increase in tick infestation in mountainous areas in the summer may cause increased rates of infection with T. orientalis, leading to significant changes in the RBC profile after grazing. Therefore, these hematological changes may be associated with T. orientalis infection caused by tick-biting; thus, additional studies on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis are needed. PMID:27094144

  11. Changes in genetic selection differentials and generation intervals in US Holstein dairy cattle as a result of genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Cole, John B.; VanRaden, Paul M.; Wiggans, George R.; Ruiz-López, Felipe J.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2016-01-01

    Seven years after the introduction of genomic selection in the United States, it is now possible to evaluate the impact of this technology on the population. Selection differential(s) (SD) and generation interval(s) (GI) were characterized in a four-path selection model that included sire(s) of bulls (SB), sire(s) of cows (SC), dam(s) of bulls (DB), and dam(s) of cows (DC). Changes in SD over time were estimated for milk, fat, and protein yield; somatic cell score (SCS); productive life (PL); and daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) for the Holstein breed. In the period following implementation of genomic selection, dramatic reductions were seen in GI, especially the SB and SC paths. The SB GI reduced from ∼7 y to less than 2.5 y, and the DB GI fell from about 4 y to nearly 2.5 y. SD were relatively stable for yield traits, although modest gains were noted in recent years. The most dramatic response to genomic selection was observed for the lowly heritable traits DPR, PL, and SCS. Genetic trends changed from close to zero to large and favorable, resulting in rapid genetic improvement in fertility, lifespan, and health in a breed where these traits eroded over time. These results clearly demonstrate the positive impact of genomic selection in US dairy cattle, even though this technology has only been in use for a short time. Based on the four-path selection model, rates of genetic gain per year increased from ∼50–100% for yield traits and from threefold to fourfold for lowly heritable traits. PMID:27354521

  12. Changes in genetic selection differentials and generation intervals in US Holstein dairy cattle as a result of genomic selection.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Cole, John B; VanRaden, Paul M; Wiggans, George R; Ruiz-López, Felipe J; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2016-07-12

    Seven years after the introduction of genomic selection in the United States, it is now possible to evaluate the impact of this technology on the population. Selection differential(s) (SD) and generation interval(s) (GI) were characterized in a four-path selection model that included sire(s) of bulls (SB), sire(s) of cows (SC), dam(s) of bulls (DB), and dam(s) of cows (DC). Changes in SD over time were estimated for milk, fat, and protein yield; somatic cell score (SCS); productive life (PL); and daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) for the Holstein breed. In the period following implementation of genomic selection, dramatic reductions were seen in GI, especially the SB and SC paths. The SB GI reduced from ∼7 y to less than 2.5 y, and the DB GI fell from about 4 y to nearly 2.5 y. SD were relatively stable for yield traits, although modest gains were noted in recent years. The most dramatic response to genomic selection was observed for the lowly heritable traits DPR, PL, and SCS. Genetic trends changed from close to zero to large and favorable, resulting in rapid genetic improvement in fertility, lifespan, and health in a breed where these traits eroded over time. These results clearly demonstrate the positive impact of genomic selection in US dairy cattle, even though this technology has only been in use for a short time. Based on the four-path selection model, rates of genetic gain per year increased from ∼50-100% for yield traits and from threefold to fourfold for lowly heritable traits. PMID:27354521

  13. Sire effect on early and late embryonic death in French Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D; Ponsart, C; Grimard, B; Gatien, J; Deloche, M C; Fritz, S; Lefebvre, R; Humblot, P

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effect of maternal sire on early pregnancy failure (between D0, day of insemination and D90) in their progeny during the first and second lactations (n=3508) in the Holstein breed. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for cow fertility of 12 bulls (reliability⩾0.95) was used to create the following three groups: low, medium and high EBV (EBV from -0.7 to 1 expressed as genetic standard deviation relative to the mean of the breed). In their daughters (93 to 516 per bull), progesterone measurement was carried out on the day of artificial insemination (AI; D0) to check whether the cows were in the follicular phase and on D18 to 25 to assess non-fertilisation-early embryonic mortality (NF-EEM). Late embryonic mortality (LEM) and early foetal death (FD) were determined by ultrasonography on D45 and D90 and by the return to oestrus after the first AI. Frequencies of NF-EEM, LEM, FD and pregnancy were 33.3%, 11.7%, 1.4% and 48.5% and incidences were 35.1, 19.0, 2.7 and 51.1, respectively. Sire EBV was significantly related to the incidences of pregnancy failure between D0 and D90, fertilisation failure-early embryonic mortality (FF-EEM) and LEM but not to the incidence of FD between D45 and D90 of pregnancy. The relative risk (RR) of FF-EEM was significantly higher (RR=1.2; P<0.05) for the progeny group of low EBV bulls when compared with high EBV bulls. The same effect was observed when comparing LEM of the progeny groups from the low EBV bulls to those from moderate and high EBV bulls (RR, respectively, of 1.3 and 1.4; P<005). The incidence of FF-EEM was significantly higher when cows were inseminated before 80 days postpartum compared with later, and for the extreme values of the difference between milk fat and protein content measured during the first 3 months of lactation. FF-EEM was also significantly related to the year of observation. The incidence of LEM was higher for the highest producing cows and was influenced by interaction between milk

  14. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  15. A post-GWAS confirming the SCD gene associated with milk medium- and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in Chinese Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Sun, D; Zhang, S; Liu, L; Alim, M A; Zhang, Q

    2016-08-01

    The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) gene encodes a key enzyme in the cellular biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. In our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Chinese Holstein cows, 19 SNPs fell in a 1.8-Mb region (20.3-22.1 Mb) on chromosome 26 underlying the SCD gene and were highly significantly associated with C14:1 or C14 index. The aims of this study were to verify whether the SCD gene has significant genetic effects on milk fatty acid composition in dairy cattle. By resequencing the entire coding region of the bovine SCD gene, a total of six variations were identified, including three coding variations (g.10153G>A, g.10213T>C and g.10329C>T) and three intronic variations (g.6926A>G, g.8646G>A and g.16158G>C). The SNP in exon 3, g.10329C>T, was predicted to result in an amino acid replacement from alanine (GCG) to valine (GTG) in the SCD protein. An association study for 16 milk fatty acids using 346 Chinese Holstein cows with accurate phenotypes and genotypes was performed using the mixed animal model with the proc mixed procedure in sas 9.2. All six detected SNPs were revealed to be associated with six medium- and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.0457 to P < 0.0001), specifically for C14:1 and C14 index (P = 0.0005 to P < 0.0001). Subsequently, strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.88-1.00) was observed among all six SNPs in SCD and the five SNPs (rs41623887, rs109923480, rs42090224, rs42092174 and rs42091426) within the 1.8-Mb region identified in our previous GWAS, indicating that the significant association of the SCD gene with milk fatty acid content traits reduced the observed significant 1.8-Mb chromosome region in GWAS. Haplotype-based analysis revealed significant associations of the haplotypes encompassing the six SCD SNPs and one SNP (rs109923480) in a GWAS with C14:1, C14 index, C16:1 and C16 index (P = 0.0011 to P < 0.0001). In summary, our findings provide replicate evidence for our previous

  16. Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.

    PubMed

    Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2 ± 3.0 vs. 21.3 ± 2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.7 ± 1.3 h), mounting period (6.9 ± 2.7 vs. 18.2 ± 2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2 ± 2.8 vs. 17.5 ± 2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1 ± 4.0 vs. 17.6 ± 4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3) with longer average duration (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3 ± 6.2 vs. 18.1 ± 6.3) and per hour (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4 ± 5.0 vs. 18.5 ± 5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intronic, and 3′ regulatory regions, encompassing ~5 kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P < 0.05) were identified between six SNPs (four novel and two previously identified) and milk composition, survival, body condition score, and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T) in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P < 0.05) with increased cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3′ region of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle. PMID:22303302

  18. Genetic evaluation of calf and heifer survival in Iranian Holstein cattle using linear and threshold models.

    PubMed

    Forutan, M; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sargolzaei, M

    2015-02-01

    Calf and heifer survival are important traits in dairy cattle affecting profitability. This study was carried out to estimate genetic parameters of survival traits in female calves at different age periods, until nearly the first calving. Records of 49,583 female calves born during 1998 and 2009 were considered in five age periods as days 1-30, 31-180, 181-365, 366-760 and full period (day 1-760). Genetic components were estimated based on linear and threshold sire models and linear animal models. The models included both fixed effects (month of birth, dam's parity number, calving ease and twin/single) and random effects (herd-year, genetic effect of sire or animal and residual). Rates of death were 2.21, 3.37, 1.97, 4.14 and 12.4% for the above periods, respectively. Heritability estimates were very low ranging from 0.48 to 3.04, 0.62 to 3.51 and 0.50 to 4.24% for linear sire model, animal model and threshold sire model, respectively. Rank correlations between random effects of sires obtained with linear and threshold sire models and with linear animal and sire models were 0.82-0.95 and 0.61-0.83, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between the five different periods were moderate and only significant for 31-180 and 181-365 (r(g) = 0.59), 31-180 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.52), and 181-365 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.42). The low genetic correlations in current study would suggest that survival at different periods may be affected by the same genes with different expression or by different genes. Even though the additive genetic variations of survival traits were small, it might be possible to improve these traits by traditional or genomic selection. PMID:25100295

  19. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  20. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  1. Transcription Factor Binding Site Polymorphism in the Motilin Gene Associated with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum in German Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (ORallele = 0.64; −log10Pallele = 6.8, −log10Pgenotype = 7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

  2. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele) = 0.64; -log(10)P(allele) = 6.8, -log(10)P(genotype) = 7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

  3. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene.

    PubMed

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  4. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S.; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  5. A g.-1256 A>C in the promoter region of CAPN1 is associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaohui; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiuge; Yang, Chunhong; Ju, Zhihua; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Yin, Miao; Wang, Changfa

    2016-07-01

    The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for sperm motility. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of the CAPN1 gene in bulls remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of CAPN1 in testis, epididymis, and sperm at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed that the expression of CAPN1 levels was higher in the sperm head compared with that in other tissues. Moreover, we identified a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (g.-1256 A>C, ss 1917715340) in the noncanonical core promoter of the CAPN1 gene between base g.-1306 and g.-1012. Additionally, we observed greater sperm motility in bulls with the genotype CC than in those with the genotype AA (P<0.01), indicating that different genotypes were associated with the bovine semen trait. Furthermore, a higher fluorescence intensity of the C allele than that of the A allele at g. -1256 A>C was revealed by transient transfection in MLTC-1 cells and luciferase report assay. Finally, CAPN1 was highly expressed in the spermatozoa with the CC genotype compared with that with the AA genotype by qRT-PCR. This study is the first report on genetic variant g.-1256 A>C in the promoter region of CAPN1 gene association with the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls by influencing its expression. g.-1256 A>C can be a functional molecular marker in cattle breeding. PMID:27107033

  6. Polymorphisms of the IL8 gene correlate with milking traits, SCS and mRNA level in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjin; Yang, Zhangping; Ji, Dejun; Mao, Yongjiang; Chen, Ying; Li, Yunlong; Wu, Haitao; Wang, Xiaolong; Chang, Lingling

    2011-08-01

    To explore the relation of Interleukin-8 (IL8) gene polymorphism with immunity against mastitis in dairy cow, the polymorphism of IL8 gene was investigated in 610 Chinese Holstein cow from 30 bull families in a dairy farm in Shanghai using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, and milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, 305 day corrected milk yield, 305 day milk fat yield, 305 day milk protein yield and somatic cell score (SCS) were measured and analyzed, and the mRNA levels of IL8 genotypes in blood were detected by real-time PCR. The results showed that three genotypes, KK, KA and AA were detected with frequencies of 0.187, 0.451, and 0.362, respectively. The gene frequencies of K and A were 0.412 and 0.588, respectively. The significant association of the IL8 mutations with milk yield, 305 day milk protein yield, 305 day corrected milk yield and 305 day milk fat yield, SCS, and significant association with milk protein percentage were identified, while their association with milk fat percentage were not significant. KK had higher milk yield, 305 day milk protein yield, 305 day corrected milk yield and 305 day milk fat yield than AA or KA, and the least square mean of SCS of KK was significantly lower than that of AA or KA. AA had significant lower milk protein yield than KK or KA. The relative IL8 mRNA level of KK in blood was the highest. These findings demonstrated that IL8 genotype significantly correlated with mastitis resistance and the locus could be a useful genetic marker for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein. PMID:21113675

  7. A novel point mutation within the EDA gene causes an exon dropping in mature RNA in Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs) recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp) in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding. PMID:21740563

  8. Random Regression Models Are Suitable to Substitute the Traditional 305-Day Lactation Model in Genetic Evaluations of Holstein Cattle in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Alessandro Haiduck; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two random regression models (RRM) fitted by fourth (RRM4) and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (RRM5) with a lactation model (LM) for evaluating Holstein cattle in Brazil. Two datasets with the same animals were prepared for this study. To apply test-day RRM and LMs, 262,426 test day records and 30,228 lactation records covering 305 days were prepared, respectively. The lowest values of Akaike’s information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and estimates of the maximum of the likelihood function (−2LogL) were for RRM4. Heritability for 305-day milk yield (305MY) was 0.23 (RRM4), 0.24 (RRM5), and 0.21 (LM). Heritability, additive genetic and permanent environmental variances of test days on days in milk was from 0.16 to 0.27, from 3.76 to 6.88 and from 11.12 to 20.21, respectively. Additive genetic correlations between test days ranged from 0.20 to 0.99. Permanent environmental correlations between test days were between 0.07 and 0.99. Standard deviations of average estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 305MY from RRM4 and RRM5 were from 11% to 30% higher for bulls and around 28% higher for cows than that in LM. Rank correlations between RRM EBVs and LM EBVs were between 0.86 to 0.96 for bulls and 0.80 to 0.87 for cows. Average percentage of gain in reliability of EBVs for 305-day yield increased from 4% to 17% for bulls and from 23% to 24% for cows when reliability of EBVs from RRM models was compared to those from LM model. Random regression model fitted by fourth order Legendre polynomials is recommended for genetic evaluations of Brazilian Holstein cattle because of the higher reliability in the estimation of breeding values. PMID:26954176

  9. Random Regression Models Are Suitable to Substitute the Traditional 305-Day Lactation Model in Genetic Evaluations of Holstein Cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Padilha, Alessandro Haiduck; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two random regression models (RRM) fitted by fourth (RRM4) and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (RRM5) with a lactation model (LM) for evaluating Holstein cattle in Brazil. Two datasets with the same animals were prepared for this study. To apply test-day RRM and LMs, 262,426 test day records and 30,228 lactation records covering 305 days were prepared, respectively. The lowest values of Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and estimates of the maximum of the likelihood function (-2LogL) were for RRM4. Heritability for 305-day milk yield (305MY) was 0.23 (RRM4), 0.24 (RRM5), and 0.21 (LM). Heritability, additive genetic and permanent environmental variances of test days on days in milk was from 0.16 to 0.27, from 3.76 to 6.88 and from 11.12 to 20.21, respectively. Additive genetic correlations between test days ranged from 0.20 to 0.99. Permanent environmental correlations between test days were between 0.07 and 0.99. Standard deviations of average estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 305MY from RRM4 and RRM5 were from 11% to 30% higher for bulls and around 28% higher for cows than that in LM. Rank correlations between RRM EBVs and LM EBVs were between 0.86 to 0.96 for bulls and 0.80 to 0.87 for cows. Average percentage of gain in reliability of EBVs for 305-day yield increased from 4% to 17% for bulls and from 23% to 24% for cows when reliability of EBVs from RRM models was compared to those from LM model. Random regression model fitted by fourth order Legendre polynomials is recommended for genetic evaluations of Brazilian Holstein cattle because of the higher reliability in the estimation of breeding values. PMID:26954176

  10. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low- heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (>= 1.7; n=288) or low (<= -2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was geno...

  11. Ex-situ conservaton of Holstein-Friesian cattle comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve as much genetic diversity as possible for this breed. Genetic variability of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in ...

  12. The hunt for a functional mutation affecting conformation and calving traits on chromosome 18 in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequence data from 11 US Holstein bulls were analyzed to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. The SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-109285 at 57,589,121 bp (UMD 3.1 assembly) on BTA18 has large effects on 4 measures of body shape and size, 2 measures of dystocia, longev...

  13. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  14. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  15. Identification of a two-marker-haplotype on Bos taurus autosome 18 associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Bodo; Baes, Christine; Mayer, Manfred; Reinsch, Norbert; Kühn, Christa

    2009-01-01

    density and multiple-trait and multiple-QTL models are required to narrow down the position of the causal mutation or mutations affecting SCS in German Holstein cattle. PMID:19725965

  16. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  17. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mömke, S; Sickinger, M; Lichtner, P; Doll, K; Rehage, J; Distl, O

    2013-06-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is one of the most common disorders of the digestive system in many dairy breeds and particularly in Holstein dairy cows. We performed a genome-wide association study for 854 German Holstein cows, including 225 cases and 629 controls. All cows were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After quality control of genotypes, a total of 36,226 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were left for analysis. We used a mixed linear model approach for a genome-wide association study of LDA. In total, 36 SNP located on 17 bovine (Bos taurus) chromosomes (BTA) showed associations with LDA at nominal -log10P-values >3.0. Two of these SNP, located on BTA11 at 46.70 Mb and BTA20 at 16.67 Mb, showed genome-wide significant associations with LDA at -log10P-values >4.6. Pathway analyses indicated genes involved in calcium metabolism and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to be factors in the pathogenesis of LDA in German Holstein cows. PMID:23548285

  18. Associations between novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullen, M P; Berry, D P; Howard, D J; Diskin, M G; Lynch, C O; Berkowicz, E W; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Waters, S M

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone, produced in the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-I from the liver and is of critical importance in the control of nutrient utilization and partitioning for lactogenesis, fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to discover novel polymorphisms in the bovine growth hormone gene (GH1) and to quantify their association with performance using estimates of genetic merit on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI (artificial insemination) dairy sires. Associations with previously reported polymorphisms in the bovine GH1 gene were also undertaken. A total of 38 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5' promoter, intronic, exonic, and 3' regulatory regions, encompassing approximately 7 kb of the GH1 gene. Following multiple regression analysis on all SNP, associations were identified between 11 SNP (2 novel and 9 previously identified) and milk fat and protein yield, milk composition, somatic cell score, survival, body condition score, and body size. The G allele of a previously identified SNP in exon 5 at position 2141 of the GH1 sequence, resulting in a nonsynonymous substitution, was associated with decreased milk protein yield. The C allele of a novel SNP, GH32, was associated with inferior carcass conformation. In addition, the T allele of a previously characterized SNP, GH35, was associated with decreased survival. Both GH24 (novel) and GH35 were independently associated with somatic cell count, and 3 SNP, GH21, 2291, and GH35, were independently associated with body depth. Furthermore, 2 SNP, GH24 and GH63, were independently associated with carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of GH1 on milk production, fertility, and growth-related traits in cattle. PMID:21094770

  19. Fatty acid profile of back fat and intramuscular fat from yak and Chinese yellow cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) and Chinese Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus) are important human dietary components in Northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid (FA) composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor, flavor, and nutritiona...

  20. Identification of a nonsense mutation in APAF1 that is likely causal for a decrease in reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Adams, Heather A; Sonstegard, Tad S; VanRaden, Paul M; Null, Daniel J; Van Tassell, Curt P; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A

    2016-08-01

    The HH1 haplotype on chromosome 5 is associated with a reduced conception rate and a deficit of homozygotes at the population level in Holstein cattle. The source HH1 haplotype was traced to the bull Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief (Chief), who was born in 1962 and has sired more than 16,000 daughters. We identified a nonsense mutation in APAF1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1;APAF1 p.Q579X) within HH1 using whole-genome resequencing of Chief and 3 of his sons. This mutation is predicted to truncate 670 AA (53.7%) of the encoded APAF1 protein that contains a WD40 domain critical to protein-protein interactions. Initial screening revealed no homozygous individuals for the mutation in 758 animals previously genotyped, whereas all 497 HH1 carriers possessed 1 copy of the mutant allele. Subsequent commercial genotyping of 246,773 Holsteins revealed 5,299 APAF1 heterozygotes and zero homozygotes for the mutation. The causative role of this mutation is also supported by functional data in mice that have demonstrated Apaf1 to be an essential molecule in the cytochrome-c-mediated apoptotic cascade and directly implicated in developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, most Apaf1 homozygous knockouts die by day 16.5 of development. We thus propose that the APAF1 p.Q579X nonsense mutation is the functional equivalent of the Apaf1 knockout. This mutation has caused an estimated 525,000 spontaneous abortions worldwide over the past 35 years, accounting for approximately $420 million in losses. With the mutation identified, selection against the deleterious allele in breeding schemes has aided in eliminating this defect from the population, reducing carrier frequency from 8% in past decades to 2% in 2015. PMID:27289157

  1. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis. PMID:27254118

  2. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J.; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis. PMID:27254118

  3. Differentiation dynamics of mammary epithelial stem cells from Korean holstein dairy cattle under ECM-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neelesh; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Luong, Do Huynh; Kim, Sung-Woo; Oh, Sung Jong; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    The "stem cells" are commonly defined as "cells capable of self-renewal through replication and differentiating into specific lineages". The mammary gland contains functional stem/progenitor cells. The current study was planned with the objectives to study the differentiation dynamics of Korean Holstein mammary epithelial stem cells (KHMESCs) under the optimum culture conditions. Lineage negative KHMESCs isolated from mammary tissue of lactating cows have shown the typical differentiation dynamics with formation of lobulo-alveolar structures in in vitro culture. This suggests the existence of bipotential mammary epithelial stem cells in the mammary gland. The strong mRNA expression of pluripotency factors indicates stemness, whereas expression of milk protein genes and epithelial cell-specific gene indicate their differentiation capabilities. Further, immunostaining results have shown the differentiation capabilities of KHMESCs into both luminal and basal lineages under the extracellular matrix (ECM, matrigel) free environment. However, under matrigel, the differentiation process was comparatively higher than without matrigel. Immunostaining results also suggested that differentiated cells could secrete milk proteins such as β-casein. To our knowledge, these data represent the first report on the differentiation dynamics and establishment of mammary epithelial stem cells from Korean Holstein with typical stemness properties. It was observed that isolated KHMESCs had normal morphology, growth pattern, differentiation ability, cytogenetic and secretory activity even without ECM. Therefore, it is concluded that established KHMESCs could be used for further studies on Korean Holstein dairy cows related to lactation studies, as non-GMO animal bioreactors and stem cell-based management of bovine mastitis including post-mastitis damage. PMID:25759113

  4. Genome-wide association mapping for identification of quantitative trait loci for rectal temperature during heat stress in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively affects the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One strategy to reduce the magnitude of heat stress is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of eit...

  5. A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

  6. Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for BSE-resistance polymorphisms from healthy U.S. holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. Two regulatory region polymorphisms in the bovine prion gene are associated with resistance to classical BSE disease: a 23 bp region in the promoter that contains a binding si...

  7. Technical note: The role of circulating low-density lipoprotein levels as a phenotypic marker for Holstein cholesterol deficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Saleem, S; Heuer, C; Sun, C; Kendall, D; Moreno, J; Vishwanath, R

    2016-07-01

    With the recent discovery of a Holstein cholesterol deficiency (HCD) haplotype, the USDA has labeled many dairy animals as HCD carriers based on haplotype and pedigree analysis. We set out to investigate the effect of HCD status on various cholesterol transport molecules, namely low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in both males and females. A genome-wide association study was also conducted to narrow down the genomic region correlated with varying LDL-C levels. In the study, 34 HCD carrier animals showed significantly lower cholesterol and LDL-C levels compared with their 34 closely related, non-HCD controls. The genome-wide association study based on 73 animals using 56,198 SNP markers revealed an association with chromosome 11 in the region of 66,218,925 to 66,946,746 bp. We also tested the effect of HCD status on sperm quality traits using fresh ejaculates and frozen-thawed semen samples, but did not find any discriminating effects. Our study has demonstrated the use of LDL-C as a key phenotypic marker for determining HCD status in dairy cattle and this is the first study that clearly shows a cause-effect relationship of the HCD haplotype on circulating LDL-C. PMID:27108167

  8. Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2012-08-01

    The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration. PMID:21862090

  9. Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

    2014-01-01

    Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3′-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3′-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3′-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3′-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

  10. Comparison of longissimus dorsi Fatty Acids Profiles in Gansu Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle Steers and Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. G.; Liu, T.; Brown, M. A.; Wu, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat in Black Yak and Chinese Yellow Cattle were evaluated in 44 Black Yak and 41 Chinese Yellow Cattle of both genders. Interactions of species with gender were observed for total saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations, as well as PUFA/SFA ratio in the longissimus dorsi (p<0.05). The SFA percentage was greater in yellow cattle than yak in both genders but the species difference in heifers was greater than in steers (p<0.05). Yak had greater UFA, MUFA and PUFA percentages than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05) but the difference between yak and yellow cattle heifers was greater than yak and yellow cattle steers. The percentages of inolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid; and PUFA/SFA were greater in yak than yellow cattle in both steers and heifers (p<0.05). In addition, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in yak was lesser than in yellow cattle (p<0.05). These results indicated that FA composition generally differed between yak and yellow cattle but the differences were not the same in heifers as compared to steers. Results also suggested that species differences in FA composition tended to favor Black Yak over Chinese Yellow Cattle, indicating that the longissimus dorsi of Black Yak may have a higher nutritive value than that of Chinese Yellow Cattle and potential for development as a desirable natural product. PMID:26761841

  11. Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

    2013-10-15

    Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

  12. Efficacy of a single intramuscular injection of porcine FSH in hyaluronan prior to ovum pick-up in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Netto, A Castro; Guerreiro, B M; Silveira, C R A; Freitas, B G; Bragança, L G M; Marques, K N G; Sá Filho, M F; Bó, G A; Mapletoft, R J; Baruselli, P S

    2016-03-15

    Plasma FSH profiles, in vitro embryo production (IVP) after ovum pickup (OPU), and establishment of pregnancy with IVP embryos were compared in untreated Holstein oocyte donors and those superstimulated with multiple injections or a single intramuscular (IM) injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) in hyaluronan (HA). Plasma FSH profiles were determined in 23 heifers randomly allocated to one of four groups. Controls received no treatment, whereas the F200 group received 200 mg of pFSH in four doses, 12 hours apart. The F200HA and F300HA groups received 200- or 300-mg pFSH in 5 mL or 7.5 mL, respectively of a 0.5% HA solution by a single IM injection. Plasma FSH levels were determined before the first pFSH treatment and every 6 hours over 96 hours. All data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Circulating FSH area under curve (AUC) in pFSH-treated animals was greater than that in the control group (P = 0.02). Although the AUC did not differ among FSH-treated groups (P = 0.56), the total period with elevated plasma FSH was greater in the F200 group than in the HA groups (P < 0.0001). However, the F300HA group had a greater AUC than the F200HA group (P = 0.006), with a similar total period with elevated plasma FSH (P = 0.17). The IVP was performed in 90 nonlactating Holstein cows randomly allocated to one of the four treatment groups as in the first experiment. A greater proportion of medium-sized (6-10 mm) follicles was observed in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group (P < 0.0001). Also, numbers of follicles (P = 0.01), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (P = 0.01) and matured (P = 0.02), cleavage rates (P = 0.002), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) were greater in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group. Cows in the F200HA group had a greater recovery rate (P = 0.009), number of COCs cultured (P = 0.04), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) than cows in the F300HA group. Similar pregnancy rates were

  13. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. PMID:26679804

  14. Effectiveness of a program aimed at the elimination of BLAD-carrier bulls from Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Czarnik, Urszula; Grzybowski, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Stanisław; Prusak, Beata; Zabolewicz, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    The molecular basis of BLAD is the D128G mutation of the gene coding for the CD18 subunit of beta-2 integrin. This mutation is lethal, since homozygous (BL/BL) animals die before they reach sexual maturity. In the 1990s, BLAD was the most widespread genetic disease in HF cattle worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of BLAD carriers among 4645 young breeding bulls in Poland in 1995-2006. The frequency of carriers of the mutated allele showed a clear decreasing trend. The highest frequency (7.9%) was recorded while implementing the BLAD control program (1995-1997). Regular monitoring has enabled a great reduction of this threat to the tested population. Today only sporadic cases of BL/TL heterozygotes are reported (ca. 0.8% in 2004-2006). PMID:17998595

  15. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PS<1 and RR<90 breaths per minute), whereas normal RR and PS were significantly less prevalent for animals outside shade. Our findings suggest that, even in temperate summers, heat can induce thermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort. PMID:25994098

  16. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  17. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low-heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (≥ 1.7; n = 288) or low (≤ −2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was genotyped for 434 candidate SNPs using the Sequenom MassARRAY® system. Three types of SNPs were evaluated: SNPs previously reported to be associated with reproductive traits or physically close to genetic markers for reproduction, SNPs in genes that are well known to be involved in reproductive processes, and SNPs in genes that are differentially expressed between physiological conditions in a variety of tissues associated in reproductive function. Eleven reproduction and production traits were analyzed. Results A total of 40 SNPs were associated (P < 0.05) with DPR. Among these were genes involved in the endocrine system, cell signaling, immune function and inhibition of apoptosis. A total of 10 genes were regulated by estradiol. In addition, 22 SNPs were associated with heifer conception rate, 33 with cow conception rate, 36 with productive life, 34 with net merit, 23 with milk yield, 19 with fat yield, 13 with fat percent, 19 with protein yield, 22 with protein percent, and 13 with somatic cell score. The allele substitution effect for SNPs associated with heifer conception rate, cow conception rate, productive life and net merit were in the same direction as for DPR. Allele substitution effects for several SNPs associated with production traits were in the opposite direction as DPR. Nonetheless, there were 29 SNPs associated with DPR that were not negatively associated with production traits. Conclusion SNPs in a total of 40 genes associated with DPR were identified as well as SNPs for other traits. It might be feasible to include these SNPs into genomic tests of reproduction and other traits. The genes associated with DPR are likely to be

  18. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short

  19. Craniometrical estimation of the native Japanese Mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Daigo, M; Amasaki, H

    1989-01-01

    The present study on measurement of the skull of Mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native Japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. The data of the skull of Mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. Korean cattle (Hamhung, Pyongyang, Chinju Suwon, and Kwangju), Mongolian cattle, Hainan Tao cattle, northeastern Chinese cattle (Shuangliao, Shenyang, Tongliao, Lüta, and Chilin), Astatic Water Buffalo, Yak, Bos Banteng, American Bison, and Holstein-Friesian. The Mishima cattle was included in the group of Korean breeds, especially it was closed on the group of Pyongyang and Chinju breeds. The distance on the craniometrical multivariate analyzing co-ordinate between Mishima cattle and Hainan Tao breed of Zebu cattle was larger than the distance between Mishima cattle and Korean breeds. While result, as a above the present study was very important for the origin of "Wagyu" (native Japanese cattle). Since the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle has been reported on the type of serum enzymes and hemotypes. It was suggested that the craniometrical multivariate analysis supported to the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle. PMID:2764276

  20. Short communication: Short-term changes in stocking density did not alter meal characteristics of lactating Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Black, R A; Grant, R J; Krawczel, P D

    2016-08-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effect of short-term increases in stocking density and milking on meal duration, meal frequency, and time between meals and to determine the bioequivalence of different meal criterions in a competitive environment. Forty-eight Holstein dairy cows were allotted to 1 of 4 groups (n=12 per group). Stocking density treatments of 100 (one cow per freestall and headlock), 113, 131, and 142% were assigned to groups using a 4×4 Latin square with treatments imposed for 14-d periods. On d 11 of each period, feeding time was recorded for 24h using 10-min scan samples from direct observation. Meals were defined as repeated observations of eating with a maximum of 20, 30, or 40min of not eating between observations constituting the same meal. A new meal was established when a cow was observed feeding and then not feeding for greater than 2 (20min), 3 (30min), or 4 (40min) observations. To evaluate diurnal effects, the 24-h period of data was divided into 8-h intervals (based on milking time); morning (0400-1200h), afternoon (1200-2000h), and night (2000-0400h). Feed delivery occurred daily at 0430h, with feed pushed up throughout the day. A mixed linear model was used to determine the effect of stocking density and time of day on meals per day, meals per hour, meal duration, time between meals, and meal duration 2h before and after milking. Regardless of stocking density, meal duration, meal frequency, meals per hour, and time between meals did not differ. Regardless of stocking density, mean meal duration was longer during the morning and afternoon compared with night. Meal duration was also greater after milking compared with before milking, regardless of stocking density. These results suggest meal length decreased throughout the day, relative to feed delivery, with periodic increases in length due to return from milking. Meals per hour, meal duration before and after milking, and meal frequency established bioequivalence for the

  1. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  2. Identification of Vaccine Candidate Peptides in the NcSRS2 Surface Protein of Neospora caninum by Using CD4+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Gamma Interferon-Secreting T Lymphocytes of Infected Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Staska, Lauren M.; Davies, Christopher J.; Brown, Wendy C.; McGuire, Travis C.; Suarez, Carlos E.; Park, Joo Youn; Mathison, Bruce A.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Baszler, Timothy V.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, our laboratory showed that Holstein cattle experimentally infected with Neospora caninum develop parasite-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that lyse infected, autologous target cells through a perforin-granzyme pathway. To identify specific parasite antigens inducing bovine CTL and helper T-lymphocyte responses for vaccine development against bovine neosporosis, the tachyzoite major surface proteins NcSAG1 and NcSRS2 were targeted. In whole tachyzoite antigen-expanded bovine T-lymphocyte lines, recombinant NcSRS2 induced potent memory CD4+- and CD8+-T-lymphocyte activation, as indicated by proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion, while recombinant NcSAG1 induced a minimal memory response. Subsequently, T-lymphocyte epitope-bearing peptides of NcSRS2 were mapped by using overlapping peptides covering the entire NcSRS2 sequence. Four experimentally infected cattle with six different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II haplotypes were the source of immune cells used to identify NcSRS2 peptides presented by Holstein MHC haplotypes. NcSRS2 peptides were mapped by using IFN-γ secretion by rNcSRS2-stimulated, short-term T-lymphocyte cell lines, IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay of rNcSRS2-stimulated effector cells. Four N. caninum-infected Holstein cattle developed NcSRS2 peptide-specific T lymphocytes detected ex vivo in peripheral blood by IFN-γ ELISPOT and in vitro by measuring T-lymphocyte IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity. An immunodominant region of NcSRS2 spanning amino acids 133 to 155 was recognized by CD4+ T lymphocytes from the four cattle. These findings support investigation of subunit N. caninum vaccines incorporating NcSRS2 gene sequences or peptides for induction of NcSRS2 peptide-specific CTL and IFN-γ-secreting T lymphocytes in cattle with varied MHC genotypes. PMID:15731029

  3. Productivity and carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred Chinese Yellow Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Liu, L; Xiu, X L; Jian, H M; Wang, L Z; Sun, B Z; Tong, B S

    2001-08-01

    The carcass characteristics of 334 Chinese Yellow Cattle, and their Simmental and Limousin crosses, were investigated in abattoirs in Hebei and Sandong provinces of China. The overall slaughter age was 4.8±2.2 years at a mean liveweight of 527.28±77.0 kg. Mean ages and liveweights for Yellow Cattle and its crosses were, respectively, 5.29±2.03 and 2.85±1.71 years and 519.43±78.7 and 563.13±56.8 kg. Carcass weights varied considerably and, consequently, so did subcutaneous fat depths and dressing percentages. Overall, mean carcass weights, subcutaneous fat depths and, dressing percentages and eyemuscle areas were 283.9±64.1 kg, 14.0±8.0 mm, 54.0±4.0%, and 62.7 ±13.3 cm(2), respectively. Compared with pure Yellow Cattle, the crosses were slaughtered at younger age, and had larger live and carcass weights, higher dressing percentages, less subcutaneous fat depth and bigger eyemuscle areas. It is concluded that crossbreeding can significantly improve Yellow Cattle' meat productivity, however feeding systems need to be improved and an appropriate grading system developed to improve beef production and quality in China. PMID:22062425

  4. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but

  5. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0.01), angularity (P

  6. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabutr, N; Chanpongsang, S; Suadsong, S

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33 degrees C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28 degrees C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher (P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T(3)) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1

  7. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Chinese Beef Simmental Cattle Using High-density SNP Panels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, M.; Zhu, B.; Wang, Y. H.; Wu, Y.; Xu, L.; Guo, L. P.; Yuan, Z. R.; Zhang, L. P.; Gao, X.; Gao, H. J.; Xu, S. Z.; Li, J. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays an important role in genomic selection and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, the pattern of LD and effective population size (Ne) were investigated in Chinese beef Simmental cattle. A total of 640 bulls were genotyped with IlluminaBovinSNP50BeadChip and IlluminaBovinHDBeadChip. We estimated LD for each autosomal chromosome at the distance between two random SNPs of <0 to 25 kb, 25 to 50 kb, 50 to 100 kb, 100 to 500 kb, 0.5 to 1 Mb, 1 to 5 Mb and 5 to 10 Mb. The mean values of r2 were 0.30, 0.16 and 0.08, when the separation between SNPs ranged from 0 to 25 kb to 50 to 100 kb and then to 0.5 to 1 Mb, respectively. The LD estimates decreased as the distance increased in SNP pairs, and increased with the increase of minor allelic frequency (MAF) and with the decrease of sample sizes. Estimates of effective population size for Chinese beef Simmental cattle decreased in the past generations and Ne was 73 at five generations ago. PMID:25049849

  8. Impact of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus origins on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution o...

  9. Visualization of the transmission of direct genomic values for paternal and maternal chromosomes for 15 traits in U.S. Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable haplotypes are available for 171,420 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in April 2012. Differences in least-squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lif...

  10. A whole genome association analysis identified loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in U.S. Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome SNP assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont were fo...

  11. Trends in International Flow of Holstein Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein genes spread from Europe to much of the world through live cattle more than 100 yr ago. By the advent of artificial insemination, selection emphasis in North America had led to a specialized dairy strain that was in demand internationally. From 1995, genetic evaluations through Interbull mo...

  12. Genetic Variants in SDC3 Gene are Significantly Associated with Growth Traits in Two Chinese Beef Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the genes and polymorphisms underlying quantitative traits, and understanding these genes and polymorphisms affect economic growth traits, are important for successful marker-assisted selection and more efficient management strategies in commercial cattle (Bos taurus) population. Syndecan-3 (SDC3), a member of the syndecan family of type I transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans is a novel regulator of feeding behavior and body weight. The aim of this study is to examine the association of the SDC3 polymorphism with growth traits in Chinese Jiaxian and Qinchuan cattle breeds (). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were detected in 555 cows from three Chinese native cattle breeds by means of sequencing pooled DNA samples and polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. We found one SNP (g.28362A > G) in intron and three SNPs (g.30742T > G, g.30821C > T and 33418 A > G) in exons. The statistical analyses indicated that these SNPs of SDC3 gene were associated with bovine body height, body length, chest circumference, and circumference of cannon bone (P < 0.05). The mutant-type variant was superior for growth traits; the heterozygote was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our result confirms the polymorphisms in the SDC3 gene are associated with growth traits that may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:27119984

  13. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-01-01

    The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH) is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp) fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the T- or C-containing loci (designated as pGL3-T and pGL3-C) were transiently transfected into MLTC-1 to test the effect of SNP on HIBADH expression. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the pGL3-T genotype exhibited 58% higher transcriptional activity than the pGL3-C genotype (P < 0.05). The bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the methylation pattern of the core promoter presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen in high-motility and low-motility bulls. The results demonstrated for the first time that the g.-165 T>C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity. PMID:26133183

  14. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Chunhong; Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-01-01

    The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH) is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp) fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the T- or C-containing loci (designated as pGL3-T and pGL3-C) were transiently transfected into MLTC-1 to test the effect of SNP on HIBADH expression. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the pGL3-T genotype exhibited 58% higher transcriptional activity than the pGL3-C genotype (P < 0.05). The bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the methylation pattern of the core promoter presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen in high-motility and low-motility bulls. The results demonstrated for the first time that the g.-165 T>C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity. PMID:26133183

  15. Short communication: Analysis of genomic predictor population for Holstein dairy cattle in the United States--Effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2015-04-01

    Increased computing time for the ever-growing predictor population and linkage decay between the ancestral population and current animals have become concerns for genomic evaluation systems. The effects on reliability of US genomic evaluations from including cows and bulls in the Holstein predictor population and also from excluding older bulls from the predictor population were examined. Holstein data collected for December 2013 US genomic evaluations were used in cutoff studies to determine reliability gains, regression coefficients, and bias for 5 yield, 3 fitness, 2 fertility, and 18 conformation traits. Three predictor populations were examined based on animal sex: 30,852 cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, 21,883 bulls with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, and a combined group of all bulls and cows. Three subsets of the bull predictor population were examined to determine effect of age: bulls born before 1996 excluded (25% of bulls excluded), bulls born before 2001 excluded (50%), and bulls born before 2005 excluded (75%). The validation set for all predictor populations was either bulls or cows first receiving a traditional evaluation between August 2012 and December 2013. Across all traits, the addition of cows to the bull predictor population increased reliability gains by 0.4 percentage points for validation bulls and 4.4 points for validation cows. Across all traits, excluding bulls born before 1996 from the bull-only predictor population decreased gains in genomic reliability by 1.8 percentage points. For 19 of 28 traits, excluding bulls born before 2005 from the predictor population resulted in lower bias in genomic evaluations of validation bulls. Although the contribution of cows and older bulls to improved accuracy of US genomic evaluations is small, a plateau of achievable gain has not yet been reached. PMID:25648811

  16. Effects of misty-fan cooling and supplemental rbST on rumen function and milk production of crossbred Holstein cattle during early, mid and late lactation in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Wilaiporn; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2010-04-01

    Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505

  17. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. PMID:24612798

  18. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of

  19. Association analysis of bovine Foxa2 gene single sequence variant and haplotype combinations with growth traits in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Li, Mijie; Wang, Shaoqiang; Xu, Yao; Lan, Xianyong; Li, Zhuanjian; Lei, Chuzhao; Yang, Dongying; Jia, Yutang; Chen, Hong

    2014-02-25

    Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) has been recognized as one of the most potent transcriptional activators that is implicated in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, similar researches about the effects of genetic variations of Foxa2 gene on growth traits are lacking. Therefore, this study detected Foxa2 gene polymorphisms by DNA pool sequencing, PCR-RFLP and PCR-ACRS methods in 822 individuals from three Chinese cattle breeds. The results showed that four sequence variants (SVs) were screened, including two mutations (SV1, g. 7005 C>T and SV2, g. 7044 C>G) in intron 4, one mutation (SV3, g. 8449 A>G) in exon 5 and one mutation (SV4, g. 8537 T>C) in the 3'UTR. Notably, association analysis of the single mutations with growth traits in total individuals (at 24months) revealed that significant statistical difference was found in four SVs, and SV4 locus was highly significantly associated with growth traits throughout all three breeds (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Meanwhile, haplotype combination CCCCAGTC also indicated remarkably associated to better chest girth and body weight in Jiaxian Red cattle (P<0.05). We herein described a comprehensive study on the variability of bovine Foxa2 gene that was predictive of molecular markers in cattle breeding for the first time. PMID:24333857

  20. Towards muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle: A proteomic insight into post-mortem storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Qian-Qian; Fu, Yu; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Jia, Fei; Li, Xing-Min; Dai, Rui-Tong

    2016-09-16

    Searching for potential predictors of meat color is a challenging task for the meat industry. In this study, the relationship between meat color parameters and the sarcoplasmic proteome of M. longissimuss lumborum (LL) and M. psoas major (PM) from Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage (0, 5, 10 and 15days) were explored with the aid of the integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. Meat color attributes revealed that LL displayed better color stability than PM during storage. Furthermore, sarcoplasmic proteins of these two muscles were compared between days 5, 10, 15 and day 0. Several proteins were closely correlated with meat color attributes and they were muscle-specific and responsible for the meat color stability at different storage periods. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform, glycogen phosphorylase, peroxiredoxin-2, phosphoglucomutase-1, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], heat shock cognate protein (71kDa) might serve as the candidate predictors of meat color stability during post-mortem storage. In addition, bioinformatics analyses indicated that more proteins were involved in glycolytic metabolism of LL, which contributed to better meat color stability of LL than PM. The present results could provide a proteomic insight into muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage. PMID:26546560

  1. Effect of ultimate pH on postmortem myofibrillar protein degradation and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5 h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

  2. Effect of Ultimate pH on Postmortem Myofibrillar Protein Degradation and Meat Quality Characteristics of Chinese Yellow Crossbreed Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5 h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

  3. Genomic signatures of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection in Holstein cattle has achieved tremendous phenotypic changes over the past 40 years. However, it is unknown how selection has changed the Holstein genome and how those genome signatures of selection are associated with the phenotypic changes. To categorize genome regions either affected o...

  4. Polymorphisms in the 5' upstream region of the CXCR1 chemokine receptor gene, and their association with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle in Canada.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Baca, I; Schenkel, F; Martin, J; Karrow, N A

    2008-01-01

    Identification of regulatory elements in 5' regions of chemokine genes is fundamental for understanding chemokine gene expression in response to infection diseases. The CXCR1 receptor is expressed on the surface of neutrophils and interacts primarily with CXCL8 (IL-8), the most potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. The aim of this study was to characterize the 5' upstream region (2.1 kb) of the bovine CXCR1 chemokine receptor gene for polymorphism content and to identify in silico potential transcription-factor binding sites. The 5' flanking region was found by mining the NCBI GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). A DNA sequence from the whole genome shotgun sequence project with reference number AC150887.4 contained the CXCR1 5' flanking sequence. Computer analysis revealed potential binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), binding factor GATA-1, barbiturate inducible element (Barbie), nuclear factor of activated T-cells, and activator protein 1. Polymorphism discovery in this region was conducted by constructing an inclusive DNA pool including 2 phenotypic extreme groups, 20 bulls with high estimated breeding values (EBV) for somatic cell score (SCS), and 20 bulls with low EBV for SCS. Independent amplicons along the 5' flanking region of bovine CXCR1 were generated for polymorphism discovery by sequencing. Three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), CXCR1c.-344T>C, CXCR1c.-1768T>A, and CXCR1c.-1830A>G, and a previously identified SNP in the coding region, CXCR1c.777G>C, were identified. The 4 SNP were genotyped in Canadian Holstein bulls (n = 338) using tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR. Average allele substitution effects were estimated to investigate associations between the 4 SNP and EBV for SCS in first, second, and third and later lactations. Multiple trait analysis revealed that the SNP CXCR1c.-1768T>A was associated with EBV for SCS in the first and second lactations and over all 3

  5. Detection of genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties in Danish Holstein dairy cattle by analyses of pooled whole-genome sequences from phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, H P; Gregersen, V R; Poulsen, N; Nielsen, R O; Das, A; Madsen, L B; Buitenhuis, A J; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Larsen, L B; Bendixen, C

    2016-04-01

    Rennet-induced milk coagulation is an important trait for cheese production. Recent studies have reported an alarming frequency of cows producing poorly coagulating milk unsuitable for cheese production. Several genetic factors are known to affect milk coagulation, including variation in the major milk proteins; however, recent association studies indicate genetic effects from other genomic regions as well. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties, measured as curd-firming rate (CFR) and milk pH. This was achieved by examining allele frequency differences between pooled whole-genome sequences of phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).. Curd-firming rate and raw milk pH were measured for 415 Danish Holstein cows, and each animal was sequenced at low coverage. Pools were created containing whole genome sequence reads from samples with "extreme" values (high or low) for both phenotypic traits. A total of 6,992,186 and 5,295,501 SNP were assessed in relation to CFR and milk pH, respectively. Allele frequency differences were calculated between pools and 32 significantly different SNP were detected, 1 for milk pH and 31 for CFR, of which 19 are located on chromosome 6. A total of 9 significant SNP, which were selected based on the possible function of proximal candidate genes, were genotyped in the entire sample set ( = 415) to test for an association. The most significant SNP was located proximal to , explaining 33% of the phenotypic variance. , coding for κ-casein, is the most studied in relation to milk coagulation due to its position on the surface of the casein micelles and the direct involvement in milk coagulation. Three additional SNP located on chromosome 6 showed significant associations explaining 7, 3.6, and 1.3% of the phenotypic variance of CFR. The significant SNP on chromosome 6 were shown to be in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP peaking proximal to ; however, after accounting for the genotype of

  6. SNP exploring in the middle and terminal regions of the IGF-1 gene and association with production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammadi, A; Zamani, P

    2014-04-25

    Five primer sets were designed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in middle and terminal exons (2 to 6) and in some flanking intronic regions of the bovine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene. Sequencing results of PCR products for 10% of animals showed no variant in exons but a SNP at intron 4 was occurred. Both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and high resolution melting (HRM) methods were developed to genotype samples. The PCR-RFLP results showed the presence of three fragments on agarose gel for the C allele due to two cleavage sites while two fragments for the T allele were observed. Melting curves of 123bp fragments in HRM analysis showed a difference between temperature melting (Tm) of two homozygous genotypes as the CC genotypes had higher Tm than the TT genotypes. Melting curve of the CT genotype was different and crossed two parallel patterns of homozygous genotypes. The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 0.6, 0.37 and 0.03, respectively. Also, the estimated allele frequencies were 0.785 and 0.215 for the C and T alleles, respectively. Results showed higher accuracy of the HRM analysis compared to the PCR-RFLP method. Least square means (LSMs) comparison of the different genotypes in the SNP showed significant association with milk fat yield trait in the first lactation and open days after the second calving. The polymorphism did not have a significant effect on other milk production or reproduction traits. It seems that other variants or QTLs known in this region underlie genetic variation in the production and reproduction of dairy cattle. PMID:24530703

  7. Effect of Genetic Variations within the I-mfa Gene on the Growth Traits of Chinese Cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Lan, Xian-Yong; Qi, Xing-Lei; Chen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    I-mfa (inhibitor of the MyoD family a) is a transcription modulator that binds to MyoD family members and inhibits their transcriptional activities. It is highly expressed in the sclerotome and plays an important role in the patterning of the somite early in development. In this study, the polymorphisms of the bovine I-mfa gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA pool sequencing methods in 541 individuals from three Chinese cattle breeds. The results showed that P3 locus had two novel complete linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (NC_007324.4:g.12284A>G and g.12331T>C), resulting in a missense mutation p.S(AGC)113G(GGC) and a synonymous mutation p.H(CAT)128H(CAC), respectively. P4 locus had a novel SNP (NC_007324.4: g.16432C>A), which resulted in a nonsense mutation p.C(TGC)241X(TGA). The statistical analyses indicated that the three SNPs, are associated with the phenotypic traits in Luxi (LX), Qinchuan (QC), and Jiaxian (JX) cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mutant-type variants were superior for growth traits; the heterozygote diplotype was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the I-mfa gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program. PMID:27565872

  8. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  9. Congenital aganglionosis in a 3-day-old Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Necropsy of a 3-day-old Holstein heifer revealed proximal megacolon and distal colorectal hypoplasia. Histologically, the hypoplastic distal colon and rectum lacked submucosal and myenteric ganglia. Clinical history, physical examination, and pathologic findings were consistent with intestinal aganglionosis, a congenital anomaly well documented in humans and foals but not previously reported in cattle. PMID:15943121

  10. Comparison of enzyme activities in plasma and leukocytes in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Arai, Toshiro; Inoue, Akira; Takeguchi, Akira; Mizutani, Hisashi; Shimoo, Megumi; Sako, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Itaru; Kimura, Nobuhiro

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and free fatty acid (FFA) and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern in plasma and leukocytes were investigated in lactating Holstein cows (dairy cattle) and fattening Japanese Black Wagyu x Holstein steers (beef cattle). IRI concentrations and LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in the plasma of beef cattle were significantly higher than those in dairy cattle. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/LDH activity in the leukocytes of beef cattle was significantly higher than that of dairy cattle. These findings might be associated with the different energy metabolism between dairy and beef cattle. PMID:14665755

  11. Hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Negrão, J A

    2008-03-01

    There are several different milking management systems in Latin America, because Gir cattle are reputed to be easily stressed and not well adapted to machine-milking. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir cows and their cross-bred offspring. Several experiments were performed to study oxytocin release during exclusive suckling or exclusive hand- and machine-milking, oxytocin, and prolactin release during a mixed suckling-milking system and oxytocin release after weaning. Cortisol concentrations and behavior were also examined. Concentration of oxytocin, released during suckling, and both types of milking were high, but the maximum concentration measured during suckling was significantly greater than that observed during exclusive milking. In the mixed suckling-milking system, the greatest oxytocin and prolactin releases were measured during suckling. Cortisol concentrations measured before, during, and after milking demonstrated that Gir x Holstein and Holstein cows were not stressed. On the other hand, although Gir had greater concentrations of cortisol, the percentage of residual milk for Gir cows was less than for dairy cows exposed to different stressful situations. In general, Gir cows and their crossbred offspring adapted to machine-milking, although these breeds can react negatively to milkers. Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows all had similar cortisol levels during and after milking. PMID:17878278

  12. Association of HSL gene E1-c.276C>T and E8-c.51C>T mutation with economical traits of Chinese Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Fang, X B; Zhang, L P; Yu, X Z; Li, J Y; Lu, C Y; Zhao, Z H; Yang, R J

    2014-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is responsible for the decomposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue to release free fatty acids, and it is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the regulation of adipose tissue deposition and decomposition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine HSL gene and carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two novel SNPs were genotyped and the 47 traits of carcass and meat quality traits were measured in the population studied. Statistical analysis revealed that the SNPs of HSL gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The individuals with TT genotypes of E1-276C>T showed significant higher dressing percentage, net meat rate, hind legs circumference, fat coverage rate, mesenteric fat and kidney fat (p < 0.05). E8-51C>T (P17S) also showed a significant association with the pH of beef and fatty acids content in Chinese Simmental cattle (p < 0.01). Our findings indicated that polymorphisms in HSL might be one of important genetic factors that influence carcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production. PMID:24213829

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

  14. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  15. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (p<0.05) in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo. Water contents of the top round muscle was higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity, protein content and CIE L* (lightness) of both muscles were higher in the Holstein than in the Hanwoo veal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of both the muscles were lower in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  16. The Slick Hair Coat Locus Maps to Bovine Chromosome 20 in Senepol Derived Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to maintain normal temperatures during heat stress is an important attribute for cattle in the subtropics and tropics. Previous studies have shown that Senepol cattle and their crosses with the Holstein, Charolais and Angus breeds are as heat tolerant as Brahman cattle. This has been att...

  17. Mineral retention of serially slaughtered Holstein steers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein steers (n = 115; 449 ± 20 kg) were utilized in a serial harvest trial measuring Ca, P, Mg, K, and S retention. A baseline group of 5 steers was harvested after 226 days on feed, which was designated d 0. Remaining cattle were assigned to 11 harvest groups, with slaughter every 28 d. Prio...

  18. Retrofitting genetic-economic indexes to demonstrate responses to selection across 2 generations of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that would have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein bulls were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25 cow groups ...

  19. Response to alternative genetic-economic indices for Holsteins across 2 generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that could have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein AI bulls (106,471) were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25...

  20. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...

  1. The Impact of Variable Degrees of Freedom and Scale Parameters in Bayesian Methods for Genomic Prediction in Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Zhu, Miao; Jiang, Jicai; Niu, Hong; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Yang; Xu, Lingyang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Three conventional Bayesian approaches (BayesA, BayesB and BayesCπ) have been demonstrated to be powerful in predicting genomic merit for complex traits in livestock. A priori, these Bayesian models assume that the non-zero SNP effects (marginally) follow a t-distribution depending on two fixed hyperparameters, degrees of freedom and scale parameters. In this study, we performed genomic prediction in Chinese Simmental beef cattle and treated degrees of freedom and scale parameters as unknown with inappropriate priors. Furthermore, we compared the modified methods (BayesFA, BayesFB and BayesFCπ) with their corresponding counterparts using simulation datasets. We found that the modified methods with distribution assumed to the two hyperparameters were beneficial for improving the predictive accuracy. Our results showed that the predictive accuracies of the modified methods were slightly higher than those of their counterparts especially for traits with low heritability and a small number of QTLs. Moreover, cross-validation analysis for three traits, namely carcass weight, live weight and tenderloin weight, in 1136 Simmental beef cattle suggested that predictive accuracy of BayesFCπ noticeably outperformed BayesCπ with the highest increase (3.8%) for live weight using the cohort masking cross-validation. PMID:27139889

  2. The Impact of Variable Degrees of Freedom and Scale Parameters in Bayesian Methods for Genomic Prediction in Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Zhu, Miao; Jiang, Jicai; Niu, Hong; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Yang; Xu, Lingyang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Three conventional Bayesian approaches (BayesA, BayesB and BayesCπ) have been demonstrated to be powerful in predicting genomic merit for complex traits in livestock. A priori, these Bayesian models assume that the non-zero SNP effects (marginally) follow a t-distribution depending on two fixed hyperparameters, degrees of freedom and scale parameters. In this study, we performed genomic prediction in Chinese Simmental beef cattle and treated degrees of freedom and scale parameters as unknown with inappropriate priors. Furthermore, we compared the modified methods (BayesFA, BayesFB and BayesFCπ) with their corresponding counterparts using simulation datasets. We found that the modified methods with distribution assumed to the two hyperparameters were beneficial for improving the predictive accuracy. Our results showed that the predictive accuracies of the modified methods were slightly higher than those of their counterparts especially for traits with low heritability and a small number of QTLs. Moreover, cross-validation analysis for three traits, namely carcass weight, live weight and tenderloin weight, in 1136 Simmental beef cattle suggested that predictive accuracy of BayesFCπ noticeably outperformed BayesCπ with the highest increase (3.8%) for live weight using the cohort masking cross-validation. PMID:27139889

  3. Effectiveness of a 95 SNP panel for the screening of breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market.

    PubMed

    Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Lirón, J P; Prando, A J; Vaca, R J A; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G

    2016-01-01

    Breed assignment has proved to be useful to control meat trade and protect the value of special productions. Meat-related frauds have been detected in China; therefore, 95 SNPs selected from the ISAG core panel were evaluated to develop an automated and technologically updated tool to screen breed label fraud in the Chinese meat market. A total of 271 animals from four Chinese yellow cattle (CYC) populations, six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus and one composite were used. The allocation test distinguished European, Japanese and Zebu breeds, and two Chinese genetic components. It correctly allocated Japanese Black, Zebu and British breeds in 100, 90 and 89% of samples, respectively. CYC evidenced the Zebu, Holstein and Limousin introgression. The test did not detect CYC components in any of the 25 samples from Argentinean butchers. The method could be useful to certify Angus, Hereford and Japanese Black meat, but a modification in the panel would be needed to differentiate other breeds. PMID:26334371

  4. Effect of suspension method on meat quality and ultra-structure of Chinese Yellow Cattle under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Liang, Rongrong; Zhang, Yimin; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Han, Guangxing; Luo, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of suspension method under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling on quality traits and ultra-structure of Chinese Yellow Cattle M. Longissimus lumborum (LL). After slaughter, the right sides of carcasses were hung by the Achilles tendon (SA), while the left sides were hung from the pelvic bone (SP). Both sides went through the 12-18°C pre-rigor muscle temperature controlled chilling. LL muscles were aged for 1, 7 or 14days and then evaluated for quality traits and ultra-structure. SP had no significant effect on myofibril fragmentation index, but significantly decreased the purge loss during aging and the Warner-Bratzler shear force values after aging for 1day. Electron microscopy and sarcomere length examination of LL showed that SP resulted in extended I-bands and sarcomere length. To conclude, applying SP under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a potential method for the Chinese beef industry to improve tenderness especially after 1day of aging. PMID:26826666

  5. A global view of the transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue in Chinese Qinchuan cattle using RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue development, we constructed a transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue by RNA sequencing. Samples were collected from Chinese Qinchuan fetuses, as well as adult heifers, bulls, and steers. We unambiguously detected a substantial numb...

  6. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  7. Assessment of biodiversity in Chilean cattle using the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II BoLA-DRB3 allele.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Miyasaka, T; Matsumoto, Y; Xue, G; Diaz, V de la Barra; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Giovambattista, G; Ortiz, M; Oltra, J; Kanemaki, M; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease. PMID:25430590

  8. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  9. Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 °C to achieve core temperature of 0 °C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 °C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 °C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 °C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. PMID:22857853

  10. A case of asymmetrical monocephalus dipygus (tetrapus dibrachius) in a male Holstein calf in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Marzban Abbasabadi, Behrokh; Ahmadzadeh, Aliakbar; Ramezanpour, Shahab; Hajati Ziabari, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Dipygus is a teratological fetus with a double pelvis, genitals, and extremities. Congenital duplications in cattle are rare. Caudal duplication is more common in sheep and pigs while cranial duplications seem to be predominant in cattle. Asymmetric or parasitic conjoined twins consisting of an incomplete twin (parasite) attached to the body of a fully-developed twin (autosite). This report deals with a male Holstein calf with two extra limbs, in the pelvic region which were directed ventrally between the two normal hind limbs. The extra limbs were completely developed in one side and in other side just a bony mass were observed. So classification has been made as asymmetrical attached twins. The genital system was not affected and just one extra kidney-like structure was found. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first report of asymmetrical monocephalus dipygus (tetrapus dibrachius) in a male Holstein calf in Iran. PMID:27482365

  11. A case of asymmetrical monocephalus dipygus (tetrapus dibrachius) in a male Holstein calf in Iran.

    PubMed

    Marzban Abbasabadi, Behrokh; Ahmadzadeh, Aliakbar; Ramezanpour, Shahab; Hajati Ziabari, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Dipygus is a teratological fetus with a double pelvis, genitals, and extremities. Congenital duplications in cattle are rare. Caudal duplication is more common in sheep and pigs while cranial duplications seem to be predominant in cattle. Asymmetric or parasitic conjoined twins consisting of an incomplete twin (parasite) attached to the body of a fully-developed twin (autosite). This report deals with a male Holstein calf with two extra limbs, in the pelvic region which were directed ventrally between the two normal hind limbs. The extra limbs were completely developed in one side and in other side just a bony mass were observed. So classification has been made as asymmetrical attached twins. The genital system was not affected and just one extra kidney-like structure was found. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first report of asymmetrical monocephalus dipygus (tetrapus dibrachius) in a male Holstein calf in Iran. PMID:27482365

  12. Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits in Chinese beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-09-01

    The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.01 for G275A and G277C, P < 0.05 for G280A and C281G). Five haplotypes for the 4 SNPs were constructed and their effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle. PMID:26232928

  13. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...

  14. Genomic signatures reveal geographic adaption and human selection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated geographic adaptation and human selection using high-density SNP data of five diverse cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-k...

  15. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472

  16. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2005-06-01

    Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature-humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evaporative heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects also are not accounted for in the THI. The Holstein dairy cow is the primary target of heat stress relief, followed by feedlot cattle. Heat stress may be estimated for a variety of conditions by thermal balance models. The models consist of animal-specific data (BW, metabolic heat production, tissue and coat insulation, skin water loss, coat depth, and minimal and maximal tidal volumes) and of general heat exchange equations. A thermal balance simulation model was modified to adapt it for Holstein cows by using Holstein data for the animal characteristics in the model, and was validated by comparing its outputs to experimental data. Model outputs include radiant, convective, skin evaporative, respiratory heat loss and rate of change of body temperature. Effects of milk production (35 and 45 kg/d), hair coat depth (3 and 6 mm), air temperature (20 to 45 degrees C), air velocity (0.2 to 2.0 m/s), air humidity (0.8 to 3.9 kPa), and exposed body surface (100, 75, and 50%) on thermal balance outputs were examined. Environmental conditions at which respiratory heat loss attained approximately 50% of its maximal value were defined as thresholds for intermediate heat stress. Air velocity increased and humidity significantly decreased threshold temperatures, particularly at higher coat depth. The effect of air velocity was amplified at high humidity. Increasing milk production from 35 to 45 kg/d decreased threshold temperature by 5 degrees C. In the lying cow, the lower air velocity in the proximity of body surface and the smaller exposed surface markedly decrease threshold

  17. Copy number variations related to reproduction traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) is one of important reproduction traits that affect overall profitability in dairy industry. However, historical selection for production and conformation rather than reproduction has resulted in a decline in cow fertility. Genomic structural variation including copy nu...

  18. GENOME SIGNATURES OF ARTIFICIAL SELECTION IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection has been practiced for generations to enhance animal or plant species for specific desirable traits. However, very little is known at the molecular level about how intensive or prolonged selection affects genome sub-structure. Such investigations are typically limited by the a...

  19. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

  20. [Genotype identification by kappa-casein and BLAD mutation using the polymerase chain reaction in cattle. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kirilenko, S D; Glazko, V I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of BLAD mutation and genotypes for kappa-casein locus in groups of imported Holstein and Simmentals, as well as in Ukrainian Black-and-White cattle was carried out. The carriers of BLAD mutation were not detected. The frequencies of allelic B variant of kappa-casein (valuable trait associated with high the production of top quality cheese) were similar in both groups of imported cattle and substantially higher in Ukrainian cattle. PMID:8713837

  1. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.

    PubMed

    Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F

    2010-03-01

    Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from

  2. A limited number of Y chromosome lineages is present in North American Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Dechow, Chad; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    Holsteins are the most numerous dairy cattle breed in North America and the breed has undergone intensive selection for improving milk production and conformation. Theoretically, this intensive selection could lead to a reduction of the effective population size and reduced genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effective population size of the Holstein Y chromosome and the effects of limited Y chromosome lineages on male reproduction and the future of the breed. Paternal pedigree information of 62,897 Holstein bulls born between 1950 and 2013 in North America and 220,872 bulls evaluated by multiple-trait across-country genetic evaluations of Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the number of Y chromosome lineages in Holsteins has undergone a dramatic decrease during the past 50 years because of artificial selection and the application of artificial insemination (AI) technology. All current Holstein AI bulls in North America are the descendants of only 2 ancestors (Hulleman and Neptune H) born in 1880. These 2 ancestral Y-lineages are continued through 3 dominant pedigrees from the 1960s; namely, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, and Penstate Ivanhoe Star, with a contribution of 48.78, 51.06, and 0.16% to the Holstein bull population in the 2010s, respectively. The Y-lineage of Penstate Ivanhoe Star is almost eliminated from the breed. The genetic variations in the 2 ancestral Y-lineages were evaluated among 257 bulls by determining the copy number variations (CNV) of 3 Y-linked gene families: PRAMEY, HSFY, and ZNF280BY, which are spread along the majority (95%) of the bovine Y chromosome male-specific region (MSY). No significant difference was found between the 2 ancestral Y-lineages, although large CNV were observed within each lineage. This study suggests minimal genetic diversity on the Y chromosome in Holsteins and provides a starting point for investigating

  3. The Holstein polaron problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson–Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron–phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.

  4. No incidence of DUMPS carriers in Polish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Stanisław; Grzybowski, Grzegorz; Prusak, Beata; Ruść, Anna

    2005-01-01

    DUMPS (Deficiency of Uridine Monophosphate Synthase) is a hereditary recessive disorder in Holstein cattle causing early embryo mortality during its implantation in the uterus. The only way to avoid the economic losses is early detection of DUMPS carriers. Because American Holstein semen has been intensively imported to Poland since 1970, there was a risk that DUMPS could have spread in Polish dairy cattle. In our study, 2209 dairy cattle of the Polish Holstein breed have been screened by the DNA test. The dominant group was young bulls entering the testing program (1171) and proven bulls (781). They represented all sires entering Polish breeding programs between 1999 and 2003. Also, 257 sire dams were included in the screening program. No DUMPS carrier has been found. Our results then indicate that the population of dairy cattle reared in Poland is free from DUMPS. Because of the economical significance of the DUMPS mutation and its recessive mode of inheritance, attention has to be paid to any case of a bull having in his origin any known DUMPS carrier. Such a bull should be tested and if positive eliminated from the active population. Also, young bulls (testing bulls) should be screened for DUMPS if in their progeny a high incidence of embryo mortality is observed and their genealogy cannot exclude their relatedness to any DUMPS carriers. PMID:16278513

  5. Chromosome and sperm size of Holsteins with and without bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Steinholt, H C; Chandler, J E; Baron, R A; Adkinson, R W

    1994-05-01

    The objective was to evaluate bull differences in chromosomal and spermatozoal areas related to the occurrence of the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome. Lymphocyte chromosomes from 30 Holstein bulls and 2 Holstein heifers were measured using image analysis and computer-enhanced video-microscopy. Spermatozoal head areas from 29 of the 30 bulls were measured. Autosomal rank was based on decreasing area. Average total autosomal areas were not the same across bulls. One group of bulls had significantly smaller average chromosomal areas than the others; this group carried bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome. Area measures of spermatozoal heads showed that bulls with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome had significantly larger head areas than normal bulls. Lymphocyte chromosomes from 3 cattle that were homozygous for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome were significantly smaller than chromosomes from syndrome heterozygotes. Carrier identification was improved by the use of autosomal and sperm area measurements in addition to pedigree evaluation. PMID:8046065

  6. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Edward J; Nissing, Nick J; Grosz, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Findings Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR) where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP) of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. Conclusion These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins. PMID:19063733

  8. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. PMID:26779989

  9. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. PMID:27372581

  10. Cattle Differ in Ability to Adapt to Small Intestinal Digestion of Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-ruminal starch digestion on inflammatory response in dairy cattle. Six cull, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cannulated Holstein dairy cows (BW 804±101 kg) were fed a high forage diet ad libitum starting 15 d before the infusion p...

  11. [Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD)--a hereditary disease in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heckert, H P; Wittstatt, U; Hofmann, W

    1997-07-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is an autosomal recessive and lethal disease of Holstein-Friesian cattle. It is characterized by leukocytosis with more than 30,000 cells/microliter blood and decreased resistance to infectious diseases. Details of the history and pathological findings in three patients, the situation in the herd and breeding aspects are described. PMID:9312893

  12. Genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stillbirth (SB) has been associated with reduced milk yield, compromised reproductive performance, and decreased dam longevity. Genetic evaluations for stillbirth were initiated in 2006 for Holsteins (HO) in the US, but evaluations for Brown Swiss (BS) and Jersey (JE) cattle were not feasible at tha...

  13. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the US have been available for Brown Swiss, Holstein and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database, including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations, permitting the investigation and impleme...

  14. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  15. Whole-genome sequencing reveals the diversity of cattle copy number variations and multicopy genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural and functional impacts of copy number variations (CNVs) on livestock genomes are not yet well understood. We identified 1853 CNV regions using population-scale sequencing data generated from 75 cattle representing 8 breeds (Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, Romagnol...

  16. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  17. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    PubMed Central

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  18. Impact of potential changes to the current bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance programs for slaughter cattle and fallen stock in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Murray, Noel; Shinoda, Naoki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    Cattle slaughtered in Japan for human consumption, regardless of their age, have been tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) since October 2001. Beginning in April 2004, all fallen stock from 24 months of age also have been tested. We evaluated the impact of potential changes to the current BSE surveillance programs for both slaughter cattle and fallen stock using a simple stochastic model. We calculated the probability that a BSE-infected dairy cow, Wagyu beef animal, Wagyu-Holstein cross steer or heifer, or Holstein steer slaughtered for human consumption or arising as fallen stock would be tested and detected. Four surveillance strategies were explored for cattle slaughtered for human consumption, with the minimum age at testing set at 0, 21, 31, or 41 months. Three surveillance strategies were explored for fallen stock, with the minimum age at testing set at 24, 31, or 41 months. Increasing the minimum age of testing from 0 to 21 months for both dairy cattle and Wagyu beef cattle had very little impact on the probability that a BSE-infected animal slaughtered for human consumption would be detected. Although increasing the minimum age at testing from 21 to 31 or 41 months would lead to fewer slaughtered animals being tested, the impact on the probability of detecting infected animals would be insignificant. The probability of infected Wagyu-Holstein crosses and Holstein steers being detected at slaughter or as fallen stock would be very low under all surveillance strategies. PMID:19681270

  19. Comparing local and commercial breeds on functional traits and profitability: the case of Reggiana dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Maltecca, C; Pizzi, F; Bagnato, A; Rizzi, R

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fertility, longevity, milkability, and profitability of cows from the Reggiana and Holstein breeds in northern Italy. Profitability was gauged for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. Calving to first service interval, days open, and calving interval were significantly shorter in Reggiana than in Holstein cows. Reggiana cows conceived approximately one estrus cycle before Holstein and had a calving interval 33 d shorter. Holstein cows released a significantly higher quantity of milk per unit of time (1.81 vs. 1.28 kg/min). Reggiana cows had longer expected total and productive lives than Holstein cows, by 5.8 and 10.0 mo, respectively. Replacement rate was 26% higher in the Holstein. Standard 305-d milk production was 5,360 and 7,870 kg in Reggiana and Holstein, respectively. Comparing breeds on annual milk and meat production, instead of standard 305-d milk yield, changed marginally the difference in annual profitability between the Reggiana and Holstein, from -696 euros to -679 euros per cow per year. Including feeding, milking, replacement, and insemination costs reduced the gap between breeds by 32%, from -679 euros, measured on annual milk and meat production, to -460 euros. These differences in profitability assumed a pricing scenario referring to milk sold to the dairy industry where protein and fat contents are valued but not the breed origin of milk. Incentive payments to farmers of endangered cattle compensated partially (22%) the lower income from Reggiana cows. When Reggiana milk production was sold as branded Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, Reggiana cows were more profitable than Holstein cows by 1,953 euros per cow per year. PMID:17369242

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  1. Deleted copy number variation of Hanwoo and Holstein using next generation sequencing at the population level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variation (CNV), a source of genetic diversity in mammals, has been shown to underlie biological functions related to production traits. Notwithstanding, there have been few studies conducted on CNVs using next generation sequencing at the population level. Results Illumina NGS data was obtained for ten Holsteins, a dairy cattle, and 22 Hanwoo, a beef cattle. The sequence data for each of the 32 animals varied from 13.58-fold to almost 20-fold coverage. We detected a total of 6,811 deleted CNVs across the analyzed individuals (average length = 2732.2 bp) corresponding to 0.74% of the cattle genome (18.6 Mbp of variable sequence). By examining the overlap between CNV deletion regions and genes, we selected 30 genes with the highest deletion scores. These genes were found to be related to the nervous system, more specifically with nervous transmission, neuron motion, and neurogenesis. We regarded these genes as having been effected by the domestication process. Further analysis of the CNV genotyping information revealed 94 putative selected CNVs and 954 breed-specific CNVs. Conclusions This study provides useful information for assessing the impact of CNVs on cattle traits using NGS at the population level. PMID:24673797

  2. Independent polled mutations leading to complex gene expression differences in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

  3. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  4. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used. PMID:26062817

  5. Multiple tarsal luxations in 2 Holstein heifers

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Caroline; Nichols, Sylvain; Marchionatti, Emma; Lardé, Hélène; Olive, Julien; Fecteau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Two Holstein heifers were referred for non-weight bearing lameness. The physical examination and radiographic findings were diagnostic of tarsal luxation. Treatment and outcome are reported. A closed reduction was successfully performed in 1 heifer. The second animal was euthanized after attempts to reduce and stabilize the joint. PMID:26538677

  6. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  7. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of Guernsey cattle in North America, Great Britain, and the Isle of Guernsey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshire since 2013. As of January 2015, 2,263 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England and the Isle of G...

  8. Evaluation of sodium chlorate as a pre-harvest intervention for controlling Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate sodium chlorate as a potential pre-harvest intervention for reducing or eliminating Salmonella from the peripheral lymph nodes of experimentally-infected cattle. The peripheral lymph nodes of Holstein steers (approx. BW = 160 kg; 4 and 6 head in co...

  9. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due

  10. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  11. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  12. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  13. Multivariate analysis to evaluate genetic groups and production traits of crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Angelina Bossi; de Lima Silva, Fabiane; Hongyu, Kuang; Da Silva Santos, Darlim; Murphy, Thomas Wayne; Lopes, Fernando Brito

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to try to unveil the relationship between production traits and genotypic proportions of crossbred dairy cattle using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The herd consists of crossbred animals of Holstein (H) and Zebu (Z) (Gir and Guzerat) in different genotypic proportions; the composition of which varies from 12.5 to 100.0 % of the genetic group H. For this study, 834 milk production records from 257 cows from the years 1997 to 2014 were analyzed. The animals were all managed at a farm located in northeastern Brazil. The variables in the PCA were total milk yield per lactation (MY), milk yield adjusted to 305 days (MY305), lactation length (LL), and proportion of H and Z breeding. This analysis reduced the size of the sample space from the original five variables to two principal components (PCs) that together explained 89.4 % of the total variation. MY, MY305, LL, and genotypic proportion of H all contributed positively to PC1. The genotypic proportion of Z contributed negatively, which established a contrast between H and Z. Further cluster analysis identified two distinct groups when considering production performance and genotype of the animals. The high-performance group was predominantly Holstein breeding, while the lower performing group consisted mostly of Zebu. Under the environmental and management conditions in which this research was conducted, the best performances for the traits considered were achieved from cows whose genotypic proportion was between 38.0 and 94.0 % Holstein breeding. PMID:26719296

  14. Genome-Wide Estimates of Coancestry, Inbreeding and Effective Population Size in the Spanish Holstein Population

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia Teresa; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Delfino; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry) or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding). The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes. PMID:25880228

  15. Physicochemical traits of Holstein loin and top round veal from two slaughter age groups.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Park, Sang-Woon; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial quality of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. Semimembranosus) in Holstein veal produced from two slaughter age groups (5 and 8 months of age). A total of 20 Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm. The slaughtered cold carcasses were vacuum-packaged. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition and physicochemical analyses and stored for 1, 7, 10, 20 and 30 days for microbiological analyses. Fat and protein contents of loin for the 8 month group were higher than those for the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). For both loin and top round muscles, the pH, cooking loss and the shear force values for the 5 month group was higher than those for the 8 month group (p < 0.05). On the other hands, the water-holding capacity (WHC) for the 8 month group was higher than those for the 5 month group (p < 0.05). In terms of meat color, CIE L* (lightness) for both muscle were higher in the 5 month group than in the 8 month groups. On the other hands, a* (redness) were higher in the 8 month group than in the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). Total aerobic counts in all samples remained up to 30 days at values less than 7 log CFU/g. However, there was no significant difference for both muscles between the two age groups. The results indicate that Holstein muscles from the 8 month group had desirable quality properties than those from the 5 month group. PMID:26290744

  16. [Relationship between genotypes at MyoD locus and carcass traits in cattle].

    PubMed

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Shang-Zhong; Yue, Wen-Bin; Li, Jun-Ya; Gao, Xue; Ren, Hong-Yan

    2007-03-01

    A 261 bp sequence of the bovine MyoD gene intron 2 was cloned and was found to bear no similarities to the human MyoD gene sequence. Polymorphisms of the Myod gene in cattle including three Chinese breeds (Luxi cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle) and four cross-breeding populations (Limousin x Luxi cattle, Simmental x Luxi cattle, Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle) were detected by PCR-SSCP. Two SSCP alleles (A and B) were detected, which caused by a C-->T at 39 bp and a C-->G transition at 112 bp. Only two genotypes AA and AB occurred in the population. In Chinese local cattle, B allele was dominant, and this locus was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle. The association of these polymorphisms with cattle carcass traits was analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). Statistical analysis revealed a higher value of living weight, carcass weight and loin eye area for individuals with genotype AA than AB (P < 0.05). Further studies on a bigger population size are needed to confirm the observed effect of MyoD genotypes on carcass quality traits. PMID:17369152

  17. Giant hydronephrosis and secondary pyelonephritis induced by Salmonella dublin in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Taghipur Bazargani, T; Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Ashrafi, I; Abbassi, A M

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis occurs as a congenital or an acquired condition following obstruction of the urinary tract. In this study, a four month old male Holstein calf with emaciation, growth retardation and a poor dry scruffy hair coat was examined because of remarkable distention of right abdomen. At necropsy, right kidney was hydronephrotic as a very big fluid-filled round pelvis with the presence of multilocular cysts bulged from the cortical surface. With sectioning, more than 10 L of bloody fluid poured out from this sac. Microscopic examination showed severe atrophy of cortical tissue and fibrosis of the medulla. Also, the dilated pelvis was composed of fibrinous exudate and necrosis of epithelium associated with multifocal aggregations of neutrophils and bacterial microcolonies. In a culture and serotyping of isolated bacteria, Salmonella dublin was determined. In conclusion, S. dublin induced pyelonephritis secondary to congenital giant hydronephrosis is the first report in cattle in the world. PMID:27175163

  18. The noxious effects of electroimmobilization in adult Holstein cows: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N

    1986-01-01

    Ten adult Holstein cows were used in an experiment to determine whether the induction of electroimmobilization was a noxious event. The cows were halter trained and accustomed to being led into a set of stocks. The time taken for the cattle to walk the last ten metres into the stocks was recorded. The heart rate of the cow was recorded for a three minute period prior to a ten second exposure to a high pitched sound (the conditioning stimulus). Measurements were collected for three repetitions and then the cows were assigned to two groups of five. One group was immobilized for 30 seconds using a commercial electroimmobilizer, the other group was not treated. This procedure was repeated ten times over a period of eight days. The cows were then exposed to the conditioning stimulus and their response observed. The treated group took significantly (P less than 0.05) longer to get into the stocks and the regression slopes for heart rate were significantly different from the control group. The treated cows responded to the conditioning stimulus at five and nine months after the end of the conditioning period. Adult Holstein cows regarded electroimmobilization as a noxious event and were very strongly conditioned to this stimulus. PMID:3756681

  19. Reaction norm model to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in dairy cattle under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; El Faro, Lenira; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ayres, Denise Rocha; Machado, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Santana, Mário Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Reaction norm models have been widely used to study genotype by environment interaction (G × E) in animal breeding. The objective of this study was to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in Brazilian Holstein cows using a reaction norm approach. A total of 50,168 individual monthly test day (TD) milk yields (10 test days) from 7476 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. The statistical models for all traits (10 TDs and for 305-day milk yield) included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect), except for 305-day milk yield. A hierarchical reaction norm model (HRNM) based on the unknown covariate was used. The present study showed the presence of G × E in milk yield across first lactation of Holstein cows. The variation in the heritability estimates implies differences in the response to selection depending on the environment where the animals of this population are evaluated. In the average environment, the heritabilities for all traits were rather similar, in range from 0.02 to 0.63. The scaling effect of G × E predominated throughout most of lactation. Particularly during the first 2 months of lactation, G × E caused reranking of breeding values. It is therefore important to include the environmental sensitivity of animals according to the phase of lactation in the genetic evaluations of Holstein cattle in tropical environments. PMID:26143280

  20. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone....

  1. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone....

  2. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone....

  3. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone....

  4. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone....

  5. Genomic imputation and evaluation using high density Holstein genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations for 161,341 Holsteins were computed using 311,725 of the 777,962 markers on the Illumina high-density (HD) chip. Initial edits with 1,741 HD genotypes from 5 breeds revealed that 636,967 markers were usable but that half were redundant. Usable Holstein genotypes included 1,510 an...

  6. Potential consequences of selection on gestation length on Holstein performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were assessed also by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls, each with...

  7. Heritability estimates of performance and health traits of Holstein calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities of performance and health traits of Holstein calves. Data were available on 6410 AI sire-identified Holstein heifer calves reared at University of Minnesota, Southern Research and Outreach Center Calf and Heifer Research and Extension facili...

  8. Potential Consequences Of Selection On Gestation Length On Holstein Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper was to determine if genetic evaluations of Holstein gestation length (GL) were reliable and to assess potential consequences of selection for either shorter or longer GL by examining impact on performance in the subsequent lactation. Holstein bulls used to develop predict...

  9. Experimental Babesia bovis infection in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Everitt, J I; Shadduck, J A; Steinkamp, C; Clabaugh, G

    1986-09-01

    One intact and two splenectomized Holstein calves were infected intravenously with a Mexican strain of Babesia bovis and killed following the onset of severe clinical disease. A light and electron microscopic study was conducted on selected tissues to examine the relationship between parasitized erythrocytes and microvascular endothelial cells. The pattern and degree of specific organ sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes was assessed and correlated to lesions. Red blood cells infected with Babesia bovis exhibited stellate membrane protrusions. This morphological change appeared to mediate erythrocyte sequestration in the microvascular and capillary beds of the brain, kidney, and adrenal gland by an as yet unknown mechanism(s). PMID:3776013

  10. The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, A J; Shook, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Hilton, G G

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers, calf-fed Holstein carcasses (n = 102) were selected from a pool of 2,300 steers that were fed 0 or 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis) of ZH. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was supplemented the last 20 d of the finishing period and withdrawn for 3 d before slaughter. Carcasses were selected based on carcass weight as well as predetermined USDA Yield grade categories. For tenderness evaluation, steaks from the strip loin, bottom round, and top round (n = 54 per subprimal) were aged for 14 or 21 d postmortem. Carcasses from ZH-fed steers had more (P < 0.01) saleable yield than carcasses from control-fed steers. Additionally, ZH-fed steers had greater (P < or = 0.01) subprimal yield from the shoulder clod, strip loin, peeled tenderloin, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin tri-tip, peeled knuckle, inside round, bottom round flat, eye of round, heel, and shank. Furthermore, ZH decreased (P < 0.01) the total amount and percentage of bone and fat trim from the carcass. Moisture loss was not affected by ZH in LM or inside round steaks (P > 0.05); however, ZH increased thawing loss (P = 0.05) but reduced cooking loss (P = 0.05) in bottom round steaks. Shear force values of LM and inside round steaks increased with ZH inclusion (P < 0.01), but there was no difference in bottom round steaks (P > 0.05). Steaks aged for 21 d had smaller (P < 0.01) Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) values than 14-d steaks from all 3 subprimals. Trained sensory panelists did not detect any differences (P > 0.05) in sensory juiciness, tenderness, or flavor variables of LM or inside round steaks, except ZH steaks from the LM received smaller scores for sustained juiciness (P = 0.01) and overall tenderness (P = 0.04) than control steaks. Although LM steaks from ZH cattle were tougher than control steaks, the ZH-treated steaks had an average WBS value of 4.10 kg, which would be classified as intermediate