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1

Genome wide association studies for body conformation traits in the Chinese Holstein cattle population  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for revealing the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, studies using GWAS for conformation traits of cattle is comparatively less. This study aims to use GWAS to find the candidates genes for body conformation traits. Results The Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with body conformation traits. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was applied to detect multiple SNPs simultaneously for 29 body conformation traits with 1,314 Chinese Holstein cattle and 52,166 SNPs. Totally, 59 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were detected by genome-wide association analysis; five SNPs were within previously reported QTL regions (Animal Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database) and 11 were very close to the reported SNPs. Twenty-two SNPs were located within annotated gene regions, while the remainder were 0.6–826 kb away from known genes. Some of the genes had clear biological functions related to conformation traits. By combining information about the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, we identified DARC, GAS1, MTPN, HTR2A, ZNF521, PDIA6, and TMEM130 as the most promising candidate genes for capacity and body depth, chest width, foot angle, angularity, rear leg side view, teat length, and animal size traits, respectively. We also found four SNPs that affected four pairs of traits, and the genetic correlation between each pair of traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.86, suggesting that these SNPs may have a pleiotropic effect on each pair of traits. Conclusions A total of 59 significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were identified in the Chinese Holstein population. Six promising candidate genes were suggested, and four SNPs showed genetic correlation for four pairs of traits. PMID:24341352

2013-01-01

2

Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Results Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P < 0.05), and 2 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1 and SNP Ex12-3 with protein yield (P < 0.05). Furthermore, our haplotype-based association analyses indicated that haplotypes G-C-C, formed by SNP Ex12-2-SNP Int11-1-SNP Ex11-1, T-G, formed by SNP Int9-3-SNP Int9-2, and C-C, formed by SNP Int5-1-SNP Int3-1, are significantly associated with protein percentage (F=4.15; P=0.0418) and fat percentage (F=5.18~7.25; P=0.0072~0.0231). Finally, by using an in vitro expression assay, we demonstrated that the A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1of UGDH significantly decreases the expression of UGDH by 68.0% at the RNA, and 50.1% at the protein level, suggesting that SNP Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 represent two functional polymorphisms affecting expression of UGDH and may partly contributed to the observed association of the gene with milk production traits in our samples. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits. PMID:23122059

2012-01-01

3

Perosomus elumbis in Danish Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

BackgroundPerosomus elumbis (PE) is a congenital defect that has been observed sporadically in Holstein cattle for many years. However, several cases have been reported in recent years and this may indicate an unrecognised spread of a mutant allele in the Holstein population worldwide. Two cases in Danish Holstein calves are reported to provide details on the phenotype.Case presentationTwo full-term Holstein calves were born after assisted delivery due to dystocia with breech presentation. External morphological examination indicated that the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae were absent and the abdominal region was just present as a floppy sac covered by skin and enclosing the abdominal organs. The hind limbs were hypoplastic with bilateral symmetric arthrogryposis and muscular atrophy. Radiographs, computed tomography scan and necropsy confirmed these findings. The caudal part of the thoracic spinal cord showed myelodysplasia. A range of abdominal organ malformations were found at necropsy. Inbreeding was not found during genealogical examination, but remote shared ancestors were present in the pedigrees.ConclusionThe addition of these further cases of PE to the in recent years reported record of cases should draw more attention to this defect in the Holstein breed. PE may be an emerging genetic defect in the Holstein population worldwide and cases should be sampled to enable genetic mapping of the gene possibly underlying the disease. PE cases seem to be associated with a high risk of dystocia due to increased rate of breech presentation. PMID:25253618

Agerholm, Jørgen S; Holm, Wendy; Schmidt, Mette; Hyttel, Poul; Fredholm, Merete; McEvoy, Fintan J

2014-09-26

4

Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

5

Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada Utilizing MACE Proofs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers in Canada and the United States are collaborating to develop and integrate genomic evaluations into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. There are substantially more genotyped Holstein bulls with MACE proofs than with domestic Canadian proofs in Canada. The use of...

6

The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

7

Genome Signature of Artificial Selection for High Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holstein cattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...

8

A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

BackgroundPeripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible hereditary disposition to PNSTs in dairy cattle by statistical analysis performed on data from 567 cattle with PNSTs. Furthermore, a preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on DNA isolated from 28 affected and 28 non-affected Holstein cows to identify loci in the bovine genome involved in the development of PNSTs.ResultsPNSTs were significantly more common in the Danish Holstein breed than in other breeds with 0.49% of Danish Holsteins slaughtered during an eight-year-period having PNSTs. PNSTs also occurred significantly more frequently in the offspring of some specific Holstein sires. Examination of three generation pedigrees showed that these sires were genetically related through a widely used US Holstein sire. The PNSTs included in GWAS were histologically classified as neurofibroma-schwannoma (43%), schwannoma (36%) and neurofibroma (21%) and derived from Holstein cows with multiple PNSTs. A single SNP on chromosome 27 reached genome-wide significance.ConclusionsGross and histological characteristics of bovine PNSTs are comparable to PNSTs in humans (schwannomatosis). Danish Holsteins are genetically disposed to develop PNSTs but the examined materials are insufficient to allow determination of the mode of inheritance. PMID:25492402

Grossi, Anette B; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Bendixen, Christian; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete

2014-12-10

9

A Post-GWAS Replication Study Confirming the PTK2 Gene Associated with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein  

PubMed Central

Our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated that two SNPs (ARS-BFGL-NGS-33248, UA-IFASA-9288) within the protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) gene were significantly associated with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein dairy cattle. To further validate if the statistical evidence provided in GWAS were true-positive findings, a replication study was performed herein through genotype-phenotype associations. The two tested SNPs were found to show significant associations with milk production traits, which confirmed the associations observed in the original study. Specifically, SNPs lying in the PTK2 gene were also detected by sequencing 14 unrelated sires in Chinese Holsteins and a total of thirty-three novel SNPs were identified. Thirteen out of these identified SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with milk production traits in an independent resource population. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, twelve SNPs were statistically significant for more than two milk production traits. Analyses of pairwise D’ measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between all SNPs were also explored. Two haplotype blocks were inferred and the association study at haplotype level revealed similar effects on milk production traits. In addition, the RNA expression analyses revealed that a non-synonymous coding SNP (g.4061098T>G) was involved in the regulation of gene expression. Thus the findings presented here provide strong evidence for associations of PTK2 variants with dairy production traits and may be applied in Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:24386238

Liu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Julong; Xu, Jingen; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

2013-01-01

10

Genome-wide association study for pigmentation traits in Chinese Holstein population.  

PubMed

With the Illumina BovineSNP50K BeadChip, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for two pigmentation traits in a Chinese Holstein population: proportion of black (PB) and teat colour (TC). A case-control design was used. Cases were the cows with PB <0.30 (n = 129) and TC <2 points (n = 140); controls were those with PB >0.90 (n = 58) and TC >4 points (n = 281). The RM test of roadtrips (version 1.2) was applied to detect SNPs for the two traits with 42 883 and 42 741 SNPs respectively. A total of nine and 12 genome-wide significant (P < 0.05) SNPs associated with PB and TC respectively were identified. Of these, two SNPs for PB were located within the KIT and IGFBP7 genes, and the other four SNPs were 23~212 kb away from the PDGFRA gene on BTA6; nine SNPs associated with TC were located within or 21~78.8 kb away from known genes on chromosomes 4, 11, 22, 23 and 24. By combing through our GWAS results and the biological functions of the genes, we suggest that the KIT, IGFBP7, PDGFRA, MITF, ING3 and WNT16 genes are promising candidates for PB and TC in Holstein cattle, providing a basis for further investigation on the genetic mechanism of pigmentation formation. PMID:24988941

Fan, Yipeng; Wang, Peng; Fu, Weixuan; Dong, Tian; Qi, Chao; Liu, Lin; Guo, Gang; Li, Cong; Cui, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Dongxiao

2014-10-01

11

Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

2014-01-01

12

Novel SNPs of the mannan-binding lectin 2 gene and their association with production traits in Chinese Holsteins.  

PubMed

The mannan-binding lectin gene (MBL) participates as an opsonin in the innate immune system of mammals, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MBL cause various immune dysfunctions. In this study, we detected SNPs in MBL2 at exon 1 using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing techniques in 825 Chinese Holstein cows. Four new SNPs with various allele frequencies were also found. The g.1164 G>A SNP was predicted to substitute arginine with glutamine at the N-terminus of the cysteine-rich domain. In the collagen-like domain, SNPs g.1197 C>A and g.1198 G>A changed proline to glutamine, whereas SNP g.1207 T>C was identified as a synonymous mutation. Correlation analysis showed that the g.1197 C>A marker was significantly correlated to somatic cell score (SCS), and the g.1164 G>A locus had significant effects on SCS, fat content, and protein content (P < 0.05), suggesting possible roles of these SNPs in the host response against mastitis. Nine haplotypes and nine haplotype pairs corresponding to the loci of the 4 novel SNPs were found in Chinese Holsteins. Haplotype pairs MM, MN, and BQ were correlated with the lowest SCS; MN with the highest protein yield; MM with the highest protein rate, and MN with the highest 305- day milk yield. Thus, MM, MN, and BQ are possible candidates for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:23096694

Zhao, Z L; Wang, C F; Li, Q L; Ju, Z H; Huang, J M; Li, J B; Zhong, J F; Zhang, J B

2012-01-01

13

204 a comparative analysis of calcium transport genes expression in holstein and hanwoo (korean cattle) in the duodenum and kidney.  

PubMed

Transmembranous calcium (Ca(2+)) channels such as Trpv5/6,Ncx1,Pmca1b are known to play an important role in maintaining homeostasis and metabolizing Ca(2+) ions. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V members 5 and 6 (Trpv5/6) play an important role in Ca(2+) absorption. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (Ncx1) and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase1 (Pmca1b) play a role in Ca(2+) excretion. Holstein cattle are known to provide higher milk production than other cattle breeds. In this respect, a higher susceptibility to hypocalcaemia that is a risk factor for many of calcium-related diseases such as milk fever has been observed. In contrary, Hanwoo cattle are relatively resistant to the calcium-related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of calcium transport genes in the duodenum and kidney of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) and Holstein cattle. All samples were obtained from Holstein and Hanwoo cattle from 36 to 60 months of age at a local slaughterhouse. The collected duodenum and kidney were rapidly excised and washed in cold sterile saline (0.9% NaCl). Total RNA was prepared from duodenum and kidney tissues using TRIzol Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Protein was extracted using Pro-prep (iNtRON Bio), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Expression of Trpv5/6, Ncx1 and Pmca1b was analysed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In dairy cattle's kidney (Holstein), the level of Trpv5 mRNA was ~3-fold more than Hanwoo's kidney while Pmca1b mRNA was one-fifth less than Hanwoo's kidney. However, no difference in Trpv6 and Ncx1 mRNA expression was observed in the kidney of Holstein compared with Hanwoo. Duodenal Trpv5 and Trpv6 mRNA were scarcely expressed in both Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. In addition, the mRNA expression of Pmca1b and Ncx1 were also not different between Hanwoo and Holstein. The protein expression of calcium transport genes were similar to the mRNA levels of calcium transport genes in both Hanwoo and Holstein. Localization of calcium transporter genes were identified, the glomerulus, and proximal and distal convoluted tubules expressed TRPV5, 6, Pmca1b, and Ncx1 in the kidney. These four calcium transport genes may play an important role in the bovine duodenum and kidney. The difference between Holstein and Hanwoo animals which express different gene expression patterns may be helpful in studying diseases associated with calcium metabolism, e.g. milk fever. PMID:25472253

Cho, H; Jeung, E-B

2014-12-01

14

Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined. PMID:25501190

Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

2014-01-01

15

Polymorphism in PGLYRP-2 gene by PCR-RFLP and its association with somatic cell score and percentage of fat in Chinese Holstein.  

PubMed

Peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (PGLYRP-2), which belongs to the PGRP family, is the only member that has no direct bactericidal activity but has N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase activity. This feature of PGLYRP-2 indicates that it may play an important role in eliminating the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), such as peptidoglycan (PGN), which can reduce leukocytes in blood and lower somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. To investigate whether the PGLYRP-2 gene is associated with mastitis and milk production traits in dairy cattle, the polymorphism of this gene was analyzed by PCR-RFLP in a population of 546 Chinese Holstein cows. A total of five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were identified. The association analysis of a single SNP locus showed that the C+4867T locus was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with somatic cell score (SCS). Surprisingly, all loci were significantly associated (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) with percentage of fat. Association analysis between combined genotypes and SCS and milk production traits indicated that H2H2 was associated with higher percentage of fat (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrated that SNPs in PGLYRP-2 gene were related to mastitis resistance and percentage of fat, and that H2H2 would be a useful genetic marker of combined genotypes for breeding of Chinese Holstein. PMID:24391015

Wang, H L; Li, Z X; Chen, L; Yang, J; Wang, L J; He, H; Niu, F B; Liu, Y; Guo, J Z; Liu, X L

2013-01-01

16

Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.  

PubMed

When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most effective explanatory variables in predicting pregnancy outcome. PMID:24290820

Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

2014-02-01

17

Linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6 in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle  

PubMed Central

We analysed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle by genotyping a sample of 45 bulls for 15 closely-spaced microsatellites on two regions of BTA6 reported to carry important QTL for dairy traits. The order and distance of markers were based on the USDA-MARC linkage map. Frequencies of haplotypes were estimated using the E-M approach and a more computationally-intensive Bayesian approach as implemented in PHASE. LD was then estimated using the Hedrick multiallelic extension of Lewontin normalised coefficient D'. Estimates of D' from the two approaches were in close agreement (r = 0.91). The mean estimates of D' for marker pairs with an inter-marker distance of less than 5 cM (n = 13) are 0.57 and 0.51, and for distances more than 20 cM (n = 44) are 0.29 and 0.17, estimated from the E-M and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The Malecot model was fitted for the exponential decline of LD with map distance between markers. The swept radii (the distance at which LD has declined to 1/e (~37%) of its initial value) are 11.6 and 13.7 cM for the above two methods, respectively. The Malecot model was also fitted using map distance in Mb from the bovine integrated map (bovine location database, bLDB) in addition to cM from the MARC map. Overall, the results indicate a high level of LD on chromosome 6 in Australian dairy cattle. PMID:16954040

Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Tammen, Imke; Cavanagh, Julie AL; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman W

2006-01-01

18

Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.  

PubMed

Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the variance component estimates, the applied multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment method had to be tailored using country-specific reference measurement error variances. Results showed the feasibility of across-country genetic evaluation of cows and sires based on original test-day phenotypes. Nevertheless, applying a thorough model validation procedure is essential throughout the model building process to obtain reliable breeding values. PMID:25434332

Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P

2015-02-01

19

High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Holsteins Compared to Zebu Breeds under Field Cattle Husbandry in Central Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either

Gobena Ameni; Abraham Aseffa; Howard Engers; Douglas Young; Stephen Gordon; Glyn Hewinson; Martin Vordermeier

2007-01-01

20

Influence of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on milk fat percentage and fatty acid profiles in Romanian holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Milk and dairy products are considered the main sources of saturated fatty acids, which are a valuable source of nutrients in the human diet. Fat composition can be adjusted through guided nutrition of dairy animals but also through selective breeding. Recently, a dinucleotide substitution located in the exon 8 of the gene coding for acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), that alters the amino acid sequence from a lysine to an alanine (p.Lys232Ala) in the mature protein, was shown to have a strong effect on milk fat content in some cattle breeds. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to study the occurrence of the DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism in Romanian Holstein cattle and Romanian Buffalo breeds and to further investigate its possible influence on fat percentage and fatty acid profiles. The results obtained in this study show that in Romanian Holstein cattle the K allele is associated with increased fat percentage and higher levels of C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. The ratio of saturated fatty acids versus unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) was also higher in KK homozygous individuals, whereas the fractions of C14:0, unsaturated C18 decreased. The DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism revealed a high genetic variance for fat percentage, unsaturated C18, C16:0, and SFA/UFA. Although the effect of this polymorphism was not so evident for short chain fatty acids such as C4:0-C8:0, it was significant for C14:0 fatty acids. We concluded that selective breeding of carriers of the A allele in Romanian Holsteins can contribute to improvement in unsaturated fatty acids content of milk. However, in buffalo, the lack of the A allele makes selection inapplicable because only the K allele, associated with higher saturated fatty acids contents in milk, was identified. PMID:25380462

T?b?ran, A; Balteanu, V A; Gal, E; Pusta, D; Mihaiu, R; Dan, S D; T?b?ran, A F; Mihaiu, M

2015-01-01

21

Eight SNVs in NF-?B pathway genes and their different performances between subclinical mastitis and mixed Chinese Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway proteins are key players in controlling both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the information on NF-?B pathway genes is very limited in mastitis resistance and milk production of Chinese Holstein cows. In this study, we examine the association of the NF-?B pathway gene variants with milk quality traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in Chinese Holstein cows. Eight single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified within the bovine NF-?B pathway genes, using DNA pooled sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and forced PCR-RFLP methods. These SNVs include SNV1: g. 536 C>T (exon 10 of Rel), SNV2: g. 94 G>A (exon 20 of p100), SNV3: g. 43 T>C (intron 6 of p105), SNV4: g. 2397 T>G (intron 9 of p105), SNV5: g. 382 G>C (intron 1 of I?B?), SNV6: g. 21 C>T (exon 5 of I?B?), SNV7: g. 272 G>A (intron 6 of I?B?), and SNV8: g. 18 C>T (intron 10 of I?B?). The association analysis in mixed Chinese Holstein population showed that SNV1 was significantly or highly significantly associated (P<0.01 and P<0.05) with fat rate, protein rate and SCS. Furthermore, the SNV1-CC (wild genotype) determined serine showed the significantly lower SCS and higher milk production traits compared to TT and TC. SNV2 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with SCS; SNV3 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate; and SNV4 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate and SCS. In 199 subclinical mastitis Chinese Holstein cows, the statistical results absolutely differed from the mixed Chinese Holstein individuals. Splice-site prediction by SplicePort showed that single nucleotide difference at eight SNVs results in the acceptor score and donor score changing obviously that may lead to alternative splicing. In brief, SNV1, SNV2, SNV3 and SNV4 could be useful genetic markers for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein cows. Furthermore, whether these SNVs lead to alternative splicing need further research. PMID:25447913

Chen, Ling; Han, Yujiao; Chen, Yu; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Yu; He, Hua; Chen, Si; Liu, Xiaolin

2015-01-25

22

Expression, SNV identification, linkage disequilibrium, and combined genotype association analysis of the muscle-specific gene CSRP3 in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

The cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) plays an important role in the myofiber differentiation. Here, we identified five SNVs in all exon and intron regions of the CSRP3 gene using DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and forced-PCR-RFLP methods in 554 cattle. Four of the five SNVs were significantly associated with growth performance and carcass traits of the cattle. In addition, we evaluated haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium coefficient of five sequence variants. The result of haplotype analysis demonstrated 28 haplotypes present in Qinchuan and two haplotypes in Chinese Holstein. Only haplotypes 1 and 8 were being shared by two populations, haplotype 14 had the highest haplotype frequency in Qinchuan (17.4%) and haplotype 8 had the highest haplotype frequency in Chinese Holstein (94.4%). Statistical analyses of combined genotypes indicated that some combined genotypes were significantly or highly significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. qPCR analyses also showed that bovine CSRP3 gene was exclusively expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle and heart tissues. The data support the high potential of the CSRP3 as a marker gene for the improvement of growth performance and carcass traits in selection programs. PMID:24279998

He, Hua; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Li, Zhi-Xiong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Lin

2014-02-01

23

Association of IL8 -105G/A with mastitis somatic cell score in Chinese Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' upstream of bovine IL8 gene were investigated in 810 Chinese Holstein cows from 35 bull families in a dairy farm in Shanghai using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique. The Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of genotype Chinese Holstein dairy cows. The results showed that one SNP -105G>A was detected, designating three genotypes (GG, GA and AA) with respective frequencies of 0.38, 0.46, and 0.16. The significant association of the SNP -105G>A with somatic cell score (SCS) was identified. Genotype GG had a significantly lower SCS than genotype GA or AA (P < 0.01), and the relative mRNA expression and protein level of GG was found to be the highest. These results suggest that the genotype GG may be a useful genetic marker for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25380467

Chen, Renjin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Zhangping; Zhu, Xiaorong; Ji, Dejun; Mao, Yongjiang

2015-01-01

24

MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TO ASSESS THE VALIDITY OF BONNIER'S EQUATION FOR ESTIMATING THE FREQUENCY OF MONOZYGOUS TWINNING IN A POPULATION OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holstein cattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...

25

Mutations in HSP70-2 gene change the susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein.  

PubMed

To select the molecular markers susceptible to mastitis and reduce the loss induced by mastitis, the PCR-SSCP method was adopted to investigate the correlation between SNPs of the HSP70-2 gene and mastitis in 103 Chinese Holstein. 25 new polymorphisms were detected in this study: 9 SNPs (g.-115 G?A, g.-98 T?C, g.117 C?A, g.156 A?C, g.1743 G?A, g.1746 C?T, g.1761 T?G, g.1770 C?G, g.1877 G?C) were found to be associated with mastitis; 2 key SNPs led to amino-acid changes: g.1770 C?G (590 Asp?Glu), g.1877 G?C (626 Gly?Ala). 626 Gly?Ala affected the protein secondary structure. 3 potential cow HSP70-2 proteins were found in all the 103 individuals, but predicted three-dimensional structures of 3 proteins are the same with each other. It is suggested that 9 SNPs increase the susceptibility to mastitis due to their low polymorphisms and can be used as molecular markers to breed the dairy cows resistant to mastitis. PMID:25592821

Huang, Pin; Lu, Chunwan; Li, Jun; Xu, Jun; Liu, Zaiqun; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhao; Huo, Jiayan; Li, Honglin; Teng, Yong; Cai, Yafei

2015-03-15

26

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SHEDDING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cows to determine the influence of time of day (AM vs PM), parity, and lactation phase [ 60 d in milk (DIM)] on shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), Escherichia coli (EC),...

27

Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P < 0.05) were developed for prediction of N (g/d) and OM (kg/d) excretion in feces and urine. The present data were also used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve national inventories of manure N output and greenhouse gas emissions and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies for young Holstein cattle. PMID:24879759

Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

2014-07-01

28

Effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle on consumer palatability ratings.  

PubMed

The need to provide consumer data for beef steak tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability ratings from zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) beef to the processor, retailers, restaurants, and consumers is paramount. Consumer palatability responses were studied for 14- and 21-d aged USDA Choice and USDA Select quality grade beef and USDA Choice calf-fed Holstein New York Strip steaks from cattle that had been fed ZH for 0, 20, and 30 d before slaughter. Strip loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick New York strip steaks and assigned to a 14- or 21-d aging treatment. The first and fourth steaks were assigned for 14- or 21-d WBSF analysis, and the second, third, fifth, and sixth steaks were reserved for consumer sensory panel evaluation. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis was conducted at Texas Tech University (TTU, Lubbock), Kansas State University (Manhattan), Oklahoma State University (Stillwater), and West Texas A&M University (Canyon) with values used to sort steaks for consumer evaluation. Slice shear force analysis was performed at TTU on available paired consumer steaks. Consumers (n = 3,007) in 4 metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were asked to rate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Consumers were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Steaks were cooked to a medium degree of doneness (71 degrees C), cut into 1 cm(3) pieces, and served warm to consumers. Consumers tasted samples from each of 3 separate steaks from each ZH treatment (0, 20, and 30 d) and within each USDA quality grade and within the 14- and 21-d aging treatments. Steaks were selected to represent the distribution of tenderness for the first, second, and third SD either side of the mean for each treatment. A second calf-fed Holstein consumer study (n = 240) was conducted with consumers eating USDA Choice 14- and 21-d aged steaks from Holstein cattle fed ZH for 0 or 20 d. Steaks from 0- and 20-d ZH treatments were different for tenderness for the 14-d aged USDA Choice and the calf-fed Holstein study groups. No differences were shown for all other 0- and 20-d ZH treatments for tenderness. The 21-d aged USDA Select steaks were improved with aging, which aided in removing the effects of ZH treatment. The ZH treatment of 30 d before slaughter resulted in increased WBSF values and decreased consumer tenderness, juiciness, and overall palatability ratings for 14-d-aged USDA Choice. No differences were shown for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability consumer ratings for 0- and 20-d steaks from 21-d Choice and 14- and 21-d Select quality and aging periods. Overall, USDA Choice Holstein steaks aged 14 and 21 d had differences in tenderness with ZH. PMID:19717772

Mehaffey, J M; Brooks, J C; Rathmann, R J; Alsup, E M; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Johnson, B J; Miller, M F

2009-11-01

29

Effect of Artificial Selection on Runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins. PMID:24348915

Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B.; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Crooker, Brian A.; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S.

2013-01-01

30

PRNP haplotype associated with classical BSE incidence in European Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the pro...

31

Genome-Wide Association Study of Susceptibility to Infection by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H.; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.

2014-01-01

32

Effect of LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1 gene polymorphisms on reproductive traits in the Iranian Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

During the last decades, genetic selection for milk production traits has led to increased fertility and health problems in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three polymorphisms located in the ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes on reproductive traits and somatic cell count (SCC). The analysis was conducted on 408 randomly selected cows. The SNPs within the genes (LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1) were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. All three possible genotypes were observed for SCD1-T878C and LEPR-T945M SNPs, but not for ABCG2-Y581S SNP. LEPR-T945M and ABCG2-Y581S SNPs had no statistically significant effect on the studied reproductive traits and SCC. However, SCD1-T878C SNP were negatively and significantly related to pregnancy length, dry days and open days (p < 0.05), which lead to decreased profitability in dairy herds. The results suggest that the T878C SNP of SCD1 might be useful as a DNA marker to decrease reproductive problems and improve production traits in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25130486

Asadollahpour Nanaei, H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Edriss, M-A

2014-10-01

33

Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (?0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

2014-01-01

34

High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Pathology of Bovine Tuberculosis in Holsteins Compared to Zebu Breeds under Field Cattle Husbandry in Central Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the prevalence and pathology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 5,424 cattle (2,578 zebus, 1,921 crosses, and 925 Holsteins), which were kept on pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia, using a comparative intradermal tuberculin test, postmortem examination, and bacteriology. The overall prevalence of bovine TB was 13.5%; prevalence was higher in Holsteins than either zebus (22.2% versus 11.6%, ?2 = 61.8; P < 0.001) or crosses (22.2% versus 11.9%, ?2 = 50.7; P < 0.001). Moreover, the severity of pathology in Holsteins (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM], 6.84 ± 0.79) was significantly higher (P = 0.018) than the severity of pathology in zebus (5.21 ± 0.30). In addition, the risk of TB in Holsteins was more than twice (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89, 2.85) that in zebus. Animals between 5 and 9 years of age were at higher (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.80, 3.12) risk of bovine TB than those 2 years of age or below. A significant difference (?2 = 351; P < 0.001) in the occurrence of TB lesions in lymph nodes was recorded; the mesenteric lymph node (mean pathology score ± SEM, 1.95 ± 0.08) was most severely affected, followed by the retropharyngeal (0.80 ± 0.05) and caudal mediastinal (0.8 ± 0.06) lymph nodes. Fifty-six percent (n = 145) of the animals with gross TB lesions were culture positive; the lowest culture positivity was recorded in the skin lesions (27.3%) and the lesions of the mesenteric lymph node (31.5%). Both the skin test response and the postmortem findings suggested a higher susceptibility to bovine TB in Holsteins than zebus under identical field husbandry conditions (on pasture). In the light of increased numbers of Holstein cattle introduced into this area to raise milk production to satisfy the needs of Addis Ababa's growing population, these findings highlight the need for a control program in these herds. PMID:17761523

Ameni, Gobena; Aseffa, Abraham; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen; Hewinson, Glyn; Vordermeier, Martin

2007-01-01

35

Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3?-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3?-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3?-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3?-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

36

Genetic evaluation of calf and heifer survival in Iranian Holstein cattle using linear and threshold models.  

PubMed

Calf and heifer survival are important traits in dairy cattle affecting profitability. This study was carried out to estimate genetic parameters of survival traits in female calves at different age periods, until nearly the first calving. Records of 49 583 female calves born during 1998 and 2009 were considered in five age periods as days 1-30, 31-180, 181-365, 366-760 and full period (day 1-760). Genetic components were estimated based on linear and threshold sire models and linear animal models. The models included both fixed effects (month of birth, dam's parity number, calving ease and twin/single) and random effects (herd-year, genetic effect of sire or animal and residual). Rates of death were 2.21, 3.37, 1.97, 4.14 and 12.4% for the above periods, respectively. Heritability estimates were very low ranging from 0.48 to 3.04, 0.62 to 3.51 and 0.50 to 4.24% for linear sire model, animal model and threshold sire model, respectively. Rank correlations between random effects of sires obtained with linear and threshold sire models and with linear animal and sire models were 0.82-0.95 and 0.61-0.83, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between the five different periods were moderate and only significant for 31-180 and 181-365 (rg  = 0.59), 31-180 and 366-760 (rg  = 0.52), and 181-365 and 366-760 (rg  = 0.42). The low genetic correlations in current study would suggest that survival at different periods may be affected by the same genes with different expression or by different genes. Even though the additive genetic variations of survival traits were small, it might be possible to improve these traits by traditional or genomic selection. PMID:25100295

Forutan, M; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sargolzaei, M

2015-02-01

37

Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

2013-10-15

38

Original article Genetic variation in eight Chinese cattle  

E-print Network

focused on European breeds and little information is available on the genetic diversity of Chinese diversity by dilution of the autochthonous genetic makeup. The existence of genetic polymorphism or diversity in a population is the basis of genetic improvement by selection and needs to be accurately

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. PMID:24952782

Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

2014-08-01

40

Effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle on consumer palatability ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to provide consumer data for beef steak tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability ratings from zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) beef to the processor, retailers, restaurants, and con- sumers is paramount. Consumer palatability responses were studied for 14- and 21-d aged USDA Choice and USDA Select quality grade beef and USDA Choice calf- fed Holstein New York Strip steaks from

J. M. Mehaffey; J. C. Brooks; R. J. Rathmann; E. M. Alsup; J. P. Hutcheson; W. T. Nichols; M. N. Streeter; D. A. Yates; B. J. Johnson; M. F. Miller

2009-01-01

41

The hunt for a functional mutation affecting conformation and calving traits on chromosome 18 in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sequence data from 11 US Holstein bulls were analyzed to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. The SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-109285 at 57,589,121 bp (UMD 3.1 assembly) on BTA18 has large effects on 4 measures of body shape and size, 2 measures of dystocia, longev...

42

Extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle based on a high-density SNP panel  

PubMed Central

Background The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within a population determines the number of markers that will be required for successful association mapping and marker-assisted selection. Most studies on LD in cattle reported to date are based on microsatellite markers or small numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering one or only a few chromosomes. This is the first comprehensive study on the extent of LD in cattle by analyzing data on 1,546 Holstein-Friesian bulls genotyped for 15,036 SNP markers covering all regions of all autosomes. Furthermore, most studies in cattle have used relatively small sample sizes and, consequently, may have had biased estimates of measures commonly used to describe LD. We examine minimum sample sizes required to estimate LD without bias and loss in accuracy. Finally, relatively little information is available on comparative LD structures including other mammalian species such as human and mouse, and we compare LD structure in cattle with public-domain data from both human and mouse. Results We computed three LD estimates, D', Dvol and r2, for 1,566,890 syntenic SNP pairs and a sample of 365,400 non-syntenic pairs. Mean D' is 0.189 among syntenic SNPs, and 0.105 among non-syntenic SNPs; mean r2 is 0.024 among syntenic SNPs and 0.0032 among non-syntenic SNPs. All three measures of LD for syntenic pairs decline with distance; the decline is much steeper for r2 than for D' and Dvol. The value of D' and Dvol are quite similar. Significant LD in cattle extends to 40 kb (when estimated as r2) and 8.2 Mb (when estimated as D'). The mean values for LD at large physical distances are close to those for non-syntenic SNPs. Minor allelic frequency threshold affects the distribution and extent of LD. For unbiased and accurate estimates of LD across marker intervals spanning < 1 kb to > 50 Mb, minimum sample sizes of 400 (for D') and 75 (for r2) are required. The bias due to small samples sizes increases with inter-marker interval. LD in cattle is much less extensive than in a mouse population created from crossing inbred lines, and more extensive than in humans. Conclusion For association mapping in Holstein-Friesian cattle, for a given design, at least one SNP is required for each 40 kb, giving a total requirement of at least 75,000 SNPs for a low power whole-genome scan (median r2 > 0.19) and up to 300,000 markers at 10 kb intervals for a high power genome scan (median r2 > 0.62). For estimation of LD by D' and Dvol with sufficient precision, a sample size of at least 400 is required, whereas for r2 a minimum sample of 75 is adequate. PMID:18435834

Khatkar, Mehar S; Nicholas, Frank W; Collins, Andrew R; Zenger, Kyall R; Cavanagh, Julie AL; Barris, Wes; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Raadsma, Herman W

2008-01-01

43

Methane Output and Lactation Response in Holstein Cattle with Monensin or Unsaturated Fat Added to the Diet1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured effects of continuous vs twice-daily feeding, the addition of unsaturated fat to the diet, and monensin on milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and CO2-methane production in four experiments in a herd of 88 to 109 milking Holsteins. Methane and CO2 production increased with twice-daily feeding, but the CO2:CH4 ratio remained unchanged. Soybean oil did not affect the

F. D. Sauer; V. Fellner; R. Kinsman; J. K. G. Kramer; H. A. Jackson; A. J. Lee; S. Chen

44

A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

45

Novel xylanase from a holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library and its application in xylooligosaccharide and ferulic Acid production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. A high level of activity was obtained under the optimum conditions of pH 6.5 and 40 °C. A substrate utilization study indicated that Xyln-SH1 was cellulase-free and strictly specific to xylan from softwood. The synergistic effects of Xyln-SH1 and feruloyl esterase (FAE-SH1) were observed for the release of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and ferulic acid (FA) from wheat straw. In addition, a high dose of Xyln-SH1 alone was observed to improve the release of FA from wheat straw. These features suggest that this enzyme has substantial potential to improve biomass degradation and industrial applications. PMID:23134352

Cheng, Fansheng; Sheng, Jiping; Dong, Rubo; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Shen, Lin

2012-12-26

46

Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration. PMID:21862090

Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

2012-08-01

47

Novel SNPs in the ATP1B2 gene and their associations with milk yield, milk composition and heat-resistance traits in Chinese Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Genetic association analysis was applied to examine the effect of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase beta 2 subunit (ATP1B2) gene on rectal temperature, milk traits, K(+) levels and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity in the red blood cells of 1001 Chinese Holstein cows under normal and heat-stress conditions. We detected two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms, G2258A and C2833T, in the second and fourth introns, respectively, of ATP1B2. G2258A significantly affected milk fat content (P < 0.05) and 305-day milk yield (P < 0.01), but not milk protein content. C2833T significantly affected milk protein content (P < 0.01) and 305-day milk yield (P < 0.05), but not milk fat content. Calculated gene substitution effects suggested that A to G substitution in G2258A, and T to C substitution in C2833T, positively affected milk fat content, 305-day milk yield and somatic cell score, but negatively affected milk protein content. We also detected significant variation in milk fat content, milk protein content, 305-day milk yield and somatic cell scores (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) among the nine ATP1B2 haplotypes. Under heat-stress, the C2833T polymorphism was significantly related to rectal temperature (P < 0.01), red blood cell K(+) levels, NKA activity and milk yield (P < 0.05). Cows with the TT genotype showed the desirable characteristics of low rectal temperature and red blood cell K(+), low decline rate in milk yield and red blood cell NKA activity. This study suggests that the ATP1B2 single nucleotide polymorphism C2833T is a genetic marker of heat-resistance traits in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:20842439

Wang, Zeying; Wang, Genlin; Huang, Jingmin; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Changfa; Zhong, Jifeng

2011-03-01

48

Short communication: Relationship between competitive success during displacements at an overstocked feed bunk and measures of physiology and behavior in Holstein dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate how behavioral and physiological parameters are affected based on a cow's level of success at displacing others at an overstocked feed bunk. Forty Holstein nonlactating, late-gestation dairy cattle were housed in an overstocked pen [5 stalls/10 cows and 0.34 m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] in groups of 10 (4 heifers and 6 multiparous cows) for 14 d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostanes) were measured in blood and feces sampled every 2d. A glucose tolerance test and an ACTH challenge were conducted on all cows on d 13 and 14, respectively to further explore the effects of competitive success on energy metabolism and stress physiology. Feeding behavior and displacements at the FB were recorded between d 7 to 10 of the observation period. A competition index (CInd) was calculated for each cow by dividing the number of times the cow displaced another at the FB by the total number of displacements the cow was involved in, either as an actor or reactor. Cows were then divided into 3 subgroups based on their CInd: high success (HS: CInd ?0.6), medium success (0.4 ? CInd <0.6), and low success (LS: CInd <0.4). Heifers accounted for 7, 36, and 79% of the total number of animals in the HS (n=15), medium success (n=11), and LS (n=14) groups, respectively. No differences were observed in daily feeding time, total number of displacements, and time to approach the FB following fresh feed delivery between the 3 CInd groups; however, cows in the LS group had greater daily nonesterified fatty acid and 11,17-dioxoandrostane concentrations relative to cows in the HS group. No differences existed in cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test between CInd categories. During the glucose tolerance test, glucose response curves were the same between all 3 CInd categories; however, the peak insulin response of LS cows was 130 ?IU/mL greater than the peak HS response, indicating that LS cows may have decreased tissue responses to insulin or increased pancreatic responses to glucose. In an overstocked environment, dairy cattle physiology is associated with a cow's level of success at displacing other individuals at the feed bunk. PMID:22818456

Huzzey, J M; Grant, R J; Overton, T R

2012-08-01

49

Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low-heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (? 1.7; n?=?288) or low (? ?2; n?=?262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was genotyped for 434 candidate SNPs using the Sequenom MassARRAY® system. Three types of SNPs were evaluated: SNPs previously reported to be associated with reproductive traits or physically close to genetic markers for reproduction, SNPs in genes that are well known to be involved in reproductive processes, and SNPs in genes that are differentially expressed between physiological conditions in a variety of tissues associated in reproductive function. Eleven reproduction and production traits were analyzed. Results A total of 40 SNPs were associated (P?

2013-01-01

50

Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New discovery and application of molecular genetics to cattle breeding is occurring rapidly. In this invited paper, we briefly review domestication, migration and classical genetic improvement of beef and dairy cattle. This introduction is followed by a more comprehensive review of genome mapping re...

51

Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production  

PubMed Central

Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

2014-01-01

52

Evaluation of inbreeding depression in Holstein cattle using whole-genome SNP markers and alternative measures of genomic inbreeding.  

PubMed

The effects of increased pedigree inbreeding in dairy cattle populations have been well documented and result in a negative impact on profitability. Recent advances in genotyping technology have allowed researchers to move beyond pedigree analysis and study inbreeding at a molecular level. In this study, 5,853 animals were genotyped for 54,001 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); 2,913 cows had phenotypic records including a single lactation for milk yield (from either lactation 1, 2, 3, or 4), reproductive performance, and linear type conformation. After removing SNP with poor call rates, low minor allele frequencies, and departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 33,025 SNP remained for analyses. Three measures of genomic inbreeding were evaluated: percent homozygosity (FPH), inbreeding calculated from runs of homozygosity (FROH), and inbreeding derived from a genomic relationship matrix (FGRM). Average FPH was 60.5±1.1%, average FROH was 3.8±2.1%, and average FGRM was 20.8±2.3%, where animals with larger values for each of the genomic inbreeding indices were considered more inbred. Decreases in total milk yield to 205d postpartum of 53, 20, and 47kg per 1% increase in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively, were observed. Increases in days open per 1% increase in FPH (1.76 d), FROH (1.72 d), and FGRM (1.06 d) were also noted, as well as increases in maternal calving difficulty (0.09, 0.03, and 0.04 on a 5-point scale for FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively). Several linear type traits, such as strength (-0.40, -0.11, and -0.19), rear legs rear view (-0.35, -0.16, and -0.14), front teat placement (0.35, 0.25, 0.18), and teat length (-0.24, -0.14, and -0.13) were also affected by increases in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively. Overall, increases in each measure of genomic inbreeding in this study were associated with negative effects on production and reproductive ability in dairy cows. PMID:23684028

Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Vukasinovic, N; Nkrumah, J D

2013-07-01

53

Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and liveweight in first-parity Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between traits across lactation difficult, let alone the possibility for selection of breeding animals. However, estimating national breeding values through cheaper and more easily measured correlated traits, such as milk yield and liveweight (LW), could be a first step to predict DMI. Combining DMI data across historical nutritional experiments might help to expand the data sets. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters for DMI, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield, and LW across the entire first lactation using a relatively large data set combining experimental data across the Netherlands. A total of 30,483 weekly records for DMI, 49,977 for FPCM yield, and 31,956 for LW were available from 2,283 Dutch Holstein-Friesian first-parity cows between 1990 and 2011. Heritabilities, covariance components, and genetic correlations were estimated using a multivariate random regression model. The model included an effect for year-season of calving, and polynomials for age of cow at calving and days in milk (DIM). The random effects were experimental treatment, year-month of measurement, and the additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual term. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using a third-order orthogonal polynomial. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.21 to 0.40 for DMI, from 0.20 to 0.43 for FPCM yield, and from 0.25 to 0.48 for LW across DIM. Genetic correlations between DMI at different DIM were relatively low during early and late lactation, compared with mid lactation. The genetic correlations between DMI and FPCM yield varied across DIM. This correlation was negative (up to -0.5) between FPCM yield in early lactation and DMI across the entire lactation, but highly positive (above 0.8) when both traits were in mid lactation. The correlation between DMI and LW was 0.6 during early lactation, but decreased to 0.4 during mid lactation. The highest correlations between FPCM yield and LW (0.3-0.5) were estimated during mid lactation. However, the genetic correlations between DMI and either FPCM yield or LW were not symmetric across DIM, and differed depending on which trait was measured first. The results of our study are useful to understand the genetic relationship of DMI, FPCM yield, and LW on specific days across lactation. PMID:25022692

Manzanilla Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Zom, R; van Knegsel, A; Pryce, J E; De Haas, Y

2014-09-01

54

DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ? 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ? 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ? 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ? 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ? 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ? 0.01), angularity (P ? 0.01), body depth (P ? 0.01), rump width (P ? 0.01) and animal stature (P ? 0.01). Conclusions Of the eight candidate bovine imprinted genes assessed, DNA sequence polymorphisms in six of these genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, RASGRF1, ZIM2 and ZNF215) displayed associations with several of the phenotypes included for analyses. The genotype-phenotype associations detected here are further supported by the biological function of these six genes, each of which plays important roles in mammalian growth, development and physiology. The associations between SNPs within the imprinted PEG3 gene cluster and traits related to calving, calf performance and gestation length suggest that this domain on chromosome 18 may play a role regulating pre-natal growth and development and fertility. SNPs within the bovine ZNF215 gene were associated with bovine growth and body conformation traits and studies in humans have revealed that the human ZNF215 ortholog belongs to the imprinted gene cluster associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome--a genetic disorder characterised by growth abnormalities. Similarly, the data presented here suggest that the ZNF215 gene may have an important role in regulating bovine growth. Collectively, our results support previous work showing that (candidate) imprinted genes/loci contribute to heritable variation in bovine performance traits and suggest that DNA sequence polymorphisms within these genes/loci represents an important reservoir of genomic markers for future genetic improvement of dairy and beef cattle populations. PMID:20942903

2010-01-01

55

Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33°C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28°C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher ( P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher ( P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T4) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland.

Chaiyabutr, N.; Chanpongsang, S.; Suadsong, S.

2008-09-01

56

Effect of Ultimate pH on Postmortem Myofibrillar Protein Degradation and Meat Quality Characteristics of Chinese Yellow Crossbreed Cattle  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5?h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

2014-01-01

57

A whole genome association analysis identified loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status in U.S. Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to identify loci associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection status in US Holsteins using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip whole genome SNP assay. Two hundred forty-five cows from dairies in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont were fo...

58

Visualization of the transmission of direct genomic values for paternal and maternal chromosomes for 15 traits in US Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cattle.  

PubMed

Haplotypes are available for 220,671 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in August 2012. Differences in least squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosomes 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lifetime net merit were significant in all but one case. Those chromosomes were chosen to represent cases with and without known quantitative trait loci, and other chromosomes may differ as well. Paternal haplotypes had higher DGV than maternal haplotypes in most cases, and differences were larger when quantitative trait loci were present. Longer chromosomes generally accounted for more variance than shorter chromosomes, and differences among breeds were consistent with known mutations of large effect. For example, Bos taurus autosome 18 accounted for 2.5, 7, and 2.6% of the variance in lifetime net merit for Brown Swiss (BS), Holsteins, and Jerseys, respectively. Distributions of the number of positive DGV inherited from sires and dams were negatively skewed in all breeds, and modes were slightly higher for paternally than maternally derived haplotypes in Holsteins and BS (22 vs. 20 and 22 vs. 21, respectively) and slightly lower in BS (17 vs. 19). Graphical representations of DGV are available to all users through a query on the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD) web site. Query results were also used to illustrate several quantitative genetic principles using genotype information from real animals. For example, offspring DGV can be compared with parental DGV to demonstrate that a parent transmits the average value of its 2 chromosomes to its progeny. The frequency of DGV with positive and negative values in animals of different ages can be used to show how selection affects allele frequencies. The effect of selection for alleles with large effects versus those with small effects is demonstrated using an animal with undesirable alleles for a marker with a large effect but many desirable alleles for markers with small effects. Strategies for the use of those data in selection programs are being studied, and work is underway to add data on conformation traits to the system. PMID:23375973

Cole, J B; Null, D J

2013-04-01

59

Effects of misty-fan cooling and supplemental rbST on rumen function and milk production of crossbred Holstein cattle during early, mid and late lactation in a tropical environment.  

PubMed

Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505

Chanchai, Wilaiporn; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

2010-04-01

60

Donor category and seasonal climate associated with embryo production and survival in multiple ovulation and embryo transfer programs in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of Holstein donor category (cows vs. heifers) and climate variation (hot vs. cooler season) on the efficiency of in vivo embryo production programs as well as embryo survival after transferred to Holstein recipient cows. A total of 1562 multiple ovulation (MO) procedures (cows: n = 609, and heifers: n = 953) and 4076 embryo transfers (ETs) performed in two dairy herds were evaluated. Donor cows had greater number of CLs (10.6 ± 0.6 vs. 7.5 ± 0.4; P < 0.0001) and ova/embryos recovered (7.6 ± 0.6 vs. 4.6 ± 0.4; P < 0.0001) compared with donor heifers. However, fertilization rate (47.9 vs. 82.4%; P < 0.0001) and proportion of transferable embryos (31.5 vs. 67.4%; P < 0.0001) were lower in donor cows than heifers, respectively. Regardless of donor category, the proportion of freezable embryos was less (P < 0.001) during hot season than in cooler season (21.4 vs. 32.8%). However, greater decline in the proportion of freezable embryos during the hot season was observed in cows (21.7 vs. 10.7%) compared with heifers (46.2 vs. 38.1%; P = 0.01). In contrast, the season on which the embryo was produced (hot or cool) did not affect pregnancy rate on Day 31 (30.5 vs. 31.7%; P = 0.45) and 45 (25.3 vs. 25.1%; P = 0.64) of pregnancy. Regardless of the season in which the embryos were produced, embryonic survival after transferring embryos retrieved from donor cows was greater on Days 31 (36.0 vs. 30.7%; P = 0.001) and 45 (28.3 vs. 23.1%; P = 0.001) of pregnancy when compared with embryos from donor heifers. In conclusion, MO embryo production efficiency decreased during the hot seasons both in cows and heifers; however, the decline was more pronounced in donor cows. Regardless of the embryo source, similar pregnancy rate was observed in the recipient that received embryos produced during the hot and cooler seasons. Curiously, embryos originating from donor cows had higher embryonic survival when transferred to recipient cows than embryos originating from heifers. PMID:24768006

Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Mendanha, M F; Sá Filho, M F; Sales, J N S; Souza, A H; Santos, J E P; Baruselli, P S

2014-07-15

61

Pre-rigor temperature control of Chinese yellow cattle carcasses to 12-18°C during chilling improves beef tenderness.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effects of pre-rigor temperature control on quality traits of Chinese yellow cattle M. longissimus lumborum (LL). One stepwise chilling (SC) treatment was used on one half-carcass, involved a fast chilling (-11±1°C;0.5m/s) for 2h, then the refrigeration was stopped to hold a core temperature of 12-18°C until 10h postmortem, followed by a 1±1°C chilling (0.5m/s) to 48h postmortem. The other half-carcass was conventional chilled at 1±1°C (0.5m/s) until 48h as control chilling (CC). Quality attributes were evaluated at 1, 7 and 14days. The SC treatment resulted in decreased WBSF and increased myofibril fragmentation index compared with control. SC-treated LL at 7d postmortem had a lower WBSF than those of CC-treated at 14d. This pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a realistic alternative for the beef industry in China to ensure adequate tenderness and shorten aging time. PMID:25460117

Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Liang, Rongrong; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Meng, Xianyong; Luo, Xin

2014-09-28

62

Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility  

PubMed Central

The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

2014-01-01

63

Traditional chinese medicine prescriptions enhance growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing apparent nutrient digestibility.  

PubMed

The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

2014-10-01

64

Genome-wide detection of copy number variations using high-density SNP genotyping platforms in Holsteins  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in the human or animal genome and are a significant source of genetic variation, which has been demonstrated to play an important role in phenotypic diversity. Advances in technology have allowed for identification of a large number of CNVs in cattle. Comprehensive explore novel CNVs in the bovine genome would provide valuable information for functional analyses of genome structural variation and facilitating follow-up association studies between complex traits and genetic variants. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide CNV detection based on high-density SNP genotyping data of 96 Chinese Holstein cattle. A total of 367 CNV regions (CNVRs) across the genome were identified, which cover 42.74Mb of the cattle genome and correspond to 1.61% of the genome sequence. The length of the CNVRs on autosomes range from 10.76 to 2,806.42 Kb with an average of 96.23 Kb. 218 out of these CNVRs contain 610 annotated genes, which possess a wide spectrum of molecular functions. To confirm these findings, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed for 17 CNVRs and 13(76.5%) of them were successfully validated. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the high density SNP array can significantly improve the accuracy and sensitivity of CNV calling. Integration of different platforms can enhance the detection of genomic structure variants. Our results provide a significant replenishment for the high resolution map of copy number variation in the bovine genome and valuable information for investigation of genomic structural variation underlying traits of interest in cattle. PMID:23442346

2013-01-01

65

Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.  

PubMed

Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 °C to achieve core temperature of 0 °C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 °C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 °C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 °C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. PMID:22857853

Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

2012-12-01

66

Superovulation of holstein heifers by a single subcutaneous injection of FSH dissolved in polyvinylpyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine whether a single injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) would induce a superovulatory response in cattle. Holstein heifers were given a single injection of pFSH (30mg, sc) dissolved in saline (Group 1, n = 5); 50% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; Group 2, n = 5); or 25% PVP (Group 3, n = 4). Group-4 heifers (n =

T. Takedomi; Y. Aoyagi; M. Konishi; H. Kishi; K. Taya; G. Watanabe; S. Sasamoto

1995-01-01

67

Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...

68

Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cattle and buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from two breeds of cattle, viz., [Hariana (Bos indicus), Holstein (Bos taurus)] and Indian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalus), was analyzed using 13 restriction endonucleases which recognized an average of about 40 six-base sites. Polymorphism among\\u000a cattle was detected with six of these enzymes. The two Holstein differed at six sites, whereas the Hariana breed (Bos indicus) did

P. P. Bhat; B. P. Mishra; P. N. Bhat

1990-01-01

69

Persistence of the protective immunity to Schistosoma japonicum in Chinese yellow cattle induced by recombinant 26 kDa glutathione- S-transferase (reSjc26GST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To observe the long lasting effect of the recombinant Sj26GST sub-unit vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum in cattle, animals aged from 5 to 12 months were vaccinated with reSjc26GST, and were challenged by natural infection 6 months or 12 months after vaccination. Worm burdens per cattle and egg burden in tissue (per gram) of cattle with or without vaccination were compared.

Zhongdao Wu; Shuxian Liu; Shaoji Zhang; Huanzhang Tong; Zulu Gao; Yiaoming Liu; Dandan Lin; Zide Liu; Guochang Wu; Hua Yi; Guangcehen Song; Yuxian Xu

2004-01-01

70

Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus?×?Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus?×?Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2?×?2?×?2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

2014-01-01

71

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria infections in post-weaned and adult cattle on three Maryland farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria, in healthy, asymptomatic, post-weaned and mature cattle was investigated on three Maryland farms. One farm, a dairy research facility, had 150 multiparous Holstein milking cows; 24 were examined and Cryptosporidium andersoni was detected in three (12.5%) but neither Giardia nor Eimeria was detected. The second farm, a commercial dairy, had 57 multiparous Holstein

R Fayer; J. M Trout; T. K Graczyk; E. J Lewis

2000-01-01

72

Holstein's milk detection in cheeses inferred from melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene polymorphism.  

PubMed

For some French Registered Designation of Origin (RDO) cheeses Prim'Holstein's milk is not allowed for cheese making (e.g., Reblochon, Abondance, and Beaufort cheeses). To find molecular markers for Prim'Holstein's milk detection in RDO cheese, four genes affecting coat color in cattle (c-kit, MGH, TYRP1, and MC1R) have been sequenced for three mountain breeds and the Prim'Holstein breed. Only the MC1R gene (E-locus) has shown variation between the four breeds. Among the 25 French and Italian breeds sequenced for the MC1R gene, only the Vosgienne breed has presented the same allele as the black Prim'Holstein breed (E(D)). A quick and easy DNA-based method to detect Holstein's milk in RDO cheese is proposed based on ED allele detection. A DNA extraction from cheese, a preamplification of the gene and a competitive oligonuleotide priming PCR on MC1R mutations were performed. Using an automated sequencer, differences in fluorescence and fragment size reveal the allele type. This simple approach provides good reproducibility and is shown to be relatively sensitive, with a detection limit of about 1% of Holstein's milk in milk curd. PMID:12018414

Maudet, C; Taberlet, P

2002-04-01

73

Identification of splice variants, expression analysis and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the PRMT2 gene in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2), also named HRMT1L1, belongs to the Bovine Protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) genes which are involved in the immune response. To explore the variability of the PRMT2 gene and resistance to mastitis in cows, splice variant (SV), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in this study. A SV (PRMT2-SV) lacking exon 7 (98-bp) of the PRMT2 gene was found in healthy and mastitis-infected mammary gland tissues. Two of four SNPs were significantly associated with bovine milk yield and protein content. Further, we estimated the relative expression of PRMT2-SV in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cattle by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that expression of the PRMT2-SV mRNA was significantly upregulated 4.02-fold (p<0.05) in infected mammary tissues (n=5) compared to healthy tissues (n=5). Our findings reveal that PRMT2-SV may play an important role in mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. The SNPs may be used as a possible candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection and management in Chinese Holstein cattle. PMID:24502989

Li, Zhixiong; Zhai, Mengxing; Wang, Hongliang; Chen, Ling; Wang, Lijun; Ru, Caixia; Song, Ailong; Liu, Xiaolin

2014-04-10

74

The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological\\u000a functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot\\u000a cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8?±?15.5 kg, n?=?8) and heavy (737.1?±?15.8 kg,

Serdal Dikmen; Hakan Ustuner; Abdulkadir Orman

2011-01-01

75

A study based on records taken at time of hoof trimming reveals a strong association between the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) gene and sole hemorrhage in Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

Feet and leg problems have a major effect on the well-being and lifespan of the dairy cow and thus are economically important to the dairy farmer. Apart from approaches using genetic selection for classical traits from conformation scoring, attempts for genetic improvement can be based either on records of individual disease cases or on records of disorder status at time of hoof trimming. In this study, 1,962 first-lactation cows were subjected to hoof trimming with an assessment of disorder status for sole hemorrhage as a binary trait. Cows were from 7 large commercial herds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (northeastern Germany) that had similar housing with cubicles, slatted flooring, little use of straw for bedding, and total mixed ration feeding. Cows were trimmed and assessed once, focusing on cows in the first half of the lactation. Herds were visited at intervals to enable recording of cohorts at a similar stage of lactation. Each cohort or herd-visit included between 31 and 165 cows. Additional measurements included body weight, back fat thickness, and body condition at time of trimming. Further data on dairy production, conformation scores, and reproductive performance were merged after collection of records had finished. The DNA extracted from blood of 1,183 cows was used for analysis with a custom-made array of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The SNP were selected according to results from the literature for effects in classical conformation traits, from biochemical pathway analysis, and from comparative analysis of putative candidate genes in cattle, pigs, and sheep. Selection of cohorts of cows for SNP chip analysis was such that cohorts with extreme frequencies of disorders and cohorts with slightly deviating housing systems were excluded in this first step. The results from a mixed threshold model analysis with genotype included as a fixed effect and accounting for relationships among animals revealed that the intronic SNP rs29017173 (A/G) within the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, Bos taurus autosome 21) was significantly associated with disorder status. Back-transformed means of disorder status for the 3 genotypes were 0.37 (AA), 0.52 (AG), and 0.56 (GG). Using the full data set of 1,962 cows, including the less-suitable cohorts, gave back-transformed means of 0.51 (AA), 0.58 (AG), and 0.62 (GG). As SNP rs29017173 is included on the Illumina BovineSNP50 DNA Analysis BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), a sample of 2,394 artificial insemination sires from the German calibration sample for genomic selection from birth years 1998 to 2003 was studied for possible correlated effects. The A/G polymorphism of SNP rs29017173 studied here was also associated with substantial effects for feet and leg traits from the classical conformation score system. Selection using this polymorphism will be facilitated by the fact that the same allele is favored for all traits with substantial effects. PMID:24237756

Swalve, H H; Floren, C; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Schöpke, K; Pijl, R; Wimmers, K; Brenig, B

2014-01-01

76

A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI IN DAIRY CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...

77

Mapping of QTL for Body Conformation and Behavior in Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) in farm animals have concentrated on primary production and health traits, and information on QTL for other important traits is rare. We performed a whole genome scan in a granddaughter design to detect QTL affecting body conformation and behavior in dairy cattle. The analysis included 16 paternal half-sib families of the Holstein breed

S. Hiendleder; H. THOMSEN; N. REINSCH; J. BENNEWITZ; B. LEYHE-HORN; C. LOOFT; N. XU; I. MEDJUGORAC; I. RUSS; C. KUHN; G. A. BROCKMANN; J. BLUMEL; B. BRENIG; F. REINHARDT; R. REENTS; G. AVERDUNK; M. SCHWERIN; E. KALM; G. ERHARDT

2003-01-01

78

Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.  

PubMed

This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472

Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

2013-11-01

79

Genetic components of grey cattle in Estonia as revealed by microsatellite analysis using two Bayesian clustering methods  

PubMed Central

Background It was recently postulated that a few individual grey cattle still found in Estonia might be a relict of the old native cattle stock. Genotypes at 17 microsatellite loci from a total of 243 cattle from North European breeds and 11 grey cattle in Estonia were used in an attempt to clarify the genetic composition of the grey cattle. Findings We characterize the genetic components of 11 examples of the grey cattle in Estonia at the population and individual levels. Our results show that the grey cattle in Estonia are most genetically similar to the Holstein-Friesian breed and secondarily to the Estonian Red cattle. Conclusions Both Bayesian approaches gave similar results in terms of the identification of numbers of clusters and the estimation of proportions of genetic components. This study suggested that the Estonian grey cattle included in the analysis are a genetic composite resulting from cross-breeding of European dairy breeds. PMID:21314923

2011-01-01

80

Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

81

Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.  

PubMed

Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

2014-11-25

82

Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.  

PubMed

Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 0 and 20 d on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that traditionally packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins treated with ZH for 0 d had a darker lean color (P < 0.05) than steaks from ZH-treated cattle on d 1 of display, whereas the lean color scores for ZH treatments of all durations were similar on d 4 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that ZH treatment had no effect on the discoloration of traditionally packaged, nonenhanced strip steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. Therefore, feeding ZH to beef or calf-fed Holstein steers had no detrimental effect on the lean color or color stability of strip loin steaks subjected to enhancement, packaged in modified-atmosphere or traditional packaging, and displayed under simulated retail conditions. PMID:19966164

Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F

2010-03-01

83

Cattle Vaccines  

E-print Network

Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

Faries Jr., Floron C.

2005-11-11

84

Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%). Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in 11 genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for specialized adaptation when combined with methods for searching for the recent changes of haplotype frequency in an admixed population.

Kim, Eui-Soo; Rothschild, Max F.

2014-01-01

85

Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function  

E-print Network

Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function R. A. Zinn Department of Animal Science, Imperial Valley Agricultural Center, University of California the influence of a 20% fluctuation in daily feed intake on performance and digestive function in Holstein steers

Delany, Mary E.

86

Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Milk Production and Ketosis of Dairy Cattle[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments with Holstein cows effects of dietary supplementation of niacin to periparturient cattle on subsequent milk production and ketosis were examined. In Experiment 1, 20 cows were assigned to two groups. The treatment group received niacin at 6 g per head per day for 2 wk prepartum and 12 g per head per day for 4 wk postpartum.

G. S. Dufva; E. E. Bartley; A. D. Dayton; D. O. Riddell

1983-01-01

87

Effect of Dietary Cobalt Supplementation on Cobalt Metabolism and Performance of Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted with dairy cattle fed diets with added Co. The first study examined cow age and added dietary Co on Co in liver and blood. Nonpreg- nant, nonlactating Holstein cows were blocked by age (2.5 or 6.5 yr) and assigned to either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 9 mg Co per day. The Co

R. L. Kincaid; L. E. Lefebvre; J. D. Cronrath; M. T. Socha; A. B. Johnson

2003-01-01

88

Genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stillbirth (SB) has been associated with reduced milk yield, compromised reproductive performance, and decreased dam longevity. Genetic evaluations for stillbirth were initiated in 2006 for Holsteins (HO) in the US, but evaluations for Brown Swiss (BS) and Jersey (JE) cattle were not feasible at tha...

89

Cattle and their origin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about different breeds of cattle, the history of cattle, and why cattle are considered ruminants. History of cattle CLick on the above link to explore the history of cattle. breeds of cattle Click on the above link to explore different breeds of cattle. Can you find any breeds that are new to you? Are any of these breeds found in this area? Ruminants Click on the above link to discover why cows ...

Howells, Mr.

2005-10-25

90

Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen?†  

PubMed Central

In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

2011-01-01

91

Cattle egret with food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cattle egrets are called so because they hang around pastures where cattle graze. The cattle stir up insects and ground-dwelling creatures with their hooves as they move around the pasture. The egret can easily find something to eat this way. This is a commensalistic relationship because the cattle egret benefits while the cattle are neither harmed nor helped.

J. M. Garg (None; )

2006-01-10

92

Short communication: Effects of the progesterone receptor variants on fertility traits in cattle.  

PubMed

The progesterone receptor (PGR) gene is a key factor in the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy and in embryo development. Currently, it is unknown what variants of the PGR gene are related to fertility traits in cattle. Identification of such variants would allow the implementation of marker-assisted selection in breeding schemes. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of PGR with fertility traits in Holstein dairy cattle. An in vitro fertilization system was used to maximize the efficiency of the identification of genetic factors affecting fertility. This in vitro fertilization system would allow the assessment of fertilization and embryonic survival rates independently of influences from the uterine environment. A total of 5,566 fertilization attempts were performed, and a total of 3,679 embryos were produced using oocytes from 324 Holstein cows and semen from 10 Holstein bulls. Sequencing of pooled DNA samples from ovaries revealed an SNP (G/C) in intron 3 of PGR. A generalized linear model was used to analyze the association of this SNP with fertilization and embryonic survival rates for each ovary. Oocytes obtained from CC ovaries showed a 61% fertilization rate, compared with 68 and 69% for GC and GG ovaries, respectively. The survival rate of embryos produced from GG ovaries was 5 and 6% higher than that of GC and CC ovaries . These results indicate that the PGR SNP could be used in marker-assisted selection breeding programs in Holstein dairy cattle. PMID:19620692

Driver, A M; Huang, W; Gajic, S; Monson, R L; Rosa, G J M; Khatib, H

2009-08-01

93

Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances  

E-print Network

Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances James D. Sartwelle, III, Ernest E. Davis, James Mintert and Rob Borchardt* Ever-tightening profit margins and recurring cyclical downturns in cattle and calf markets have forced many cattle producers to search...

Sartwelle III, James D.; Davis, Ernest E.; Mintert, James R.; Borchardt, Rob

2000-09-13

94

Chinese Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

Lyman, Stanford M.

95

Current status of bovine cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia between September 2004 and August 2005 was reported. The examination of various organs of 11227 cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir showed that 842 (7.5%) were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 10,329 male cattle, examined, 783 (7.6%) had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 59 (6.6%) of the 898 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local zebu cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle. PMID:18551380

Kebede, Nigatu; Tilahun, Getachew; Hailu, Asrat

2009-03-01

96

Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado

M. He; L. E. Armentano

2011-01-01

97

Influence of Variations in Ruminal Contents upon of Body Weight Change of Dairy Cattle During Restricted Feeding ' Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three common methods of estimating live weight change in ruminants and relation- ships between ruminal contents and live weights of dairy cattle were studied, using 13 lactating Holstein heifers, two with tu- reen fistulas. Live weights were obtained immediately after each milking for 105 consecutive days in one trial and 61 days in another. Ruminal contents from fistu- lated heifers

D. L. BATH; MAGNAR RONNING; G. P. LOFGREEN; J. H. MEYER

98

Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf  

PubMed Central

A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications. PMID:24982517

Muirhead, Tammy L.; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L.

2014-01-01

99

Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of beef steers and calf-fed Holstein steers on the color stability of top sirloin butt steaks.  

PubMed

Top sirloin butt steaks were used to determine the effects on color stability of supplementing zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to beef and calf-fed Holstein steers. This study compared the effects of dietary ZH supplementation for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d on feed. One-half of the top sirloin butts were enhanced and packaged in modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP); the remaining one-half were packaged in polyvinylchloride (PVC) film. Beef steaks packaged with PVC from cattle supplemented for 30 d had a tendency (P = 0.07) to produce a redder (a* = 18.31) steak than the control cattle (a* = 17.00) or cattle supplemented for 40 d (a* = 17.05). In beef steaks, ZH had no effect on subjective visual color (P = 0.15 to 0.27) and discoloration (P = 0.10 to 0.59) of steaks packaged with PVC when stratified by day of display, with the exception of visual color on d 5. Beef steaks under MAP from cattle supplemented for 20 d were redder (a* = 19.50, P < 0.05) than those from cattle supplemented for 30 (a* = 18.07) or 40 d (a* = 17.57), but were similar to the control steaks (a* = 18.68). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of retail display day and day of supplementation on objective or subjective color of calf-fed Holstein steaks packaged with PVC. Dietary supplementation for 20 d produced a greater (P < 0.05) b* value on d 1 of display in MAP-packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. If recommending a period of dietary supplementation, 20 to 30 d would be suggested to result in, on average, the brightest, reddest sirloin butt steaks. PMID:19684278

VanOverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Green, J; Hunt, M; Brooks, C; Killefer, J; Streeter, M N; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Allen, D M; Yates, D A

2009-11-01

100

Chinese Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

Hsu, Kai-yu

101

Synophthalmia in a Holstein cross calf  

PubMed Central

Synophthalmia is a form of cyclopia, in which some elements of two eyes are fused and form a single eye in the middle region of the forehead. The head of a Holstein female calf born from a 5-year-old cow was referred to Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University due to multiple congenital anomalies. The calf had been slaughtered immediately after birth due to severe respiratory distress by the owner. The calf showed multiple birth defects, including synophthalmia, holoprosencephaly, absence of optic chiasma, hypoplastic maxilla, curved mandibles, arrhinia and dental pad agenesis. A normal tongue protruded from the defect and small oral cavity. To our knowledge, this particular combination of craniofacial defects has not been previously described in Holstein calf. PMID:25610588

Nourani, Hossein; Karimi, Iraj; Rajabi Vardanjani, Hossein

2014-01-01

102

Chinese Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews Scotland offers this website on the history of Chinese Mathematics. Key features highlighted in the overview include: a discussion of the Chinese version of Pythagoras's theorem, a famous Chinese mathematics book commonly known as the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, and the work of several Chinese mathematicians. Visitors to the website can also browse a chronological listing of several Chinese mathematicians and read about their careers. Other features of the website include a section summarizing each chapter from the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a section highlighting ten other mathematical classics, a review of the Chinese numeral system, and a collection of Chinese problems, which are extracted from various articles in their archive.

103

The effect of manual forestripping on milking performance of Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forestripping as a premilking stimulation technique on milk yield, milking unit attachment time, and milk flow rates in Holstein dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) were divided into two groups (HPE, high producing, early lactation; LPL, low producing, late lactation) based on prestudy milk yield and stage of lactation. Within the production group, cows were randomly assigned into treatment (n = 6) and control groups (n = 6) in a switchback design. Cows were milked twice daily and treatments were switched after 20 milkings. Premilking udder preparation for the treatment group was as follows: forestripping, predipping with 0.5% iodine, and drying with paper towels followed by unit attachment. Udder preparation for the control group was identical except forestripping was not performed. Data were analyzed by using the PROC Means and PROC Mixed models described by SAS. During the study, cows in the HPE group produced significantly more milk and had longer milking unit attachment times compared with cows in the LPL group. The milk flow rate was 0.36 kg/min faster for the HPE cows compared with the LPL cows. There was no significant effect of order of treatment administration on any outcome variable. There were no significant differences in milk yield, milk unit attachment time, or milk flow for animals that were forestripped compared with animals that were not forestripped. In this study, the addition of forestripping to an otherwise acceptable premilking udder preparation routine did not increase milking performance of multiparous Holstein dairy cows. PMID:12018426

Wagner, A M; Ruegg, P L

2002-04-01

104

The noxious effects of electroimmobilization in adult Holstein cows: a pilot study.  

PubMed Central

Ten adult Holstein cows were used in an experiment to determine whether the induction of electroimmobilization was a noxious event. The cows were halter trained and accustomed to being led into a set of stocks. The time taken for the cattle to walk the last ten metres into the stocks was recorded. The heart rate of the cow was recorded for a three minute period prior to a ten second exposure to a high pitched sound (the conditioning stimulus). Measurements were collected for three repetitions and then the cows were assigned to two groups of five. One group was immobilized for 30 seconds using a commercial electroimmobilizer, the other group was not treated. This procedure was repeated ten times over a period of eight days. The cows were then exposed to the conditioning stimulus and their response observed. The treated group took significantly (P less than 0.05) longer to get into the stocks and the regression slopes for heart rate were significantly different from the control group. The treated cows responded to the conditioning stimulus at five and nine months after the end of the conditioning period. Adult Holstein cows regarded electroimmobilization as a noxious event and were very strongly conditioned to this stimulus. PMID:3756681

Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N

1986-01-01

105

EFFECTS OF LIMESTONE AND SODIUM BICARBONATE BUFFERS ON RUMEN MEASUREMENTS AND RATE OF PASSAGE IN CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Eight rumen-fistulated cattle (four Angus steers and four nonlactating Holstein cows) were fed a cracked corn-based concentrate (65% of dry matter) and corn silage (35% of dry matter) diet containing: (1) no buffer, (2) 2.5% limestone, (3) 2% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or (4) 1.25% limestone and 1.25% NaHCO3. Each diet was fed at approximately maintenance and-two times maintenance levels

G. L. Haaland; H. F. Tyrrell

106

Effect of ketoprofen, lidocaine local anesthesia, and combined xylazine and lidocaine caudal epidural anesthesia during castration of beef cattle on stress responses, immunity, growth, and behavior1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of burdizzo castration alone or in combination with ketoprofen (K), local anesthesia (LA), or caudal epidural anesthesia (EPI) on plasma cortisol, acute-phase proteins, inter- feron-? production, growth, and behavior of beef cattle, 50 Holstein × Friesian bulls (13 mo old, 307 ± 5.3 kg) were assigned to (n = 10\\/treatment): 1) control (handled; C); 2) burdizzo

S. T. L. Ting; B. Earley; J. M. L. Hughes; M. A. Crowe

2010-01-01

107

Cattle Breed Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...

Mr. Harbour

2012-04-04

108

The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

To evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers, calf-fed Holstein carcasses (n = 102) were selected from a pool of 2,300 steers that were fed 0 or 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis) of ZH. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was supplemented the last 20 d of the finishing period and withdrawn for 3 d before slaughter. Carcasses were selected based on carcass weight as well as predetermined USDA Yield grade categories. For tenderness evaluation, steaks from the strip loin, bottom round, and top round (n = 54 per subprimal) were aged for 14 or 21 d postmortem. Carcasses from ZH-fed steers had more (P < 0.01) saleable yield than carcasses from control-fed steers. Additionally, ZH-fed steers had greater (P < or = 0.01) subprimal yield from the shoulder clod, strip loin, peeled tenderloin, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin tri-tip, peeled knuckle, inside round, bottom round flat, eye of round, heel, and shank. Furthermore, ZH decreased (P < 0.01) the total amount and percentage of bone and fat trim from the carcass. Moisture loss was not affected by ZH in LM or inside round steaks (P > 0.05); however, ZH increased thawing loss (P = 0.05) but reduced cooking loss (P = 0.05) in bottom round steaks. Shear force values of LM and inside round steaks increased with ZH inclusion (P < 0.01), but there was no difference in bottom round steaks (P > 0.05). Steaks aged for 21 d had smaller (P < 0.01) Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) values than 14-d steaks from all 3 subprimals. Trained sensory panelists did not detect any differences (P > 0.05) in sensory juiciness, tenderness, or flavor variables of LM or inside round steaks, except ZH steaks from the LM received smaller scores for sustained juiciness (P = 0.01) and overall tenderness (P = 0.04) than control steaks. Although LM steaks from ZH cattle were tougher than control steaks, the ZH-treated steaks had an average WBS value of 4.10 kg, which would be classified as intermediate in tenderness, with trained panelists rating ZH steaks slightly to moderately tender. Feeding ZH improved carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers; however, tenderness was reduced in LM and inside round steaks. The interaction of postmortem tenderization techniques should be investigated to evaluate their impact on palatability in cattle supplemented with beta-agonists to allow the beef industry to take full advantage of the enhancement in performance and carcass yield. PMID:20382878

Garmyn, A J; Shook, J N; VanOverbeke, D L; Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Hilton, G G

2010-07-01

109

Hepatic transcriptome profiling identifies differences in expression of genes associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth between Hereford and Holstein-Friesian bulls.  

PubMed

This study examined liver transcriptomic profiles of cattle distinctly different in meat and milk production capacity. It was performed on bulls of two different genetic backgrounds: Herefords (H), a meat breed, and Holstein-Friesians (HF), a dairy breed. Using bovine long oligo-microarrays and qPCR, we identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed between the two breeds. In H bulls, we observed up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism (CD36, CAT, HSD3B1, FABP1, ACAA1) and involved in insulin signaling (INSR, INSIG2, NR4A1) and down-regulation of genes involved in somatotropic axis signaling (IGF1, GHR, IGFBP3) as compared to HF. Transcriptome profiling of these two breeds allowed us to pinpoint the transcriptional differences between Holstein and Hereford bulls at hepatic level associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth. PMID:24304134

Lisowski, Pawel; Ko?ciuczuk, Ewa M; Go?cik, Joanna; Pierzcha?a, Mariusz; Rowi?ska, Barbara; Zwierzchowski, Lech

2014-04-01

110

Determining the value of Mexican cattle vs. sale barn cattle  

E-print Network

Feedyard managers are faced with cattle purchasing decisions almost daily. In making these decisions, they must be able to accurately estimate the performance, death loss, and a medicine charges of the cattle being considered. Sale barn cattle...

Horn, Shelby W.

1992-01-01

111

Genomic signatures reveal new evidences for selection of important traits in domestic cattle.  

PubMed

We investigated diverse genomic selections using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data of five distinct cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-known genes such as KIT, MC1R, ASIP, GHR, LCORL, NCAPG, WIF1, and ABCA12, we found evidence for a variety of novel and less-known genes under selection in cattle, such as LAP3, SAR1B, LRIG3, FGF5, and NUDCD3. Selective sweeps near LAP3 were then validated by next-generation sequencing. Genome-wide association analysis involving 26,362 Holsteins confirmed that LAP3 and SAR1B were related to milk production traits, suggesting that our candidate regions were likely functional. In addition, haplotype network analyses further revealed distinct selective pressures and evolution patterns across these five cattle breeds. Our results provided a glimpse into diverse genomic selection during cattle domestication, breed formation, and recent genetic improvement. These findings will facilitate genome-assisted breeding to improve animal production and health. PMID:25431480

Xu, Lingyang; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Tassell, Curtis P Van; Sonstegard, Tad S; Liu, George E

2015-03-01

112

Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological profile—haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows

B KUMAR; S. P PACHAURI

2000-01-01

113

Alterations of pH in Response to Increased Dietary Protein in Cattle are Unique to the Uterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken with two objectives: 1) to determine whether the effect of excess dietary protein on intrauterine pH in cattle is specific to the uterus or manifested in other bodily fluids and 2) to determine whether the effect of excess ruminally degradable protein on uterine pH can be ameliorated by substitution with a less-degradable protein source. Thirty-six Holstein

C. C. Elrod; M. Van Amburgh; W. R. Butler

114

Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth rates, feed conversion, and carcass traits in calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to enhance growth performance and carcass characteristics in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, Holstein steers (n = 2,311) were fed in a large-pen trial in 2 phases at a commercial feed yard in the desert Southwest. In Exp. 2, a total of 359 steers were fed in a small-pen university study. In Exp. 1 and 2, cattle were implanted with a combination trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant approximately 120 d before slaughter. Cattle were fed ZH for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). A 3-d withdrawal was maintained immediately before slaughter. Cattle within an experiment were fed to a common number of days on feed. During the last 120 d before slaughter, ADG was not enhanced by feeding ZH for 20 d (P = 0.33 in Exp. 1, and P = 0.79 in Exp. 2). Gain-to-feed conversion was increased by feeding ZH for all durations in Exp. 1 (P < 0.05). Feeding ZH increased HCW by 9.3 (Exp. 2) to 11.6 (Exp. 1) kg at 20 d compared with the control groups. Across both experiments, dressing percent was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). Although skeletal maturity score, liver integrity, lean color, fat thickness, and KPH were not affected by feeding ZH for 20 d in either experiment (P >or= 0.6), LM area was increased for all durations of feeding ZH (P < 0.05). The percentage of carcasses identified as USDA Choice was reduced (P < 0.01) for all durations of feeding ZH in Exp. 1. This effect was not observed in Exp. 2. Holstein steers clearly respond to the beta-agonist ZH, and 20 d of feeding ZH with a 3-d withdrawal significantly increased carcass weights, muscling, and carcass leanness. PMID:19717762

Beckett, J L; Delmore, R J; Duff, G C; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N

2009-12-01

115

NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

116

Forages for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

in energy content of various forages relative to the requirements of various classes of cattle. Forages for Beef Cattle David Bade and Donald J. Dorsett* Warm-season perennial grasses respond well to fertil- ization and, with heavy fertilization, can produce...

Bade, David H.; Dorsett, Donald J.

2002-09-05

117

Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

Cheng, Richard

1984-01-01

118

Mandarin Chinese Dictionary: English-Chinese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dictionary is a companion volume to the "Mandarin Chinese Dictionary (Chinese-English)" published in 1967 by Seton Hall University. The purpose of the dictionary is to help English-speaking students produce Chinese sentences in certain cultural situations by looking up the English expressions. Natural, spoken Chinese expressions within the…

Wang, Fred Fangyu

119

The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

2014-01-01

120

Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.  

PubMed

Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

1994-01-01

121

Chinese Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

Skilling, William C.

2012-01-01

122

Common Cattle Parasites  

E-print Network

in cattle with clinical signs similar to those caused by viruses, bacteria and allergies. Transmission and control are the same as for hairworms. Lung worm disease occurs in pre vi ous ly un ex posed cattle, such as in calves or moved cattle. Liver... cause a condition called lousy, an itching skin disease with possible anemia. Clinical signs are dry, scaly skin, hair loss and itching exhibited by biting, rubbing and scratching. Lice bites and allergies to lice cause the itch- ing. The allergic...

Faries Jr., Floron C.

2005-11-11

123

Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

Lipman, Jonathan

2010-01-01

124

Incidence and Genetic Characterization of Gongylonema pulchrum in Cattle Slaughtered in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, is a thread-like spirurid nematode found in a variety of mammals worldwide. Its incidences in Iranian cattle of different breed or age have not been reported. The aims of the present study are to disclose the infection status of G. pulchrum in cattle slaughtered in northern region of Iran. Methods Full-length esophagi of cattle of 97 native dairy breed and 41 Holstein-Friesian breed were collected at four local abattoirs in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, from March 2006 to August 2007, and were examined parasitologically. Eight overlapping segments of the small- and large-subunits of rDNA were amplified by PCR, and the obtained nucleotide sequences were characterized. Results The incidences of G. pulchrum in female and male native dairy breed were 38.9% and 24.0%, respectively, whereas those in female and male Holstein-Friesian breed were 4.2% and 0%, respectively. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of G. pulchrum rDNA showed an intra-individual variation in the sequence and length, and the variation was ascribed to some unstable repeats of "A" or "CA". Conclusion Distinct incidences of G. pulchrum infection in native dairy breed and Holstein-Friesian breed might be ascribed to different animal husbandry manners for each breed in Iran; the former breed grazes freely in the pasture, but the latter breed is usually held in a pen. The rDNA sequence of Iranian G. pulchrum, obtained for the first time by us, might facilitate a reliable species identification of the parasite with a wide spectrum of morphological variations. PMID:22347239

Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Salehi, N; Ashrafi-Helan, J; Sato, H

2010-01-01

125

Reproductive Diseases in Cattle  

E-print Network

This publication describes prevention measures, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options for the most common reproductive diseases in cattle: brucellosis (Bang's disease); leptospirosis; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and bovine diarrhea...

Sprott, L. R.; Field, Bob

1998-12-03

126

Synchronizing Estrus in Cattle  

E-print Network

Cattle producers can synchronize estrus (heat) to breed fertile females rapidly. The manipulation of the reproductive process reduces the need to detect estrus, creates a more uniform calf crop, and shortens the breeding and calving seasons...

Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2007-04-13

127

Determining Pregnancy in Cattle  

E-print Network

The process of palpating to determine pregnancy in cattle and the equipment used during palpation are described and illustrated in this bulletin. The female reproductive system is discussed, along with the developmental stages of the embryo/fetus....

Beverly, John R.; Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2008-12-16

128

Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on retail yields of subprimals from beef and calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Retail cutting tests were conducted on subprimals from cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to determine if the improved carcass composition and red meat yield resulting from ZH feeding would translate into increased retail yields of ready-to-cook products. As part of a 3-phase study, selection of carcasses from Holstein steers was done once (fall 2008), followed by the collection of carcasses from beef-type steers on 2 separate occasions (beef study I: summer 2009; beef study II: spring 2010). Each of the 3 groups of steers was assigned previously to 1 of 2 treatments, treated (fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH for 20 d) or control (not fed ZH). All steers were slaughtered and carcasses were fabricated in commercial beef-processing establishments. Only those carcasses grading USDA Choice or higher were used. Five subprimals were used for both the calf-fed Holstein study (n = 546 subprimals) and beef study I (n = 576 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef chuck, shoulder clod; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; and beef round, outside round (flat). Seven subprimals were used in beef study II (n = 138 subprimals): beef chuck, chuck roll; beef round, sirloin tip (knuckle), peeled; beef round, top round; beef round, eye of round; beef loin, strip loin, boneless; beef loin, top sirloin butt, boneless; and beef loin, tenderloin. A simulated retail market environment was created, and 3 retail meat merchandisers prepared retail cuts from each subprimal so salable yields and processing times could be obtained. Differences in salable yields were found for the calf-fed Holstein steer chuck rolls (96.54% for ZH vs. 95.71% for control; P = 0.0045) and calf-fed Holstein steer top rounds (91.30% for ZH vs. 90.18% for control; P = 0.0469). However, other than heavier subprimals and an increased number of retail cuts obtained, total salable yields measured on a percentage basis and processing times were mostly unaffected by ZH. Cutability advantages of feeding ZH are achieved primarily in the carcass-to-subprimal conversion rather than in the subprimal-to-retail conversion. PMID:21478448

Haneklaus, A N; Hodgen, J M; Delmore, R J; Lawrence, T E; Yates, D A; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W

2011-09-01

129

19 genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in clones and nonclones of two different breeds: holstein and Japanese black.  

PubMed

Epigenetic marks, and especially DNA methylation, are at the interplay of both environmental and genetic factors. By facilitating the metabolic adaptation of highly selected rent animals to their environment, DNA methylation could contribute to the phenotypic differences observed between breeds. The aim of this study was to assess to which extent the methylome of 2 specialised cattle breeds - the dairy breed Holstein and the beef breed Japanese Black - could show some variability. We focused on the liver, which has a central role in metabolism and is therefore most susceptible to be affected by genetic and environmental variations. For each breed, both cloned and noncloned animals were included in the study. We used 9 adult Holstein cows aged from 5 to 15 years (5 healthy clones generated from ear skin fibroblasts of 4 genotypes, 2 cell donors obtained by AI and 2 other AI controls of unrelated genotypes, and 11 Japanese Black cows aged from 4 to 10 years (5 healthy clones generated from cumulus cells of one genotype and 6 AI controls of unrelated genotypes). The Holstein breed and Japanese Black breed were therefore represented by 6 and 7 genotypes, respectively. Liver samples were snap-frozen after slaughtering, and genomic DNA was extracted. To identify methylated regions, we used immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by hybridization on a bovine promoter microarray (MeDIP-chip). The microarray targets the upstream region (-2000 to +1360bp) of 21416 genes (UMD3.1 assembly). After normalization of the data, enriched probes were identified using ChIPmix (Martin-Magniette et al. 2008). Results of exploratory analysis, including correlation clustering and principal component analysis, show a clear separation between the two breeds. A statistical test based on differences in the proportion of the enriched probes was used to identify differentially methylated regions (DMR) related to cloning and breed (Spatstat R package; http://www.spatstat.org/spatstat/). Only a restricted number of cloning-related DMR could be found (240). Interestingly, most of these DMR showed no overlap between Holstein and Japanese Black animals, maybe reflecting the different origin of the somatic cells used for cloning (fibroblasts v. cumulus cells). In contrast, we identified an important number of breed-related DMR (3642). These DMR were significantly enriched in genes involved in placental development and lactation, suggesting an adaptation of the two breeds to the different metabolic demand during gestation. Whether these epigenetic differences rely on environmental variations or genetic polymorphism remains to be elucidated. PMID:25472068

Kiefer, H; Kaneda, M; Jouneau, L; Campion, E; Balzergue, S; Martin-Magniette, M-L; Renard, J-P; Nagai, T; Jammes, H

2014-12-01

130

A Genome Wide Association Scan of Bovine Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis is a significant veterinary and financial problem in many parts of the world. Although many factors influence infection and progression of the disease, there is a host genetic component and dissection of this may enlighten on the wider biology of host response to tuberculosis. However, a binary phenotype of presence/absence of infection presents a noisy signal for genomewide association study. Methodology/Principal Findings We calculated a composite phenotype of genetic merit for TB susceptibility based on disease incidence in daughters of elite sires used for artificial insemination in the Irish dairy herd. This robust measure was compared with 44,426 SNP genotypes in the most informative 307 subjects in a genome wide association analysis. Three SNPs in a 65 kb genomic region on BTA 22 were associated (i.e. p<10?5, peaking at position 59588069, p?=?4.02×10?6) with tuberculosis susceptibility. Conclusions/Significance A genomic region on BTA 22 was suggestively associated with tuberculosis susceptibility; it contains the taurine transporter gene SLC6A6, or TauT, which is known to function in the immune system but has not previously been investigated for its role in tuberculosis infection. PMID:22355315

Finlay, Emma K.; Berry, Donagh P.; Wickham, Brian; Gormley, Eamonn P.; Bradley, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

131

Successful treatment of an intrathoracic bronchogenic cyst in a Holstein-Friesian calf  

PubMed Central

A 5-½-month-old female Holstein-Friesian calf was presented with a history of recurring ruminal tympany and poor development. The absence of lung sounds on the right hemithorax suggested a right-sided intrathoracic pathology. Radiography and computed tomography revealed a large thin-walled cavernous lesion with a gas-fluid interface which almost completely filled the right thoracic cavity. Fluid aspirated from the lesion was clear, yellowish and odorless. These findings led to the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The cyst strongly adhered to the adjacent lung tissue. After removal of the free wall, the adjacent lung tissue was sealed using surgical stapling instruments, and the non-removable part of the wall was curetted and rinsed. The intensive postoperative management included antibiotic therapy, oxygen supplementation and regional lidocaine infusion. Anti-inflammatory drugs were administered for further pain control. The calf recovered well and was released from the clinic on postoperative day 11. Intra- or extrathoracic bronchogenic cysts result from abnormal budding during the embryonic development of the tracheobronchial system. Successful treatment of this calf despite the size of the lesion and the invasive character of the surgical intervention indicates that resection of bronchogenic cysts in cattle may be an option for valuable animals. PMID:23421871

2013-01-01

132

Chinese Dinosaurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's "Jurassic Park" in Mandarin? That isn't easy to say, but if you're interested in Chinese dinosaurs, then you will love the new online (and real) exhibit hosted by the Australian Museum in Sydney. A vast land containing many of the world's best-preserved dinosaur specimens, China offers remnants of many species not commonly available in Western exhibits. With lots to explore, the site features a readily accessible list of dinosaurs, each arranged under its Chinese-derived species name. Not like anything most of us have ever heard, many of the specimens look and seem familiar, at least as members of the dinosaur family. While generally well-executed, particularly worthy of note is the site's presentation of China's celebrated feathered dinosaurs, Caudipteryx zoui and Protarchaeopteryx, two curious figures believed to represent part of the great reptilian leap from land to air.

2002-01-01

133

Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association studies were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBV in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBV within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multibreed reference population. Therefore, a multibreed reference population is a useful resource to find SNP with a greater than average association with RFI in 1 breed and use them to estimate GEBV in another breed. PMID:25074450

Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

2014-08-01

134

Chinese Culture and Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

Wong, Kam-Cheung

2001-01-01

135

Estimating Grazeable Acreage for Cattle  

E-print Network

Research using cattle fitted with GPS collars has shed light on how cattle behave in response to different landscape features such as brush, rock cover, slope, water, forage and grazing land accessibility. This publication explains how to use aerial...

Hohlt, Jason C.; Lyons, Robert K.; Hanselka, C. Wayne; McKown, David

2009-04-17

136

Grid Pricing of Fed Cattle  

E-print Network

There are several value-based fed cattle pricing systems, including formula pricing, price grids and alliances. This publication describes the different cattle pricing methods and helps you decide which is best for you....

Schroeder, Ted C.; Hogan, Robert J.; Anderson, David P.

2009-03-02

137

Bilateral exophthalmos in a Holstein cow with lymphosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old Holstein cow presented with severe bilateral exophthalmos. A complete blood cell count revealed late stage lymphoma; the agar gel immunodiffusion test for enzootic bovine leukosis was positive. The cow was euthanized 1 wk after presentation. Necropsy revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and tumors in most organs. Final diagnosis was lymphosarcoma. PMID:13677600

Malatestinic, Andrea

2003-01-01

138

Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism in a Maternal Lineage of Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mitochondrial genotypes are shown to exist within one Holstein cow maternal lineage. They were detected by the appearance of an extra Hae III recognition site in one genotype. The nucleotide sequence of this region has been determined and the genotypes are distinguished by an adenine\\/guanine base transition which creates the new Hae III site. This point mutation occurs within

William W. Hauswirth; Philip J. Laipis

1982-01-01

139

A Body Condition Scoring Chart for Holstein Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chart for body condition scoring of freely moving Holstein dairy cows was developed using an iterative process consisting of literature review, interviews with experts, field testing, statistical analysis, and comments from chart users. The chart consists of text and diagrams that detail changes in con- formation with body condition change for eight body locations identified as important in body

A. J. Edmonson; I. J. Lean; L. D. Weaver; T. Farver; G. Webster

1989-01-01

140

Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...

141

TRAIT SELECTION WHEN CULLING U.S. HOLSTEINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emphasis by dairy producers on milk, fat, and protein yields; somatic cell score (SCS); days open (DO) and dystocia score (DS) when culling was documented for U.S. Holstein cows that calved since 1980. Least-squares differences between cows retained for additional parities and those culled were esti...

142

Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves  

E-print Network

disease (BRD) is the leading natural cause of death in beef and dairy cattle, resulting in annual losses of over one million animals and $692 million. Typically, cattle with BRD have clinical symptoms, and appetite depression. Environmental factors that increase the risk for BRD include: the stress of sudden

Collins, Gary S.

143

Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

Mammadova, Nazira

2013-01-01

144

Collegiate Cattle Grower's Sponsorship Agreement  

E-print Network

Collegiate Cattle Grower's Sponsorship Agreement The Collegiate Cattle Grower's Association to double our numbers in both exhibitors and prize money this year. The 2012 show will be held February 18 and 19 at the U of A Campus Agricultural Center in Tucson. This event will feature cattle, sheep, goat

Guerriero, Vince

145

Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

146

Isolation and biochemical characterization of two lipases from a metagenomic library of China Holstein cow rumen.  

PubMed

Two novel lipase genes RlipE1 and RlipE2 which encoded 361- and 265-amino acid peptides, respectively, were recovered from a metagenomic library of the rumen microbiota of Chinese Holstein cows. A BLAST search revealed a high similarity (90%) between RlipE2 and a carboxylesterase from Thermosinus carboxydivorans Nor1, while there was a low similarity (below 50%) between RlipE1 and other lipases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that RlipE2 clustered with the lipolytic enzymes from family V while RlipE1 clustered with six other putative bacterial lipases which might constitute a new subfamily. The recombinant lipases were thermally unstable and retained 60% activity over a pH range of 6.5-8.5. Substrate specificity assay indicated that both enzymes had higher hydrolytic activity toward laurate (C(12)), palmitate (C(16)) and stearate (C(18)). The novel phylogenetic affiliation and high specificity of both enzymes for long-chain fatty acid make them interesting targets for manipulation of rumen lipid metabolism. PMID:19486892

Liu, Kailang; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Shengguo; McSweeney, Chris; Yu, Ping; Li, Dan

2009-08-01

147

Determining Pregnancy in Cattle.  

E-print Network

jifferenc DETERMINING PREGNANCY IN CATTLE A. M. Sorensen, J r and J. R. Beverly* Economic returns from the beef cattle industry depend largely on the percent calf crop and the weaning weight of calves to be sold. Much has been done in the area... pregnant cows should be culled on the basis of age and condition of the udder, feet, legs and teeth which make them poor breeding stock. The following discussioh describes a way of improv- ing the calf crop percentage through pregnancy de- termination...

Sorensen, A. M. Jr.; Beverly, J. R.

1968-01-01

148

Reproductive performance of backcross Holstein × Brown Swiss and their Holstein contemporaries under subtropical environmental conditions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of the Holstein (HO) and their backcross HO × Brown Swiss (BS) under Egyptian subtropical conditions. The backcrosses were HBH (HO sires crossed with F1 BS × HO cows) and HHB (HO sires crossed with F1 HO × BS cows). Several reproductive indices and health traits for different genotypes were measured, and the effect of temperature-humidity index level (THI) on reproductive performance was investigated. Reproductive indices of the HHB backcross were better than those of the HO. The conception (30.1%) and pregnancy (28.9%) rates of the HHB backcross were significantly higher than those of the HO (28.1% and 22.6%, respectively). The calving interval and the days open of the HHB backcross were significantly shorter than those of the HO. The fertility of the HHB backcross was not affected by the level of the THI. The conception and the pregnancy rate of the HO decreased from 35.8% and 29.4%, respectively, at low THI to 16.1% and 12.1%, respectively, at high THI. The HHB backcross had the significant lowest incidence of retained placenta and metritis (9.6 and 16.9, respectively). In conclusion, despite their high milk production efficiency, pure HO had retarded reproductive performance and adaptability. On the other hand, the HHB backcross had a better adaptability and fertility under Egyptian conditions. PMID:25459027

El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Bayoumi, Khairy M

2015-02-01

149

Chinese Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fascinating site, brought to fruition by Dutch Sinologist Stefan R. Landsberger, seeks to provide âÂÂa visual chronicle of the history of modern Chinaâ through the exhibition of over 5,000 PeopleâÂÂs Republic of China propaganda posters. Viewers may want to start with the Gallery of Chinese Propaganda Posters â an overview of 200 highlights from the collection. A visit to Our Most Visited Theme Pages and Recently Added Posters also pays intellectual dividends (Iron Women and Foxy Ladies is an especially great find). But perhaps the true gem of the site is the 200 theme presentations found under the Themes link, where readers can explore categories such as Before the PeopleâÂÂs Republic, Campaigns â 1949-1965, Models and Martyrs, and Mao Zedong.

150

Cattle as capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock have been seen either as a source of subsistence or as commodities in a process of capital accumulation. Is the association of cattle with capital just a poetic metaphor or the grounds for a serious analysis of third world herding communities? Economists are divided between an orthodox notion of capital as physical equipment and a Marxist emphasis on social

Keith Hart; Louise Sperling

1987-01-01

151

Methane Emissions from Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing atmospheric concentra- tions of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many

K. A. Johnson; D. E. Johnson

2010-01-01

152

A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.

2014-01-01

153

Influence of roughage and grain processing in high-concentrate diets on the performance of long-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

The effects of roughage source and timing of inclusion in high-concentrate diets on feedlot performance were evaluated in each of 2 yr with 144 and 120 long-fed Holstein steers, respectively. Roughage, when included in the diet, was delivered in a built-in-roughage (BIR) pellet supplying 15 and 6% roughage (percentage of DM) or hay crop silage (HCS) supplying 7 and 10% roughage (percentage of DM) for the growing and finishing periods, respectively. The six dietary treatments (two pens each) investigated were continuous whole corn and pelleted supplement (no added roughage; WSC-PEL); BIR with cracked corn either in the growing (BIR-G) or finishing (BIR-F) period with whole corn being fed with pelleted supplement when BIR was not part of the diet; BIR and cracked corn fed continuously (BIR-CONT); and two HCS treatments in which the corn was fed either whole (HCS-WSC) or cracked (HCS-CSC) for the entire feeding period. Replicates were slaughtered 4 and 3 wk apart for yr 1 and 2, respectively. Pooled daily gains (yr 1 and 2) for the entire trial (1.39 to 1.45 kg/d) were not different (P > .05). Daily DM and concentrate intakes were lower (P < .001) and gain efficiency was higher (P < .001) for the WSC-PEL than for the other treatments. Carcass characteristics were similar among treatments except for an improved yield grade (P < .02) for the HCS treatments over the BIR treatments. The WSC-PEL treatment was the most profitable (+/steer) and the BIR-CONT diet was the least profitable. The HCS treatments were the most profitable of the roughage treatments. A newly proposed intake prediction equation for feedlot cattle performed similarly to the 1984 NRC equation with long-fed Holstein steer calves. PMID:7592070

Traxler, M J; Fox, D G; Perry, T C; Dickerson, R L; Williams, D L

1995-07-01

154

Functional renormalization group study of the Anderson-Holstein model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of the spectral and transport properties in the Anderson-Holstein model both in and out of equilibrium using the functional renormalization group (fRG). We show how the previously established machinery of Matsubara and Keldysh fRG can be extended to include the local phonon mode. Based on the analysis of spectral properties in equilibrium we identify different regimes depending on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction and the frequency of the phonon mode. We supplement these considerations with analytical results from the Kondo model. We also calculate the nonlinear differential conductance through the Anderson-Holstein quantum dot and find clear signatures of the presence of the phonon mode.

Laakso, M. A.; Kennes, D. M.; Jakobs, S. G.; Meden, V.

2014-02-01

155

Improvement of Prediction Ability for Genomic Selection of Dairy Cattle by Including Dominance Effects  

PubMed Central

Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both breeds; those SNPs also showed the largest dominance effects for fat yield (both breeds) as well as for Holstein milk yield. PMID:25084281

Sun, Chuanyu; VanRaden, Paul M.; Cole, John B.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.

2014-01-01

156

Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer  

PubMed Central

Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM. PMID:24891639

Golder, Helen M.; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J.

2014-01-01

157

206 genome-wide associations for reproductive traits in Russian holstein population.  

PubMed

Reproductive health is an important trait in selection of dairy cattle. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for annotating phenotypic effects on the genome and to get knowledge of genes and chromosomal regions associated with reproductive performance (Cole et al. 2011). Combining GWAS and genetic profiling of embryos before implantation enables to develop new strategies to select elite breeding genotypes before transfer (Humblot et al. 2010; Ponsart et al. 2013). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and estimated breeding values (EBV) for reproductive traits [interval to insemination (EBVII) and interval between calving (EBVIC)] for Russian Holstein cattle and to evaluate the effect of the biopsy procedure on the viability of bovine embryos produced in vitro as a basis for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Ninty-six progeny-tested sires of artificial insemination station Moscowskoe were selected based on the reliability for EBVII and EBVIC. Estimations of breeding values of sires were performed by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) mixed model equations. DNA was extracted from sire semen samples. SNP genotyping was performed using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) containing 54609 SNPs. Quality control information was carried out in PLINK (v. 1.07; Purcell et al. 2007 Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81). Based on the quality control information, 41442 SNPs were selected for subsequent GWAS. We have identified 3270 SNPs having significant effect (P<0.05) on studied traits. The most significant associations with EBVII were found for SNPs Hapmap38548-BTA-97184 and ARS-BFGL-BAC-11821 with coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.2189 and 0.1937, and P-values 2.27×10(-6) and 1.01×10(-6), respectively. The most significant effect on EBVIC was detected for SNPs ARS-BFGL-NGS-59769 and ARS-BFGL-NGS-38020 with coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.236 and 0.2421, and P-values 1.49×10(-8) and 7.24×10(-8), respectively. The highest number of significant associations was found on BTA5, BTA12, BTA19, and BTA14. Bovine embryos were produced in vitro using a standard procedure. Six to 8 cell biopsies were carried out at Day 6.5 after fertilization. The viability of biopsied embryos was evaluated comparing the hatching rates to non-manipulated embryos. The study of embryos viability after biopsy showed that the hatching rate of biopsied embryos (the number of hatched embryos from the number of embryos in stages of late morula and early blastocyte) was 48% comparing to 67% for non-manipulated embryos. Embryo biopsy is not dramatically decreasing embryo viability. Combining our results of association studies, performed on Russian Holstein population, and technique of embryo biopsy will provide us a powerful tool for selection progress. PMID:25472255

Kramarenko, A S; Lopukchov, A A; Gladyr, E A; Singina, G N; Ermilov, A N; Yanchukov, I N; Brem, G; Zinovieva, N A

2014-12-01

158

7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

2010-01-01

159

7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

2011-01-01

160

Economic Trends of Texas Cattle Feeding.  

E-print Network

..................................................... .............................................................. Introduction Structure of. the Cattle .Industry ................................ 4 (.. Cattle ap'cl Beef Production ...................... 4 6.5. Integration of Feeding ........................ ... ..... 6 Growth of ~dttle Feeding... ............................ :24 Federal Grades .................................................. 24 .... ......................................... Feeder Cattle Grades 27 Summary and Conclusions ........................................ 28 References...

Uvacek, Edward Jr.

1966-01-01

161

Title: Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multi-breed cattle population.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of genomic EBVs (GEBVs) for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to: 1) develop a method for calculating GEBVs in a multi-breed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBVs by using SNPs associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBVs using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model was the one including an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into one "breed-class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 months of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5 fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBVs were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBVs slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNPs that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle GWAS were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBVs in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBVs within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multi-breed reference population. Thus, a multi-breed reference population is a useful resource to find SNPs with a greater than average association with RFI in one breed and use them to estimate GEBVs in another breed. PMID:25012976

Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

2014-07-10

162

Happy (Chinese) New Year!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

Johnson, Georgia G.

1979-01-01

163

Anaplasmosis in Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Oxytetracycline (LA-200) IM 9.0 Every 28 Days During Vector Season Chlortetracycline Oral 0.50 Daily for 60 days Note: Vaccine is used to stimulate prolonged resistance; however, until the resistance is established, OTC injections should be used simultaneously... these circumstances, the medicated supplement must provide the daily required supplemental amounts of the nutrients. When formulations have been designed to provide only salt at the required nutritional level for range cattle, all other required nutrients must...

Gill, Ronald J.

1994-09-29

164

Chinese Business Law Postgraduate  

E-print Network

development in China · Principles of Chinese law · Legal institutional framework · Dispute settlement Chinese) · Consumer protection · Due diligence · Product quality legislation · Foreign trade regulations · Entry modes law 4 2 · Customs law & Regulations · Foreign trade law Chinese environmental law 3 2 · Environmental

Einmahl, Uwe

165

Chinese Folktales for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

Kwok, Irene

166

PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEINS THAT ORIGINATED FROM EMBRYO TRANSFER OR MULTIPAROUS BIRTHS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concern has continued on possible bias in genetic evaluations of animals from embryo transfer (ET) due to preferential management. Performance of registered ET Holsteins was documented and compared with that of registered Holsteins from uniparous and biparous births. During the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s,...

167

PROGENY TESTING AND SELECTION INTENSITY FOR HOLSTEIN BULLS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

International Bull Evaluation Service Holstein evaluations from February 1995 through August 2002 were used to determine characteristics of progeny testing for Holstein bulls in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United St...

168

Reproductive status of Holstein and Jersey cows in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reproductive information from USDA’s national dairy database since 1996 was used to provide yearly means in 8 traits in the Holstein and Jersey breeds. Respectively, data for Holsteins and Jerseys were from 20,746 and 1963 herds, 3,645,987 and 184,398 cows, 7,107,057 and 387,441 lactations, and 15,...

169

Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p?cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits. PMID:24655368

2014-01-01

170

Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.  

PubMed

Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

Lincoln, S D; Black, B

1980-04-15

171

The influence of foraging benefits on association of cattle egrets ( Bubulcus ibis ) with cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of association between cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and cattle was studied during one summer on Saint Catherines Island, Georgia, USA. Previous work by Grubb (1976) and others indicated that cattle egrets foraging with cattle require fewer steps and less time to catch prey than egrets foraging without cattle and single egrets catch prey at a higher rate than

Charles F. Thompson; Scott M. Lanyon; Karen M. Thompson

1982-01-01

172

Quantitative comparisons of select cultured and uncultured microbial populations in the rumen of cattle fed different diets  

PubMed Central

Background The number and diversity of uncultured ruminal bacterial and archaeal species revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences greatly exceeds that of cultured bacteria and archaea. However, the significance of uncultured microbes remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to assess the numeric importance of select uncultured bacteria and cultured bacteria and the impact of diets and microenvironments within cow rumen in a comparative manner. Results Liquid and adherent fractions were obtained from the rumen of Jersey cattle fed hay alone and Holstein cattle fed hay plus grain. The populations of cultured and uncultured bacteria present in each fraction were quantified using specific real-time PCR assays. The population of total bacteria was similar between fractions or diets, while total archaea was numerically higher in the hay-fed Jersey cattle than in the hay-grain-fed Holstein cattle. The population of the genus Prevotella was about one log smaller than that of total bacteria. The populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the genus Butyrivibrio, and R. albus was at least one log smaller than that of genus Prevotella. Four of the six uncultured bacteria quantified were as abundant as F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and the genus Butyrivibrio. In addition, the populations of several uncultured bacteria were significantly higher in the adherent fractions than in the liquid fractions. These uncultured bacteria may be associated with fiber degradation. Conclusions Some uncultured bacteria are as abundant as those of major cultured bacteria in the rumen. Uncultured bacteria may have important contribution to ruminal fermentation. Population dynamic studies of uncultured bacteria in a comparative manner can help reveal their ecological features and importance to rumen functions. PMID:22958370

2012-01-01

173

ADAPTIVENESS OF CATTLE EGRET'S (BUBULCUS IBIS) FORAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) feeding in close association with cattle catch insect prey at a significantly higher rate and expend less energy than do those foraging alone. Cattle Egrets once had a strong association with grazing cattle, but have now shifted themselves behind tractors specially in inundated agricultural fields. Captures per minute were 2.06 for the egrets feeding near the

Aeshita Mukherjee

2000-01-01

174

Improving Cattle Health Through Trace Mineral Supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of trace minerals are required by beef cattle. Feeds consumed by cattle may supply most trace minerals in adequate amounts. However, some minerals may be severely or at least marginally deficient in beef cattle diets. Even marginal mineral deficiencies can reduce growth, reproduction and\\/or health of cattle showing few if any clinical signs of deficiency. Other trace minerals

Jerry W. Spears

1995-01-01

175

Associations between milk performance traits in Holstein cows and 16 candidate SNPs identified by arrayed primer extension (APEX) microarray.  

PubMed

An oligonucleotide microarray-which allows for parallel genotyping of many SNPs in genes involved in cow milk protein biosynthesis-was used to identify which of the 16 candidate SNPs are associated with milk performance traits in Holstein cows. Four hundred cows were genotyped by the developed and validated microarray. Significant associations were found between four single SNPs, namely DGAT1 (acyloCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase), LTF (lactoferrin), CSN3 (kappa-casein), and GHR (growth hormone receptor) and with fat and protein yield and percentage. Many significant associations between combined genotypes (two SNPs) and milk performance traits were found. The associations between the combined genotypes DGAT1/LTF and DGAT1/LEPTIN analyzed traits are presented as examples. The microarray based on APEX (Arrayed Primer Extension) is a fast and reliable method for multiple SNP analysis of potential application in marker-assisted selection. After further development, the chip may prospectively be used for dairy cattle paternity analysis and evolutionary studies. PMID:16621755

Kami?ski, S; Brym, P; Ru??, A; Wójcik, E; Ahman, A; Mägi, R

2006-01-01

176

Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Holstein steers (n = 2,275) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no ?-agonists, 2) a diet that contained zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal period before harvest, and 3) a diet that contained ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 30.1 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 28 d before harvest. No differences (P ? 0.18) were detected between treatments for initial BW, BW at d 28, or DMI. Final BW, BW gain for the last 28 d, total BW gain, ADG for the last 28 d, and overall ADG were greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed ZH or RH than for steers fed the control diet. Additionally, G:F for the last 28 d and G:F for the entire trial was increased (P < 0.02) for steers fed ZH (0.147, 0.147) or RH (0.153, 0.151) compared to steers fed the control diet (0.134, 0.143), respectively. Steers fed ZH or RH had HCW that were 15.5 and 8.2 kg heavier (P ? 0.01) and LM areas that were 7.1 and 2.3 cm(2) larger (P < 0.01) than control cattle. Steers fed ZH also had dressed carcass yields that were 1.3% to 1.5% greater and USDA calculated yield grades that were decreased 0.16 to 0.23 units compared to RH and control steers. No differences (P ? 0.39) were found between treatments for marbling score, fat thickness, and percentage KPH. Steers fed ZH had an increased (P ? 0.04) percentage of yield grade 1 and 2 carcasses (15.1, 55.0) and a reduced (P ? 0.02) percentage of yield grade 3 carcasses (27.1) compared with those fed RH (10.5, 49.1, 36.1) or the control diet (9.0, 47.4, 36.4), respectively. Additionally, ZH-fed steers had a decreased (P ? 0.04) percentage of yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses (2.8) compared with steers fed the control diet (6.9). Steers fed ZH had an increased (P ? 0.01) percentage of USDA Select grading carcass (31.0%) and a decreased (P ? 0.01) percentage of USDA Choice grading carcasses (65.0%) compared with steers fed RH (25.8%, 70.2%) and no ?-agonist (24.8%, 72.0%), respectively. Feeding either ?-agonist to calf-fed Holstein steers increased live performance through increased BW, BW gain, and ADG. Furthermore, supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with ZH provides greater improvements in HCW, LM area, and yield grade components, with a slight decrease in quality grade when compared to calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with RH. PMID:25006068

Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

2014-09-01

177

Molasses for Fattening Cattle.  

E-print Network

thick, black mass, having somewhat the appearance of coal tar, but a pleasant odor and sweet taste."" It runs on an average about twelve pounds to the eallon, or 170 gallons to the ton. The Texas factories produced from le 1904 crop 32,500 barrels... of this molasses. Of this amount 3,000 ~rrels were solcl to the cattle feeders of this State. COST OF IIOLASSES.-T~~ sugar refining companies offer feeding molasses in barrels at 6 cents per gallon. A barrel contains on an aver- age 50 gallons or 600 pounds...

Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

1906-01-01

178

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

179

New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen activity may lead to decreased methane production and concomitantly to improved feed efficiency. A major effort should be dedicated to this new field of research and particularly to rumen flora metagenomics. Low input in cattle production is very important and tomorrow's cow will need to adapt to a less intensive production environment, particularly lower feed quality and limited care. Finally, global climate change will increase pathogen pressure, thus more accurate predictors for disease resistance will be required. PMID:22436268

Boichard, D; Brochard, M

2012-04-01

180

Atmospheric methyl halides and dimethyl sulfide from cattle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured emissions of CH3Cl, CH3Br, and (CH3)2S (DMS) from Holstein cows. In one experiment, two cows were studied in separate metabolic research chambers for a 24-hour period while on a normal diet and were studied for an additional 24-hour period 1 week later after being placed on a diet enhanced in chloride and bromide. Methyl chloride emissions ranged between 0.4 × 10-3 and 1.5 × 10-3 g cow-1 d-1, while methyl bromide emissions were much smaller, 3 × 10-6-2 × 10-5 g cow-1 d-1. Daily emissions of methane from these cows were 134-180 g cow-1 d-1, quite similar to values found in many previous studies. A second 24-hour study of two different cows on normal diets yielded daily emissions of 0.6 × 10-3 and 0.9 × 10-3 g CH3Cl, 0-1.0 × 10-6 g CH3Br, and 191 and 176 g CH4. If these emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br are representative of the 1.3 billion head of cattle worldwide, then the global source of atmospheric CH3Cl and CH3Br from cattle would be 0.23-0.70 Gg yr-1 and (1-10) × 10-3 Gg yr-1, respectively. These emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br represent <0.02% and <0.005%, respectively, of the total annual global atmospheric sources of these compounds; therefore, emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br from cattle are insignificant contributors to their total sources. Discovered serendipitously, DMS emissions were between 0.17 and 0.24 g cow-1 d-1, and chloroform emissions were 2 × 10-4-3 × 10-3 g cow-1 d-1. DMS from cattle is not a major source over hemispheric or global scales but could be important in certain geographical regions. Chloroform (CHCl3) emissions were similarly detected and quantified, as were those of C2H5X (X = Cl or Br).

Williams, Jody; Wang, Nun-Yii; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Kurihara, Mitsunori; Terada, Fuminori

1999-06-01

181

Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.  

PubMed

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ? 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (?(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

2012-08-01

182

Control of the cattle louse Bovicola bovis with the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.  

PubMed

The effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) were evaluated against the common louse parasite of cattle, Bovicola bovis (Piaget) (Trichodectidae: Ischnocera). Two different concentrations and formulations of conidial suspensions were applied to contained populations of adult female lice. In vitro, lice immersed in suspensions of M. anisopliae formulated in 0.03% Tween 80 developed infections; at the highest concentration (1x10(8)conidia ml-1) a mean of 71% (+/-11.52%, 95% C.I.) of lice became infected. Lice exposed to the Tween 80 only in vitro, showed high levels of survival and zero infection. In vivo, fungal conidia were applied to louse populations contained in 7 cm diameter circular arenas glued to the backs of Holstein cattle, maintained in controlled climate conditions. Conidia were formulated in either Tween 80 or silicone oil. The treatment with M. anisopliae resulted in high levels of infection and there was no overall difference between the two formulations in the number of infections observed. At the highest concentration (1x10(8)conidia ml-1) a mean of 73% (+/-15.57%, 95% C.I.) lice became infected. It is concluded that the strategic seasonal use of a fungal pathogen on cattle, applied in early winter, may be of value in suppressing the winter increase in abundance, preventing the population increasing to clinically significant levels. PMID:16934936

Briggs, L L; Colwell, D D; Wall, R

2006-12-20

183

Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.  

PubMed

In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

2010-11-01

184

Short communication: Genetic relationships of milk coagulation properties with body condition score and linear type traits in Holstein-Friesian cows.  

PubMed

Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are gaining popularity among dairy cattle producers and the improvement of traits associated with MCP is expected to result in a benefit for the dairy industry, especially in countries with a long tradition in cheese production. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations of MCP with body condition score (BCS) and type traits using data from first-parity Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The data analyzed consisted of 18,460 MCP records from 4,036 cows with information on both BCS and conformation traits. The cows were daughters of 246 sires and the pedigree file included a total of 37,559 animals. Genetic relationships of MCP with BCS and type traits were estimated using bivariate animal models. The model for MCP included fixed effects of stage of lactation, and random effects of herd-test-date, cow permanent environment, additive genetic animal, and residual. Fixed factors considered in the model for BCS and type traits were herd-date of evaluation and interaction between age at scoring and stage of lactation of the cow, and random terms were additive genetic animal, cow permanent environment, and residual. Genetic relationships between MCP and BCS, and MCP and type traits were generally low and significant only in a few cases, suggesting that MCP can be selected for without detrimental effects on BCS and linear type traits. PMID:25465560

Cassandro, M; Battagin, M; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M

2015-01-01

185

277 LIPID ACCUMULATION DURING BOVINE OOCYTES Gyr/HOLSTEIN MATURATION COLLECTED BY OPU IN SPOM SYSTEM.  

PubMed

In vitro embryo production (IVP) is an important tool for cattle breeding. Brazilian dairy systems are based on Gyr/Holstein crossbreds, which integrates adaptability to tropical conditions and milk production. Oocyte quality is crucial for IVP, and lipid accumulation is a detrimental factor. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SPOM maturation system (Albuz et al. 2010 Hum. Reprod. 25) on lipid accumulation in bovine oocytes. Oocytes obtained by ovum pick-up (OPU) from heifers without ovarian stimulation were transferred to control media (TCM 199+sodium pyruvate, ITS, penicillin-streptomycin, BSA, FSH, oestrogen, and hCG) or SPOM (2h pre-IVM: TCM 199 hepes+sodium pyruvate, ITS, penicillin-streptomycin, BSA, IBMX, and forskolin; followed by 28h IVM: control media+cilostamide) in 5% CO2 atmosphere at 38°C. Oocytes were collected after 20, 24, and 28h (groups: C20, C24, C28; S20, S24, S28) and evaluated for nuclear maturation using HOECHST (experiment 1, n=301, 35-62 per group) and lipid content using Oil Red (experiment 2, n=163, 14-42 per group). Oocytes from 4 replicates were fixed with PFA and stored at 4°C. For Oil Red, all structures were stained and evaluated at the same day. After being washed in 50% ethanol, oocytes were incubated in 0.2% Oil Red O solution for 10min. Stained area fraction in each oocyte cytoplasm was measured using ImageJ (NIH). Nuclear maturation analysis was performed by Chi-squared test and Lipid analysis by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-test (P=0.05). Distinct superscript letters indicate statistical difference between groups. In experiment 1, we detected a reduction in the percentage of matured (MII) oocytes only in S20 group (C20=64.28%(a), C24=74.28%(a), C28=60.46%(a), S20=25.8%(b), S24=59, 01%(a), S28=74.13%(a)). In experiment 2, we detected an increase in lipid content in both control and SPOM groups from 20 to 28h of IVM (S20=5.72(a) ±4.41, S24=15.95(bd) ±7.41, S28=37.46(c) ±8.68, C20=8.65(a) ±2.58, C24=12.14(ad) ±8.08, C28=18.50(b) ±8.09). For SPOM groups, the lipid content increased 2.78-fold from S20 to S24, and 6.54-fold from S20 to S28. In the control group, only in C28 wasa lipid increase detected, 2.13-fold higher than C20 content. Comparing control and SPOM groups at each time point, S28 displayed a 2.02-fold increase in lipid content compared to C28. We concluded that despite SPOM system being effective in maintaining meiotic arrest until 20h of IVM and forskolin being present during pre-IVM in SPOM groups, Gyr/Holstein crossbreed oocytes obtained by OPU presented a significant increase in lipid content when matured in SPOM system, even higher than observed for the control group. During the last 8h of IVM we observed a huge lipid accumulation in both systems, suggesting this might be a crucial period. PMID:25472325

Leal, G R; Monteiro, C A S; Saraiva, H F R A; Camargo, A J R; Vasconcelos, C O P; Rodrigues, A L R; Nogueira, A G; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S

2014-12-01

186

Isolation, prevalence, and risk factors for infection by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Rectal swabs of 198 Holstein × Gir crossbred beef cattle from 34 milk farms in the central west of Brazil were analyzed from August 2010 to February 2011. Strains of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from 72.73% (144/198) of the animals, on over 97% of the surveyed properties. The molecular characterization indicated the most common toxin gene stx1 in 70.88% of the animals (202/285), followed by 18.95% (54/285) stx1/sxt2, and 10.18% (29/285) stx2. The presence of STEC in animals together with the probable risk factors based on a questionnaire was evaluated in the owners of the evaluated animals. Results showed that the animal category "calves" and production/technification scale "low" of the farm were related to high STEC prevalence in cattle. The season did not significantly affect the presence of STEC in cattle. The STEC strains are considered a major pathogen, causing severe and potentially lethal diseases in humans such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. This high prevalence of STEC in dairy cattle poses a significant risk to public health, since these microorganisms can contaminate products intended for human consumption, e.g., water, raw and pasteurized milk, meat products, dairy products, and/or products of plant origin. PMID:24510196

Ferreira, Marcos Roberto Alves; Freitas Filho, Edismauro Garcia; Pinto, Jefferson Fernando Naves; Dias, Márcia; Moreira, Cecília Nunes

2014-04-01

187

Learn Chinese Characters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Zhongwen.com is a valuable online resource for individuals just beginning to learn Chinese, as well as those who want to learn more. The site contains the complete on line text of "Chinese Character: A Genealogy and Dictionary". All the Chinese characters are hyperlinked so that users of the site can quickly decipher new and unfamiliar characters in English. Additionally, the site has readings about Chinese culture written in Chinese such as the "Art of War" and "Mao Sayings". Finally, for those who may just have basic questions about the Chinese language there is a frequently asked questions section that addresses common questions such as "Why are characters so complicated?" and "Are they pictures?"

Harbaugh, Rick

2007-02-04

188

9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

2011-01-01

189

Biosecurity for Beef Cattle Operations  

E-print Network

:Susceptibleanimalsconsumedisease-causing By Jason Cleere, Assistant Professor and Extension Beef Cattle Specialist Ron Gill, Professor and Extension Livestock Specialist Angela Dement, Extension Assistant, Veterinary Medicine The Texas A&M System Improving Lives. Improving Texas. Biosecurity...

Cleere, Jason; Gill, Ronald J.; Dement, Angela

2008-10-06

190

Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW = 348 ± 13 kg) were BW-matched into pairs and used in a 2 period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of 2 temperature segments, one each at 22 and 30°C. During each period, 1 steer per pair was ruminally dosed twice daily with 0.5 kg of ground endophyte-infected fescue seed (E+) and the other with ground endophyte-free fescue seed (E-) for 7 d. Steers on E- treatment were pair-fed to E+ steers offered alfalfa cubes at 1.5 × NEm. On d 8 of each segment, steers were moved to individual metabolism stalls fitted with indirect calorimetry head boxes. Ruminal contents were removed, weighed, and subsampled for DM determinations. The reticulorumen was washed and filled with a buffer (NaCl = 96; NaHCO3 = 24; KHCO3 = 30; K2HPO4 = 2; CaCl2 = 1.5; MgCl2 = 1.5 mmol·kg buffer(-1)) that was gassed with a 75% N2 and 25% CO2 mixture before rumen incubation. During buffer incubation, an E+ or E- fescue seed extract was added at 12 h intervals to maintain treatment presentation to the animal. After a 12-h wait, heart rate, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and urinary output were recorded for 16 h. There was no difference (P = 0.931) in DMI/kg(0.75) between endophyte treatments by design; however, intake decreased (P = 0.004) at 30°C. Increased temperature had no effect (P > 0.10) on other measurements and there were no significant interactions (P > 0.11) of temperature and endophyte treatment. Heart rate was unaffected by fescue treatment or environmental temperature. Percent DM of ruminal contents as well as total rumen DM/kg(0.75) was increased (P < 0.0001) in E+ steers. Respiratory quotient was elevated (P = 0.02) in E+ steers. Oxygen consumption decreased (P = 0.04) and CO2 production tended to be reduced (P = 0.07) during E+ treatment. Calculated FHP (kcal/kg BW(0.75)) was also less (P = 0.006) in steers receiving E+ treatment. These data suggest that consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue by cattle results in a reduction in basal metabolic rate. PMID:23908162

Koontz, A F; Kim, D H; Foote, A P; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

2013-08-01

191

The current status and future of commercial embryo transfer in cattle.  

PubMed

A commercially viable cattle embryo transfer (ET) industry was established in North America during the early 1970s, approximately 80 years after the first successful embryo transfer was reported in a mammal. Initially, techniques for recovering and transferring cattle embryos were exclusively surgical. However, by the late 1970s, most embryos were recovered and transferred nonsurgically. Successful cryopreservation of embryos was widespread by the early 1980s, followed by the introduction of embryo splitting, in vitro procedures, direct transfer of frozen embryos and sexing of embryos. The wide spread adoption of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant has simplified the thaw-transfer procedures for frozen embryos. The number of embryos recovered annually has not grown appreciably over the last 10 years in North America and Europe; however, there has been significant growth of commercial ET in South America. Within North America, ET activity has been relatively constant in Holstein cattle, whereas there has been a large ET increase in the Angus breed and a concomitant ET decrease in some other beef breeds. Although a number of new technologies have been adopted within the ET industry in the last decade, the basic procedure of superovulation of donor cattle has undergone little improvement over the last 20 years. The export-import of frozen cattle embryos has become a well-established industry, governed by specific health regulations. The international movement of embryos is subject to sudden and dramatic disturbances, as exemplified by the 2001 outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Great Britain. It is probable that there will be an increased influence of animal rights issues on the ET industry in the future. Several companies in North America are currently commercially producing cloned cattle. The sexing of bovine semen with the use of flow cytometry is extremely accurate and moderate pregnancy rates in heifers have been achieved in field trials, but sexed semen currently is available in only a few countries and on an extremely limited basis. As of yet, all programs involving the production of transgenic cattle are experimental in nature. PMID:14643107

Hasler, John F

2003-12-15

192

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan

2014-01-01

193

Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herd.  

PubMed

Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3%, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed. PMID:9850518

Yeruham, I; Perl, S

1998-09-01

194

Comparative infectivity of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia divergens-like parasite in cattle.  

PubMed

Babesia divergens-like parasites identified in human babesiosis cases in Missouri and Kentucky and in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, share identical small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This sequence is 99.8% identical to that of Babesia divergens, suggesting that the U.S. parasite may be B. divergens, a causative agent of human and bovine babesiosis in Europe. Holstein-Friesian calves were inoculated with cultured Nantucket Island Babesia sp. (NR831) and B. divergens parasites and monitored by clinical signs, Giemsa-stained blood films, PCR, and culture. The NR831 recipients did not exhibit clinical signs of infection and remained negative for all assays. The B. divergens recipients developed clinical infections and became positive by all assays. NR831 recipients were fully susceptible upon challenge inoculation with B. divergens. This study confirms that the Nantucket Island Babesia sp. is not conspecific with B. divergens based on host specificity for cattle. PMID:16282295

Holman, Patricia J; Spencer, Angela M; Telford, Sam R; Goethert, Heidi K; Allen, Andrew J; Knowles, Donald P; Goff, Will L

2005-11-01

195

Chinese Children's Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

Kwok, Irene, Comp.

196

Chinese by Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

Beem, Kate

2008-01-01

197

ZU CHONGZHI CHINESE CALENDAR  

E-print Network

ZU CHONGZHI AND THE CHINESE CALENDAR REFORM OF 462 AD A GEM1506K PROJECT BY: LIM NYEK FONG ELAYNE: AN OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CALENDARS AND ASTRONOMY UP TO ZU CHONGZHI'S TIME SECTION 4: ASPECTS OF THE DAMING CALENDAR REFORM SECTION 5: THE ZU CHONGZHI ­ DAI FAXING DEBATE SECTION 6: HOW EFFECTIVE WAS THE DAMING

Aslaksen, Helmer

198

The Chinese Calendars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons

N. Kostic; S. Segan

2009-01-01

199

The Chinese Calendars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.

Kostic, N.; Segan, S.

2009-09-01

200

Ancient Chinese Kitchens  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Few people don't love Chinese food: The delicate flavors; the bite size pieces; the flavorful sauces; the healthful spices. Well, here's at least one reason why Chinese food is so good: they've been cooking it for about 3...

Hacker, Randi

2012-06-04

201

QUESTIONS IN CHINESE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS ARTICLE, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND CHINESE, IS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE PRESENTATION OF QUESTIONS IN THE TEACHING OF CHINESE. QUESTIONS CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CATEGORIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS--(1) PURE QUESTIONS, (2) RHETORICAL QUESTIONS, AND (3)…

TSAO, WEN YEN

202

Ancient Chinese mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a timeline and examples of early Chinese mathematics. Included are the Chinese version of the Pythagorean Theorem, a method of solving a system of linear equations, Pascals triangle, permutations and combinations, rule of false position, rule of three, magic squares, and puzzles. Other terms: fractions, algebra, negative numbers, scholars. (Includes 11 references)

Tommasina Tripodi,Joint Creator

2007-12-12

203

Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

Lau, Sing, Ed.

204

Chinese paternalistic leadership and non-Chinese subordinates' psychological health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on Chinese leadership, a style which is different from that practiced in the West, has demonstrated that paternalistic leadership within Chinese society is significantly related to employees' psychological health. This research contributes to the literature by providing results from the interaction between Chinese and non-Chinese society and examining the moderating role played by the cultural value of uncertainty

Hao-Yi Chen; Henry Shang-Ren Kao

2009-01-01

205

Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results indicated that management of diet CP levels of confined finishing steers mitigates NH3 emissions from steers but does not affect enteric CH4. In addition, results suggested that soil characteristics might be as important as manure N content to generate NH3 and greenhouse gases from soils receiving manure fertilization. PMID:25568381

Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N

2015-01-01

206

Acclimation of Holstein Calves to Transit Stress: The Integration of Endocrine, Immune, and Behavior Systems  

E-print Network

ACCLIMATION OF HOLSTEIN CALVES TO TRANSIT STRESS: THE INTEGRATION OF ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE, AND BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS A Dissertation by AMBER LYNN ADAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial..., and Behavior Systems Copyright 2012 Amber Lynn Adams ACCLIMATION OF HOLSTEIN CALVES TO TRANSIT STRESS: THE INTEGRATION OF ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE, AND BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS A Dissertation by AMBER LYNN ADAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

Adams, Amber

2012-10-19

207

Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important  

E-print Network

Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Challenges Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important part of the economy in the Texas Rolling Plains region. Wheat and stocker cattle business decisions are impacted by a variety of issues, including cattle and wheat prices, animal health, weather

208

22 semen and reproductive profiles of cloned anatolian grey cattle.  

PubMed

Anatolian grey cattle (endangered native Anatolian cattle) as 1 male (clone 1) and 4 females (clones 2-5) were produced from cells of 1 male and 1 female cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In this study, we examined the reproductive potential of these cloned animals, which are now 4 and 5 years old. The parameters evaluated by phase contrast microscopy for motility, TUNEL for DNA fragmentation, eosin staining for viability, Hoechst 33258 staining and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) for membrane integrity, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA) for acrosome integrity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa, as well as birth and survival of calves following insemination with frozen-thawed semen of cloned and nuclear donor bull and normal bull. Six ejaculates and 3 samples per ejaculate from each bull were tested, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse the data. The spermatological parameters of cloned bull semen - volume, concentration, and motility of fresh - were within accepted limits for artificial insemination (4.60±0.47mL, 1.55±0.21×10(9)spermatozoamL(-1), 80.00±1.07%, respectively). Frozen-thawed sperm motility and viability rate were higher in the cloned bull (56.6%, 56.7%) than in its nuclear donor (47%, 43%; P<0.05). Intact membrane and DNA fragmentation rate of cloned bull and its nuclear donor bull sperm were similar (P>0.05) but the intact acrosome rate of cloned bull was higher than that of its nuclear donor (P<0.05). Low rates in frozen-thawed sperm of nuclear donor can be related to storage time of sperm which were frozen 5 years before. One (clone 4) of the cloned grey heifers was artificially inseminated with frozen semen from nuclear donor bull and the other (clone 5) was naturally mated with a Holstein bull. Two healthy calves were delivered naturally. When same cloned cows (clones 4-5) and 2 other cloned heifers (clones 2-3) were artificially inseminated with frozen semen of the cloned grey bull, clones 2 and 4 gave birth to 2 healthy female calves. One cloned cow (clone 3) aborted in the third month of gestation and other one (clone 5) is currently 8 months pregnant. Two calves of clone 4 and 5 are 17 months old and 2 other calves of clone 2 and 4 are now 6 and 1 months old. Except for clone 3, our results show that cloned Anatolian grey bull and cows produced from frozen cells in gene bank have normal fertility. PMID:25472071

Arat, S; Pabuccuoglu, S; Sagirkaya, H; Demir, K; Arici, R; Ustuner, B; Alcay, S; Toker, B; Alkan, S; Nak, Y; Nak, D; Kilicaslan, R

2014-12-01

209

Low Stress Cattle Handling in Dairy Environments  

E-print Network

Using low-stress methods of handling dairy cattle is efficient in terms of time and labor. This publication explains how cattle's natural instincts affect their responses, and ways handlers can use that knowledge to make handling easier and less...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04

210

Using a Slide in Beef Cattle Marketing  

E-print Network

Selling cattle in advance of delivery requires the seller to estimate the future weight of the cattle. The sale price usually must be adjusted because delivery weights differ from estimated weights. This publication explains how to use an "up slide...

Machen, Richard V.; Gill, Ronald J.

1998-08-21

211

Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

Chen, Ping

212

Genetic and environmental effects on early growth and performance in purebred Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal crossbred calves.  

PubMed

For this designed experiment, Holstein × Holstein (n=28), Jersey × Jersey (n=10), Holstein × Jersey (n=15), and Jersey × Holstein (n=15) bull and heifer calves were compared for body weight (BW), dry matter intake, feed efficiency, hip height, BW gain to 42 and 56d, and days to weaning from birth to 8 wk. All traits were examined for purebred, maternal, and heterotic genetic effects. Purebred genetic effects significantly favored the Holstein breed for BW, dry matter intake, hip height, and BW gain to 42 and 56d. Heterotic genetic effects were present for dry matter intake and hip height. Calf sex affected BW and BW gain to 56d. Our results indicate that early calf growth is influenced primarily by purebred effects favoring the Holstein breed and to a lesser extent heterosis. PMID:25434341

Ware, J V; Franklin, S T; Jackson, J; McAllister, A J; Cassell, B G

2015-02-01

213

Phylogenies using mtDNA and SRY provide evidence for male-mediated introgression in Asian domestic cattle.  

PubMed

Using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and SRY genes, we examined the genetic status of two major groups of domestic cattle, the humpless taurine (Bos taurus) and humped zebu (B. indicus), using 10 cattle populations in Asia. Several sequence polymorphisms specific for each major group were found, although the frequency of these polymorphisms varied in each population. Six major mtDNA-SRY composite types were observed. The Mishima, Mongolian, Korean, Chinese Yellow and Sri Lanka cattle populations had a full match between the mtDNA and SRY sequences, specifically the taurine/taurine type or zebu/zebu type. A non-match type (zebu/taurine type) was found at a high frequency in the Bangladesh (83.4%) and Nepal populations (83.3%). Our results suggest that these non-match type populations developed from genetic hybridization of different strains. Also, the domestication history of modern Asian domestic cattle could be explained by male-mediated introgression. Additionally, our results suggest the occurrence of introgression of mtDNA from other Bibos or Poephagus species into native cattle populations. The existence of other mtDNA-SRY composite types, such as the Bali-zebu and yak-zebu types in Indonesia (85.7%) and Nepal (16.7%), respectively, suggests that genetic introgression also occurred from other genera into domestic cattle during the process of domestication. PMID:12648092

Kikkawa, Y; Takada, T; Sutopo; Nomura, K; Namikawa, T; Yonekawa, H; Amano, T

2003-04-01

214

Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2  

PubMed Central

The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10?4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

2013-01-01

215

INCIDENCE OF SUBCLINICAL KETOSIS IN COWS SUPPLEMENTED WITH A MONENSIN CONTROLLED-RELEASE CAPSULE IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE, FLORIDA, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a monensin controlled-release capsule on the proportion of cows with subclinical ketosis (SK). During July to August 2001, 300 cows dried-off 50-70 days before expected parturition were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 150, oral...

216

The effects of manger shades and manger sprinklers on heat-stressed lactating Holstein dairy cattle in Texas  

E-print Network

) SH (shade only) and 3) SS (shade and sprinklers) on heat-stressed lactating dairy cows under Texas conditions. Milk yield, respiration rate, flank temperature, behavior observations and hair coat color were used in the analysis. Plasma Tz, T.... Weekly schedule of observations during the standardization (SP) and comparison periods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 2. Environmental conditions during periods 1(SP), 2, 3 and 4. 24 Table 3. Effect of NO (no shade/sprinklers), SH (shade...

Fourdraine, Windi Anne

1991-01-01

217

Cattle are eating the forest  

SciTech Connect

World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

DeWalt, B.R.

1983-01-01

218

Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.  

PubMed

Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

2014-09-01

219

Fluid therapy in mature cattle.  

PubMed

Fluid therapy for mature cattle differs from that for calves because the common conditions that result in dehydration and the metabolic derangements that accompany these conditions are different. The veterinarian needs to know which problem exists, what to administer to correct the problem, in what quantity, by what route, and at what rate. Mature cattle more frequently suffer from alkalosis; therefore, acidifying solutions containing K(+) and Cl(-) in concentrations greater than that of plasma are frequently indicated. The rumen provides a large-capacity reservoir into which oral rehydration solutions may be administered, which can save time and money. PMID:24980730

Roussel, Allen J

2014-07-01

220

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential cellular system to understand differential heat shock response across native cattle (Bos indicus), exotic cattle (Bos taurus), and riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of India.  

PubMed

Circulating leukocytes can be used as an effective model to understand the heat stress response of different cattle types and buffaloes. This investigation aimed to determine the temporal profile of HSPs (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) expression in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Murrah buffaloes, Holstein-Friesian (HF), and Sahiwal cows in response to sublethal heat shock at 42 °C. The viability data indicated HF PBMCs to be the most affected to the heat shock, whereas Sahiwal PBMCs were least affected, indicating its better survivability during the heat stress condition. The qRT-PCR expression data showed significant increase in mRNA expression of the analyzed HSPs genes after heat stimuli to the PBMCs under in vitro condition. In each case, the HSPs were most upregulated at 2 h after the heat stress. Among the HSPs, HSP70 was relatively more expressed followed by HSP60 indicating the action of molecular chaperones to stabilize the native conformation of proteins. However, PBMCs from different cattle types and buffaloes showed difference in the extent of transcriptional response. The level of expression of HSPs throughout the time period of heat stress was highest in buffaloes, followed by HF and Sahiwal cows. The higher abundance of HSP70 mRNA at each time point after heat stress showed prolonged effect of heat stress in HF PBMCs. The data presented here provided initial evidence of transcriptional differences in PBMCs of different cattle types and buffaloes and warrant further research. PMID:24363171

Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Kumari, Parvesh; Mohanty, A K; Sadana, D K; Kapila, Neha; Khate, K; Shandilya, Umesh; Kataria, R S; Mukesh, M

2014-09-01

221

Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

222

Single-mode nonclassicality criteria via Holstein-Primakoff transformation  

E-print Network

Recently, two quantifications for nonclassicality of a single-mode field are shown to be equivalent; (i) the rank of entanglement it can generate by a beam-splitter and (ii) the number of terms needed to expand it as superposition of coherent states. We show that nonclassicality criteria can be obtained with an alternative approach. The rank of two-mode entanglement among 2-level identical particles converges to the rank of single-mode nonclassicality within the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, at the large particle number limit. In particular, we show that the entanglement criterion of Hillery & Zubairy converges to the Mandel's $Q$-parameter which is used to reveal nonclassicality, and spin-squeezing criterion of S{\\o}rensen et al. converges to single-mode squeezing condition. We obtain additional nonclassicality criteria not existing in the literature. We also discuss if single-mode nonclassicality can be visualized as the entanglement of space generating the photons. Moreover, in a forthcoming study...

Tasgin, Mehmet Emre

2015-01-01

223

Fertility subindex for improving fertility performance in Iranian Holstein cows.  

PubMed

Different fertility indices were constructed for improving fertility performance in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Number of inseminations per conception and days from calving to first insemination, each weighted by its economic value, were included as breeding goals in the aggregate genotype definition. Different fertility indices (FI) were constructed with different combinations of available fertility traits: number of inseminations to conception (INS), days from calving to first service (DFS), interval between first and last insemination (IFL), and days open (DO). The fertility index (FI1) that included INS and DFS had the greatest genetic gain for INS (-0.39 insemination), DFS (-7.47 days), and profit ($4.3) per generation. Genetic gain for profit, DFS, and INS including only DO showed slight differences regarding FI1. A selection index that included only INS (DFS) presented the larger (smaller) genetic gains for INS and smaller (larger) for DFS, which were -0.40 (-0.034) and -0.975 (-11.18) inseminations and days, respectively. The result of this study showed that recording INS and DFS are preferable traits for including in a fertility subindex. DO can be used in the absence of other fertility traits. PMID:25319449

Ghiasi, Heydar; Pakdel, Abbas; Nejati-Javaremi, Ardeshir; González-Recio, Oscar

2015-01-01

224

Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.  

PubMed

In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although absolute rates of CH4 emissions (g/day) were lower from cattle grazing UG than LG, cattle grazing UG would be expected to take longer to reach an acceptable finishing weight, thereby potentially off-setting this apparent advantage. Methane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

2015-01-01

225

Evaluation of insecticide ear tags containing ethion for control of pyrethroid resistant Haematobia irritans (L.) on dairy cattle.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted in central Argentina to evaluate the efficacy of ear tags containing 36% ethion against pyrethroid resistant populations of Haematobia irritans on grazing dairy cattle. The treated group consisted of 45 milking Holstein cows which received two tags per head and the control consisted of 22 dry cows from the same cohort. Treated and control groups were grazed on similar lucerne pastures separated for a minimum distance of 800 m but they were not isolated from other cattle herds on the same or contiguous properties. In both groups, horn fly estimation were made weekly by examining cattle in the pastures with the aid of binoculars. The percentage reduction of fly numbers on treated cows was considered as efficacy of control provided by the tags. The ethion ear tags provided a range of 85-99% reduction in horn fly numbers for 16 weeks. During this period, the weekly mean number of H. irritans on the tagged cows ranged between 0.44 and 28.26 compared with 143.5 and 239.1 in control animals. The ethion ear tags could be a useful tool for the control of H. irritans mainly in areas where populations of this insect have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:10889367

Anziani, O S; Zimmermann, G; Guglielmone, A A; Forchieri, M; Volpogni, M M

2000-07-24

226

Genetic effects of heat stress on milk yield of Thai Holstein crossbreds.  

PubMed

The threshold for heat stress on milk yield of Holstein crossbreds under climatic conditions in Thailand was investigated, and genetic effects of heat stress on milk yield were estimated. Data included 400,738 test-day milk yield records for the first 3 parities from 25,609 Thai crossbred Holsteins between 1990 and 2008. Mean test-day milk yield ranged from 12.6 kg for cows with <87.5% Holstein genetics to 14.4 kg for cows with ?93.7% Holstein genetics. Daily temperature and humidity data from 26 provincial weather stations were used to calculate a temperature-humidity index (THI). Test-day milk yield varied little with THI for first parity except above a THI of 82 for cows with ?93.7% Holstein genetics. For third parity, test-day milk yield started to decline after a THI of 74 for cows with ?87.5% Holstein genetics and declined more rapidly after a THI of 82. A repeatability test-day model with parities as correlated traits was used to estimate heat stress parameters; fixed effects included herd-test month-test year and breed groups, days in milk, calving age, and parity; random effects included 2 additive genetic effects, regular and heat stress, and 2 permanent environment, regular and heat stress. The threshold for effect of heat stress on test-day milk yield was set to a THI of 80. All variance component estimates increased with parity; the largest increases were found for effects associated with heat stress. In particular, genetic variance associated with heat stress quadrupled from first to third parity, whereas permanent environmental variance only doubled. However, permanent environmental variance for heat stress was at least 10 times larger than genetic variance. Genetic correlations among parities for additive effects without heat stress considered ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. Genetic correlations among parities for additive effects of heat stress ranged from 0.08 to 0.22, and genetic correlations between effects regular and heat stress effects ranged from -0.21 to -0.33 for individual parities. Effect of heat stress on Thai Holstein crossbreds increased greatly with parity and was especially large after a THI of 80 for cows with a high percentage of Holstein genetics (?93.7%). Individual sensitivity to heat stress was more environmental than genetic for Thai Holstein crossbreds. PMID:21183060

Boonkum, W; Misztal, I; Duangjinda, M; Pattarajinda, V; Tumwasorn, S; Sanpote, J

2011-01-01

227

Lumpy skin disease of cattle: an emerging problem in the Sultanate of Oman.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus belonging to the Capripoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. The purpose of this study is to place on record the first confirmation of LSD in the Sultanate. The disease was diagnosed and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy and serum neutralization testing. The epizootic occurred in 2009 involving a large number of animals and covering a wide area including Nezwa, Alqabel, Sohar, Saham and Burimi. Morbidity and mortality rates of 29.7 and 26.3 %, and 13.6 and 15.4 % were observed at Nezwa and Sohar, respectively. The clinical signs were much more severe in Holstein-Friesian cattle compared to indigenous breeds and were characterized by multiple skin nodules covering the neck, back, perineum, tail, limbs and genital organs. Affected animals also exhibited lameness, emaciation and cessation of milk production. Oedema of limbs and brisket, and superficial lymph node enlargement were highly prominent. It is not known from where the virus originated, or how it spread to the Sultanate. The disease has become endemic in the country and is liable to extend to other Gulf Cooperation Council Countries and cause a pandemic. It is of major concern to the Omani dairy industry. Due to the widespread presence of screw worm, serious economic losses can follow outbreaks. PMID:24097247

Tageldin, Mohamed Hassan; Wallace, David Brian; Gerdes, Gertruida Hermanna; Putterill, John Fraser; Greyling, Roelf Rudolph; Phosiwa, Maanda Noaxe; Al Busaidy, Rashied Mohammed; Al Ismaaily, Sultan Issa

2014-01-01

228

Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) genes in cattle breeds  

PubMed Central

DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds. PMID:22888292

Lourenco-Jaramillo, Diana Lelidett; Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María; Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; de la Rosa-Reyna, Xochitl Fabiola; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Arellano-Vera, Williams

2012-01-01

229

Presence of Atrazine in the Biological Samples of Cattle and Its Consequence Adversity in Human Health  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle can be considered as an important source for herbicides through nutrition. Therefore, herbicide residue in animal products is a potential human exposure to herbicides causing public health problems in human life. Triazines are a group of herbicides primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in corn and other feed ingredients and are considered as possible human carcinogens. To evaluate trace residue of these pollutants molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been developed, using biological samples. Methods: Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 45 Holstein cows in 3 commercial dairy farms in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Urine samples were also taken from the cows. Results: The mean ± SD concentrations of atrazine in serum and urine samples of the study group (0.739 ± 0.567 ppm and 1.389 ± 0.633 ppm, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than the concentrations in serum and urine samples of the control group (0.002 ± 0.005 ppm and 0.012 ± 0.026 ppm, respectively). Conclusion: Atrazine in the feed ingredients ingested by cattle could be transferred into the biological samples and consequently can be considered as a potential hazard for the public health. PMID:23113110

Peighambarzadeh, SZ; Safi, S; Shahtaheri, SJ; Javanbakht, M; Rahimi Forushani, A

2011-01-01

230

The Texas Cattle Feeding Industry - Operations, Management, and Costs.  

E-print Network

cattle marketings in 1970 compared to 27% in 1981 (Table 4). Most of the decrease in cattle feeding by farmer-feeders occurred in the Corn Belt where cattle fed by farmer-feeders de creased almost 60% from 1970 to 1981. The rapid expansion of cattle... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 Feeding Practices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 Feeder Cattle Placements...

Dietrich, R.A.; Thomas, P.J.; Farris, D.E.

1985-01-01

231

T-Cell and Antibody Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens in Tuberculin Skin-Test-Positive Bos indicus and Bos taurus Cattle in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Higher IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens were observed in Bos taurus (Holsteins) than in Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle which could due to differences in antigen recognition profiles between the two breeds. The present study was conducted to evaluate mycobacterial antigen recognition profiles of the two breeds. Twenty-three mycobacterial antigens were tested on 46 skin test positive (24 Zebu and 22 Holstein) using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and multiple antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Herds from which the study cattle obtained were tested for Fasciola antibody. The T cells from both breeds recognized most of the mycobacterial antigens at lower and comparable frequencies. However, antigens such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv0287, Rv0288, MPB87, Acr-2, Rv3616c, and Rv3879c were recognized at higher frequencies in zebu while higher frequencies of T cell responses were observed to Hsp65 in both breeds. Furthermore, comparable antibody responses were observed in both breeds; MPB83 being the sero-dominant antigen in both breeds. The prevalence of Fasciola antibody was 81% and similar in both breeds. This piece of work could not lead to a definitive conclusion if there are differences in mycobacterial recognition profiles between the two breeds warranting for further similar studies using sound sample size from the two breeds. PMID:22685689

Ameni, Gobena; Cockle, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Vordermeier, Martin

2012-01-01

232

T-Cell and Antibody Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens in Tuberculin Skin-Test-Positive Bos indicus and Bos taurus Cattle in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Higher IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens were observed in Bos taurus (Holsteins) than in Bos indicus (Zebu) cattle which could due to differences in antigen recognition profiles between the two breeds. The present study was conducted to evaluate mycobacterial antigen recognition profiles of the two breeds. Twenty-three mycobacterial antigens were tested on 46 skin test positive (24 Zebu and 22 Holstein) using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and multiple antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Herds from which the study cattle obtained were tested for Fasciola antibody. The T cells from both breeds recognized most of the mycobacterial antigens at lower and comparable frequencies. However, antigens such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv0287, Rv0288, MPB87, Acr-2, Rv3616c, and Rv3879c were recognized at higher frequencies in zebu while higher frequencies of T cell responses were observed to Hsp65 in both breeds. Furthermore, comparable antibody responses were observed in both breeds; MPB83 being the sero-dominant antigen in both breeds. The prevalence of Fasciola antibody was 81% and similar in both breeds. This piece of work could not lead to a definitive conclusion if there are differences in mycobacterial recognition profiles between the two breeds warranting for further similar studies using sound sample size from the two breeds. PMID:22685689

Ameni, Gobena; Cockle, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Vordermeier, Martin

2012-01-01

233

Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

234

Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle  

PubMed Central

A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

2007-01-01

235

Association analysis between variants in bovine NPY gene and growth traits in Nanyang cattle (Bos tarus).  

PubMed

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent orexigenic factors that is implicated in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Four Chinese indigenous cattle breeds (n=338) were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions with their intron-exon boundaries and the proximal flanking regions of NPY gene by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. Five novel SNPs (38017 C>G, 34240 C>A, 34168 G>A, 32463 A>C and 32302 C>G) were identified. Polymorphisms of P3 lous in NPY gene, containing SNP4 and SNP5, were associated with body length and chest girth in Nanyang cattle aged 6, 12 and 18 months (P<0.05), but they had no significant effect on the two growth traits in Nanyang cattle aged 24 months (P>0.05). The results open a new field of study and extend the spectrum of genetic variation of the bovine NPY gene, which might contribute to cattle genetic resources and breeding. PMID:20951702

Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Liang-Zhi; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong

2011-01-01

236

Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.  

PubMed

Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice. PMID:19144968

Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

2009-02-01

237

Differential gene expression in cumulus oocyte complexes collected by ovum pick up from repeat breeder and normally fertile Holstein Friesian heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish whether perturbed gene expression during cumulus oocyte development causes repeat breeding in cattle. In this study, a repeat breeder was defined as a normal estrous cycling animal that did not become pregnant after three inseminations despite the absence of clinically detectable reproductive disorders. Transcripts of genes extracted from cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) that were collected from three repeat breeder and three normally fertile Holstein Friesian heifers were compared. Up to 40 COC were collected from each heifer by means of repeated sessions of ovum pick up in the absence of hormonal stimulation; immediately plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored at -80°C until analysis. For each heifer, RNA was extracted from the pooled COC and hybridized on GeneChip(®) Bovine Gene Array (Affymetrix). Analysis of gene expression profiles of repeat breeder and control COC showed that 178 genes were differentially expressed (log2 fold change>1.5). Of these genes, 43 (24%) were up-regulated and 135 (76%) were down-regulated in repeat breeder relative to control heifers. This altered pattern of expression occurred in genes involved in several cellular biological processes and cellular components such as metabolism, angiogenesis, substrate/ion transport, regulation/signaling, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton. From these, 13 genes potentially involved in cumulus oocyte growth were subjected to validation by qRT-PCR and nine genes (annexin A1, ANXA1; lactoferrin, LTF; interferon stimulated exonuclease 20kDa, ISG20/HEM45; oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1, OLR1; fatty acid desaturase 2, FADS2; glutathione S-transferase A2 and A4, GSTA2 and GSTA4; glutathione peroxidase 1, GPX1; endothelin receptor type A, EDNRA) were confirmed to be differentially expressed. This study identified potential marker genes for fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23911014

Puglisi, Roberto; Cambuli, Caterina; Capoferri, Rossana; Giannino, Laura; Lukaj, Aleksander; Duchi, Roberto; Lazzari, Giovanna; Galli, Cesare; Feligini, Maria; Galli, Andrea; Bongioni, Graziella

2013-09-01

238

Teaching Chinese Negotiating Style through Examination of Key Chinese Categories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…

Myers, Dan

239

The Early Chinese Canadians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bilingual website offered by the Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) explores Canada's early Chinese immigrants, covering the period 1858 to 1947. To learn why the Chinese immigrated to Canada, visitors should click on "The History" on the far left side of the page. Once there, visitors can choose from several specific sections to read about, including "Working in B.C.: Gold, Railway, Mining and Salmon", "Racism and Law in Society", and "Communities for Canada and China". Additionally, each contains suggestions for further reading on the subject for both adults and children. Visitors who desire to browse photos and documents can click on "Historical Photographs and Documents" on the far left side of the page. There are three sections, "Research Guide", "Gallery of Documents", and "Gallery of Photographs". The Research Guide provides a thorough explanation on how to research the "photographs, artwork, published books, personal archives, and, in particular, government records" of Chinese Canadians, which are dispersed throughout the LAC collection. The documents and photographs galleries allow visitors to view, and even order, a print or digital copy of the historic materials. Finally, the "Head Tax Records" link located on the far left side of the page, allows visitors to search for Chinese immigrants to Canada that were recorded in the General Registers of Chinese Immigration. Visitors can search these registers online by the person's name, arrival year, or certificate number. [KMG

240

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

241

Significance of Neospora caninum in British dairy cattle determined by estimation of seroprevalence in normally calving cattle and aborting cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case–control study was conducted to evaluate the significance of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in England and Wales. The prevalence of N. caninum in normally calving cattle (the control group; n=418) and aborting cattle (n=633) was estimated using a commercial antibody-detection ELISA. Prevalence estimates for bovine virus diarrhoea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Leptospira hardjo were also obtained

H. C. Davison; A. Otter; A. J. Trees

1999-01-01

242

Evaluation of the effect of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle.  

PubMed

Strategies aimed at reducing fecal shedding of Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens may be effective for limiting transmission of pathogens from food animals to humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gallium maltolate (GaM) against Salmonella in vitro and to determine whether oral administration of GaM would reduce fecal shedding of Salmonella in cattle. Gallium is a semimetal exhibiting antimicrobial properties against some pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, by exploiting their need for iron to survive and replicate. In vitro growth studies were performed in pure cultures of Salmonella and in mixed cultures from ruminal fluid. Inclusion of GaM in culture medium or in mixed cultures of ruminal fluid resulted in a significant reduction in growth of Salmonella, suggesting that GaM may be effective for limiting growth and survival in vivo. Therefore, we subsequently administered two doses of GaM to Holstein steers, experimentally infected them with Salmonella, and quantitatively and qualitatively monitored fecal shedding at 12-h intervals. Sixty hours after beginning treatment, cattle were euthanized, and luminal contents and tissue were aseptically harvested from the rumen, jejunum, spiral colon, cecum, and rectum. The luminal contents were processed for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the challenge strains of Salmonella, and tissue samples were enriched and plated for qualitative analysis. We found no significant differences between control and treated animals in quantitative levels of Salmonella in the feces or the luminal contents. Likewise, we observed no pattern between control and treated animals in the frequency of positive or negative results from enriched feces, luminal contents, or tissue samples. These results suggest that GaM was not effective for reducing Salmonella in cattle. PMID:21477464

Nerren, J R; Edrington, T S; Bernstein, L R; Farrow, R L; Genovese, K G; Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Krueger, N A; Duke, S E; Nisbet, D J

2011-04-01

243

9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined...restriction under this section. (b) Brucellosis reactor cattle. Brucellosis...

2010-01-01

244

9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93.427 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants...

2010-01-01

245

9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93.427 Animals and...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants...

2011-01-01

246

9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis...

2011-01-01

247

9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

2011-01-01

248

Effects of supplemental fats on intake, production, and heat stress in lactating Holstein cows in summer  

E-print Network

in Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer. (December 1990) Richard Glynn Saunders, B. S. , Tarleton State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Carl E. Coppock Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows in late lactation (average days in milk = 211 d) were used..., cottonseed hulls, and either 1) 0% added fat, 2) 15% whole cottonseed, or 3) 15% whole cottonseed plus 3% calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids. Dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, 3. 24 protein-corrected milk, milk protein yield, total milk solids...

Saunders, Richard Glynn

1990-01-01

249

Directory of Chinese American Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

250

When Is Chinese New Year?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese New Year is the main holiday for more than one quarter of the world's population; very few people, however, know how to compute the date. People who are knowledgeable about science often feel that the Chinese calendar is back-wards, while people who care about Chinese culture usually lack the scientific knowledge to understand how it works. For many years,

Helmer Aslaksen

251

Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring ancestor-descendant SNP pairs can be explored as possible epistatic effects for further study. The importance scores generated by RF can be used effectively to identify large additive or epistatic SNP and informative QTL. The consistency in results of our study and previous studies in beef cattle indicates that the genetic architecture of RFI in dairy cattle might be similar to that of beef cattle. PMID:23932129

Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

2013-10-01

252

Embryonic and early foetal losses in cattle and other ruminants.  

PubMed

Embryo survival is a major factor affecting production and economic efficiency in all systems of ruminant milk and meat production. For heifers, beef and moderate yielding dairy cows, does and camelids it appears that fertilization generally lies between 90% and 100%. In high-producing dairy cows there is a less substantive body of literature, but it would appear that it is somewhat lower and perhaps more variable. In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs before day 16 following breeding with some evidence of greater losses before day 8 in high-producing dairy cows. In cattle late embryo loss, while numerically much smaller than early embryo mortality loss, nevertheless, causes serious economic losses to producers because it is often too late to rebreed females when they repeat. In multiple ovulating small ruminants, the loss rate is positively related to ovulation rate. Systemic concentrations of progesterone, during both the cycle preceding and following insemination, affect embryo survival rate with evidence that too high or indeed too low a concentration being negatively associated with survival rate. Uterine expression of mRNA for progesterone receptor, oestradiol receptor and retinol-binding protein appears to be sensitive to changes in peripheral concentrations of progesterone during the first week after artificial insemination. Energy balance and dry matter intake during 4 weeks after calving are critically important in determining conception rate when cows are inseminated at 70-100 days post-calving. Concentrate supplementation of cows at pasture during the breeding period has minimal effects on conception rates though sudden reductions in dietary intake should be avoided. For all systems of milk production, more balanced breeding strategies with greater emphasis on fertility and feed intake and/or energy balance must be developed. There is sufficient genetic variability within the Holstein breed for fertility traits. Alternative dairy breeds such as the Jersey or Norwegian Red could also be utilized. Genomic technology will not only provide scientists with an improved understanding of the underlying biological processes involved in fertilization and the establishment of pregnancy, but also, in the future, identify genes responsible for improved embryo survival. Its incorporation into breeding objectives would increase the rate of genetic progress for embryo survival. PMID:18638133

Diskin, M G; Morris, D G

2008-07-01

253

[Intestinal cellular reaction of cattle after infection by Fasciola hepatica].  

PubMed

Defence reactions of cattle against Fasciola hepatica take place not only in the liver but also on a prehepatic level. The aim of the present experiments is to identify and quantify the cellular response in the small intestine. Five groups of two bulls (Simmental x Red Holstein, 6 months old) were infected by oesophageal probe with metacercariae of F. hepatica (MC) according to two experimental procedures. Two groups of bulls served as controls. In the first experiment both infected groups received 1000 MC once or twice at an interval of five weeks. The intestinal tissue was taken before infection and 5, 10 and 19 weeks p.i., respectively 5 and 14 weeks p. reinf. (p.ri.). In the second experiment, three infected groups received 400, 2 x 400 MC (at an interval of five weeks) and 800 MC respectively. Biopsies were taken one week ante infectionem, 6, 11 and 19 weeks p.i., respectively 1, 6 and 14 weeks post reinfectionem (p. ri.). The biopsies of the small intestine were prepared for histology and the tissue sections stained as follows: Astra blue for mucosal mast cells (MMC), Lendrum for eosinophils (EOS) and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) for goblet cells (GC). The density of the three cell populations in the mucosa was determined microscopically and quantified. In both experiments the density of the MMC and EOS increased with each reinfection and depended on the infectious dose. There was no significant variation of the GC-numbers. The described intestinal cellular reactions suggest a participation of the small intestinal wall in the immunity against the common liver fluke. PMID:1771406

Wicki, P; Schwalbach, B; Charbon, J L; Steiner, A; Lang, M; Loup, F; Pfister, K

1991-01-01

254

Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

Leonard, N. E.

2005-05-01

255

Lumpy skin disease: preliminary vaccine efficacy assessment and overview on outbreak impact in dairy cattle at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted in and around Debre Zeit town to assess the field efficacy of LSD vaccine in use and overview associated disease impact. The study comprised cross-sectional and retrospective study design which employed active disease follow-up, semi-structured questionnaire survey and molecular techniques. The finding revealed that the Kenyan sheep pox vaccine strain used for the control of LSD did not confer expected protection. From the total of 476 animals observed, 22.9% and 2.31% cattle were found sick and dead due to LSD, respectively. Breed specific morbidity rate was 22.5% in Holstein Friesian-zebu cross and 25.9% in local zebu breed. The disease was observed to be more serious in young animals and also in females. A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development. PMID:23428671

Ayelet, Gelagay; Abate, Yebeyen; Sisay, Tesfaye; Nigussie, Haileleul; Gelaye, Esayas; Jemberie, Shiferaw; Asmare, Kassahun

2013-05-01

256

Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings. Information on these cattle diseases and conditions affecting the livelihoods of

S. Ramkumar; C. Garforth; S. V. N. Rao; C. Heffernan

2007-01-01

257

Bibliographies for Chinese Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Dr. Barend ter Haar, an instructor in the social and economic history of China at the Sinologisches Seminar (Sinological Institute) at Heidelberg University, offers this collection of regularly updated (with one exception) bibliographies on various aspects of Chinese culture and history. Topics include violence in Chinese culture, literacy, writing and education, the study of Yao religion, Shamanism in China, and religious culture in China. Each bibliography varies in length, but most are prefaced by some helpful remarks on the field and/or the secondary literature. Suggestions are welcome.

258

Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle  

E-print Network

E-567 05-09 Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle I t is very important to administer medications to dairy cattle in the proper way. That means using the correct drug, dosage and injection technique; handling animals... labeled for use in dairy ? cattle. Refer to the vaccine label for this information. Using a vaccine in an animal species for which it is not labeled is illegal. Give the proper dosage as indicated on the label. ? Always give an injection in the body...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04

259

Genetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models.  

PubMed

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a data set including 33 155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf × age of dam classes × group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd × year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was approximately 8% with linear models and approximately 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were approximately 2 and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85 118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17 and 23% greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. PMID:24965920

Vanderick, S; Troch, T; Gillon, A; Glorieux, G; Gengler, N

2014-12-01

260

Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

. The supplemental feed- ing strategy required for each is different. Forage intake and diet crude protein Ruminal requirements Microbial fermentation in the rumen supplies most of the energy and protein metabolized by cattle. As in the host animal, microbes... in the rumen require a balanced supply of energy and nitrogen to function efficiently. The National Research Council (1984) proposed that ruminal microbes can synthesize about 113 grams of bacterial crude pro- tein from 1 kilogram of Total Digestible Nutrients...

McCollum III, Ted

1997-11-03

261

Breed structure of Senepol cattle.  

PubMed

Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island. PMID:3367044

Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W

1988-01-01

262

Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

Weller, J I; Ezra, E

2015-01-01

263

Chinese VLBI Network Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) project was proposed early in 1979, and since then VLBI research has been actively developed in Shanghai Observatory. However, only recently the whole project was accepted by the Astronomy Committee, Division of Mathematics and Physics, Academia Sinica.

Wan, T. S.; Qian, Z.

264

Traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Chinese pharmacopoeia describes a large number of herbal formulations that are used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This therapeutic approach is ignored by many and considered to be an alternative to conventional medicine by others. The scientific proof and clinical validation of these herbal formulations require a rigorous approach that includes chemical standardization, biological

Robert Yuan; Yuan Lin

2000-01-01

265

The Chinese Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes the active network of workers' education in China. Topics discussed include the broad range of disciplines available; school calendars; the use of guest teachers, televised programs, and self-study; and the new Chinese workers' audiovisual center. (CH)

Rongshu, Chen

1987-01-01

266

EFFECT OF RUMINALLY DEGRADED PROTEIN SOURCE ON NITROGEN METABOLISM IN HOLSTEIN COWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to evaluate the effect of ruminally degraded protein (RPD) source on microbial protein flow measured in the reticulum and duodenum using 15N and in milk, urine and blood using allantoin. Eight early lactation Holstein cows were arranged in a repeated 4x4 Latin square design balanc...

267

GENETIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MATURITY RATES OF DAUGHTERS OF HOLSTEIN BULLS IN THE NETHERLANDS AND UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maturity rate of Holstein bull daughters in the Netherlands and United States were compared by examining sire predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for milk yield for each of the first 3 parities. For each bull with US daughters, PTA that included data from parity 1 (PTA1), parities 1 and 2, and pa...

268

The effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on meat quality of calf-fed Holstein steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH), fed for 0, 20, or 30 d, on meat quality attributes of calf- fed Holstein steers. Steers were slaughtered at a com- mercial facility, and carcasses were selected by HCW to represent the pen mean. Further carcass selection was based on quality grade (Choice and Select)

S. F. Holmer; D. M. Fernández-Dueñas; S. M. Scramlin; C. M. Souza; D. D. Boler; F. K. McKeith; J. Killefer; R. J. Delmore; J. L. Beckett; T. E. Lawrence; D. L. VanOverbeke; G. G. Hilton; M. E. Dikeman; J. C. Brooks; R. A. Zinn; M. N. Streeter; J. P. Hutcheson; W. T. Nichols; D. M. Allen; D. A. Yates

2010-01-01

269

Use of date palm leaves in high concentrate diets for lactating Friesian and Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two production experiments of 12 weeks duration, beginning in week 5 of lactation, were conducted in Kuwait with lactating Friesian and Holstein cows offered a high concentrate diet together with freshly cut alfalfa and either barley straw or shredded senescent date palm leaflets (DPL). Milk yields, milk composition and live weight gains of cows given either DPL or barley straw

A. M. Bahman; J. H. Topps; J. A. Rooke

1997-01-01

270

A colon-associated cystic mass occurring in conjunction with cecal dilatation in a Holstein cow  

PubMed Central

A 7-year-old Holstein cow was presented for reduced appetite and decreased milk production. Based on physical examination, cecal dilatation was the primary differential diagnosis and was confirmed at surgery. However, in addition to the dilated cecum, 2 large cystic masses were found firmly attached to the proximal loop of the ascending colon. PMID:23729831

Garrett, Edgar F.; Singh, Kuldeep

2012-01-01

271

Factors associated with rectovaginal injuries in Holstein dairy cows in a herd in Tehran, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectovaginal injuries can result in subsequent infertility in cows. In a retrospective study, records of 147 Holstein cows with evidence of rectovaginal injuries were reviewed to determine the odds ratio (OR) of these injuries and their related risk factors. The study was conducted in a large dairy (typical herd size 1420 cows) in Tehran between the years 1993 and 1996.

M Farhoodi; I Nowrouzian; P Hovareshti; M Bolourchi; M. Gh Nadalian

2000-01-01

272

Effects of Days Dry and Days Open on Holstein Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holstein lactation records from the Dairy Herd Improvement test day files of the New York Dairy Records Processing Lab- oratory at Cornell University were used to study genetic and environmental relation- ships of days dry and days open with milk production. Age and month of calving significantly influenced length of dry period. Within herd heritability estimates of days dry were

L. R. Schaeffer; C. R. Henderson

1972-01-01

273

Precalving factors affecting conception risk in Holstein dairy cows in tropical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify precalving nutritional risk factors that may affect variation in first service conception risk in 21 commercial Holstein dairy herds in a tropical environment (Reunion Island). The data set included 473 lactation records in 404 cows. A multivariate logistic-regression model including herd as a random effect was used to analyse the relationship between

Emmanuel Tillard; Patrice Humblot; Bernard Faye; Philippe Lecomte; Ian Dohoo; François Bocquier

2007-01-01

274

EFFECT OF RUMINALLY DEGRADED PROTEIN SOURCE ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IN HOLSTEIN COWS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate the effect of two ruminally degraded protein (RPD) types (amino acids vs. non-protein N) eight early lactation Holstein cows were arranged in a repeated 4x4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects with 21 d periods. All diets were isoenergetic (1.71 Mcal/kg) and had th...

275

PERIPARTURIENT RESPONSES OF MULTIPAROUS HOLSTEIN COWS FED DIFFERENT DIETARY PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS PREPARTUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to compare the effects of different prepartum dietary phosphorus concentrations on periparturient metabolism and performance. Forty-two late pregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed 0.21, 0.31, or 0.44% P (dry basis) for 4 wk before expected calving. After parturition, all cow...

276

High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

277

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes related to daughter pregnancy rate in Holstein cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 40 SNPs associated with daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) in dairy bulls. We evaluated 39 of these SNPs for relationship to DPR in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped on their predicted transmitting ability for DPR: <= -1 (n=1266) a...

278

Relationship of Temperature and Humidity to Conception Rate of Holstein Cows in Hawaii1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather data and breeding records for a Holstein herd of 1300 cows in Hawaii were evaluated to determine effects of climate on reproductive performance. The dairy is in a coastal climate near latitude 21°N. Average maximum temper- ature, relative humidity, and resulting temperature-humidity index for the warmest month of the year were 31 C, 44%, and 79. Average minimum tempera-

R. H. Ingraham; R. W. Stanley; W. C. Wagner

1976-01-01

279

Relationship of Temperature and Humidity to Conception Rate of Holstein Cows in Subtropical Climate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conception rates of a Holstein dairy herd near Culiacan on the west coast of Mexico were evaluated with respect to the average temperature-humidity index of the 2 days prior to breeding, the day of breeding, and the day following breed- ing. Average daily index for 3 yr ranged from 62 to 86. Average daily ambient temperature and relative humiditv for

R. H. Ingraham; D. D. Gillette; W. D. Wagner

1974-01-01

280

Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

281

Excretion of Purine Derivatives by Holstein Cows Abomasally Infused with Incremental Amounts of Purines1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five multiparous, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (two lactating and three dry) weighing ( X ± SD) 667 ± 35 kg were used to study the effect of abomasal purine infusion on the excretion of purine derivatives. Cows were fed corn silage four times daily at 90% of ad libitum intake ( X = 9.16 kg of dry matter\\/d). Purines were

D. B. Vagnoni; G. A. Broderick; M. K. Clayton; R. D. Hatfield

1997-01-01

282

Short communication: hair cortisol concentrations in Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers by analysis of the cortisol concentrations in hair samples. Cortisol, the primary hormone of the HPA axis, is the biological endpoint for the investigation of the HPA response. The study was conducted on 290 prepubertal heifers; 142 heifers were pure Holstein-Friesian and 148 were crossbreed F1 heifers obtained from the 3-way rotational system with Swedish Red and Montbéliarde breeds. Extraction was performed on the hair using methanol, and cortisol concentrations were determined by a radioimmunoassay method. Cortisol concentrations measured in regrown hair of crossbreed F1 heifers were significantly lower than those in hair of Holstein-Friesian heifers. This result helps us to better understand the differences in HPA activity and allostatic load between Holstein-Friesian and crossbreed F1 heifers and allows us to better assess the adaptability of these animals to the environment and the importance of crossbreed traits for profitability in dairy farming. PMID:23522680

Peric, T; Comin, A; Corazzin, M; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Campanile, G; Prandi, A

2013-05-01

283

Fertility in New York Artificially Inseminated Holstein Herds in Dairy Herd Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a field study to gain informa- tion on fertility of New York dairy herds and factors influencing it. Data were from 125 Dairy Herd Improvement Holstein herds with 9,750 cows. All breedings to milking cows were by artificial insemina- tion. Herds were further selected with equal numbers of small and large herds and free-stall and conventional (stan- chion)

R. W. Spalding; R. W. Everett; R. H. Foote

1975-01-01

284

Relationship of reason for lactation termination with genetic merit of Holsteins in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reasons that producers report to 4 dairy records processing centers for why individual cows exit the herd (lactation termination codes) were examined for 6.2 million US Holsteins with lactation records that ended in 2007 and 2008 to determine their relationship to genetic merit. The most frequent t...

285

Sporadic juvenile thymic lymphoma in a 6-month-old Holstein heifer  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 6-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for recurrent bloat and a firm, primarily left-sided mass in the caudoventral cervical region. Surgical exploration revealed a vascularized, encapsulated mass extending from the submandibular region to the thoracic inlet. Postmortem gross and histopathologic examination and the history enabled a diagnosis of sporadic thymic lymphoma. PMID:16231655

2005-01-01

286

Immunohistochemical evaluation of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) concentrations in erythrocytes of dairy cattle and farm-raised deer by a computer-assisted analysis of microscopic images.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of the immunohistochemical method in determining Cu/Zn SOD concentrations in red blood cells of dairy cattle and farm-raised deer was evaluated by a computer-assisted analysis of microscopic images and scanning technique. Superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) concentrations in erythrocytes were determined in smears of whole blood samples collected from 16 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows and 22 farm-raised deer in spring. Mouse anti-bovine SOD (Cu-Zn) monoclonal antibodies (2F5, Serotec) were used in 1:50 dilution. The degree of immunostaining for SOD in red blood cells was determined with the use of the MIDI 3DHistech Panoramic Scanner (Hungary) and 3DHistech Panoramic Viewer, NuclearQuant and MembraneQuant software. Our findings indicate that the immunohistochemical method is a useful technique for evaluating Cu/Zn SOD concentrations in red blood cells of cattle and deer. PMID:24988853

Pa?dzior-Czapula, K; Gesek, M; Rotkiewicz, T; Kluci?ski, W; Ko?odziejska, J; Kleczkowski, M; Fabisiak, M

2014-01-01

287

The Interrelationship of Chinese Music and Poetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike its Western counterpart, Chinese poetry has a more important role in Chinese literary history, especially classical Chinese poetry, which dominated literature as well as art throughout history. However, when making an intratextual analysis of this genre, we find the generic roots of classical Chinese poetry have stemmed from music. The studies of the dichotomous nature of Chinese poetry and

YANPING WANG

288

DEFINING POSTPARTUM UTERINE DISEASE IN CATTLE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uterine health is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist causing uterine disease, which is a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lac...

289

Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

290

Syndrome of arachnomelia in Simmental cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia

Johannes Buitkamp; Bernhard Luntz; Reiner Emmerling; Horst-Dieter Reichenbach; Myriam Weppert; Benjamin Schade; Norbert Meier; Kay-Uwe Götz

2008-01-01

291

ROLE OF EHEC IN CATTLE AND HUMANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle are important reservoirs of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), foodborne pathogens that cause severe diarrhea and sometimes kidney failure and death in humans. Our goal is to develop an effective vaccine to prevent cattle from beco...

292

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2010-01-01

293

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2014-01-01

294

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2013-01-01

295

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2011-01-01

296

9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

2012-01-01

297

Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

298

An analysis of live cattle option hedging strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Options on cattle futures have expanded the realm of alternative marketing strategies available to cattle feeders. This study utilized actual feedlot data to compare the return distributions from 31 separate fed cattle marketing strategies using cash, futures, put option, and call option markets. The results indicate that different strategies are preferred depending upon the risk preferences of the cattle feeder

Ted C. Schroeder; Orlen C. Grunewald; Scott A. Langemeier; Del M. Allen

1989-01-01

299

Comparison on genomic predictions using three GBLUP methods and two single-step blending methods in the Nordic Holstein population  

PubMed Central

Background A single-step blending approach allows genomic prediction using information of genotyped and non-genotyped animals simultaneously. However, the combined relationship matrix in a single-step method may need to be adjusted because marker-based and pedigree-based relationship matrices may not be on the same scale. The same may apply when a GBLUP model includes both genomic breeding values and residual polygenic effects. The objective of this study was to compare single-step blending methods and GBLUP methods with and without adjustment of the genomic relationship matrix for genomic prediction of 16 traits in the Nordic Holstein population. Methods The data consisted of de-regressed proofs (DRP) for 5 214 genotyped and 9 374 non-genotyped bulls. The bulls were divided into a training and a validation population by birth date, October 1, 2001. Five approaches for genomic prediction were used: 1) a simple GBLUP method, 2) a GBLUP method with a polygenic effect, 3) an adjusted GBLUP method with a polygenic effect, 4) a single-step blending method, and 5) an adjusted single-step blending method. In the adjusted GBLUP and single-step methods, the genomic relationship matrix was adjusted for the difference of scale between the genomic and the pedigree relationship matrices. A set of weights on the pedigree relationship matrix (ranging from 0.05 to 0.40) was used to build the combined relationship matrix in the single-step blending method and the GBLUP method with a polygenetic effect. Results Averaged over the 16 traits, reliabilities of genomic breeding values predicted using the GBLUP method with a polygenic effect (relative weight of 0.20) were 0.3% higher than reliabilities from the simple GBLUP method (without a polygenic effect). The adjusted single-step blending and original single-step blending methods (relative weight of 0.20) had average reliabilities that were 2.1% and 1.8% higher than the simple GBLUP method, respectively. In addition, the GBLUP method with a polygenic effect led to less bias of genomic predictions than the simple GBLUP method, and both single-step blending methods yielded less bias of predictions than all GBLUP methods. Conclusions The single-step blending method is an appealing approach for practical genomic prediction in dairy cattle. Genomic prediction from the single-step blending method can be improved by adjusting the scale of the genomic relationship matrix. PMID:22455934

2012-01-01

300

Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection.  

PubMed

Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of individual feed intake measurements for lactating cows. Feed intake was measured in Holstein cows during the first 90 d of lactation to estimate the heritability and repeatability of RFI, minimum test duration for evaluating RFI in early lactation, and its association with other production traits. Data were obtained from 453 lactations (214 heifers and 239 multiparous cows) from 292 individual cows from September 2007 to December 2011. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and monitored for individual daily feed consumption using the GrowSafe 4000 System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada). Animals were fed a total mixed ration 3 times daily, milked twice daily, and weighed every 10 to 14 d. Milk yield was measured at each milking. Feed DM percentage was measured daily, and nutrient composition was analyzed from a weekly composite. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, alternating between morning and evening milking periods. Estimates of RFI were determined as the difference between actual energy intake and predicted intake based on a linear model with fixed effects of parity (1, 2, ? 3) and regressions on metabolic BW, ADG, and energy-corrected milk yield. Heritability was estimated to be moderate (0.36 ± 0.06), and repeatability was estimated at 0.56 across lactations. A test period through 53 d in milk (DIM) explained 81% of the variation provided by a test through 90 DIM. Multiple regression analysis indicated that high efficiency was associated with less time feeding per day and slower feeding rate, which may contribute to differences in RFI among cows. The heritability and repeatability of RFI suggest an opportunity to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection, which could reduce feed costs, manure output, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with dairy production. PMID:23658326

Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Norman, H D; Olson, K M; Van Tassell, C P; Leith, J M; Baldwin, R L

2013-08-01

301

Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.  

PubMed

While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30-0.86) in comparison to other herding methods. This study indicates that a substantial proportion of cattle-related injuries are associated with work activities related to handling practices and cattle restraining equipment. PMID:23600168

Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

2013-01-01

302

Comparative effects of beta-adrenergic agonist supplementation on the yield and quality attributes of selected subprimals from calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Mechanical portioning tests were performed on beef rib, strip loin, tenderloin, and top sirloin subprimals obtained from calf-fed Holstein steers to characterize the influence of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH), or no ?-adrenergic agonist (?AA; CON) on subprimal and steak yield. In addition, ?AA effects on tenderness, composition, and raw and cooked color of steaks from the aforementioned strip loin subprimals were characterized. At 14 to 15 d (ribs, tenderloins, and top sirloin) or 16 d (strip loin) postmortem, subprimals were portioned into steaks using a mechanical portioning machine. The appropriate variables were measured before and after portioning to determine ?AA influence on trimmed and untrimmed subprimal weight, subprimal length (rib only), steak weight and yield, and steak thickness (rib only). Steaks obtained from the strip loin subprimals were subjected to analysis of raw instrument color (L*, a*, b*), proximate composition, and pH. In addition, strip steaks were aged (16 or 23 d) before analysis of cooked internal color, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and slice shear force (SSF). Briefly, ZH supplementation increased (P < 0.01) the weight of all subprimals when compared to CON. Furthermore, subprimals from CON animals consistently had fewer and lighter steaks (P ? 0.04) than subprimals from ZH-fed steers. Additionally, raw steaks from ZH cattle were a less vivid red (lower a* and saturation index values; P < 0.01) when compared to CON and RH steaks, which did not differ (P > 0.05). There was no interaction between ?AA treatment and postmortem aging length for WBSF or SSF (P > 0.10). However, CON steaks (3.25 kg) had lower WBSF values (P < 0.05) than ZH or RH steaks (3.68 and 3.67 kg, respectively). Regardless, aging for 23 d vs. 16 d resulted in decreased WBSF and SSF (P < 0.01) for all ?AA treatments. Although differences were numerically small, evaluations indicated the internal cooked surfaces of ZH and RH steaks were less red (P < 0.05) than CON steaks. Overall, these data reemphasize increased subprimal weights due to ?AA supplementation, particularly ZH. However, the data are not indicative of increased steak yield due to ?AA supplementation. Furthermore, the data demonstrate ?AA supplementation increases the shear force of calf-fed Holstein strip steaks regardless of postmortem aging period. However, no differences in shear force between the ?AA treatments (ZH or RH) were noted. PMID:25006060

Martin, J N; Garmyn, A J; Miller, M F; Hodgen, J M; Pfeiffer, K D; Thomas, C L; Rathmann, R J; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Brooks, J C

2014-09-01

303

Chinese Biographical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Marilyn A. Levine, Professor of Asian History at Lewis-Clark State College, this site is an effort to develop new ways to access historical database materials via the Internet. Visitors can query the database of better and lesser-known historical Chinese figures using 22 searches for specific or aggregate data questions. General search areas are: Biographical Information, Birth Year, Career, and Origin Searches; Alternate Names, Education, Family, and Youth Searches; Affiliations, Positions, and Historical Events Searches. More detailed information on individuals is available in the Reports section, which includes nine forms: Biographical Information and Career Report; Sources Report; Alternate Names Report, Education Report, Family Report, Youth Activities Report, Affiliations Report, Positions Report, and Historical Events Report. Instructions for using the site in Chinese are also provided.

1998-01-01

304

Comparisons of Holsteins with Brown Swiss and Jersey cows on the same farm for age at first calving and first calving interval.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate breed differences for heat-stress resistance as reflected by age at first calving and first calving interval. We examined the effect of geographic location and birth season on age at first calving, and geographic location and first calving season on first calving interval on Holsteins and Jerseys, and Holsteins and Brown Swiss located on the same farm. We defined 7 regions within the United States: Northwest, Central north, Northeast, Central, Central south, Southwest, and Southeast, and analyzed 7 individual states: Ohio, Wisconsin, Oregon, California, Arizona, Texas, and Florida. Brown Swiss were older than Holsteins at first calving (833 +/- 2.4 vs. 806 +/- 2.0 d in regions, and 830 +/- 3.1 vs. 803 +/- 2.4 d in states), but Holsteins and Brown Swiss did not differ for first calving interval. Jerseys were younger than Holsteins at first calving and had shorter first calving intervals. In data from individual states, Holsteins housed with Brown Swiss were older at first calving than were Holsteins housed with Jerseys (800 +/- 2.7 vs. 780 +/- 2.5 d). Holsteins housed with one breed or the other were analyzed as a separate data set, and referred to as "type of Holstein." The interaction of "type of Holstein" with first calving season was highly significant for first calving interval. Geographic location and season effects were smaller for Jerseys than for Holsteins; thus, Jerseys showed evidence of heat-stress resistance with respect to Holsteins. Management modified age at first calving in Holsteins to more nearly match that of the other breed. Longer calving intervals might be partly due to voluntary waiting period to breed the cows. PMID:15653546

Garcia-Peniche, T B; Cassell, B G; Pearson, R E; Misztal, I

2005-02-01

305

Singapore Chinese Health Study  

Cancer.gov

The current research project continues support for a residential cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older (45 to 74 years of age) Singapore Chinese men and women accrued between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, each study participant was interviewed in person by a trained interviewer using a structured questionnaire that emphasized current diet assessed via a validated, 165-item food frequency questionnaire.

306

Chinese foot binding.  

PubMed

Chinese foot binding embraced several modern principles of brace treatment. It was initiated in childhood while the foot was cartilaginous and moldable. Culturally, the practice attempted to shape the foot into a pointed lotus flower. The resultant cavus foot deformity was dysfunctional and crippling. This curious custom, outlawed by the Communist party, is ironically analogous in some ways to high-heel shoe wear. PMID:7567086

Berg, E E

1995-01-01

307

Chinese Space Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China will soon make history by sending the first Chinese man to space. Scheduled for sometime in 2003, it will be the first step toward China's highly ambitious plans for space exploration.The China National Space Administration Web site (1) has a detailed description of the country's space policy. Aerospace China, a journal published online by the administration, has information on space development plans and other issues. The history of China's space program is recounted by the online Encyclopedia Astronautica (2). Several influential scientists and their contributions to Chinese rocketry and satellite technology are highlighted. The China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (3) sent the first Chinese satellite into space. Its home page showcases eight launch vehicles and offers an extensive technical description of the LM-3C model. The work of various research groups at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (4) deals with topics ranging from satellite dynamics to stellar astronomy. Some of the groups have details of their projects and facilities online. Another observatory studies molecular clouds and star formation (5). A large collection of its research papers are provided on its Web site. A news article from Space.com (6) discusses the forthcoming launch of the Shenzhou IV spacecraft, scheduled for later this year. It is generating considerable interest, since it is said to be identical to China's first manned spacecraft, expected to launch in 2003. Another article (7) considers China's rapidly developing space program. With the tremendous effort and lofty goals for moon bases and Mars missions, the author argues that China could eventually rival the US. Many more news stories about the Chinese space program can be found on the Dragon Space Web site (8).

Leske, Cavin.

2002-01-01

308

Indian and Chinese cosmologies reconsidered.  

PubMed

Indian and Chinese cosmic elements are five. They originate from a common source, Bralrma in Indian and Thai-chi in Chinese. The first created element is Mu = Tree, not wood, and life-form itself, immovable but moves everything else = Akaska in Indian cosmology. Dryness = Metal in Chinese, Moisture = Earth. Fire as Heat and Water as Cold, are common to both systems. PMID:3895884

Mahdihassan, S

1985-01-01

309

Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

2002-01-01

310

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132

Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V; Berg, Stefan

2011-06-01

311

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132

Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Berg, Stefan

2011-01-01

312

Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than those fed a low-nutrition diet, and they provide clear evidence that nutritional modulation of Holstein bull calves during early life has profound effects on reproductive development. PMID:25497791

Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

2015-02-01

313

Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of ?13C and ?D of emitted CH4 and rumen water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted ?13CH4, ?13CO2, and ?D-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of ?D-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in ?13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in ?13C between emitted gases and diet. The average ?13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of ?D-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These ?D measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

2001-07-01

314

The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on carcass cutabil ity, tenderness, and sensory characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

STORY IN BRIEF To evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass cutability and tenderness of calf-fed Holstein steers, calf-fed Holstein carcasses (n = 102) were selected from a pool of 2,300 steers that were fed 0 or 8.3mg\\/kg (DM basis) ZH during the l ast 20 d of the finishing period with a 3 d withdrawal. Carcasses were

J. N. Shook; D. L. VanOverbeke; A. J. Garmyn; J. L. Beckett; R. J. Delmore; D. M. Allen; G. G. Hilton

315

Effects of drinking water temperature on water consumption, respiration rates, and body temperatures of lactating Holstein cows in summer  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by JEFFREY KENT LANHAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis...

Lanham, Jeffrey Kent

2012-06-07

316

Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) excretion in humans and cattle as an index of exposure to lead.  

PubMed

Disposable ion-exchange chromatographic columns were used to determine delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in 11 bovine and 184 human urine samples. The mean urinary ALA concentrations in persons working as battery charges, autopainters, automechanics, and urban first-grade pupils were 11.61 +/- 14.23, 6.51 +/- 3.31, 6.48 +/- 3.36, and 5.71 +/- 2.91 micrograms/ml respectively. These values were higher than those found in urine from gasoline station attendants, university students and laboratory assistants, rural adult farmers, and rural first-grade pupils, which were 4.90 +/- 1.95, 4.93 +/- 1.76, 4.40 +/- 1.79 and 4.51 +/- 2.65 micrograms/ml respectively. In cattle (Holstein Friesian/White Fulani cross) the mean urinary ALA concentration was 1.84 +/- 0.04 micron/ml. The data indicates that persons working around automobile, lead batteries and leaded gasoline had elevated ALA concentrations in urine. Rural humans and cattle did not have significant elevations of urinary ALA. PMID:7210469

Adaudi, A O; Aliu, Y O

1980-12-01

317

Eradication of Lice in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals. PMID:11455904

Nafstad, O; Grønstøl, H

2001-01-01

318

Genome edited sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701

Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

2015-02-01

319

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation  

E-print Network

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation By Tansa Musa. Evidence of rampant deforestation around the globe points in one direction: booming demand in China, where buy from Amazon. com. POPULAR PAGES Rainforests Rain forests Amazon deforestation Deforestation

320

Maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle.  

PubMed

Nature and potential functions of chemical signals involved in the process of pregnancy recognition in cattle are discussed. The array of prostaglandins, steroid metabolites, and proteins produced by the conceptus and endometrium are described and collated with histological and physiological responses of the uterus and ovary that lead toward maintenance of the corpus luteum. Advances during the last 10 yr partially have identified the conceptus-endometrial-ovarian signal sequence that is associated with maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle. Final evaluation of the control system should permit investigators to improve embryo survival and augment further the impact of embryo manipulation to improve genetic merit of the cattle population. PMID:6084020

Thatcher, W W; Bartol, F F; Knickerbocker, J J; Curl, J S; Wolfenson, D; Bazer, F W; Roberts, R M

1984-11-01

321

Clinical Study Report on Milk Production in the Offspring of a Somatic Cell Cloned Holstein Cow  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production. PMID:23955271

TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; TSUCHIYA, Hideki; HAMANO, Seizo; INABA, Toshio; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAMADA, Hiromichi

2013-01-01

322

Purification and characterization of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) from Swiss Black, Holstein, and Montofon bovines.  

PubMed

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1: EC 3.1.8.1) is a calcium-dependent enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and has a protective effect against oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) in mammals. PON1 is the best-studied member of a family of enzymes called serum paraoxonases, or PONs, identified in mammals and other vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. PONs exhibit a range of important activities, including drug metabolism and detoxification of organophosphates such as nerve agents. This study reports, for the first time, purification and biochemical characterization of serum PON1 from different bovine breeds namely Swiss Black, Holstein, and Montofon. Bovine serum PON1s were purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzymes indicates a single band with an apparent MW of 43 kDa. The purified enzymes had a specific activity of 10.78, 27.00, and 22.38 U/mg for Swiss Black, Holstein, and Montofon bovines, respectively. The overall purification rates of our method were 262.47-, 2,476.90-, and 538.06-fold for Swiss Black, Holstein, and Montofon bovines, respectively. Furthermore, using phenyl acetate as a substrate, we determined the K M and V max values of the purified enzymes, as 0.80 mM, 1428.5 U/ml for Swiss Black; 0.40 mM, 714.3 U/ml for Holstein; and 0.50 mM, 1,111.1 U/ml for Montofon bovine. The present study has revealed that there is no substantial difference in PON1 activities among the studied bovine breeds. PMID:24907040

Erzengin, Mahmut; Demir, Dudu; Arslan, Mikail; Sinan, Selma

2014-08-01

323

Effect of calcium salts of fish and palm oils on lactational performance of Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of source of fatty acids (FA) fed as tallow or calcium salts of fish and palm oils (CaSFO) on performance of dairy cows. In experiment 1, 738 multiparous Holstein cows were fed a diet with either 18g\\/kg of tallow or 19g\\/kg of CaSFO to supply equal amounts of FA in two replicates

S. O. Juchem; J. E. P. Santos; R. L. A. Cerri; R. C. Chebel; K. N. Galvão; R. Bruno; E. J. DePeters; T. Scott; W. W. Thatcher; D. Luchini

2008-01-01

324

Relationships of milk yield and season of calving with ovarian cyclicity of Holstein and Jersey cows  

E-print Network

between milk yield and ovarian function. Moreover, actual 120- and 305-day yields of FCM were higher than for cows studied to estimate unfavorable genetic correlation s of milk yield with measures of reproductive efficiency (22). PATTERNS OF (?ARIAN... days for Holsteins (Table 3). Neither breed nor parity differences were detected (P). 10) which agreed with (19). RELATI ONS HIP OF OllARIAN ACTIVITY WI TH ACTOAL YIELD OF FAT-CORRECTED MILK Analyses of variances and coefficients of determination...

Gonzalez Sanchez, Andres

1984-01-01

325

Induction of Hyperlipidemia by Intravenous Infusion of Tallow Emulsion Causes Insulin Resistance in Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to test whether the induction of elevated blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) by i.v. infusion of a tallow emulsion altered glucose tolerance andresponsivenessto insulininHolsteincows. Sixnon- lactating, nongestating Holstein cows were assigned to a crossover design. One cow was excluded before initiation of the experiment because of complications from mastitis. Treatments consisted of 11-h i.v. infu- sions of

J. A. A. Pires; A. H. Souza; R. R. Grummer

2007-01-01

326

9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.7 Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. Cattle in...

2011-01-01

327

9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.7 Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. Cattle in...

2010-01-01

328

Neuroanatomical Markers of Speaking Chinese  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19530216

Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

2009-01-01

329

Enliven corporate brands in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Although the concept of branding has been considered extensively in products and services, branding in Chinese is a relatively emerging phenomenon. This paper aims to present the enlivenment of branding in Chinese within the cross-strait markets of Taiwan and Mainland China, which underlies various ideologies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study primarily reviews literatures of brand and brand name translation,

Yi-Long Jaw; Ru-Yu Wang; Carol Ying-Yu Hsu

2011-01-01

330

An Introduction to Chinese Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit will introduce secondary level students to Chinese literature. The first part of the unit discusses poetry which has always been the most highly prized form of Chinese literature. The discussion examines the "Complete Tang Poems," the "Book of Songs" compiled by Confucius, the "Songs of Chu," and the "Li Sao." Students learn about the…

Kane, Tony

331

Modelling ancient Chinese time ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal information is one of the essential components in many domains, especially those related to history. Up until the twentieth century, the Chinese used a lunisolar calendar with the title of an Emperor and a reign period to express temporal information. When describing a historical event in Chinese history, it is inadequate to use existing time ontologies as presented in

Qing Zou; Eun G. Park

2011-01-01

332

Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.  

PubMed

Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

1994-06-01

333

Comparative geno-plasticity analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese isolate).  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

334

Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

2012-01-01

335

Implanting Beef Calves and Stocker Cattle  

E-print Network

Implanting beef calves offers one of the highest benefit-to-cost ratios of all the management practices available to cow/calf and stocker cattle producers. This publication offers advice on implant administration....

McCollum III, Ted

1998-04-24

336

Measuring value added characteristics in feeder cattle  

E-print Network

over seven years from regular and special feeder cattle sales at Joplin Regional Stockyards were used. The effects of explanatory variables on sale price were analyzed using ordinary least squares regression hedonic model. Type of sale, seasonality...

Mathews, Crystal Dawn

2009-05-15

337

Genetic analysis of putative transgenic cattle  

E-print Network

the genomic incorporation of DNA that has been microinjected into the male pronuclei of single or two celled embryos. Mice, rabbits, sheep, and pigs have been successfully transfected with DNA. Transgenic cattle, however, have not yet been reported... whether microinjected DNA is incorporated into the genome of these putative transgenic cattle. Molecular methods were developed to detect the presence of as little as a single copy of the foreign DNA in the genomes of the animals as evidenced...

Fontenot, Gregory Kenneth

2012-06-07

338

Hybanthus calceolaria poisoning in cattle.  

PubMed

Hybanthus calceolaria, also known as "papaconha" or "ipepacuanha," is a herbaceous plant found in northeastern Brazil, which is often implicated by farmers as the cause of neurological signs in livestock grazing. Several poisoning outbreaks associated with the ingestion of this plant were observed in cattle in the municipalities of Colônia de Gurguéia in the state of Piauí and Sirinhaém in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main clinical signs were ataxia, recumbency, and myokymia. No significant lesions were observed during necropsy or on histological examination. The disease was experimentally reproduced by the administration of 2 daily doses of 40 g/kg/body weight of the fresh green plant containing fruits. The plants without fruits were nontoxic, which is in accordance with the farmers' information, as it was stated that the poisoning only occurs when the plant is fruiting. PMID:25085870

Carvalho, Fabricio K L; Nascimento, Eduardo M; Rocha, Brena P; Mendonça, Fábio S; Veschi, Josir L A; Silva, Silvana M M S; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2014-09-01

339

Genetic relationships of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness with milk yield and somatic cell score in first-lactation Canadian Holsteins.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships of the 3 most frequently reported dairy cattle diseases (clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness) with test-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) in first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows using random regression models. Health data recorded by producers were available from the National Dairy Cattle Health System in Canada. Disease traits were defined as binary traits (0=healthy, 1=affected) based on whether or not the cow had at least one disease case recorded within 305 d after calving. Mean frequencies of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 12.7, 8.2, and 9.1%, respectively. For genetic analyses, a Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied. Bivariate linear sire random regression model analyses were carried out between each of the 3 disease traits and test-day milk yield or SCS. Random regressions on second-degree Legendre polynomials were used to model the daily sire additive genetic and cow effects on test-day milk yield and SCS, whereas only the intercept term was fitted for disease traits. Estimated heritabilities were 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02 for clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness, respectively. Average heritabilities for milk yield were between 0.41 and 0.49. Average heritabilities for SCS ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The average genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 0.40, 0.26, and 0.23, respectively; however, the last estimate was not statistically different from zero. Cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield during the lactation were more susceptible to clinical mastitis and cystic ovaries. Estimates of genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis were moderate throughout the lactation. The genetic correlations between daily milk yield and cystic ovaries were near zero at the beginning of lactation and were highest at mid and end lactation. The average genetic correlation between daily SCS and clinical mastitis was 0.59 and was consistent throughout the lactation. The average genetic correlation between daily SCS and cystic ovaries was near zero (-0.01), whereas a moderate, but nonsignificant, correlation of 0.27 was observed between SCS and lameness. Unfavorable genetic associations between milk yield and diseases imply that production and health traits should be considered simultaneously in genetic selection. PMID:24996282

Koeck, A; Loker, S; Miglior, F; Kelton, D F; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S

2014-09-01

340

Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.  

PubMed

There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. PMID:25034134

Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

2014-09-15

341

Vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop FMDV transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

SUMMARY We quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. The (partial) reproduction ratios (R) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. A 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (NGM) was constructed using these estimates. The dominant eigenvalue of the NGM, the R for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different proportions of cattle and sheep and for three different vaccination strategies. The higher the proportion of cattle in a mixed cattle-sheep population, the higher the R for the mixed population. Therefore the impact of vaccination of the cattle is higher. After vaccination of all animals R = 0·1 independent of population composition. In mixed cattle-sheep populations with at least 14% of cattle, vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to reduce R to < 1. PMID:25464822

Bravo DE Rueda, C; Dekker, A; Eblé, P L; DE Jong, M C M

2014-12-01

342

What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

Chang, Shirley

343

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

. In addition, the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine and Herb uses, systems and methods for Chinese;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D

344

Transmission of brucellosis from reindeer to cattle.  

PubMed

Sixteen reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) naturally infected with Brucella suis biovar 4 were penned with 6 male and 2 female cattle for 30 days, then removed and euthanatized. During this period, 5 reindeer had fawns, and 2 reindeer aborted. Brucella suis biovar 4 was recovered from all adult reindeer at necropsy. Nine reindeer had B suis biovar 4 in uterus, udder, and/or milk. The cattle were euthanatized 2 months after the reindeer were removed. Clinical or pathologic signs of disease were not observed in the cattle. Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated from 2 male and from both female cattle at necropsy. The female cattle had positive reactions on the buffered plate antigen test, brucellosis card test, tube agglutination test, complement fixation test, and indirect enzyme immunoassay for most of the experiment, but the males had inconsistent reactions on these tests. The indirect enzyme immunoassay was the only test to detect all cattle from which bacteria were cultured. This study revealed that caution is warranted before moving reindeer or caribou into areas of traditional agriculture. PMID:8407493

Forbes, L B; Tessaro, S V

1993-07-15

345

The search for valved conduit tissue grafts for adults (>22 mm): an ultrasonographic study of jugular vein diameters of horses and cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Natural heterologous valved conduits with a diameter greater than 22 mm that can be used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in adults are not commercially available. The purpose of this study was to measure by ultrasonography the maximum diameter of the distended jugular veins of horses and cattle, respectively, to identify a population of animals that would be suitable for post-mortem collection of jugular veins at sizes greater than 22 mm. Methods The study population included 60 Warmblood horses, 25 Freiberger horses, 20 Brown Swiss cows, and 20 Holstein cows (including 10 Holstein and 10 Red Holstein). The maximum cross-sectional diameter of the distended jugular veins was measured at a location half-way between the mandibular angle and the thoracic inlet. The thoracic circumference (heart girth length) was used as a surrogate of body size. The jugular vein diameters of the different populations were compared by analysis of variance and the association between heart girth length and jugular vein diameter was determined in each of the four study populations by linear regression analysis. Results There was considerable individual variation of jugular vein diameters within each of the four study populations. There was no statistically significant relationship between thoracic circumference and jugular vein diameter in any of the populations. The jugular vein diameters of Brown Swiss cows were significantly larger than those of any of the other populations. Warmblood horses had significantly larger jugular vein diameters compared to Freiberger horses. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the production of bovine or equine xenografts with diameters of greater than 22 mm would be feasible. Differences between species and breeds need to be considered. However, prediction of the jugular vein diameter based on breed and heart girth length in an individual animal is inaccurate. PMID:19678940

Schwarzwald, Colin C; Jenni, Rolf

2009-01-01

346

Biotech's Chinese connection  

SciTech Connect

Hong Kong last month opened the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology (HKIB), a nonprofit R and D center. By combining Chinese expertise in medicinal compounds and cell culturing with Western technical and marketing skills, the institute hopes to develop products that could be licensed to Hong Kong or Western films. The institute is also developing experimental cell lines and making genetically engineered versions of promising compounds, taking advantage of the cell-culturing and cloning skills that are highly developed on the mainland. The Shanghai contingent is already involved in one of the institute's projects, an effort to transfer human genes into mouse fibroblasts to create cell lines for research on the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Other Chinese researchers are taking part in HKIB's joint venture with Syntex, which was signed last April. The mainland researchers extract candidate medicinal compounds from plants and microorganisms. In Hong Kong, the compounds are tested for their effects on neurotransmitter receptors, while Syntex scientists in Palo Alto study how the same compounds affect enzyme activity and whole cells.

Hodgson, G.

1992-03-27

347

Chinese Armillary Spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

Sun, Xiaochun

348

Nutritional value of ensiled grocery food waste for cattle.  

PubMed

Assessment of nutrient variability, feed value, ensiling capability, intake, and digestibility of grocery food waste recycled from large retail stores was conducted in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, 115 proximate nutrient analyses of grocery byproduct feed (GBP) from stores in the southern United States from April 8, 2011, to November 18, 2012, were evaluated for variation in nutrient concentration. Grocery byproduct feed was characterized as being a readily fermentable, high-moisture energy feed with an average DM content of 17.5 ± 3.7% and TDN of 89.8 ± 7.1%. In Exp. 2 and 3, grocery food waste consisting of fruit, vegetables, and bakery items from large retail stores in the Atlanta, GA, area was used for ensiling and feeding studies. The GBP material for Exp. 2 was processed on farm into homogenous slurry and treated to reduce its moisture content and preserved in experimental silos. Drying treatments included 3 levels of citrus pulp substitution (8, 16, and 24% as-fed basis), or passively removing liquid as seepage after stacking for 24 h, or oven drying (24 h at 80°C). All GBP mixtures effectively ensiled after 28 d, as determined by changes in pH, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation acids. Ensiled GBP was moderately stable during 72-h aerobic exposure. In Exp. 3, a feeding/digestibility trial, 8 yearling Holstein steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square and fed 4 incremental levels of ensiled GBP in total mixed rations (TMR). Steers were fed 0, 18, 36, and 54% ensiled GBP as part of a TMR containing 68% wheat silage and 32% concentrate on a DM basis. The rations averaged 35.9, 30.7, 26.8, and 23.8% DM with incremental levels of GBP. Steers increased DM intake and digestibility when fed increasing GBP (P < 0.5). Digestible energy and TDN were linearly related to the level of GBP fed (P < 0.01). The TDN content of GBP was 82.7% (DM basis) and similar to predicted TDN values from commercial feed analyses of GBP. The feeding and nutritive value of ensiled GBP indicates it can be priced to be used effectively as an energy supplement in TMR for cattle. PMID:25349356

Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L; Azain, M J; Michot, P; Rekaya, R

2014-11-01

349

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

350

Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.  

PubMed

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

2012-01-01

351

Use of multivariate analyses for determining heat tolerance in Brazilian cattle.  

PubMed

Adaptability can be evaluated by the ability of an animal to adjust to environmental conditions and is especially important in extreme weather conditions such as that found in tropical Brazil. A multivariate analysis using physical and physiological traits in exotic (Nellore and Holstein) and naturalized (Junqueira, Curraleira, Mocho Nacional, Crioula Lageana, and Pantaneira) cattle breeds was carried out in the Federal District of Brazil to test and determine which traits are important in the adaptation of animal to heat stress as well as the ability of these traits and statistical techniques to separate the breeds studied. Both physical and physiological traits were measured on three occasions and included body measurements, skin and hair thickness, hair number and length, pigmentation, sweat gland area as well as heart and breathing rates, rectal temperature, sweating rate, and blood parameters. The data underwent multivariate statistical analyses, including cluster, discriminate, and canonical procedures. The tree diagram showed clear distances between the groups studied, and canonical analysis was able to separate individuals in groups. Coat traits explained little variation in physiological parameters. The traits which had higher discriminatory power included packed cell volume, shoulder height, mean corpuscular volume, body length, and heart girth. Morphological and physiological traits were able to discriminate between the breeds tested, with blood and size traits being the most important. More than 80% of animals of all breeds were correctly classified in their genetic group. PMID:21181496

McManus, Concepta; Castanheira, Marlos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Louvandini, Helder; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Paludo, Giane Regina; Bianchini, Eliandra; Corrêa, Patricia Spoto

2011-03-01

352

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using intratumoral injection of the 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for the treatment of eye cancer in cattle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-year old Holstein cow with an eye cancer (ocular squamous cell carcinoma) involving the third eyelid and conjunctiva was submitted to photodynamic therapy using intratumoral 20% aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA - Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, USA) and a light emitting diode (LED - VET LED - MMOptics (R)) with wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, power of 150 mW, light dose of 50 J/cm2 as a source of irradiation. Fifteen days after the experimental procedure we observed about 50% tumor reduction and complete remission after 3 months. Relapse was not observed up to 12 months after the treatment. Although the study only includes one animal not allowing definite conclusions, it indicates that PDT represents a safe and technically feasible approach in the treatment of eye cancer in cattle.

Hage, Raduan; Mancilha, Geraldo; Zângaro, Renato A.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio

2007-02-01

353

A comparison of the environmental impact of Jersey compared with Holstein milk for cheese production.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impact of Jersey or Holstein milk production sufficient to yield 500,000 t of cheese (equivalent cheese yield) both with and without recombinant bovine somatotropin use. The deterministic model used 2009 DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC) population data for milk yield and composition (Jersey: 20.9 kg/d, 4.8% fat, 3.7% protein; Holstein: 29.1 kg/d, 3.8% fat, 3.1% protein), age at first calving, calving interval, and culling rate. Each population contained lactating and dry cows, bulls, and herd replacements for which rations were formulated according to DairyPro (Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems, Cornell, Ithaca, NY) at breed-appropriate body weights (BW), with mature cows weighing 454 kg (Jersey) or 680 kg (Holstein). Resource inputs included feedstuffs, water, land, fertilizers, and fossil fuels. Waste outputs included manure and greenhouse gas emissions. Cheese yield (kg) was calculated according to the Van Slyke equation. A yield of 500,000 t of cheese required 4.94 billion kg of Holstein milk compared with 3.99 billion kg of Jersey milk-a direct consequence of differences in milk nutrient density (fat and protein contents) between the 2 populations. The reduced daily milk yield of Jersey cows increased the population size required to supply sufficient milk for the required cheese yield, but the differential in BW between the Jersey and Holstein breeds reduced the body mass of the Jersey population by 125×10(3) t. Consequently, the population energy requirement was reduced by 7,177×10(6) MJ, water use by 252×10(9) L, and cropland use by 97.5×10(3) ha per 500,000 t of cheese yield. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion were reduced by 17,234 and 1,492 t, respectively, through the use of Jersey milk to yield 500,000 t of Cheddar cheese. The carbon footprint was reduced by 1,662×10(3) t of CO(2)-equivalents per 500,000 t of cheese in Jersey cows compared with Holsteins. Use of recombinant bovine somatotropin reduced resource use and waste output in supplemented populations, with decreases in carbon footprint equivalent to 10.0% (Jersey) and 7.5% (Holstein) compared with nonsupplemented populations. The interaction between milk nutrient density and BW demonstrated by the Jersey population overcame the reduced daily milk yield, thus reducing resource use and environmental impact. This reduction was achieved through 2 mechanisms: diluting population maintenance overhead through improved milk nutrient density and reducing maintenance overhead through a reduction in productive and nonproductive body mass within the population. PMID:22192195

Capper, J L; Cady, R A

2012-01-01

354

Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

2007-01-01

355

Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge. PMID:23031138

Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

2013-03-01

356

Isolation, identification, and complete genome sequence of a bovine adenovirus type 3 from cattle in China  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological investigations for BVA-3 infection might be carried out in cattle in China. This report will be a good beginning for further studies on BAV-3 in China. PMID:22188676

2011-01-01

357

9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for...

2012-01-01

358

9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for...

2013-01-01

359

9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis...

2010-01-01

360

9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis...

2010-01-01

361

Block and Tub Supplements for Grazing Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Block supplements offer cattle producers a means of supplementing the diets of their grazing beef cattle. This publication discusses the types of blocks available and recommendations for the use of each....

Machen, Richard V.

2003-03-19

362

Low Stress Cattle Handling in Dairy Environments (Spanish)  

E-print Network

Using low-stress methods of handling dairy cattle is efficient in terms of time and labor. This publication explains how cattle's natural instincts affect their responses, and ways handlers can use that knowledge to make handling easier and less...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04

363

Nitrogen in Chinese coals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, J.; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

2011-01-01

364

Chinese Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archaeological digs can tell us much about ancient civilizations, but what about more recent periods of human habitation? This fine collection from the USC Digital Library presents over 1,100 images of artifacts excavated from two sites in Southern California. The Chinatown section features 1,040 color images of artifacts from the original Los Angeles Chinatown. These items were recovered during the construction of the Metro Rail Red Line by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The online collection includes photos of wine bowls, ink stone boxes, and other fragments of items from daily household life. The second segment includes items excavated in 1992 from an old adobe structure in Santa Barbara that housed a Chinese laundry from the mid 1880s to 1905. The collection can be searched via keyword, and it is quite a resource for historians, archaeologists, and others.

2012-02-03

365

Chinese Constellations and Star Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

Sun, Xiaochun

366

Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mathematics professor from UC Berkeley, currently on sabbatical and at the National University of Singapore, has posted this information about the Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar. Professor Helmer Aslaksen gives some background on why he has developed this webpage, noting that "Chinese New Year is the main holiday of the year for more than one quarter of the world's population; very few people, however, know how to compute its date." Having little success in finding any information on the rules of the Chinese Calendar, he decided to work it out himself. Posted here are some of his papers on the Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar, along with an overall explanation of his method of calculation and several astronomical Java Applets and Animations to help explain the motion of the Earth and the Sun. His website on Heavenly Mathematics provides further ideas on ways to teach astronomy in a cultural context.

367

Do cattle egrets gain information from conspecifics when foraging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether individual cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) base their decisions of where to forage, and how long to stay in a patch, on the behavior of other flock members. Cattle egrets commonly forage in flocks associated with cattle and capture prey at higher rates when they do not share a cow with another egret. Foraging egrets provide cues of

Karen J. Metz; Kent A. Prior; Mark L. Mallory

1991-01-01

368

BREEDING GOALS FOR BEEF CATTLE E. P. CUNNINGHAM  

E-print Network

BREEDING GOALS FOR BEEF CATTLE E. P. CUNNINGHAM The Agvicuhuval Institute, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Dunsinea, Castleknock, Co. Dublin (Ireland) SUMMARY Specialised beef breeds can specialised breeds of beef cattle can play, depending on the structure of the cattle population in which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events  

PubMed Central

Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ?10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

2013-01-01

370

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis among trade cattle in Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local incidence of bovine tuberculosis has been reported in some southern areas of Nigeria (Ayanwale, 1984). However, information is lacking on the cattle population in Rivers State which derives mainly from trade cattle from the northern parts of the country. In a five-year investigation based on both field observations and laboratory diagnosis 5,407 cattle from the University slaughterhouse and

S. N. WEra-m; N. A. Berepubo

1989-01-01

371

New survival record of southern cattle tick in subfreezing temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The southern cattle tick, Rhicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) is considered to be one of the most significant pests of cattle worldwide. A vector for piroplasmosis, or cattle fever, R. microplus is a key target of an aggressive eradication program along the U.S./Mexico border. Endemic to ...

372

Ruminal epithelium transcriptome dynamics in response to plane of nutrition and age in young Holstein calves.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effects of enhanced dietary plane of nutrition (early nutritional program (ENH)) on the gene expression pattern of ruminal epithelial tissue of young Holstein calves. Male Holstein calves were fed (3 to 42 days of age) with reconstituted control milk replacer (MR) (20 % crude protein, 20 % fat; 1.25 lb solids/calf) plus conventional starter (CON; 19.6 % crude protein, dry matter basis) or a high-protein MR (ENH; 28.5 % crude protein, 15 % fat; at around 2 % of body weight) plus high-crude protein starter (25.5 % crude protein, dry matter basis). The calves were weaned on day 43. Groups of calves in CON and ENH treatment were harvested after 5 and 10 weeks of feeding. The ruminal epithelium from five calves in each group was used for transcript profiling using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. The postweaning mass of the reticulo-rumen was greater (P?Holstein calves elicited a strong transcriptomic response in the ruminal epithelial tissue. PMID:24318765

Naeem, Aisha; Drackley, James K; Lanier, Jennifer Stamey; Everts, Robin E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

2014-03-01

373

Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk  

E-print Network

weekly), palpation per rectum (once per week), and detailed estr us detection (twice per day) . Measures of transmitting ability and yields were Pr edicted Differ ence for fat cor rected milk (PDFM), Cow Index fat corrected milk (CIFM, 60-, 90-, 120...-, and 305-days 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield. Means and standard deviations of PDFM, CIFM, and 305- day FCM yields were: 390e294, 200+294, and 6637+1657 kg for Holsteins and 403s268, 198i199, and 5413t1 135 kg for Jerseys. The postpartum interval...

Dachir, Shlomit

2012-06-07

374

International genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls for overall type traits and body condition score.  

PubMed

The study documents the procedures used to estimate genetic correlations among countries for overall conformation (OCS), overall udder (OUS), overall feet and legs (OFL), and body condition score (BCS) of Holstein sires. Major differences in traits definition are discussed, in addition to the use of international breeding values (IBV) among countries involved in international genetic evaluations, and similarities among countries through hierarchical clustering. Data were available for populations from 20 countries for OCS and OUS, 18 populations for OFL, and 11 populations for BCS. The IBV for overall traits and BCS were calculated using a multi-trait across-country evaluation model. Distance measures, obtained from genetic correlations, were used as input values in the cluster analysis. Results from surveys sent to countries participating in international genetic evaluation for conformation traits showed that different ways of defining traits are used: the overall traits were either computed from linear or composite traits or defined as general characteristics. For BCS, populations were divided into 2 groups: one scored and evaluated BCS, and one used a best predictor. In general, populations were well connected except for Estonia and French Red Holstein. The average number of common bulls for the overall traits ranged from 19 (OCS and OUS of French Red Holstein) to 514 (OFL of United States), and for BCS from 17 (French Red Holstein) to 413 (the Netherlands). The average genetic correlation (range) across countries was 0.75 (0.35 to 0.95), 0.80 (0.41 to 0.95), and 0.68 (0.12 to 0.89) for OCS, OUS, and OFL, respectively. Genetic correlations among countries that used angularity as best predictor for BCS and countries that scored BCS were negative. The cluster analysis provided a clear picture of the countries distances; differences were due to trait definition, trait composition, and weights in overall traits, genetic ties, and genotype by environment interactions. Harmonization of trait definition and increasing genetic ties could improve genetic correlations across countries and reduce the distances. In each national selection index, all countries, except Estonia and New Zealand, included at least one overall trait, whereas none included BCS. Out of 18 countries, 9 have started genomic evaluation of conformation traits. The first were Canada, France, New Zealand, and United States in 2009, followed by Switzerland, Germany, and the Netherlands in 2010, and Australia and Denmark-Finland-Sweden (joint evaluation) in 2011. Six countries are planning to start soon. PMID:22818485

Battagin, M; Forabosco, F; Jakobsen, J H; Penasa, M; Lawlor, T J; Cassandro, M

2012-08-01

375

Scaling of temperature dependence of charge mobility in molecular Holstein chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on a Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for four types of homogeneous sequences It has turned out that upon rescaling all four types are quite similar. Two types of rescaling, i.e., those for low and intermediate temperatures, are found. The curves obtained are approximated on a logarithmic scale by cubic polynomials. We believe that for model homogeneous biopolymers with parameters close to the designed ones, one can assess the value of the charge mobility without carrying out resource-intensive direct simulation, just by using a suitable approximating function.

Tikhonov, D. A.; Fialko, N. S.; Sobolev, E. V.; Lakhno, V. D.

2014-03-01

376

NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN CATTLE IN INDIA SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE AND WATER BUFFAOES IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum a...

377

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from abattoir to abattoir (P>0.5). The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Of 4102 male cattle, examined, 768 (18.72%) had cysts of C. bovis while 56 (15.82%) of the 354 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in occurrence was recorded between the sexes. Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed a rise of infected animals during the dry season. PMID:18321540

Kebede, Nigatu

2008-12-01

378

Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

1993-01-01

379

Transmission of salmonella in feedlot cattle  

E-print Network

of salmonella organisms is known to depend on the method of. entry. 48 In sheep and calves, the infecting dose by an aerosol is about four times lower than that necessary by mouth. Tannock succeeded in producinq a carrier state in sheep by intranasal... containing 15-g sulfabrom and. two 2~10 ? g Triple-sulfa boluses . Those cattle with both an elevated temperature and diarrhea were given the same treat!sent as the cattle with no diarrhea plus 20 cc of Sodium Sulfach'orpyridazine (21. 5$, 215 mg per cc...

Clinton, Nancy Adair

1977-01-01

380

Cattle intoxication from Enterolobium contortisiliquum pods.  

PubMed

Three outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization caused by pods of Enterolobium contortisiliquum are reported in cattle. Clinical signs were anorexia, depression, photosensitization and abortion. Most affected cattle recovered in 30-40 d. At necropsies, liver was present, the gallbladder was enlarged and edematous, and numerous seeds of E contortisiliquum were in the forestomachs and abomasum. Fruits of the plants administrated to 2 calves produced clinical signs and 2/4 died. Clinical chemistry, gross necropsies and histopathology confirmed gastrointestinal irritation and liver degeneration. One calf dosed with only E contortisiliquum leaves did not develop clinical signs. PMID:12046969

Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Dantas, Ant?nio Flávio Medeiros; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Leite, Carlos Guilherme Dorileo; Raposo, Josiane Bonel

2002-06-01

381

Management Controls for Ranches Producing Breeding Cattle.  

E-print Network

the weaning calf. A management control record such as Form D-917i will furnish helpful information in making more accu- rate management decisions in all areas of produc- tion. Of course, a partial record p;ogram would not %tension beef cattle specialist..., The Texas A&M University Sys- tem. the cattle he is producing. This informat/on should not be based on weaning weights of calves with unknown ages or a visual, quality grade by the owner. There are more objective measures availa- ble, which would...

Maddox, L. A. Jr.

1975-01-01

382

Dust emissions in cattle feedlots.  

PubMed

Dust emissions were measured at three Texas cattle feedlots on 15 occasions in 1987 to determine concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and dust with 10 microns or less aerodynamic particle size (PM-10). Net feedlot dust concentrations (downwind minus upwind) ranged from 15.7 to 1,700.1 micrograms per m3 and averaged 412.4 +/- 271.2 micrograms per m3, which is about 37 per cent less than was determined in feedlot dust research in California approximately 17 years earlier. Upwind concentrations averaged 22 per cent of the downwind concentrations. Feedlot dust concentrations were generally highest in early evening and lowest in early morning. Using the Wedding and Andersen-321A PM-10 samplers, the PM-10 dust concentrations were 19 and 40 per cent, respectively, of mean TSP concentrations in direct comparisons. There was good correlation between PM-10 and TSP concentrations. Although dust concentrations decreased with increasing moisture, the correlation coefficients were relatively low. Odor intensity appeared to increase with decreasing net dust concentrations, perhaps due to moisture influences. Mean particle sizes of feedlot dust were 8.5 to 12.2 microns on a particle volume basis and 2.5 to 3.4 microns on a population basis. Respirable dust (below 2 microns) represented only 2.0 to 4.4 per cent of total dust on a particle volume basis. Under conditions of these experiments, the feedlots often exceeded both state and federal (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standards for TSP concentrations and for PM-10 concentrations measured using the Andersen-321A sampler. However, feedlots were below the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards when the Wedding PM-10 sampler was used for measuring dust emissions. PMID:3265354

Sweeten, J B; Parnell, C B; Etheredge, R S; Osborne, D

1988-11-01

383

Chemotherapy of paramphistomosis in cattle.  

PubMed

Controlled tests were used to assess the efficacy of anthelmintics against immature paramphistomes, predominantly Calicophoron calicophorum, in 127 calves which were exposed to contaminated pasture for 7 weeks, treated and slaughtered. When a combination product of oxyclozanide and levamisole was used, oxyclozanide at 18.7 mg/kg reduced parasite numbers in the small intestine, abomasum and rumen-reticulum by 61 to 96.1%, 50.0 to 92.6% and 56.5 to 98.1%, respectively. When 2 doses were given 3 days apart, oxyclozanide was 99.9%, 100% and 100% effective, respectively, in the above organs, and produced improvement in clinically affected calves. This treatment elicited transient diarrhoea. Hexachlorophene at 20 mg/kg as a single dose was 99.5%, 100% and 100% effective against the fluke in the small intestine, abomasum and rumen respectively but severe neurological signs were seen in some calves. Niclosamide at 160 mg/kg given as single or 2 doses 3 days apart was 91.1% and 92.6% effective, respectively, against the parasites in the small intestine. No toxicity was noted. Closantel, at 7.5 mg/kg was not effective. Oxyclozanide and niclosamide when given as a single treatment had varying activity. Two doses of oxyclozanide and a single dose of hexachlorophene gave consistent results. Further tests based on reduction of faecal egg counts, 10 to 14 days after treatment were conducted with oxyclozanide and hexachlorophene against mature paramphistomes in 207 cattle. Oxyclozanide as a single dose or 2 doses 3 days apart at 12.8 to 18.7 mg/kg was 93.6 to 97.5% effective in reducing egg counts. Hexachlorophene at 20 mg/kg was 83.0% effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3447575

Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C

1987-11-01

384

Writing Chinese and Mathematics Achievement: A Study with Chinese-American Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…

Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

2001-01-01

385

Occurrence of congenital cerebral theileriosis in a newborn twin Holstein calves in Iran: Case report.  

PubMed

An 8-day-old newborn female twin Holstein calves with a history of weakness, anorexia, emaciation and convulsion were presented to Tabriz University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. On admission, the calves were febrile and recumbent. Physical examination revealed many ticks from the external body surface of the animals, right and left prescapular lymphadenopathy, severe opisthotonos, nystagmus, pedaling, blindness, hyperpnea and hypersthenia. Buccal and vaginal mucous were pale and no other physical abnormalities were diagnosed. Fecal flotation, complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, necropsy and histopathological examination were performed. Fecal flotation showed no helminth eggs or coccidial oocysts. On blood smears obtained from the earlap, >70 percent of erythrocytes were infected with piroplasms organisms and schizonts were obvious in smears of lymphocytes lymph node. Blood count revealed a lymphopenia, poikilocytosis, anisocytosis and non-regenerative anemia (packed cell volume; mean, 16%). Histopathological examination revealed Arthus reaction through the walls of cerebral blood vessels, which resulted in local necrosis of the brain. Analysis of CSF showed no abnormality in appearance or biochemical and cell counts. Although the calves were treated with a single intramuscular injection of buparvaquone and oxytetracycline once daily they did not respond to the treatment and died. In conclusion, the present cases showed a rare cerebral form of theileriosis by vertical transmission that confirmed by the presence of piroplasms on blood films and multinuclear schizonts on lymph node aspiration smears, gross and histopathological examinations and unsuccessful treatment in a newborn twin Holstein calves. PMID:25568725

Tolouei Kaleibar, Mohammad; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Fathi, Ezzatollah

2014-01-01

386

Effect of blending Jersey and Holstein-Friesian milk on Cheddar cheese processing, composition, and quality.  

PubMed

The effect of Jersey milk use solely or at different inclusion rates in Holstein-Friesian milk on Cheddar cheese production was investigated. Cheese was produced every month over a year using nonstandardized milk consisting of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk in a 100-L vat. Actual, theoretical, and moisture-adjusted yield increased linearly with percentage of Jersey milk. This was also associated with increased fat and protein recoveries and lower yield of whey. The composition of whey was also affected by the percentage of Jersey milk, with lower whey protein and higher whey lactose and solids. Cutting time was lower when Jersey milk was used, but the cutting to milling time was higher because of slower acidity development. Hence, overall cheesemaking time was not affected by the use of Jersey milk. Using Jersey milk increased cheese fat content in autumn, winter, and spring and decreased cheese moisture in spring and summer. Cheese protein, salt, and pH levels were not affected. Cheese was analyzed for texture and color, and it was professionally graded at 3 and 8mo. The effect of Jersey on cheese sensory quality was an increase in cheese yellowness during summer and a higher total grading score at 3mo in winter; no other difference in cheese quality was found. The study indicates that using Jersey milk is a valid method of improving Cheddar cheese yield. PMID:25465548

Bland, J H; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

2015-01-01

387

Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows  

PubMed Central

The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

Song, D. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Q.; Peng, H.; Bu, D. P.

2014-01-01

388

Dissection of genomic correlation matrices of US Holsteins using multivariate factor analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare correlation matrices between direct genomic predictions for 31 traits at the genomic and chromosomal levels in US Holstein bulls. Multivariate factor analysis carried out at the genome level identified seven factors associated with conformation, longevity, yield, feet and legs, fat and protein content traits. Some differences were found at the chromosome level; variations in covariance structure on BTA 6, 14, 18 and 20 were interpreted as evidence of segregating QTL for different groups of traits. For example, milk yield and composition tended to join in a single factor on BTA 14, which is known to harbour the DGAT1 locus that affects these traits. Another example was on BTA 18, where a factor strongly correlated with sire calving ease and conformation traits was identified. It is known that in US Holstein, there is a segregating QTL on BTA18 influencing these traits. Moreover, a possible candidate gene for daughter pregnancy rate was suggested for BTA28. The methodology proposed in this study could be used to identify individual chromosomes, which have covariance structures that differ from the overall (whole genome) covariance structure. Such differences can be difficult to detect when a large number of traits are evaluated, and covariances may be affected by QTL that do not have large allele substitution effects. PMID:25100067

Macciotta, N P P; Dimauro, C; Null, D J; Gaspa, G; Cellesi, M; Cole, J B

2015-02-01

389

Occurrence of congenital cerebral theileriosis in a newborn twin Holstein calves in Iran: Case report  

PubMed Central

An 8-day-old newborn female twin Holstein calves with a history of weakness, anorexia, emaciation and convulsion were presented to Tabriz University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. On admission, the calves were febrile and recumbent. Physical examination revealed many ticks from the external body surface of the animals, right and left prescapular lymphadenopathy, severe opisthotonos, nystagmus, pedaling, blindness, hyperpnea and hypersthenia. Buccal and vaginal mucous were pale and no other physical abnormalities were diagnosed. Fecal flotation, complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, necropsy and histopathological examination were performed. Fecal flotation showed no helminth eggs or coccidial oocysts. On blood smears obtained from the earlap, >70 percent of erythrocytes were infected with piroplasms organisms and schizonts were obvious in smears of lymphocytes lymph node. Blood count revealed a lymphopenia, poikilocytosis, anisocytosis and non-regenerative anemia (packed cell volume; mean, 16%). Histopathological examination revealed Arthus reaction through the walls of cerebral blood vessels, which resulted in local necrosis of the brain. Analysis of CSF showed no abnormality in appearance or biochemical and cell counts. Although the calves were treated with a single intramuscular injection of buparvaquone and oxytetracycline once daily they did not respond to the treatment and died. In conclusion, the present cases showed a rare cerebral form of theileriosis by vertical transmission that confirmed by the presence of piroplasms on blood films and multinuclear schizonts on lymph node aspiration smears, gross and histopathological examinations and unsuccessful treatment in a newborn twin Holstein calves.

Tolouei Kaleibar, Mohammad; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Fathi, Ezzatollah

2014-01-01

390

Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) ?0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?1.13 to ?0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

2011-01-01

391

Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs in New England area  

E-print Network

More and more Chinese immigrants came to the U.S. to start a whole new life. Some of them became entrepreneurs. This study focused on Chinese new immigrant entrepreneurs in New England area, and analyzed what factors have ...

Zhou, Joe Xiongwei

2008-01-01

392

Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis  

E-print Network

Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

Shu, Jian-Jun

2014-01-01

393

Two computational approaches for creating Chinese painting  

E-print Network

In this thesis two computational approaches for creating Chinese painting are developed. The first approach uses an expressive paint tool that enables anyone to paint 2D Chinese paintings in real-time. The realistic rendering of paint strokes...

Chan, Ching

2012-06-07

394

Iconicity of simple Chinese characters.  

PubMed

The iconicity of a Chinese character, or the degree to which it looks like the concept that it represents, has been suggested as affecting the learning and processing of the character. However, previous studies have not provided good empirical information on the iconicity of specific characters. To fill this gap, 40 U.S. adults with no knowledge of Chinese were given an English word or short phrase together with two Chinese characters and were asked which character matched the meaning of the English word. The right and wrong answers had the same number of strokes, and different wrong answers were used for different participants. We examined all 213 simple-structure Chinese characters that occur in textbooks for elementary school children. The overall percentage of correct responses was 53.6%, slightly but significantly higher than would be expected by chance. Using a false discovery rate procedure, we found that 15 of the 213 characters were guessed at a level higher than chance. The proportion of correct responses to each character, which can be taken as an indicator of its degree of iconicity, should be useful to researchers studying Chinese character reading and writing. The full database, showing the proportion of correct guesses and other psycholinguistic variables for each character, can be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental . PMID:22399244

Xiao, Wen; Treiman, Rebecca

2012-12-01

395

Ultrasonographic fetal well-being assessment, neonatal and postpartum findings of cloned pregnancies in cattle: A preliminary study on 10 fetuses and calves  

PubMed Central

Cloned pregnancies in cattle are considered to be at risk due to a variety of fetal or adnexal abnormalities. Data is lacking concerning the possibility of transabdominal ultrasonography in the assessment of these high risk pregnancies. Transabdominal ultrasonography has rarely been reported in the assessment of bovine cloned pregnancies. Ten Holstein heifers carrying 8-month-old cloned fetuses were assessed by transabdominal ultrasonographic examination during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Fetal heart rates (FHR), movements, adnexal appearance, and placentome size were recorded. The outcome of the pregnancies was also noted and potential indicators of fetal demise recorded. Survival rate 1 week after birth was 30%. Mean FHR was 113 beats per minute (range: 92 to 128 bpm) during the fetal ultrasonography. No correlation between FHR and fetal activity was found. Fetal hyperactivity and imaging of hyperechoic particles in both allantoic and amniotic fluids were possible signs of fetal distress. Despite the size of the fetus and the deep bovine abdomen, fetal transabdominal ultrasonography can be performed in cattle. This preliminary study points to the necessity of further larger studies for defining normal and abnormal findings in bovine late pregnancy. PMID:19436477

Buczinski, Sébastien; Fecteau, Gilles; Comeau, Geneviève; Boysen, Soren R.; Lefebvre, Réjean C.; Smith, Lawrence C.

2009-01-01

396

Targeting Cattle-Borne Zoonoses and Cattle Pathogens Using a Novel Trypanosomatid-Based Delivery System  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis. PMID:22046137

Mott, G. Adam; Wilson, Raymond; Fernando, Anuruddika; Robinson, Ailie; MacGregor, Paula; Kennedy, David; Schaap, Dick; Matthews, Jacqueline B.; Matthews, Keith R.

2011-01-01

397

Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.  

PubMed

Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

2014-11-01

398

Mannheimia haemolytica A1-induced fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis in a naturally-infected Holstein-Friesian calf  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mannheimia haemolytica is an opportunistic bacterium that is widely recognized among the bovine respiratory disease complex as the predominant pathogen associated with pleuropneumonia in cattle. Among the characterized M. haemolytica serotypes, A1 is the major cause of severe pulmonary lesions in ca...

399

Dual Coding Theory and Chinese: Recall of Concrete and Abstract Sentences in Chinese-English Bilinguals  

E-print Network

DUAL CODING THEORY AND CHINESE: RECALL OF CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT SENTENCES IN CHINESE-ENGLISH BILINGUALS A Dissertation by TSUEI-FEN CHEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... in Chinese-English Bilinguals Copyright August 2010 Tsuei-Fen Chen DUAL CODING THEORY AND CHINESE: RECALL OF CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT SENTENCES IN CHINESE-ENGLISH BILINGUALS A Dissertation by TSUEI-FEN CHEN Submitted to the Office...

Chen, Tsuei-Fen

2010-10-12

400

Understanding the high profitability of Chinese banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The big Chinese state-owned banks came as winners out of the global financial crisis. According to the Banker ranking, Chinese banks led the global banking profitability ranking through the years from 2008 to 2010 and contributed one fifth of global banking profits in 2010. The Chinese banking sector, which was deemed as wholly insolvent ten years ago, was reborn like

Horst Löchel; Helena Xiang Li

2011-01-01

401

International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education (ICCLE) represents a significant initiative by the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) to organise and describe objectives and content for a standardised Chinese language curriculum around the world. It aims to provide a reference curriculum for planning, a framework…

Scrimgeour, Andrew; Wilson, Philip

2009-01-01

402

Chinese Number Words, Culture, and Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…

Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala

2010-01-01

403

Animals of the Chinese Zodiac. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chinese lunar calendar dates back to the second millennium BC. Unlike the western calendar, which numbers the years progressively from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Chinese calendar is cyclical. Each cycle is made up of 12 years--after the 12th year, the cycle is repeated. The Chinese associate each year of a 12-year cycle with an animal, and…

2002

404

Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

2011-01-01

405

The Emerging Chinese economy & its Global Impacts  

E-print Network

in China: How it could affect the Chinese economy and the World Dr. Le-Yin Zhang, UCL 12 MarchThe Emerging Chinese economy & its Global Impacts Department of Geography & IDS University of Sussex 5 February: The Emerging Chinese Economy & its Global Impacts + Decoding the Harmonious Socialist

Sussex, University of

406

Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

Lee, Cher Leng

2012-01-01

407

Subsyllabic Unit Preference in Young Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reported three experiments investigating subsyllabic unit preference in young Chinese children. In Experiment 1, a Chinese sound similarity judgment task was designed in which 48 pair of stimuli varied in terms of shared subsyllabic units (i.e., vowel, body, rime, onset-coda). Grade 1 Chinese-speaking monolingual children judged pairs with…

Wang, Min; Cheng, Chenxi

2008-01-01

408

Chinese-English Machine Translation System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report documents results of a two-year R&D effort directed at the completion of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation of S&T literature. The system, designated QUINCE, accepts Chinese input exactly as printed, with no pre-editing of any kind, and produces English output on experimental basis. Coding of Chinese text via…

Wang, William S-Y; And Others

409

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GLOSSARY FOR CHINESE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 937 TITLES IN THE FIELD OF CHINESE GRAMMAR FROM AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND JOURNALS. THE AUTHORS AND TITLES ARE LISTED IN PINYIN SYSTEM TRANSCRIPTION WITH A TRANSLATION OF THE TITLE IN ENGLISH AND WITH CHINESE LOGOGRAPHS AFTER THE SOURCE CITATION FOR THOSE ENTRIES ORGINALLY WRITTEN IN CHINESE. ENTRIES ARE…

LIU, LILLIAN; WANG, W. S-Y

410

Flash Cards: Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…

Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

411

Symmetry in Chinese Arts Yip Lixia, Sabrina  

E-print Network

scales and the structure of the music itself. #12;5 Symmetry in Chinese Literature Symmetry has Cuttings · Symmetry in Chinese buildings · Chinese Music · Conclusion · Bibliography #12;3 Introduction influence in the arts is pervasive. In music, we hear the symmetry of exposition and recapitulation

Aslaksen, Helmer

412

Managerial Success Factors: A Chinese Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…

Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin

2007-01-01

413

Chinese Checker Versions of the Pythagorean Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we give Chinese checker versions of the Pythagorean Theorem, and show that the converses of these Chinese checker versions of the Pythagorean Theorem are not true. Finally, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a triangle in the Chinese checker plane to have a right angle. Mathematics Subject Classification: 51K05, 51K99

Rustem Kaya

414

Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

415

COMMENTS ON OPTIMIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDING SCHEMES  

E-print Network

REVIEW COMMENTS ON OPTIMIZATION OF CATTLE BREEDING SCHEMES : BEEF BREEDS FOR SUCKLING HERDS (1 zootechniques, I. N. R. A., 78350 Jouy en Josas (France) SUMMARY Optimization of selection of beef breeds objectives. We have distinguished between 3 types of populations : specialized beef breed herds, hardy herds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Tsetse control in cattle from pyrethroid footbaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Burkina Faso, we assessed the efficacy of treating cattle with a footbath containing aqueous formulations of pyrethroids to control two tsetse-fly species, Glossina tachinoides Westwood, 1850 (Diptera, Glossinidae) and Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949. Legs were the most targeted parts of the body for tsetse-fly blood meals: 81% (95% CI: 73, 89) for G. tachinoides and 88% (81, 95)

J. Bouyer; F. Stachurski; I. Kaboré; B. Bauer; R. Lancelot

2007-01-01

417

Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed using a sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) and software designed for salt mapping (ESAP, Riverside, CA). The combination al...

418

Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...

419

Cattle site preference in northeastern Oregon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Free-roaming beef cattle naturally gravitate to locations on the landscape that provide them food, water, shelter, and security. In mountainous environments, animals are also sensitive to land physiography, generally preferring level terrain near established trails and travel routes. Our study was...

420

Antiluteolytic strategies to improve fertility in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

During early pregnancy, a “critical period” may be defined between Days 15 and 17. Embryonic mortality associated with this period causes significant economic losses to the cattle industry. During this period, the endometrium will follow a default program to release luteolytic pulses of PGF2?, unless the conceptus sends appropriate antiluteolytic signals to block PGF2?, production. Maintenance of pregnancy is dependent

M. Binelli; W. W. Thatcher; R. Mattos; P. S. Baruselli

2001-01-01

421

Novel Orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011  

PubMed Central

In 2011, an unidentified disease in cattle was reported in Germany and the Netherlands. Clinical signs included fever, decreased milk production, and diarrhea. Metagenomic analysis identified a novel orthobunyavirus, which subsequently was isolated from blood of affected animals. Surveillance was initiated to test malformed newborn animals in the affected region. PMID:22376991

Hoffmann, Bernd; Scheuch, Matthias; Höper, Dirk; Jungblut, Ralf; Holsteg, Mark; Schirrmeier, Horst; Eschbaumer, Michael; Goller, Katja V.; Wernike, Kerstin; Fischer, Melina; Breithaupt, Angele; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

422

Dwarfism in beef cattle: Diagnosis and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractThe hereditary disease known as dwarfism (bovine achondroplasia) has been recognized in several breeds of cattle for many years. These include the Dexter (Crew, 1923), Shorthorn (Stonaker and Tom, 1944; Baker et al, 1950), Jersey (Mead et al., 1946), Friesian (Berger and Innes, 1948), Hereford (Johnson et al., 1950), Aberdeen Angus (Baker et at, 1951; Bovard and Priode, 1965) and

A. N. Bruere

1969-01-01

423

Pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GnRH-induced ovulation of a small dominant follicle reduced pregnancy success in cattle. A reciprocal embryo transfer study was conducted at Fort Keogh from 2007 to 2009 in order to differentiate between follicular effects on pregnancy mediated through oocyte quality or uterine environment. Estrou...

424

CONVERSION OF CATTLE MANURE INTO USEFUL PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the project was to design and build a pyrolysis apparatus for cattle manure and to investigate the potential uses of the pyrolysis by-products. A pyrolysis machine of semi-continuous feed capabilities was designed and built. Various conditions of pyrolysis treatmen...

425

Effective Cattle Management in Riparian Zones  

E-print Network

Effective Cattle Management in Riparian Zones: A Field Survey and Literature Review Montana BlM Riparian Technical Bulletin No. 3 USDI Bureau of Land Management, Montana State Office Prepared by Robert C. Ehrhart and Paul L. Hansen Riparian and Wetland Research Program Montana Forest

426

Cattle Trampling of Simulated Bull Trout Redds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listing of the bull trout Salvelinus confluentus under the Endangered Species Act and concerns over livestock stepping on bull trout redds have led many U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service managers to remove livestock from bull trout spawning areas once spawning begins. While this policy has extensive ramifications for livestock producers who graze their cattle on national forests, a lack

Jim S. Gregory; Bart L. Gamett

2009-01-01

427

Production of cattle lacking prion protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrP**C, such as PrP**BSE in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrP**CJD in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Disruption of PrP**C expression in mice, a species that does not na...

428

Precision Management of Cattle Feedlot Waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle feedlot nutrient waste management is a topic of increasing environmental, sociological, and regulatory concern. This report investigates methods adapted from the management of saline soils for application to feedlot surface management as well operation of a vegetative treatment area (VTA) ut...

429

NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PRION DISEASES OF CATTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), chronic wasting disease (CWD), and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals. Scrapie naturally affects sheep and goats, CWD elk and deer, TME ranched mink and BSE cattle. BSE is the only a...

430

Nutrient Utilisation in Growing Cambodian Cattle  

E-print Network

Nutrition and Management Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala 2012 and feed conservation techniques Abstract Natural forages are an important part of the diet of cattle the fermentation quality of the resulting silage compared with a rice straw with rumen supplement diet. Rumen p

431

EFFECTS OF ACCOUNTING FOR HEAT STRESS ON GENETIC EVALUATION OF US HOLSTEINS FOR MILK BY A TEST DAY MODEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of heat stress on genotype by environment interaction among different regions of the United States. The national data consisted of 55.5 million first parity test-day (TD) milk yield records on 5.8 million Holstein cows. Subsets of the national dat...

432

ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR FIRST LACTATION TEST-DAY YIELDS OF HOLSTEIN COWS WITH A CUBIC SPLINE MODEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to estimate genetic parameters for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields with a cubic spline model. A total of 196,687 test-day records in the first 305-d of 38,172 first lactation Holstein cows that calved between 1994 and early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Ma...

433

IMPACT OF ALFALFA HAY NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER CONCENTRATION AND DIGESTIBILITY ON HOLSTEIN DAIRY COW PERFORMANCE: I. LACTATION PERFORMANCE - ST. PAUL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty multiparous lactating Holstein cows were fed one of four diets containing alfalfa hays selected for low (L) and high (H) neutral detergent fiber concentration (NDF) and low (l) or high (h) 48-h in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) within NDF levels. Diets, fed as a TMR, contained 14.8% alfalfa ...

434

The Effects of Metaphylaxis and Milk Replacer Additives on Health and Growth of Neonatal Holstein Bull Calves.  

E-print Network

A study evaluating effects of metaphylaxis and milk replacer additives on health and growth was conducted with Holstein bull calves (n = 52; mean BW = 42.28 +- 3 kg) < 7 d of age. Calves were randomly assigned to receive tilmicosin phosphate (TIL...

Holloway, Kenton S.

2010-07-14

435

GENETIC CORRELATION ESTIMATES AMONG BODY CONDITION SCORE, DAIRY FORM, DAYS OPEN AND PRODUCTION TRAITS FOR US HOLSTEINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations among body condition score (BCS), dairy form (DF), days open (DO), ME milk, ME fat and ME protein production. Body condition score and DF obtained from the Holstein Association USA Inc. were merged with DO and production data from th...

436

Effect of Composition of Colostrum and Transition Milk from Holstein Heifers on Specificity Rates of Antibiotic Residue Tests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum and transition milk composition on speci- ficity rates of antibiotic residue screening tests. Milk from 25 primigravid Holstein heifers was collected from either first, second, or third milking (colostrum) and from either fifth, sixth, or seventh milking (transition milk) following parturition. Milk sampled was visibly normal and heifers

S. M. Andrew

2001-01-01

437

Treatment of presumptive idiopathic immune-mediated anemia in a Holstein heifer, using blood transfusions and corticotherapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract An idiopathic immune-mediated anemia was diagnosed in a 1-year-old Holstein heifer. The diagnostic procedures, blood transfusions, use of an immunosuppressive dosage of dexamethasone, and favorable outcome are described, and idiopathic immune-mediated anemia in mammals is briefly reviewed. PMID:16898112

Lallemand, Michaël; Fecteau, Gilles; Desnoyer, Michel; Francoz, David; Gaucher, Marie-Lou

2006-01-01

438

Effect of Zinc Deficiency and Restricted Feeding from Two to Five Months of Age on Reproduction in Holstein Bulls1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive performance in Holstein bulls that had been severely zinc-deficient from 8 to 21 wk was compared with that of bulls fed a zinc-adequate diet both ad libitum and in amounts restricted to some- what less than those consumed by the de- ficient animals. The deficiency per se caused a reduction in testicular size at 21 wk, but the difference

W. J. Pitts; W. J. Miller; O. T. Fosgate; J. D. Morton; C. M. Clifton

1966-01-01

439

Effects of dietary cation–anion difference on calcium, nitrogen metabolism and relative blood traits of dry Holstein cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three multiparous nonpregnant dry Holstein cows were designated in a 3×3 Latin square experiment to investigate the effects of dietary DCAD level on Ca, N metabolism, and relative blood traits. DCAD levels of the three experimental diets were 224 (HDCAD), 151 (MDCAD), and ?265 (LDCAD) mequiv.\\/kg DM respectively. The results indicated that deposition efficiencies of absorbed Ca and digestible N

F. C. Li; H. F. Liu; Z. H. Wang

2008-01-01

440

INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR TYPE-1 RECEPTOR DOWN-REGULATION ASSOCIATED WITH DWARFISM IN HOLSTEIN CALVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A phenotypic presentation of dwarfism in calves was studied to define perturbations in the endocrine interactions that impact normal growth. Three red and white German Holstein dwarf calves exhibiting retarded but proportionate growth were studied in addition to four phenotypically normal half-sibli...

441

Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

442

Estimates of genetic parameters for Holstein cows for test-day yield traits with a random regression cubic spline model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic parameters were estimated with REML for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields and SCS with a random regression cubic spline model. Test-day records of Holstein cows that calved from 1994 through early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems in Raleigh, North Car...

443

Living with the enemy or uninvited guests: functional genomics approaches to investigating host resistance or tolerance traits to a protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata, in cattle.  

PubMed

Many breeds of cattle with long histories of living in areas of endemic disease have evolved mechanisms that enable them to co-exist with specific pathogens. Understanding the genes that control tolerance and resistance could provide new strategies to improve the health and welfare of livestock. Around one sixth of the world cattle population is estimated to be at risk from one of the most debilitating tick-borne diseases of cattle, caused by the protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata. The parasite mainly infects cells of the myeloid lineage which are also the main producers of inflammatory cytokines. If an infectious or inflammatory insult is sufficiently great, inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages enter the circulation and induce an acute phase proteins (APP) response. The Bos taurus Holstein breed produces higher and more prolonged levels of inflammatory cytokine induced APP than the Bos indicus Sahiwal breed in response to experimental infection with T. annulata. The Sahiwal exhibits significantly less pathology and survives infection, unlike the Holstein breed. Therefore, we hypothesised that the causal genes were likely to be expressed in macrophages and control the production of inflammatory cytokines. A functional genomics approach revealed that the transcriptome profile of the B. taurus macrophages was more associated with an inflammatory programme than the B. indicus macrophages. In particular the most differentially expressed gene was a member of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family. These are mainly expressed on myeloid cell surfaces and control inflammatory responses. Other differentially expressed genes included bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (BoLA) class II genes, particularly BoLA DQ, and transforming growth factor (TGF)B2. We are now exploring whether sequence and functional differences in the bovine SIRP family may underlie the resistance or tolerance to T. annulata between the breeds. Potentially, our research may also have more general implications for the control of inflammatory processes against other pathogens. Genes controlling the balance between pathology and protection may determine how livestock can survive in the face of infectious onslaught. Next generation sequencing and RNAi methodologies for livestock species will bring new opportunities to link diversity at the genome level to functional differences in health traits in livestock species. PMID:22482839

Glass, Elizabeth J; Crutchley, Sarah; Jensen, Kirsty

2012-07-15

444

The Glory of Chinese Printing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit from the Printing Museum of China examines the development, types, techniques, and artistry of Chinese printing with an emphasis on materials from ancient times. Different sections discuss the advent of standardized characters; character-carving skills; paper, writing brushes, and ink; the invention of printing; printing in the Mid- and Late-Tang, the Yuan, Ming, Song, Qing and Five dynasties; and more. Sections feature graphic elements with explanatory text (captions are provided in Chinese and English). The exhibit is supported by the Hong Kong Printers Association, the Graphic Arts Association of Hong Kong, and the Hong Kong Printing Industry Workers Union.

445

Agro-economic impact of cattle cloning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to review the economic and social implications of cloned cattle, their products, and their offspring as related to production agriculture. Cloning technology in cattle has several applications outside of traditional production agriculture. These applications can include bio-medical applications, such as the production of pharmaceuticals in the blood or milk of transgenic cattle. Cloning may also be useful in the production of research models. These models may or may not include genetic modifications. Uses in agriculture include many applications of the technology. These include making genetic copies of elite seed stock and prize winning show cattle. Other purposes may range from "insurance" to making copies of cattle that have sentimental value, similar to cloning of pets. Increased selection opportunities available with cloning may provide for improvement in genetic gain. The ultimate goal of cloning has often been envisioned as a system for producing quantity and uniformity of the perfect dairy cow. However, only if heritability were 100%, would clone mates have complete uniformity. Changes in the environment may have significant impact on the productivity and longevity of the resulting clones. Changes in consumer preferences and economic input costs may all change the definition of the perfect cow. The cost of producing such animals via cloning must be economically feasible to meet the intended applications. Present inefficiencies limit cloning opportunities to highly valued animals. Improvements are necessary to move the applications toward commercial application. Cloning has additional obstacles to conquer. Social and regulatory acceptance of cloning is paramount to its utilization in production agriculture. Regulatory acceptance will need to address the animal, its products, and its offspring. In summary, cloning is another tool in the animal biotechnology toolbox, which includes artificial insemination, sexing of semen, embryo sexing and in vitro fertilization. While it will not replace any of the above mentioned, its degree of utilization will depend on both improvement in efficiency as well as social and regulatory acceptance. PMID:15268796

Faber, D C; Ferre, L B; Metzger, J; Robl, J M; Kasinathan, P

2004-01-01

446

Promoter Variant-Dependent mRNA Expression of the MEF2A in Longissimus Dorsi Muscle in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) gene encodes a member of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) protein family that is involved in vertebrate skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle development and differentiation during myogenesis. According to recent studies, MEF2 genes might be major regulators of postnatal skeletal muscle growth; thus, they are considered to be important, novel candidates for muscle development and body growth in farm animals. The aim of the present study was to search for polymorphisms in the bovine MEF2A gene and analyze their effect on the MEF2A mRNA expression level in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Polish Holstein-Fresian cattle. In total, 4094?bp of the whole coding sequence and the promoter region of MEF2A were re-sequenced in 30 animals, resulting in the detection of 6 novel variants as well as one previously reported SNP. Three linked mutations in the promoter region (-780T/G, g.-768T/G, and g.-222A/G) and only two genotypes were identified in two Polish breeds (TTA/TTA and TTA/GGG). Three SNPs in the coding region [g.1599G/A (421aa), g.1626G/A (429aa), and g.1641G/A (434aa)] appeared to be silent substitutions and segregated as two intragene haplotypes: GGG and AAA. Expression analysis showed that the mutations in the promoter region are highly associated with the MEF2A mRNA level in the longissimus dorsi muscle of bulls carrying two different genotypes. The higher MEF2A mRNA level was estimated in the muscle of bulls carrying the TTA/TTA (p<0.01) genotype as compared with those with TTA/GGG. The results obtained suggest that the nucleotide sequence mutation in MEF2A might be useful marker for body growth traits in cattle. PMID:22320864

Starzy?ski, Rafa? Rados?aw; Wici?ska, Krystyna; Flisikowski, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

447

The Chinese Brand: Soft Power with Chinese Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Chinese Communist Party?s violent reaction to the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, the People?s Republic of China experienced a diplomatic nightmare through international condemnation and economic sanctions. In the decades since the Tiananmen massacre, the CCP has focused on promoting itself as a ?responsible? power to the international community through a variety of soft power initiatives. Soft power, a

Nicholas Young

2011-01-01

448

Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

2005-01-01

449

9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not...Test-eligible cattle which are not brucellosis exposed and are from herds not...

2010-01-01

450

9 CFR 72.9 - Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.9 Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS...

2011-01-01

451

9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating...

2010-01-01

452

9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating...

2011-01-01

453

9 CFR 72.9 - Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS inspector...ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.9 Interstate movements of cattle; inspection and certification by APHIS...

2010-01-01

454

9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when...

2011-01-01

455

9 CFR 309.8 - Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized... ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.8 Cattle affected with anasarca and generalized edema. All cattle found on ante-mortem inspection to...

2011-01-01

456

9 CFR 311.8 - Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or...CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.8 Cattle carcasses affected with anasarca or generalized edema. (a) Carcasses of cattle found on post-mortem...

2011-01-01

457

9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

2010-01-01

458

9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment...

2011-01-01

459

9 CFR 311.23 - Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. 311.23 Section 311.23 Animals...Tapeworm cysts (cysticercus bovis) in cattle. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, carcasses of cattle affected with lesions of cysticercus...

2011-01-01

460

9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when...