Sample records for chinese holstein cattle

  1. Genetic variations of HSBP1 gene and its effect on thermal performance traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Wang, YanJiu; Huang, Jingmin; Xia, Peng; He, JianBin; Wang, Changfa; Ju, Zhihua; Li, Jianbin; Li, Rongling; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Qiuling

    2013-06-01

    Molecular chaperones have been understood to be preferentially transcribed to prevent perturbations in response to various stresses. In this study, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g.324G>C, g.589C>T and g.651C>G in Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1) gene were found and genotyped in 930 Chinese Holstein cattle. The results indicated that only g.589C>T polymorphism locus met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Pair linkage disequilibrium analysis and haplotype construction of HSBP1 gene were performed using SHEsis software. Seven haplotypes were constructed and fourteen haplotype combinations were found. Association analysis showed that H2H2 haplotype combination was advantageous for thermo tolerance breeding in Chinese Holstein. The cows with H2H2 haplotype combination have lower decrease rate of milk yield than those with H2H3 haplotype combination (P < 0.05) and lower potassium content in erythrocytes (PCE) than those with H2H5 (P < 0.05), H4H4 (P < 0.05) and H4H5 (P < 0.01) haplotype combination. The association between SNP and thermo tolerance traits showed that PCE of cows with GG genotype was lower than those with CG genotype at g.651C>G locus (P < 0.01). Pair linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that the three loci were at a strong disequilibrium state. So we presumed that the effect of H2H2 haplotype combination on thermo tolerance traits major due to the SNP of g.651C>G. PMID:23572288

  2. Effect of polymorphisms in the CSN3 (?-casein) gene on milk production traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Alim, M A; Dong, T; Xie, Y; Wu, X P; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shengli; Sun, D X

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and milk composition and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. Six SNPs were identified in the ?-casein gene using pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNPs were genotyped by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods from 507 individuals. Out of six, we identified three non-synonymous SNPs (g.10888T>C, g.10924C>A and g.10944A>G) that changed in the protein product. SIFT (Sorting_Intolerant_From_Tolerant) prediction score (0.01) demonstrated that protein changed Isoleucine > Threonine (g.10888T>C) will affect the phenotypes. Significant associations between identified SNPs and three yield traits (milk, protein and fat) and two composition traits (fat and protein percentages) were found whereas it did not reach significance for fat percentage in haplotypes association. Importantly, the significant SNPs in our results showed a large proportion of the phenotypic variation of milk protein yield and concentration. Our results suggest that CSN3 is an important candidate gene that influences milk production traits, and identified polymorphisms and haplotypes could be used as a genetic marker in programs of marker-assisted selection for the genetic improvement of milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:25091943

  3. Altered Molecular Expression of the TLR4/NF-?B Signaling Pathway in Mammary Tissue of Chinese Holstein Cattle with Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Huang, Shuai; Tang, Juan; Yu, Pan; Wang, Genlin

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated activation of the nuclear transcription factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway by mastitis initiates expression of genes associated with inflammation and the innate immune response. In this study, the profile of mastitis-induced differential gene expression in the mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated by Gene-Chip microarray and bioinformatics. The microarray results revealed that 79 genes associated with the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway were differentially expressed. Of these genes, 19 were up-regulated and 29 were down-regulated in mastitis tissue compared to normal, healthy tissue. Statistical analysis of transcript and protein level expression changes indicated that 10 genes, namely TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and IL-10, were up-regulated, while, CD14, TNF-?, MD-2, IL-?, NF-?B, and IL-12 were significantly down-regulated in mastitis tissue in comparison with normal tissue. Analyses using bioinformatics database resources, such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and the Gene Ontology Consortium (GO) for term enrichment analysis, suggested that these differently expressed genes implicate different regulatory pathways for immune function in the mammary gland. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence for better understanding the differential expression and mechanisms of the TLR4 /NF-?B signaling pathway in Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis. PMID:25706977

  4. Relationship of Somatic Cell Count with Milk Yield and Composition in Chinese Holstein Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-zhong GUO; Xiao-lin LIU; A-juan XU; Zhi XIA

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of somatic cell count (SCC) with milk yield, fat and protein percentage, fat and protein yield using analysis of variance and correlation analysis in Chinese Holstein population. The 10 524 test-day records of 568 Chinese Holstein Cattle were obtained from 2 commercial herds in Xi'an region of China during February

  5. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 1 and 9 genes and their association with tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Song, Yapan; Riaz, Hasan; Yang, Hongzhen; Hua, Guohua; Guo, Aizhen; Yang, Liguo

    2012-06-30

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that play a pivotal role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Studies have shown that TLR variants play roles in various human infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the functional genetic variations at positions C632T, G1409A, A1475C, G1550A and G1596A in TLR1 and at A2700G and A3156G in TLR9 confer susceptibility or resistance to bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Genotyping of the TLR1 and TLR9 gene polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in 586 Chinese Holstein cows (154 infected with bTB, 432 non-infected). The frequencies of the GH and HH genotypes at TLR1-G1596A differed significantly between bTB-infected and non-infected animals [p=0.001 for both GH and HH; GH odds ratio (OR)=2.43 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.47-4.03); and HH OR=1.49 95% CI (0.85-2.62)]. There was a trend toward an increased relative risk of tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the CD genotype at the TLR1-A1475C locus [p=0.056, OR=1.59 95% CI (0.98-2.58)]. The present study suggests that variants in the TLR1 gene are associated with susceptibility to bTB, whereas no significant association can be inferred from the polymorphisms in the TLR9 gene. PMID:22572235

  6. [Polymorphism of POU1F1 gene and PRL gene and their combined effects on milk performance traits in Chinese Holstein cattle].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Chang-Fa; Yang, Gui-Wen; Huang, Jin-Ming; Li, Qiu-Ling; Zhong, Ji-Feng

    2011-12-01

    Three novel SNPs were found by DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and CRS-PCR methods were used for genotyping in 979 Chinese Holstein cattle. One SNP, G1178C, was identified in exon 2 of POU1F1 gene. Two novel SNPs, A906G and A1134G, were identified in 5'-flanking regulatory region (5'-UTR) of PRL gene. The association between polymorphisms of the two genes and milk performance traits were analyzed with PROC GLM of SAS. The results showed that GC genotype at 1178 locus of POU1F1 gene was advantageous for milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk fat yield. AG genotype at 906 locus was advantageous for milk yield. There was no significant difference between 1134 locus and milk performance traits of 5'-UTR of PRL gene. Analysis of genotype combination effect on milk production traits showed that the effect of combined genotype was not simple sum of single genotypes and the effects of gene pyramiding seemed to be more important in molecular breeding. PMID:22207382

  7. Association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in JAK2 and STAT5B genes and their differential mRNA expression with mastitis susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Usman, T; Wang, Y; Liu, C; Wang, X; Zhang, Y; Yu, Y

    2015-08-01

    The JAK-STAT pathway plays a key role in mediating immune responses. The genetic effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in JAK2 and STAT5B were investigated for serum cytokines, mastitis indicators and productions traits in a population of 468 Chinese Holstein cattle. Pooled DNA sequencing revealed one SNP (BTA8:g.39645396A>G) in JAK2 and two SNPs (BTA19:g.43673888A>G and BTA19:g.43660093T>C) in STAT5B. A fixed effect model considering the effects of SNPs, parity, herd, season and year of calving was used by way of the general linear model procedure of sas. Genotype frequencies of these SNPs in the population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). A novel SNP (g.39645396A>G) in JAK2 was predicted to change the amino acid from lysine to asparagine and was significantly associated with the somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS), whereas g.43673888A>G in STAT5B was significantly associated with SCC, SCS and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (P < 0.05). The dominant effect of g.39645396A>G in JAK2 was significant for SCS, and its additive effect was significant for SCC, whereas the dominant effect of g.43673888A>G in STAT5B was significant for SCS and IL-4 (P < 0.05). The combination of g.39645396A>G in JAK2 and g.43673888A>G in STAT5B showed a significant effect on SCC, SCS, IL-4 and TNF-? (P < 0.05). As for mRNA expression analysis, the AA genotype g.39645396A>G and GG genotype g.43673888A>G indicated higher mRNA expression level and were significantly different from other genotypes (P < 0.05). The results imply that JAK2 and STAT5B genes could be useful candidate genes, and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis development. PMID:26154111

  8. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  9. Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada Utilizing MACE Proofs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States are collaborating to develop and integrate genomic evaluations into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. There are substantially more genotyped Holstein bulls with MACE proofs than with domestic Canadian proofs in Canada. The use of...

  10. Association between a polymorphism of the ?-lactalbumin gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Dong, C H

    2013-01-01

    The traits particularly important for milk production include milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, and the somatic cell score. Alpha-lactalbumin (?-LA) is an important whey protein of cow milk, and is also present in the milk of many other mammalian species. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of the ?-LA gene and their relationship to milk production traits (milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, and somatic cell score) in Chinese Holstein cows. The goal of this study was to contribute further molecular genetic information related to dairy cattle, to determine the molecular markers that are most closely linked with milk production traits, and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of economically relevant traits in cows. Fluorescence-based conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing, and ligation detection reaction techniques were used to analyze genetic variations of the ?-LA gene (5'-UTR, exons 1, 2, 3, 4, and 3'-UTR) in 923 Chinese Holstein cows. One novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), ?-LA2516, was identified in exon 4 of the ?-LA gene. Allele frequencies were as follows: T 0.674, C 0.326. Association analysis revealed that ?-LA2516 was not associated with milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, or somatic cell score (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that the SNP ?-LA2516 in the ?-LA gene likely does not have potential as a molecular marker for milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:24065678

  11. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  12. Expression of Lipolytic Genes in the Adipose Tissue of Pregnant and Lactating Holstein Dairy Cattle1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Sumner; J. P. McNamara

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ex- pression of ?-adrenergic receptors, hormone-sensitive lipase, and its cofactor perilipin in adipose tissue, and their relationships to rates of lipolysis and body fat use in Holstein dairy cattle during late pregnancy and lactation. Twenty Holstein dairy cattle were grouped by lactation number (1, 2, and 3 or more), and subcuta-

  13. Forty Years Of Artificial Selection In U.S. Holstein Cattle Had Genome-wide Signatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of 40 years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle were identified by comparing allele frequencies and extended haplotype homozygosity in a Holstein resource population composed of a contemporary group, a group born in 1975-1985, and a group unselected since 1964. Results ...

  14. A Post-GWAS Replication Study Confirming the PTK2 Gene Associated with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Jie; Wei, Julong; Xu, Jingen; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated that two SNPs (ARS-BFGL-NGS-33248, UA-IFASA-9288) within the protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) gene were significantly associated with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein dairy cattle. To further validate if the statistical evidence provided in GWAS were true-positive findings, a replication study was performed herein through genotype-phenotype associations. The two tested SNPs were found to show significant associations with milk production traits, which confirmed the associations observed in the original study. Specifically, SNPs lying in the PTK2 gene were also detected by sequencing 14 unrelated sires in Chinese Holsteins and a total of thirty-three novel SNPs were identified. Thirteen out of these identified SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with milk production traits in an independent resource population. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, twelve SNPs were statistically significant for more than two milk production traits. Analyses of pairwise D’ measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between all SNPs were also explored. Two haplotype blocks were inferred and the association study at haplotype level revealed similar effects on milk production traits. In addition, the RNA expression analyses revealed that a non-synonymous coding SNP (g.4061098T>G) was involved in the regulation of gene expression. Thus the findings presented here provide strong evidence for associations of PTK2 variants with dairy production traits and may be applied in Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:24386238

  15. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96?h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  16. Initial analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cattle selected for high or low feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cattle selected for high or low feed efficiency. We detected 443 candidate CNV regions, w...

  17. Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

  18. Resistibility to Theileria sergenti infection in Holstein and Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Ishida, M; Yamanaka, H

    1995-12-01

    To clarify the resistibility against Theileria sergenti infection in Holstein and Japanese Black cattle under controlled conditions in artificial environmental chambers, those breeds of calves were infected with T. sergenti by infestation with the same number of infected ticks. No apparent differences between the two breeds were observed in the feeding numbers and feeding periods of ticks infested. The level and duration of parasitemia were clearly less and shorter in Japanese Black than those in Holstein calves. With progress of parasitemia, packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte number decreased in both breeds. However, the minimum PCV and erythrocyte number recorded in Japanese Black were higher than those in Holstein calves. These results suggest that the Japanese Black shows solider resistance to T. sergenti infection than the Holstein breed does under experimentally controlled condition without external factors. PMID:8720037

  19. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

  20. The effects of manger shades and manger sprinklers on heat-stressed lactating Holstein dairy cattle in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Fourdraine, Windi Anne

    1991-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF MANGER SHADES AND MANGER SPRINKLERS ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN DAIRY CATTLE IN TEXAS A Thesis by WINDI ANNE FOURDRAINE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Dairy Science THE EFFECTS OF MANGER SHADES AND MANGER SPRINKLERS ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN DAIRY CATTLE IN TEXAS A Thesis by WINDI ANNE FOURDRAINE Approved as to style...

  1. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. PMID:24996281

  2. Linkage disequilibrium and persistence of phase in Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    de Roos, A P W; Hayes, B J; Spelman, R J; Goddard, M E

    2008-07-01

    When a genetic marker and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) are in linkage disequilibrium (LD) in one population, they may not be in LD in another population or their LD phase may be reversed. The objectives of this study were to compare the extent of LD and the persistence of LD phase across multiple cattle populations. LD measures r and r(2) were calculated for syntenic marker pairs using genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were genotyped in Dutch and Australian Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls, Australian Angus cattle, and New Zealand Friesian and Jersey cows. Average r(2) was approximately 0.35, 0.25, 0.22, 0.14, and 0.06 at marker distances 10, 20, 40, 100, and 1000 kb, respectively, which indicates that genomic selection within cattle breeds with r(2) >or= 0.20 between adjacent markers would require approximately 50,000 SNPs. The correlation of r values between populations for the same marker pairs was close to 1 for pairs of very close markers (<10 kb) and decreased with increasing marker distance and the extent of divergence between the populations. To find markers that are in LD with QTL across diverged breeds, such as HF, Jersey, and Angus, would require approximately 300,000 markers. PMID:18622038

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype effects associated with somatic cell score in German Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To better understand the genetic determination of udder health, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a population of 2354 German Holstein bulls for which daughter yield deviations (DYD) for somatic cell score (SCS) were available. For this study, we used genetic information of 44 576 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 725 inferred haplotype blocks. Results When accounting for the sub-structure of the analyzed population, 16 SNPs and 10 haplotypes in six genomic regions were significant at the Bonferroni threshold of P???1.14?×?10-6. The size of the identified regions ranged from 0.05 to 5.62 Mb. Genomic regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 18 and 19 coincided with known QTL affecting SCS, while additional genomic regions were found on chromosomes 13 and X. Of particular interest is the region on chromosome 6 between 85 and 88 Mb, where QTL for mastitis traits and significant SNPs for SCS in different Holstein populations coincide with our results. In all identified regions, except for the region on chromosome X, significant SNPs were present in significant haplotypes. The minor alleles of identified SNPs on chromosomes 18 and 19, and the major alleles of SNPs on chromosomes 6 and X were favorable for a lower SCS. Differences in somatic cell count (SCC) between alternative SNP alleles reached 14 000 cells/mL. Conclusions The results support the polygenic nature of the genetic determination of SCS, confirm the importance of previously reported QTL, and provide evidence for the segregation of additional QTL for SCS in Holstein cattle. The small size of the regions identified here will facilitate the search for causal genetic variations that affect gene functions. PMID:24898131

  4. An investigation of the heritability and interrelationships of production traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle and an empirical test of its implications 

    E-print Network

    Presnal, Billy Charles

    1959-01-01

    LFBRARY A 4 M G ALLEGE OF TEXAS AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HERITABILITY AND INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF PRODUCTION TRAiTS OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY CATTLE AND AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF ITS IMPLICATIONS A Thesis By BILLY CHARLES PRESNAL Submitted... OF PRODUCTI ON TRAITS OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY CATTLE AND AN EtlPIRICAL TEST OF ITS IMPLICATIONS A Thesis By BILLY CHARLES PRESNAL Approved as to style and oontent by: Chairman of Committee Head of' Department or Student Advisor January, 195$ TASLE 'F...

  5. Analysis of copy loss and gain variations in Holstein cattle autosomes using BeadChip SNPs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Copy number variation (CNV) has been recently identified in human and other mammalian genomes, and there is a growing awareness of CNV's potential as a major source for heritable variation in complex traits. Genomic selection is a newly developed tool based on the estimation of breeding values for quantitative traits through the use of genome-wide genotyping of SNPs. Over 30,000 Holstein bulls have been genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, which includes 54,001 SNPs (~SNP/50,000 bp), some of which fall within CNV regions. Results We used the BeadChip data obtained for 912 Israeli bulls to investigate the effects of CNV on SNP calls. For each of the SNPs, we estimated the frequencies of occurrence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and of gain, based either on deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or on signal intensity (SI) using the PennCNV "detect" option. Correlations between LOH/CNV frequencies predicted by the two methods were low (up to r = 0.08). Nevertheless, 418 locations displayed significantly high frequencies by both methods. Efficiency of designating large genomic clusters of olfactory receptors as CNVs was 29%. Frequency values for copy loss were distinguishable in non-autosomal regions, indicating misplacement of a region in the current BTA7 map. Analysis of BTA18 placed major quantitative trait loci affecting net merit in the US Holstein population in regions rich in segmental duplications and CNVs. Enrichment of transporters in CNV loci suggested their potential effect on milk-production traits. Conclusions Expansion of HWE and PennCNV analyses allowed estimating LOH/CNV frequencies, and combining the two methods yielded more sensitive detection of inherited CNVs and better estimation of their possible effects on cattle genetics. Although this approach was more effective than methodologies previously applied in cattle, it has severe limitations. Thus the number of CNVs reported here for the Holstein breed may represent as little as one-tenth of inherited common structural variation. PMID:21114805

  6. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined. PMID:25501190

  7. Linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6 in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle

    PubMed Central

    Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Tammen, Imke; Cavanagh, Julie AL; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman W

    2006-01-01

    We analysed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle by genotyping a sample of 45 bulls for 15 closely-spaced microsatellites on two regions of BTA6 reported to carry important QTL for dairy traits. The order and distance of markers were based on the USDA-MARC linkage map. Frequencies of haplotypes were estimated using the E-M approach and a more computationally-intensive Bayesian approach as implemented in PHASE. LD was then estimated using the Hedrick multiallelic extension of Lewontin normalised coefficient D'. Estimates of D' from the two approaches were in close agreement (r = 0.91). The mean estimates of D' for marker pairs with an inter-marker distance of less than 5 cM (n = 13) are 0.57 and 0.51, and for distances more than 20 cM (n = 44) are 0.29 and 0.17, estimated from the E-M and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The Malecot model was fitted for the exponential decline of LD with map distance between markers. The swept radii (the distance at which LD has declined to 1/e (~37%) of its initial value) are 11.6 and 13.7 cM for the above two methods, respectively. The Malecot model was also fitted using map distance in Mb from the bovine integrated map (bovine location database, bLDB) in addition to cM from the MARC map. Overall, the results indicate a high level of LD on chromosome 6 in Australian dairy cattle. PMID:16954040

  8. Risk factors and milk yield losses associated with lameness in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Onyiro, O M; Offer, J; Brotherstone, S

    2008-08-01

    Weekly locomotion scores on a scale of 1 to 5 were used to investigate the relationship between cattle lameness, management systems and the impact of lameness on milk production. The data were 14026 locomotion scores from 248 Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were managed in two groups, XE (high-concentrate feed and housed indoors all year) and XM (low-concentrate feed and outdoors in summer). Analysis was performed using residual maximum likelihood. Results indicated that the most significant variables affecting locomotion were time of year when the animal was locomotion scored and management group. Cows scored during February and August had increased locomotion problems. Cows in the more intensively managed group had significantly poorer locomotion compared with those in the more extensive group. Older animals were more susceptible to lameness than heifers. Body weight, body condition score and days in milk (DIM) also accounted for significant variation in locomotion score. Poor locomotion was associated with a significant reduction in the milk yield of later lactation cows. There was a significant difference in the shape of the lactation curve depending on whether or not the cow was lame during lactation. Average persistency was greater for the group of cows never lame throughout lactation compared with those lame before 60 DIM. PMID:22443736

  9. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for lactation persistency traits in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Harder, B; Bennewitz, J; Reinsch, N; Thaller, G; Thomsen, H; Kühn, C; Schwerin, M; Erhardt, G; Förster, M; Reinhardt, F; Kalm, E

    2006-04-01

    A whole genome scan to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for persistency of milk yield (PMY), persistency of fat yield (PFY), persistency of protein yield (PPY) and persistency of milk energy yield (PEY) was performed in a granddaughter design in the German Holstein dairy cattle population. The analysis included 16 paternal half-sib families with a total of 872 bulls. The analysis was carried out for the first lactation and for the first three lactations combined using univariate weighted multimarker regression. Controlling the false discovery rate across traits and data sets at a level of 0.15 and treating the four persistency traits as different traits revealed 27 significant QTL. A total of 12 chromosomes showed significant QTL effects on a chromosomewise basis. The DGAT1 effect was highly significant for PPY and protein yield. A haplotype analysis using results of previous studies of the same design revealed a co-segregation of various persistency QTL and QTL affecting health traits like dystocia and stillbirth and functional traits like non-return rate 90 and somatic cell score. PMID:16533362

  10. Genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity for milk and milk quality in Walloon Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, J; Bastin, C; Gengler, N; Mulder, H A

    2013-09-01

    Animals that are robust to environmental changes are desirable in the current dairy industry. Genetic differences in micro-environmental sensitivity can be studied through heterogeneity of residual variance between animals. However, residual variance between animals is usually assumed to be homogeneous in traditional genetic evaluations. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic heterogeneity of residual variance by estimating variance components in residual variance for milk yield, somatic cell score, contents in milk (g/dL) of 2 groups of milk fatty acids (i.e., saturated and unsaturated fatty acids), and the content in milk of one individual fatty acid (i.e., oleic acid, C18:1 cis-9), for first-parity Holstein cows in the Walloon Region of Belgium. A total of 146,027 test-day records from 26,887 cows in 747 herds were available. All cows had at least 3 records and a known sire. These sires had at least 10 cows with records and each herd × test-day had at least 5 cows. The 5 traits were analyzed separately based on fixed lactation curve and random regression test-day models for the mean. Estimation of variance components was performed by running iteratively expectation maximization-REML algorithm by the implementation of double hierarchical generalized linear models. Based on fixed lactation curve test-day mean models, heritability for residual variances ranged between 1.01×10(-3) and 4.17×10(-3) for all traits. The genetic standard deviation in residual variance (i.e., approximately the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance) ranged between 0.12 and 0.17. Therefore, some genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity existed in the Walloon Holstein dairy cattle for the 5 studied traits. The standard deviations due to herd × test-day and permanent environment in residual variance ranged between 0.36 and 0.45 for herd × test-day effect and between 0.55 and 0.97 for permanent environmental effect. Therefore, nongenetic effects also contributed substantially to micro-environmental sensitivity. Addition of random regressions to the mean model did not reduce heterogeneity in residual variance and that genetic heterogeneity of residual variance was not simply an effect of an incomplete mean model. PMID:23871372

  11. Eight SNVs in NF-?B pathway genes and their different performances between subclinical mastitis and mixed Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Han, Yujiao; Chen, Yu; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Yu; He, Hua; Chen, Si; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-25

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway proteins are key players in controlling both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the information on NF-?B pathway genes is very limited in mastitis resistance and milk production of Chinese Holstein cows. In this study, we examine the association of the NF-?B pathway gene variants with milk quality traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in Chinese Holstein cows. Eight single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified within the bovine NF-?B pathway genes, using DNA pooled sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and forced PCR-RFLP methods. These SNVs include SNV1: g. 536 C>T (exon 10 of Rel), SNV2: g. 94 G>A (exon 20 of p100), SNV3: g. 43 T>C (intron 6 of p105), SNV4: g. 2397 T>G (intron 9 of p105), SNV5: g. 382 G>C (intron 1 of I?B?), SNV6: g. 21 C>T (exon 5 of I?B?), SNV7: g. 272 G>A (intron 6 of I?B?), and SNV8: g. 18 C>T (intron 10 of I?B?). The association analysis in mixed Chinese Holstein population showed that SNV1 was significantly or highly significantly associated (P<0.01 and P<0.05) with fat rate, protein rate and SCS. Furthermore, the SNV1-CC (wild genotype) determined serine showed the significantly lower SCS and higher milk production traits compared to TT and TC. SNV2 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with SCS; SNV3 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate; and SNV4 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate and SCS. In 199 subclinical mastitis Chinese Holstein cows, the statistical results absolutely differed from the mixed Chinese Holstein individuals. Splice-site prediction by SplicePort showed that single nucleotide difference at eight SNVs results in the acceptor score and donor score changing obviously that may lead to alternative splicing. In brief, SNV1, SNV2, SNV3 and SNV4 could be useful genetic markers for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein cows. Furthermore, whether these SNVs lead to alternative splicing need further research. PMID:25447913

  12. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  13. Genome wide association study identifies 20 novel promising genes associated with milk fatty acid traits in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  14. Influence of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on milk fat percentage and fatty acid profiles in Romanian holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    T?b?ran, A; Balteanu, V A; Gal, E; Pusta, D; Mihaiu, R; Dan, S D; T?b?ran, A F; Mihaiu, M

    2015-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are considered the main sources of saturated fatty acids, which are a valuable source of nutrients in the human diet. Fat composition can be adjusted through guided nutrition of dairy animals but also through selective breeding. Recently, a dinucleotide substitution located in the exon 8 of the gene coding for acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), that alters the amino acid sequence from a lysine to an alanine (p.Lys232Ala) in the mature protein, was shown to have a strong effect on milk fat content in some cattle breeds. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to study the occurrence of the DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism in Romanian Holstein cattle and Romanian Buffalo breeds and to further investigate its possible influence on fat percentage and fatty acid profiles. The results obtained in this study show that in Romanian Holstein cattle the K allele is associated with increased fat percentage and higher levels of C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. The ratio of saturated fatty acids versus unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) was also higher in KK homozygous individuals, whereas the fractions of C14:0, unsaturated C18 decreased. The DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism revealed a high genetic variance for fat percentage, unsaturated C18, C16:0, and SFA/UFA. Although the effect of this polymorphism was not so evident for short chain fatty acids such as C4:0-C8:0, it was significant for C14:0 fatty acids. We concluded that selective breeding of carriers of the A allele in Romanian Holsteins can contribute to improvement in unsaturated fatty acids content of milk. However, in buffalo, the lack of the A allele makes selection inapplicable because only the K allele, associated with higher saturated fatty acids contents in milk, was identified. PMID:25380462

  15. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  16. Association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CXCR1 gene with the milk performance traits of Chinese native cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Wang, H M; Ju, Z H; Zhang, Y; Huang, J M; Qi, C; Hou, M H; An, L G; Zhong, J F; Wang, C F

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is an economically devastating disease affecting the dairy industry. Dairy cows with mastitis give reduced milk yield and produce milk that is unfit for consumption. The chemokine receptor CXCR1 is an excellent prospective genetic marker for mastitis resistance in cattle because it regulates neutrophil migration, killing, and survival during infection. We detected 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CXCR1 gene in Chinese native cattle and analyzed their associations with milk traits. Screening for genetic variations in CXCR1 among 648 Chinese Holstein, Luxi Yellow, and Bohai Black cattle by created restriction site polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, and DNA sequencing revealed 4 new SNPs with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.676 to 0.821, 0.706 to 0.803, 0.647 to 0.824, and 0.558 to 0.581. All four CXCR1 gene SNPs were located in exon II. Two SNPs, c.337A>G and c.365C>T, were nonsynonymous mutations [ATC (Ile) > GTC (Val) and GCC (Ala) > GTC (Val)], whereas two, c.291C>T and c.333C>T, were synonymous mutations [TTC (Gly) > TTT (Gly) and GGC (Phe) > GGT (Phe)]. Statistical analyses revealed the significant association of c.337A>G and c.365C>T with the somatic cell score, which suggests the possible role of these SNPs in the host response against mastitis. Our data suggest that combined genotypes CCAC/CCGC, CCAC/CTAT, and CCAT/CTAT (lowest somatic cell scores); CTAC/CTAT (highest protein rate); CCAC/CTGC (highest fat rate); and CCAT/CTAT (highest 305-day milk yield) can be used as possible candidates for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:23979897

  17. Optimum replacement and insemination policies for Holstein cattle in the Southeaster region of Brazil: The effect of selling animals for production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Cardoso; J. R. Noguieira; Arendonk van J. A. M

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic programming was used to determine op- timal replacement and insemination policies for Holstein-Friesian cattle in the southeastern region of Brazil. Optimal insemination and replacement deci- sions were determined for two disposal alternatives: selling all cows exclusively for slaughter ( A ) or sell- ing the cows either for slaughter or to other farmers for production (B). Disposal alternative B

  18. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TO ASSESS THE VALIDITY OF BONNIER'S EQUATION FOR ESTIMATING THE FREQUENCY OF MONOZYGOUS TWINNING IN A POPULATION OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holstein cattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...

  19. Accuracy of imputation to whole-genome sequence data in Holstein Friesian cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of whole-genome sequence data can lead to higher accuracy in genome-wide association studies and genomic predictions. However, to benefit from whole-genome sequence data, a large dataset of sequenced individuals is needed. Imputation from SNP panels, such as the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, to whole-genome sequence data is an attractive and less expensive approach to obtain whole-genome sequence genotypes for a large number of individuals than sequencing all individuals. Our objective was to investigate accuracy of imputation from lower density SNP panels to whole-genome sequence data in a typical dataset for cattle. Methods Whole-genome sequence data of chromosome 1 (1737 471 SNPs) for 114 Holstein Friesian bulls were used. Beagle software was used for imputation from the BovineSNP50 (3132 SNPs) and BovineHD (40 492 SNPs) beadchips. Accuracy was calculated as the correlation between observed and imputed genotypes and assessed by five-fold cross-validation. Three scenarios S40, S60 and S80 with respectively 40%, 60%, and 80% of the individuals as reference individuals were investigated. Results Mean accuracies of imputation per SNP from the BovineHD panel to sequence data and from the BovineSNP50 panel to sequence data for scenarios S40 and S80 ranged from 0.77 to 0.83 and from 0.37 to 0.46, respectively. Stepwise imputation from the BovineSNP50 to BovineHD panel and then to sequence data for scenario S40 improved accuracy per SNP to 0.65 but it varied considerably between SNPs. Conclusions Accuracy of imputation to whole-genome sequence data was generally high for imputation from the BovineHD beadchip, but was low from the BovineSNP50 beadchip. Stepwise imputation from the BovineSNP50 to the BovineHD beadchip and then to sequence data substantially improved accuracy of imputation. SNPs with a low minor allele frequency were more difficult to impute correctly and the reliability of imputation varied more. Linkage disequilibrium between an imputed SNP and the SNP on the lower density panel, minor allele frequency of the imputed SNP and size of the reference group affected imputation reliability. PMID:25022768

  20. DEFICIENCY OF URIDINE MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE: INHERITANCE AND BODY MEASUREMENTS 1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger D. Shanks; A. Bragg; James L. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples and body measurements were obtained from daughters of seven Holstein bulls previously shown to have a partial deficiency of uridine monophosphate (UMP) synthase and presumed to be heterozygous for the condition. Erythrocyte UMP synthase for 85 daughters showed a bimodal distribution with 42 having half the normal activity of 43 others. Furthermore, each bull had 50% of his

  1. Association Between Milk and Blood Polymorphism Types and Lactation Traits of Holstein Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Brum; W. H. Rausch; H. C. Hines; T. M. Ludwick

    1968-01-01

    Relationships between polymorphism type at nine genetic loci and first lactation production of Holstein cows were investi- gated. The total data included 3,107 lacta- tions, which represented 18 years, 126 sires, and 8 herds. The analyses included adjustments for herd, sire, year, and sea- son effects. Significant milk and fat yield differences were indicated for the F blood group system.

  2. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P < 0.05) were developed for prediction of N (g/d) and OM (kg/d) excretion in feces and urine. The present data were also used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve national inventories of manure N output and greenhouse gas emissions and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies for young Holstein cattle. PMID:24879759

  3. Effect of Artificial Selection on Runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B.; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Crooker, Brian A.; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S.

    2013-01-01

    The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins. PMID:24348915

  4. Genetic Polymorphisms of Blood and Milk and Reproduction in Holstein Cattle[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Hargrove; C. A. Kiddy; C. W. Young; A. G. Hunter; G. W. Trimberger; R. E. Mather

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations of blood,and milk protein polymorphisms,with,reproductive,per- formance,were,examined,in more,than 32,000 services in 15,000 service periods of 6,000 cows and 700 service sires in Holsteins. Seven blood groups, one serum protein, and four milk proteins were analyzed,for,relation,to,reproductive traits including,conception,rate and,days open. Associations between,polymorphic systems,and,reproductive,traits in 15 of 112 analyses,were,significant. The,S blood system appeared most influential, having,statistical significance,in five of ten traits.

  5. PRNP haplotype associated with classical BSE incidence in European Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the pro...

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Susceptibility to Infection by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H.; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

  7. Using a family-based structure to detect the effects of genomic inbreeding on embryo viability in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Coburn, A D; Wilson, R D

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that some of the decline in reproductive ability in dairy cattle has been caused by embryonic death. The current study compared expected genomic inbreeding from sire-dam mating pairs to genomic inbreeding from live progeny in an attempt to determine how embryonic inbreeding may affect fertility. A total of 11,484 Holstein cattle with 43,485 SNP markers and pedigree information were available for analysis. A total of 412 sire-dam-progeny trios in which all animals had reliable genotypes were discovered. After removal of trios because of parentage errors, 374 remained for analysis. Additionally, a total of 3,031 animals comprising 3,906 genotyped full-sibling pairs were available for comparison. Expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated by predicting homozygosity independently per SNP (FPHE) in sire-dam mating pairs and by simulating progeny using phased haplotype information (FROHE and FPHE). Actual genomic inbreeding measures were calculated using the percent homozygosity of all SNP (FPH) and using runs of homozygosity (FROH). Average FPHE values (62.8±0.78%) were slightly lower than FPH (63.1±1.12%), when considering each SNP independently. After phasing haplotypes, FPHE (62.5±0.83%) was again slightly lower than FPH (62.7±1.16%), and FROHE (3.46±1.54%) was slightly lower than FROH (3.53±2.17%). Results suggest increases in expected genomic inbreeding do not explain a large effect on embryo viability at average levels of expected inbreeding. Higher variation in FROH values was present with sire-dam mating pairs exhibiting high FROHE, which may suggest high levels of genomic inbreeding are required for a noticeable effect on overall embryo viability. Genomic inbreeding between full siblings was also compared with moderate correlations (0.47-0.52) present. Overall, expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated, but results did not suggest a large effect of expected inbreeding on embryo viability. PMID:25958282

  8. Short communication: Principal components and factor analytic models for test-day milk yield in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Rosa, G J M; Cardoso, V L; Machado, P F; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-04-01

    A total of 46,089 individual monthly test-day (TD) milk yields (10 test-days), from 7,331 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. A standard multivariate analysis (MV), reduced rank analyses fitting the first 2, 3, and 4 genetic principal components (PC2, PC3, PC4), and analyses that fitted a factor analytic structure considering 2, 3, and 4 factors (FAS2, FAS3, FAS4), were carried out. The models included the random animal genetic effect and fixed effects of the contemporary groups (herd-year-month of test-day), age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect). The residual covariance matrix was assumed to have full rank. Moreover, 2 random regression models were applied. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.11 to 0.24. The genetic correlation estimates between TD obtained with the PC2 model were higher than those obtained with the MV model, especially on adjacent test-days at the end of lactation close to unity. The results indicate that for the data considered in this study, only 2 principal components are required to summarize the bulk of genetic variation among the 10 traits. PMID:22459860

  9. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

    PubMed Central

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Bongiorni, Silvia; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics. PMID:22253986

  10. Comparison of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins of Chianina and Holstein cattle breed milk samples through proteomics methods.

    PubMed

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Bongiorni, Silvia; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine

    2009-02-01

    Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk fat globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics. PMID:22253986

  11. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: comparing the Dutch, French, and US germplasm collections.

    PubMed

    Danchin-Burge, C; Hiemstra, S J; Blackburn, H

    2011-08-01

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands, and the United States to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in each country by using pedigree data. Measures of genetic diversity such as probability of gene origin inbreeding and kinship were calculated. The cryobanks have captured substantial amounts of genetic diversity for the HF compared with the current populations. A substantial part of the US, French, and Dutch collections seems to be genetically similar. On the other hand, the US collection in particular represents an interesting reservoir of HF genes of the past. Gene banks can play an important role in conserving genetic diversity within livestock breeds over time, and may support industry in the future when needed. PMID:21787945

  12. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross Holstein × Jersey cows and their Holstein contemporaries 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Bjelland; K. A. Weigel; P. C. Hoffman; N. M. Esser; W. K. Coblentz; T. J. Halbach

    2011-01-01

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals had Holstein dams; lactating dams were mated to unproven Holstein sires to produce purebred (control)

  13. Association of Polymorphisms of Leptin Gene with Body Weight and Body Sizes Indexes in Chinese Indigenous Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongying Yang; Hong Chen; Xinzhuang Wang; Zhihuan Tian; Ligang Tang; Zhengfeng Zhang; Chuzhao Lei; Liangzhi Zhang; Yimin Wang

    2007-01-01

    PCR-SSCP was used to analyze the polymorphism of leptin gene in 539 samples of six cattle breeds, namely Nanyang (NY), Qinchuan (QC), Jiaxianred (JXR), Xizhen (XZ), Luxi (LX), and Holstein cow (HOL) breeds. PCR products with a 330 bp were amplified and sequenced. The results showed that the frequencies of alleles A\\/B of NY, QC, JXR, XZ, LX, and HOL

  14. Association of polymorphisms of leptin gene with body weight and body sizes indexes in Chinese indigenous cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongying; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinzhuang; Tian, Zhihuan; Tang, Ligang; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhang, Liangzhi; Wang, Yimin

    2007-05-01

    PCR-SSCP was used to analyze the polymorphism of leptin gene in 539 samples of six cattle breeds, namely Nanyang (NY), Qinchuan (QC), Jiaxianred (JXR), Xizhen (XZ), Luxi (LX), and Holstein cow (HOL) breeds. PCR products with a 330 bp were amplified and sequenced. The results showed that the frequencies of alleles A/B of NY, QC, JXR, XZ, LX, and HOL breeds were 0.558/0.442, 0.492/0.508, 0.571/0.429, 0.658/0.342, 0.591/0.409, and 0.615/0.385, respectively. The association of variations of leptin gene with growth traits in NY, QC, JXR breeds was analyzed. Some indexes of the individuals with genotype BB were higher than that with genotype AA and AB in NY breed, such as the indexes of body length, heart length, body weight, hucklebone width, body height, and average day gain. The height at hip cross of the individuals with genotype BB was higher than that of those with genotype AA and AB in QC breed (P < 0.05). So leptin gene may be one of the candidate genes for growth traits with height at hip cross, but not for body weight, heart length, and body length trait. However, the height at hip cross and hucklebone width of the individuals with genotype AB and BB were higher than that of those with genotype AA in JXR breed (P < 0.05), but the difference was not statistically significant in body weight and body sizes (body height, body length, and heart length). And the polymorphisms in leptin gene were caused by G --> T transversion at the 66th bp position, A --> C transversion at the 67th bp position and G --> T transversion at the 299th bp position. These results may be applied to marker-assisted selection of Chinese cattle breeds. PMID:17560525

  15. Fatty acid profile of back fat and intramuscular fat from yak and Chinese yellow cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) and Chinese Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus) are important human dietary components in Northwest China and throughout the world. Fatty acid (FA) composition is an important factor in the definition of meat quality due to its association with meat odor, flavor, and nutritiona...

  16. An SduI polymorphism at intron 20 of the Chinese Holstein cow STAT4 gene and its effect on milk performance traits.

    PubMed

    Song, X M; Zhang, L; Jiang, J F; Shi, F X; Jiang, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) genes are responsive to a wide range of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones, and thus control important biological processes. In humans, STAT4 mutations have been identified as genetic markers for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and primary Sjögren's syndrome, whereas little research has been conducted on bovine STAT4 mutations and their potential effects. Herein, 585 Chinese Holstein cows were used to investigate STAT4 mutations and their effects on milk performance traits. One haplotype block, containing g.95879G>A, g.96013G>C, was identified in intron 20 of the bovine STAT4 gene by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with milk yield at 305 days (P < 0.05), and with protein percentage (P < 0.05). Chinese Holstein cows with the haplotype GGGG had higher milk yields at 305 days and lower protein percentages. These results suggest that the 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms of STAT4 could be used as genetic markers for milk performance traits in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:23765966

  17. Polymorphisms in lipogenic genes and milk fatty acid composition in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nafikov, Rafael A; Schoonmaker, Jon P; Korn, Kathleen T; Noack, Kristin; Garrick, Dorian J; Koehler, Kenneth J; Minick-Bormann, Jennifer; Reecy, James M; Spurlock, Diane E; Beitz, Donald C

    2014-12-01

    Changing bovine milk fatty acid (FA) composition through selection can decrease saturated FA (SFA) consumption, improve human health and provide a means for manipulating processing properties of milk. Our study determined associations between milk FA composition and genes from triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway. The GC dinucleotide allele of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1:g.10433-10434AA >GC was associated with lower palmitic acid (16:0) concentration but higher oleic (18:1 cis-9), linoleic (18:2 cis-9, cis-12) acid concentrations, and elongation index. Accordingly, the GC dinucleotide allele was associated with lower milk fat percentage and SFA concentrations but higher monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) concentrations. The glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial haplotypes were associated with higher myristoleic acid (14:1 cis-9) concentration and C14 desaturation index. The 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 haplotypes were associated with higher PUFA and linoleic acid concentrations. The results of this study provide information for developing genetic tools to modify milk FA composition in dairy cattle. PMID:25304740

  18. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  19. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  20. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S.; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  1. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene.

    PubMed

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  2. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. PMID:24952782

  3. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  4. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  5. TNP1 Functional SNPs in bta-miR-532 and bta-miR-204 Target Sites Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Chunhong; Zhang, Wei; Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-06-01

    Transition nuclear proteins (TNPs), major proteins found in the chromatin of condensing spermatids, have been implicated in spermatogenesis and male fertility. In this study, DNA samples were collected from 404 Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced to identify genetic variants in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TNP1 and to investigate genetic variations in the TNP1 gene and their common haplotypes. This study was also conducted to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and expression levels by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, bioinformatics analyses, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and fluorescence assay. Results showed that one new single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g. 528 G>A, ss1388116558) and one reported SNP (g. 442 A>G, rs110469441) were found in the 3'-UTR of the TNP1 gene. Bioinformatics analysis results revealed that both loci were located in bta-miR-532-binding and bta-miR-204-binding regions, respectively. Association studies revealed that bulls with H1H1 (AGAG) and H1H3 (AGGG) haplotype combinations exhibited a lower deformity rate than those with other haplotype combinations (P < 0.05). The qPCR results showed that the relative mRNA expression of TNP1 in bulls with H1H1 haplotype combination was significantly higher than that in bulls with H4H4 haplotype combination (P < 0.05). MicroRNA qPCR results suggested that bta-miR-532 expression was downregulated by 5-fold in adult bull testicular tissues compared with that in fetal bull testicular tissues; by contrast, bta-miR-204 expression was downregulated by 1.6-fold. Luciferase assay results also indicated that TNP1 expression was directly targeted by bta-miR-532 and bta-miR-204 in murine Leydig tumor cell lines. These results provide the first indication of g. 442 A>G-mediated and g. 528 G>A-mediated translational suppression in which SNPs altered the binding of bta-miR-204 and bta-miR-532 to the 3'-UTR of TNP1; the mediated translational suppression could be involved in the regulation of TNP1 expression and may influence the morphological characteristics of Chinese Holstein bull sperm. We propose that SNPs on the TNP1 3'-UTR may help select semen quality trait in Chinese Holstein bulls in the dairy industry. PMID:25904013

  6. ZBTB38 gene polymorphism associated with body measurement traits in native Chinese cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Xin, Yaping; Tian, Wanqiang; Li, Linqiang; Wang, Hongcheng

    2013-01-25

    Body measurement traits, influenced by genes and environmental factors, play numerous important roles in the value assessment of productivity and economy. In this study, we investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms of the zinc finger and BTB domain containing 38 gene (ZBTB38) and body measurement traits in native Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 423 individuals of 8 different cattle subpopulations, 9 novel polymorphisms were identified for genotyping within 647 bp region of exon 1 of ZBTB38. Linkage disequilibrium and association analysis revealed that two coding exon polymorphisms (2323 G>A and 2325 C>T polymorphisms), missense mutations valine GTC(T) to isoleucine ATC(T), were associated with body length (BL), withers height (WH) and rump length (RL). Furthermore, the analysis of 2323 G>A and 2325 C>T SNP markers shows that there are significant effects on the BL (P=0.0488), WH (P=0.0044) and RL (P=0.0314) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that the ZBTB38 gene is among the target genes for body measurement traits in bovine breeding, and provide data for establishment of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type. PMID:23137638

  7. Genetic effects on coat colour in cattle: dilution of eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments in an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Wiener, Pamela; Williams, John L

    2007-01-01

    Background In cattle, the gene coding for the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) is known to be the main regulator of the switch between the two coat colour pigments: eumelanin (black pigment) and phaeomelanin (red pigment). Some breeds, such as Charolais and Simmental, exhibit a lightening of the original pigment over the whole body. The dilution mutation in Charolais (Dc) is responsible for the white coat colour of this breed. Using an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population which includes animals with both pigment backgrounds, we present a linkage mapping study of the Charolais dilution locus. Results A Charolais × Holstein crossbred population was investigated for genetic effects on coat colour dilution. Three different traits representing the dilution of the phaeomelanin, eumelanin, and non-pigment-specific dilution were defined. Highly significant genome-wide associations were detected on chromosome 5 for the three traits analysed in the marker interval [ETH10-DIK5248]. The SILV gene was examined as the strongest positional and functional candidate gene. A previously reported non-synonymous mutation in exon 1 of this gene, SILV c.64A>G, was associated with the coat colour dilution phenotype in this resource population. Although some discrepancies were identified between this mutation and the dilution phenotype, no convincing recombination events were found between the SILV c.64A>G mutation and the Dc locus. Further analysis identified a region on chromosome 28 influencing the variation in pigment intensity for a given coat colour category. Conclusion The present study has identified a region on bovine chromosome 5 that harbours the major locus responsible for the dilution of the eumelanin and phaeomelanin seen in Charolais crossbred cattle. In this study, no convincing evidence was found to exclude SILV c.64A>G as the causative mutation for the Charolais dilution phenotype, although other genetic effects may influence the coat colour variation in the population studied. A region on chromosome 28 influences the intensity of pigment within coat colour categories, and therefore may include a modifier of the Dc locus. A candidate gene for this effect, LYST, was identified. PMID:17705851

  8. Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for BSE-resistance polymorphisms from healthy U.S. holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. Two regulatory region polymorphisms in the bovine prion gene are associated with resistance to classical BSE disease: a 23 bp region in the promoter that contains a binding si...

  9. A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

  10. Optimal replacement and insemination policies for Holstein cattle in the southeastern region of Brazil: the effect of selling animals for production.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, V L; Nogueira, J R; Van Arendonk, J A

    1999-07-01

    Dynamic programming was used to determine optimal replacement and insemination policies for Holstein-Friesian cattle in the southeastern region of Brazil. Optimal insemination and replacement decisions were determined for two disposal alternatives: selling all cows exclusively for slaughter (A) or selling the cows either for slaughter or to other farmers for production (B). Disposal alternative B reflects the common practice among dairy farmers to sell some of their cows to other farmers at a higher price than the carcass price. In the model, cows were described in terms of lactation number, stage of lactation, calving interval, and milk produced during present and previous lactation. For disposal alternative A, the optimal average herd life was 54.9 mo, corresponding to annual replacement and voluntary culling rates of 21.8 and 4.1%, respectively. For disposal alternative B, the optimal average herd life was 44.0 mo, which corresponded to annual replacement and voluntary culling rates of 27.3 and 10.0%, respectively. In this case, from the total of voluntarily culled cows, 70% were sold to other farmers for production. Sensitivity analyses showed that changes in the disposal value of cows and replacement heifer prices strongly influenced the optimal insemination and replacement policy. PMID:10416160

  11. Comparison of heritabilities of dairy traits in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle from genomic and pedigree data and implications for genomic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Haile-Mariam, M; Nieuwhof, G J; Beard, K T; Konstatinov, K V; Hayes, B J

    2013-02-01

    The reliability of genomic evaluations depends on the proportion of genetic variation explained by the DNA markers. In this study, we have estimated the proportion of variance in daughter trait deviations (DTDs) of dairy bulls explained by 45 993 genome wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for 29 traits in Australian Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. We compare these proportions to the proportion of variance in DTDs explained by the additive relationship matrix derived from the pedigree, as well as the sum of variance explained by both pedigree and marker information when these were fitted simultaneously. The proportion of genetic variance in DTDs relative to the total genetic variance (the total genetic variance explained by the genomic relationships and pedigree relationships when both were fitted simultaneously) varied from 32% for fertility to approximately 80% for milk yield traits. When fitting genomic and pedigree relationships simultaneously, the variance unexplained (i.e. the residual variance) in DTDs of the total variance for most traits was reduced compared to fitting either individually, suggesting that there is not complete overlap between the effects. The proportion of genetic variance accounted by the genomic relationships can be used to modify the blending equations used to calculate genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) from direct genomic breeding value (DGV) and parent average. Our results, from a validation population of young dairy bulls with DTD, suggest that this modification can improve the reliability of GEBV by up to 5%. PMID:23317062

  12. Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak

    2012-08-01

    The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration. PMID:21862090

  13. Polymorphisms in genes in the SREBP1 signalling pathway and SCD are associated with milk fatty acid composition in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Gonzalo; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Castillo, Alejandro R; Bauman, Dale E; German, Bruce J; Medrano, Juan F

    2012-02-01

    Genes in the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) pathway play a central role in regulation of milk fat synthesis, especially the de-novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids. SCD, a SREBP-responsive gene, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the mammary gland. In the present study, we discovered SNP in candidate genes associated with this signalling pathway and SCD to identify genetic markers that can be used for genetic and metabolically directed selection in cattle. We resequenced six candidate genes in the SREBP1 pathway (SREBP1, SCAP, INSIG1, INSIG2, MBTPS1, MBTPS2) and two genes for SCD (SCD1 and SCD5) and discovered 47 Tag SNP that were used in a marker-trait association study. Milk and blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in their 1st or 2nd parity at 100-150 days of lactation. Individual fatty acids from C4 to C20, saturated fatty acid (SFA) content, monounsaturated fatty acid content, polyunsaturated fatty acid content and desaturase indexes were measured and used to perform the asociation analysis. Polymorphisms in the SCD5 and INSIG2 genes were the most representative markers associated with SFA/unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) ratio in milk. The analysis of desaturation activity determined that markers in the SCD1 and SCD5 genes showed the most significant effects. DGAT1 K232A marker was included in the study to examine the effect of this marker on the variation of milk fatty acids in our Holstein population. The percentage of variance explained by DGAT1 in the analysis was only 6% of SFA/UFA ratio. Milk fat depression was observed in one of the dairy herds and in this particular dairy one SNP in the SREBP1 gene (rs41912290) accounted for 40% of the phenotypic variance. Our results provide detailed SNP information for key genes in the SREBP1 signalling pathway and SCD that can be used to change milk fat composition by marker-assisted breeding to meet consumer demands regarding human health, as well as furthering understanding of technological aspects of cows' milk. PMID:22114848

  14. Association between variants in the 5?-untranslated region of the bovine MC4R gene and two growth traits in Nanyang cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Lei Zhang; Yan-Hong Wang; Hong Chen; Xian-Yong Lan; Chu-Zhao Lei; Xing-Tang Fang

    2009-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is one of five G-protein-coupled receptors binding melanocortins that is implicated in the\\u000a control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Six cattle populations (n = 594), including four Chinese indigenous breeds, Chinese Holstein, and a meat type breed (Angus), were used to detect single\\u000a nucleotide polymorphisms in 5?-untranslated region of MC4R gene by means of PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing.

  15. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  16. Factors associated with early and mid-to-late fetal loss in lactating and nonlactating Holstein cattle in a hot climate1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. Jousan; M. Drost; P. J. Hansen

    The purpose of this study was to evalu- ate associations of lactation, somatic cell count score (SCCS) at breeding, milk yield, lactation number, inter- val from calving to breeding (days open), number of times inseminated, and season of breeding on fetal loss for lactating Holstein females (both first-parity and multiparous cows) and nonlactating Holstein heifers in a hot climate. Females

  17. Identification of vaccine candidate peptides in the NcSRS2 surface protein of Neospora caninum by using CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and gamma interferon-secreting T lymphocytes of infected holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Staska, Lauren M; Davies, Christopher J; Brown, Wendy C; McGuire, Travis C; Suarez, Carlos E; Park, Joo Youn; Mathison, Bruce A; Abbott, Jeffrey R; Baszler, Timothy V

    2005-03-01

    Previously, our laboratory showed that Holstein cattle experimentally infected with Neospora caninum develop parasite-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that lyse infected, autologous target cells through a perforin-granzyme pathway. To identify specific parasite antigens inducing bovine CTL and helper T-lymphocyte responses for vaccine development against bovine neosporosis, the tachyzoite major surface proteins NcSAG1 and NcSRS2 were targeted. In whole tachyzoite antigen-expanded bovine T-lymphocyte lines, recombinant NcSRS2 induced potent memory CD4+- and CD8+-T-lymphocyte activation, as indicated by proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion, while recombinant NcSAG1 induced a minimal memory response. Subsequently, T-lymphocyte epitope-bearing peptides of NcSRS2 were mapped by using overlapping peptides covering the entire NcSRS2 sequence. Four experimentally infected cattle with six different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II haplotypes were the source of immune cells used to identify NcSRS2 peptides presented by Holstein MHC haplotypes. NcSRS2 peptides were mapped by using IFN-gamma secretion by rNcSRS2-stimulated, short-term T-lymphocyte cell lines, IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay of rNcSRS2-stimulated effector cells. Four N. caninum-infected Holstein cattle developed NcSRS2 peptide-specific T lymphocytes detected ex vivo in peripheral blood by IFN-gamma ELISPOT and in vitro by measuring T-lymphocyte IFN-gamma production and cytotoxicity. An immunodominant region of NcSRS2 spanning amino acids 133 to 155 was recognized by CD4+ T lymphocytes from the four cattle. These findings support investigation of subunit N. caninum vaccines incorporating NcSRS2 gene sequences or peptides for induction of NcSRS2 peptide-specific CTL and IFN-gamma-secreting T lymphocytes in cattle with varied MHC genotypes. PMID:15731029

  18. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and liveweight in first-parity Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Zom, R; van Knegsel, A; Pryce, J E; De Haas, Y

    2014-09-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between traits across lactation difficult, let alone the possibility for selection of breeding animals. However, estimating national breeding values through cheaper and more easily measured correlated traits, such as milk yield and liveweight (LW), could be a first step to predict DMI. Combining DMI data across historical nutritional experiments might help to expand the data sets. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters for DMI, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield, and LW across the entire first lactation using a relatively large data set combining experimental data across the Netherlands. A total of 30,483 weekly records for DMI, 49,977 for FPCM yield, and 31,956 for LW were available from 2,283 Dutch Holstein-Friesian first-parity cows between 1990 and 2011. Heritabilities, covariance components, and genetic correlations were estimated using a multivariate random regression model. The model included an effect for year-season of calving, and polynomials for age of cow at calving and days in milk (DIM). The random effects were experimental treatment, year-month of measurement, and the additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual term. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using a third-order orthogonal polynomial. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.21 to 0.40 for DMI, from 0.20 to 0.43 for FPCM yield, and from 0.25 to 0.48 for LW across DIM. Genetic correlations between DMI at different DIM were relatively low during early and late lactation, compared with mid lactation. The genetic correlations between DMI and FPCM yield varied across DIM. This correlation was negative (up to -0.5) between FPCM yield in early lactation and DMI across the entire lactation, but highly positive (above 0.8) when both traits were in mid lactation. The correlation between DMI and LW was 0.6 during early lactation, but decreased to 0.4 during mid lactation. The highest correlations between FPCM yield and LW (0.3-0.5) were estimated during mid lactation. However, the genetic correlations between DMI and either FPCM yield or LW were not symmetric across DIM, and differed depending on which trait was measured first. The results of our study are useful to understand the genetic relationship of DMI, FPCM yield, and LW on specific days across lactation. PMID:25022692

  19. Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabutr, N; Chanpongsang, S; Suadsong, S

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33 degrees C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28 degrees C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher (P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T(3)) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T(4)) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland. PMID:18427839

  20. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-01-01

    The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH) is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp) fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the T- or C-containing loci (designated as pGL3-T and pGL3-C) were transiently transfected into MLTC-1 to test the effect of SNP on HIBADH expression. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the pGL3-T genotype exhibited 58% higher transcriptional activity than the pGL3-C genotype (P < 0.05). The bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the methylation pattern of the core promoter presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen in high-motility and low-motility bulls. The results demonstrated for the first time that the g.-165 T>C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity. PMID:26133183

  1. A comparison of two techniques for measuring the relative rates of moisture evaporation from limited areas of the skin of Holstein, Jersey and Jersey-Brahman cattle 

    E-print Network

    Motasem, Mohamed M

    1964-01-01

    in psrtisl fulfilhasat of the reqoireaests for the deSree of hoSuat 1964 Eager Subject! Hairy Seiessa A ORFkllSW OF TNO TRC8NXQOES FOR NRASORIIO THE REtdXWE RATES OF lOISXORE EFAFORATTON ISO' LQCTEO AREAS OF TNE SHIN OF HOLSTEIN~ JENNET ANO JRRSET... Holstein cows, but that the resistance was not the result of an 1ncreased capacity to evaporate water. Bauer)ee and co~rkers (2) modified the technique of NcDowell et al. (17). They reported that sweating rate, rectal teaperature, respiration rate...

  2. Holstein polaron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bonca; S. A. Trugman; I. Batistic

    1999-01-01

    We describe a variational method to solve the Holstein model for an electron coupled to dynamical, quantum phonons on an infinite lattice. The variational space can be systematically expanded to achieve high accuracy with modest computational resources (12-digit accuracy for the one-dimensional polaron energy at intermediate coupling). We compute ground-state and low-lying excited-state properties of the model at continuous values

  3. Trends in International Flow of Holstein Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein genes spread from Europe to much of the world through live cattle more than 100 yr ago. By the advent of artificial insemination, selection emphasis in North America had led to a specialized dairy strain that was in demand internationally. From 1995, genetic evaluations through Interbull mo...

  4. An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus) using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean MacEachern; Ben Hayes; John McEwan; Mike Goddard

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus). We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in beef

  5. Analysis of the cattle histocompatibility system 

    E-print Network

    Bryan, Christopher Fulton

    1975-01-01

    and antiserum, produced and collected from two dairy breeds, Jersey and Holstein, were used to compile data on the cattle histocompatibility system, HC-A. The cattle are located at the Texas AAM University Dairy Center, College Station, Texas. Spermatozoa... and leukocytes were collected from bulls at the Texas AAM University Beef Cattle Center. Production of Antilymphocytic Sera ALS was produced against WBC antigens by subcutaneous injections of WBC from a Holstein donor into four Jersey recipients. The regime...

  6. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. PMID:20670403

  7. Pre-rigor temperature control of Chinese yellow cattle carcasses to 12-18 °C during chilling improves beef tenderness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Liang, Rongrong; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Meng, Xianyong; Luo, Xin

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluates the effects of pre-rigor temperature control on quality traits of Chinese yellow cattle M. longissimus lumborum (LL). One stepwise chilling (SC) treatment was used on one half-carcass, involved a fast chilling (-11 ± 1 °C;0.5 m/s) for 2h, then the refrigeration was stopped to hold a core temperature of 12-18 °C until 10h postmortem, followed by a 1 ± 1 °C chilling (0.5 m/s) to 48h postmortem. The other half-carcass was conventional chilled at 1 ± 1 °C (0.5 m/s) until 48h as control chilling (CC). Quality attributes were evaluated at 1, 7 and 14 days. The SC treatment resulted in decreased WBSF and increased myofibril fragmentation index compared with control. SC-treated LL at 7d postmortem had a lower WBSF than those of CC-treated at 14d. This pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a realistic alternative for the beef industry in China to ensure adequate tenderness and shorten aging time. PMID:25460117

  8. Genomic signatures of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection in Holstein cattle has achieved tremendous phenotypic changes over the past 40 years. However, it is unknown how selection has changed the Holstein genome and how those genome signatures of selection are associated with the phenotypic changes. To categorize genome regions either affected o...

  9. Polymorphisms in the 5' upstream region of the CXCR1 chemokine receptor gene, and their association with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle in Canada.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Baca, I; Schenkel, F; Martin, J; Karrow, N A

    2008-01-01

    Identification of regulatory elements in 5' regions of chemokine genes is fundamental for understanding chemokine gene expression in response to infection diseases. The CXCR1 receptor is expressed on the surface of neutrophils and interacts primarily with CXCL8 (IL-8), the most potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. The aim of this study was to characterize the 5' upstream region (2.1 kb) of the bovine CXCR1 chemokine receptor gene for polymorphism content and to identify in silico potential transcription-factor binding sites. The 5' flanking region was found by mining the NCBI GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). A DNA sequence from the whole genome shotgun sequence project with reference number AC150887.4 contained the CXCR1 5' flanking sequence. Computer analysis revealed potential binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), binding factor GATA-1, barbiturate inducible element (Barbie), nuclear factor of activated T-cells, and activator protein 1. Polymorphism discovery in this region was conducted by constructing an inclusive DNA pool including 2 phenotypic extreme groups, 20 bulls with high estimated breeding values (EBV) for somatic cell score (SCS), and 20 bulls with low EBV for SCS. Independent amplicons along the 5' flanking region of bovine CXCR1 were generated for polymorphism discovery by sequencing. Three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), CXCR1c.-344T>C, CXCR1c.-1768T>A, and CXCR1c.-1830A>G, and a previously identified SNP in the coding region, CXCR1c.777G>C, were identified. The 4 SNP were genotyped in Canadian Holstein bulls (n = 338) using tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR. Average allele substitution effects were estimated to investigate associations between the 4 SNP and EBV for SCS in first, second, and third and later lactations. Multiple trait analysis revealed that the SNP CXCR1c.-1768T>A was associated with EBV for SCS in the first and second lactations and over all 3 lactations. Haplotype analysis substantiated this association with EBV for SCS in the first lactation. Given the location of SNP CXCR1c.-1768T>A and the surrounding potential binding recognition sequences for NF-kappaB, GATA-1, and Barbie transcription-factors, this SNP may be implicated in gene regulation and warrants further research. PMID:18096965

  10. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

  11. Traditional chinese medicine prescriptions enhance growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing apparent nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-10-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

  12. Influence of sire and sire breed (Gyr versus Holstein) on establishment of pregnancy and embryonic loss in lactating Holstein cows during summer heat stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo F. Pegorer; José L. M. Vasconcelos; Luzia A. Trinca; Peter J. Hansen; Ciro M. Barros

    2007-01-01

    Heat stress has negative effects on pregnancy rates of lactating dairy cattle. There are genetic differences in tolerance to heat stress; Bos taurus indicus (B. t. indicus) cattle and embryos are more thermotolerant than Bos taurus taurus (B. t. taurus). In the present study, the effects of sire and sire breed on conception and embryonic\\/fetal loss rates of lactating Holstein

  13. SNP exploring in the middle and terminal regions of the IGF-1 gene and association with production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammadi, A; Zamani, P

    2014-04-25

    Five primer sets were designed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in middle and terminal exons (2 to 6) and in some flanking intronic regions of the bovine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene. Sequencing results of PCR products for 10% of animals showed no variant in exons but a SNP at intron 4 was occurred. Both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and high resolution melting (HRM) methods were developed to genotype samples. The PCR-RFLP results showed the presence of three fragments on agarose gel for the C allele due to two cleavage sites while two fragments for the T allele were observed. Melting curves of 123bp fragments in HRM analysis showed a difference between temperature melting (Tm) of two homozygous genotypes as the CC genotypes had higher Tm than the TT genotypes. Melting curve of the CT genotype was different and crossed two parallel patterns of homozygous genotypes. The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 0.6, 0.37 and 0.03, respectively. Also, the estimated allele frequencies were 0.785 and 0.215 for the C and T alleles, respectively. Results showed higher accuracy of the HRM analysis compared to the PCR-RFLP method. Least square means (LSMs) comparison of the different genotypes in the SNP showed significant association with milk fat yield trait in the first lactation and open days after the second calving. The polymorphism did not have a significant effect on other milk production or reproduction traits. It seems that other variants or QTLs known in this region underlie genetic variation in the production and reproduction of dairy cattle. PMID:24530703

  14. Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves H.M. Neibergs1, J. Williams1, B. Cases and controls received three swabs (mid-nasal, 2 deep pharyngeal) to determine the pathogens and pathogens. Genetic factors also play a role in the susceptibility of cattle to BRD. The etiologic agents

  15. CHANGES IN CARCASS WEIGHT AND CHARACTERISTICS WITH INCREASING WEIGHT OF LARGE AND SMALL CATTLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Y. M. Nour; M. L. Thonney; J. R. Stouffer

    1974-01-01

    Summary The effects of live weight on carcass weight and of carcass weight on carcass characteristics were quantified using 145 large and small cattle represented by Holstein and small-framed Angus steers. Cattle were fed to one of five final weights ranging from 363 to 544 kg for Angus and from 454 to 612 kg for Holstein. Hot carcass weight increased

  16. Holstein with Twins 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    RELATIONSHIPS OF MILK YIELD AND SEASON OF CALVING WITH OVARIAN CYCLIC I TY QF HOLSTEIN AND JERSEY COWS A Thesis by ANDRES GONZAI EZ SANC HEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... with Ovarian Cyclicity of Holstein and Jersey Cows. (August 1984) Andres Gonzalez Sanchez, D. V. M. , Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, Paraguay. Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert W. Blake Relationships of yield of 4% fat-corrected milk...

  17. Detection of early pregnancy-specific proteins in Holstein milk.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong Xun; Kim, Hong Rye; Diao, Yun Fei; Lee, Min Gu; Jin, Dong il

    2012-06-18

    Bovine pregnancy is commonly diagnosed by rectal palpation or ultrasonography and changes in progesterone concentration. To determine a simpler and less expensive diagnostic method, we sought to identify early pregnancy-specific proteins in bovine milk by comparing samples collected from pregnant and non-pregnant Holstein cattle. Of the 600-700 protein spots visible on 2-DE gel images, 39 were differentially expressed in milk from pregnant and non-pregnant cattle. Antibodies generated against synthetic peptides of milk whey proteins expressed specifically during pregnancy were used to confirm protein expression patterns. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of expression of lactoferrin (lactotransferrin) and alpha1G T-type calcium channel subunit (alpha-1G) were higher in samples from pregnant than non-pregnant cattle. These findings suggest that assays for pregnancy-specific milk proteins may be used to diagnose pregnancy in cattle. PMID:22484055

  18. A global view of the transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue in Chinese Qinchuan cattle using RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue development, we constructed a transcriptional profiling of adipose tissue by RNA sequencing. Samples were collected from Chinese Qinchuan fetuses, as well as adult heifers, bulls, and steers. We unambiguously detected a substantial numb...

  19. The Slick Hair Coat Locus Maps to Bovine Chromosome 20 in Senepol Derived Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to maintain normal temperatures during heat stress is an important attribute for cattle in the subtropics and tropics. Previous studies have shown that Senepol cattle and their crosses with the Holstein, Charolais and Angus breeds are as heat tolerant as Brahman cattle. This has been att...

  20. September 19-21, 2014 T. Ed. Garrison Cattle Complex

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    September 19-21, 2014 T. Ed. Garrison Cattle Complex Clemson, SC AND E R S O N C O U N T Y O F F I Department Description Day/Date Times Check ­ In Time Weigh ­ In Time Beef Cattle All Breeds Saturday 9/20/2014 1:00 PM 11:00 AM 9/20/2014 11:30 AM Steers only Dairy Cattle Holstein, Guernsey, Jersey, Brown Swiss

  1. Superovulation of holstein heifers by a single subcutaneous injection of FSH dissolved in polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takedomi; Y. Aoyagi; M. Konishi; H. Kishi; K. Taya; G. Watanabe; S. Sasamoto

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a single injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) would induce a superovulatory response in cattle. Holstein heifers were given a single injection of pFSH (30mg, sc) dissolved in saline (Group 1, n = 5); 50% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; Group 2, n = 5); or 25% PVP (Group 3, n = 4). Group-4 heifers (n =

  2. Response to alternative genetic-economic indices for Holsteins across 2 generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that could have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein AI bulls (106,471) were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25...

  3. Prediction of cow fertility based on productivity traits in dairy cattle under different production systems 

    E-print Network

    Banda, Liveness Jessica

    2014-11-28

    A study to examine factors that influence dairy cattle fertility was conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) and Malawi. Productivity data from the UK comprising 56,014 records from 574 Holstein cows were retrieved from ...

  4. Characterization of cattle types to meet specific beef targets 

    E-print Network

    Knapp, Robert Harold

    1988-01-01

    and heifers, &50% Brahman steers and heifers, Holstein steers, Salers steers, Mexican steers and )50% Brahman steers. No significant differences were observed among the cattle types in USDA marbling score or quality grade. Differences among the cattle types... for taste panel and Warner- Bratzler shear force values were small and not always significant. Differences in cutability were observed among the types at three fat-trim levels (2. 54 cm, 1, 27 cm and 0. 64 cm). At the 2. 54 cm fat-trim level, Holstein...

  5. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria infections in post-weaned and adult cattle on three Maryland farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Fayer; J. M Trout; T. K Graczyk; E. J Lewis

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria, in healthy, asymptomatic, post-weaned and mature cattle was investigated on three Maryland farms. One farm, a dairy research facility, had 150 multiparous Holstein milking cows; 24 were examined and Cryptosporidium andersoni was detected in three (12.5%) but neither Giardia nor Eimeria was detected. The second farm, a commercial dairy, had 57 multiparous Holstein

  6. A model for determining shelf life, estimating terminal body composition, yield grade and quality grade of feedlot cattle 

    E-print Network

    Perry, Richard Jay

    1985-01-01

    , feed conversion was similar between large Exotic type breeds and average size British breeds. Similar findings were reported by Klosterman (1974), Crickenberger et al. (1976) and Harpster et al. (1976). However, adjustments are made for Holstein... cattle, since they are energetically less efficient and have a greater maintenance requirement (Fox and Black 1976). Data reported by Newland et al. (1979a) showed Holsteins to be 23% less efficient in feed conversion than British breed cattle...

  7. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houcine Ilahi; Haja N Kadarmideen

    2004-01-01

    Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and

  8. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  9. Determination of body measurements on the Holstein cows using digital image analysis and estimation of live weight with regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sakir Tasdemir; Abdullah Urkmez; Seref Inal

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the body measurements (BMs) of Holstein cows were determined using digital image analysis (IA) and these were used to estimate the live weight (LW) of each cow. For this purpose, an image capture arrangement was established in a dairy cattle farm. BMs including wither height (WH), hip height (HH), body length (BL), hip width (HW), plus the

  10. Gestational, Periparturient and Preweaning Growth Traits of Holstein versus Gir × Holstein F 1 Crossbred Dairy Calves Born to Holstein dams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Schmidt; S. D. Bowers; T. Dickerson; B. S. Gandy; F. Holholm; K. B. Graves; J. White; R. C. Vann; S. T. Willard

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the gestational, periparturient and preweaning growth traits of Holstein vs Gir\\u000a × Holstein (G × H F1) crossbred dairy calves. Holstein cows (n=64) pregnant with Holstein (H × H) calves (bulls, n=16; heifers, n=18) or G × H (bulls, n=8; heifers, n=22) calves were sampled from 60 days of gestation through calving

  11. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  12. The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serdal Dikmen; Hakan Ustuner; Abdulkadir Orman

    2011-01-01

    Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological\\u000a functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot\\u000a cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8?±?15.5 kg, n?=?8) and heavy (737.1?±?15.8 kg,

  13. A study based on records taken at time of hoof trimming reveals a strong association between the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) gene and sole hemorrhage in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Swalve, H H; Floren, C; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Schöpke, K; Pijl, R; Wimmers, K; Brenig, B

    2014-01-01

    Feet and leg problems have a major effect on the well-being and lifespan of the dairy cow and thus are economically important to the dairy farmer. Apart from approaches using genetic selection for classical traits from conformation scoring, attempts for genetic improvement can be based either on records of individual disease cases or on records of disorder status at time of hoof trimming. In this study, 1,962 first-lactation cows were subjected to hoof trimming with an assessment of disorder status for sole hemorrhage as a binary trait. Cows were from 7 large commercial herds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (northeastern Germany) that had similar housing with cubicles, slatted flooring, little use of straw for bedding, and total mixed ration feeding. Cows were trimmed and assessed once, focusing on cows in the first half of the lactation. Herds were visited at intervals to enable recording of cohorts at a similar stage of lactation. Each cohort or herd-visit included between 31 and 165 cows. Additional measurements included body weight, back fat thickness, and body condition at time of trimming. Further data on dairy production, conformation scores, and reproductive performance were merged after collection of records had finished. The DNA extracted from blood of 1,183 cows was used for analysis with a custom-made array of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The SNP were selected according to results from the literature for effects in classical conformation traits, from biochemical pathway analysis, and from comparative analysis of putative candidate genes in cattle, pigs, and sheep. Selection of cohorts of cows for SNP chip analysis was such that cohorts with extreme frequencies of disorders and cohorts with slightly deviating housing systems were excluded in this first step. The results from a mixed threshold model analysis with genotype included as a fixed effect and accounting for relationships among animals revealed that the intronic SNP rs29017173 (A/G) within the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, Bos taurus autosome 21) was significantly associated with disorder status. Back-transformed means of disorder status for the 3 genotypes were 0.37 (AA), 0.52 (AG), and 0.56 (GG). Using the full data set of 1,962 cows, including the less-suitable cohorts, gave back-transformed means of 0.51 (AA), 0.58 (AG), and 0.62 (GG). As SNP rs29017173 is included on the Illumina BovineSNP50 DNA Analysis BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), a sample of 2,394 artificial insemination sires from the German calibration sample for genomic selection from birth years 1998 to 2003 was studied for possible correlated effects. The A/G polymorphism of SNP rs29017173 studied here was also associated with substantial effects for feet and leg traits from the classical conformation score system. Selection using this polymorphism will be facilitated by the fact that the same allele is favored for all traits with substantial effects. PMID:24237756

  14. Genomic signatures reveal geographic adaption and human selection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated geographic adaptation and human selection using high-density SNP data of five diverse cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-k...

  15. Technical note: A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blood test for pregnancy in dairy and beef cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Green; D. H. Volkmann; S. E. Poock; M. F. McGrath; M. Ehrhardt; A. E. Moseley; M. C. Lucy

    2009-01-01

    The ruminant trophoblast produces pregnancy- associated glycoproteins (PAG) that can be detected in the blood of pregnant animals. The objective was to determine the accuracy of a rapid ELISA PAG- based test for the purpose of pregnancy detection in cattle. Blood was sampled from dairy cattle (539 Hol- stein cows, 173 Holstein heifers, 73 Guernsey cows, 22 Guernsey heifers, and

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHEDDING OF E. COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors affecting fecal shedding of the foodborne pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle were evaluated. Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cattle to determine influence of time of day (morning vs late a...

  17. Studies on the Epidemiology of Tropical Theileriosis ( Theileria annulata Infection) in Cattle in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sayin; S. Dinçer; Z. Karaer; A. Cakmak; A. Inci; B. A. Yukari; H. Eren; Z. Vatansever; S. Nalbantoglu

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey for Theileria annulata infection was conducted in 12 selected villages around Ankara in Central Anatolia, Turkey, during the period April 1990 to January 1993. During the survey, 198 cattle of 30 local breeds, 84 Holstein-Friesian×local breeds and 84 Holstein-Friesian breed were examined for antibodies to T. annulata and the presence of the vector ticks. Four species of

  18. Somatic Cell Counts in Holsteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. KENNEDY; M. S. SETHAR; A. K. W. TONG; J. E. MOXLEY; B. R. DOWNEY; Dairy Herd

    Between February and December, 1977, 133,493 test-day observations of somatic cell count were taken on 27,009 Holstein cows in 676 herds on the Quebec Dairy Herd Analysis Service. Data were transformed to a log (natural) scale, and analyses were separate within lacta- tion age group (42, 3, 4, 5, and \\/>6 yr). Joint estimates of fixed effects of month of

  19. Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...

  20. Cattle gene mapping: electrophoretic and synteny analysis of thirty-two cattle enzyme-gene markers in cattle-hamster hybrid somatic cells 

    E-print Network

    Moll, Yvonne Dolores

    1988-01-01

    cells, formed by fusion of Chinese hamster E36 cells with cattle leucocytes, were used to analyze the segregation of genes coding for enzymes. The preferential and random loss of cattle chromosomes from hybrid cells results in a panel of hybrid clones... carrying all the hamster chromosomes but retaining a different combination of cattle chromosomes and gene products. Analysis of these clones for gene mapping requires identifying the parental enzyme phenotypes. This was achieved by developing...

  1. A new Robertsonian translocation in Holstein-Friesian cattle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    fibroblast. Whole blood was cultured at 37°C for 72 h in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 20% fetal calf by Ham's F12). Hypotonic treatment (10 mL 1/6 calf serum) was followed by pre-fixation and fixation serum, 500 UI Heparin, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution (Gibco), and stimulated with Concanavalin

  2. Comparative proteomics and transcriptomics analyses of livers from two different Bos taurus breeds: "Chianina and Holstein Friesian".

    PubMed

    Timperio, Anna Maria; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Pariset, Lorraine; D'Amici, Gian Maria; Valentini, Alessio; Zolla, Lello

    2009-12-01

    The Holstein Friesian and Chianina cattle breeds are representative of extreme selection for milk and meat traits, respectively, with significant changes in metabolism resulting from human selection over the past centuries. In the present study, we wanted to assess whether selection for different purposes has had a measurable effect on liver metabolism through a comparison of the protein and gene expression profiles of the two breeds. We applied 2-DE in order to identify proteins which were differentially expressed in the livers of the two breeds and relate them to different liver functions. We expected to find that only a small number of proteins would be differentially expressed, due to the relatively short phylogenetic distance between these cattle breeds. Nonetheless, thirty nine differentially-expressed proteins were characterized between Chianina and Holstein Friesian, out of a total of 560+/-57 spots that matched. Microarray analyses evidenced the differential expression of 167 genes (148 for the Holstein Friesian and 19 for the Chianina). Despite being closely related at the genetic level, the disparity of the proteomic and transcriptomic profiles of these two breeds allows us to perform pathway analysis thus to pinpoint proteins whose expression might render the latter capable of greater milk production, or proteins involved in altered thermoregulatory ability or hormone production. On the other hand, we found proteins and gene transcripts in Chianina, not expressed in Holstein, which, upon interaction pathway analysis, were mainly involved in anabolic pathways. In brief, our integrated study provides molecular evidences to support the physiological differences between Holstein and Chianina cattle breeds. PMID:19782776

  3. Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan 466000, Henan, China In a recent experiment with beef cattle, three types of straw were used : a 5 % urea head of Simmental-Chinese Yellow cross beef cattle, approximately 122 months old and weighing 200 kg

  4. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.

    PubMed

    Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F

    2010-03-01

    Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 0 and 20 d on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that traditionally packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins treated with ZH for 0 d had a darker lean color (P < 0.05) than steaks from ZH-treated cattle on d 1 of display, whereas the lean color scores for ZH treatments of all durations were similar on d 4 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that ZH treatment had no effect on the discoloration of traditionally packaged, nonenhanced strip steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. Therefore, feeding ZH to beef or calf-fed Holstein steers had no detrimental effect on the lean color or color stability of strip loin steaks subjected to enhancement, packaged in modified-atmosphere or traditional packaging, and displayed under simulated retail conditions. PMID:19966164

  5. Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid; Shirvani, Edris; Hosseini, Seyed M; Shahmoradied, Amir H; Heidari, Mohammad R; Raiszadeh, Hamid; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Bahreyari, Masoume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to the bluetongue virus (BTV) among dairy Holstein cattle of central Iran. From September 2010 to August 2011, 892 blood samples from Holstein dairy cattle were collected from healthy animals. Blood samples were divided according to type of farm (industrial and non-industrial), season (warm and cold), location (North, South, East, and West), cattle production groups (calf, heifer, dairy and dry) and age groups (under 6 months, 6 months-2 years and over 2 years). The sera were screened using a commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) kit. Twenty-four sera (2.69 %) were found to be positive for BTV. Bluetongue virus seroprevalence was significantly higher (?(2)=8.29, df=3, p < 0.05) in cattle in southern locations as compared to those in other locations. Older animals (>2 years) showed a relatively higher seroprevalence, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.06). No statistically significant difference in BTV seroprevalence was noted between farming systems, seasons and cattle production groups (p > 0.05). The results demonstrate that the seroprevalence of BTV is low in cattle from the Isfahan province, central Iran. Further studies are needed to determine the serotypes and vectors of BTV in the central region of Iran. PMID:23888413

  6. A limited number of Y chromosome lineages is present in North American Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Dechow, Chad; Liu, Wan-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    Holsteins are the most numerous dairy cattle breed in North America and the breed has undergone intensive selection for improving milk production and conformation. Theoretically, this intensive selection could lead to a reduction of the effective population size and reduced genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effective population size of the Holstein Y chromosome and the effects of limited Y chromosome lineages on male reproduction and the future of the breed. Paternal pedigree information of 62,897 Holstein bulls born between 1950 and 2013 in North America and 220,872 bulls evaluated by multiple-trait across-country genetic evaluations of Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the number of Y chromosome lineages in Holsteins has undergone a dramatic decrease during the past 50 years because of artificial selection and the application of artificial insemination (AI) technology. All current Holstein AI bulls in North America are the descendants of only 2 ancestors (Hulleman and Neptune H) born in 1880. These 2 ancestral Y-lineages are continued through 3 dominant pedigrees from the 1960s; namely, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, and Penstate Ivanhoe Star, with a contribution of 48.78, 51.06, and 0.16% to the Holstein bull population in the 2010s, respectively. The Y-lineage of Penstate Ivanhoe Star is almost eliminated from the breed. The genetic variations in the 2 ancestral Y-lineages were evaluated among 257 bulls by determining the copy number variations (CNV) of 3 Y-linked gene families: PRAMEY, HSFY, and ZNF280BY, which are spread along the majority (95%) of the bovine Y chromosome male-specific region (MSY). No significant difference was found between the 2 ancestral Y-lineages, although large CNV were observed within each lineage. This study suggests minimal genetic diversity on the Y chromosome in Holsteins and provides a starting point for investigating the effect of the extremely limited number of Y-lineages on male reproduction and other traits important for the future of the Holstein breed. PMID:25660742

  7. Genetic effects of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) polymorphism on milk production traits in the Chinese dairy population.

    PubMed

    Alim, M A; Fan, Y P; Wu, X P; Xie, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S L; Sun, D X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Guo, G

    2012-09-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is a multifunctional complex enzyme important in the cellular biosynthesis of fatty acids. The present study was to investigate the association of the SCD gene with milk production traits in dairy cattle. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (g.6926A>G and g.8646A>G) in introns 3 and 4, and three SNPs (g.10153A>G, g.10213T>C and g.10329C>T) in exon 5 were identified with pooled DNA sequencing and genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry assay in 752 Chinese Holstein cows. Polymorphism g.10329C>T was predicted to result in an amino acid replacement from alanine to valine in the SCD protein. With a mixed animal model, the significant associations of the five SNPs with 305-day milk, fat and protein yields and protein percentage were determined. We further demonstrated cows with heterozygous genotypes (A/G or C/T) had highest 305 day milk yield, fat yield, protein yield and lowest protein percentage. Heterozygous cows with genotype AG at the g.6926A>G locus showed the greatest milk yield (P < 0.0001), fat yield (P < 0.0001) and protein yield (P < 0.0001) among other heterozygous genotypes at any of the loci. Dominance effects of all identified SNPs on milk, fat and protein yields and protein percentage were significant. Moreover, significant allele substitution effects at g.6926A>G locus on milk yield and at g.10213T>C on protein yield were observed. Five-locus haplotypes and strong linkage disequilibrium (D' > 0.9) between the five SNPs were also observed. The results suggest that identified polymorphisms could be potential genetic markers to improve the production performance of Chinese Holstein. PMID:22722989

  8. Effects of common anticoagulants (heparin, citrate and EDTA) on routine plasma biochemistry of cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohri; H. Shakeri; S. Lotfollah Zadeh

    2007-01-01

    The effects of various types of anticoagulants on plasma biochemistry have been studied in man and various animals but limited\\u000a information exists for cattle plasma biochemistry. Ten clinically healthy Holstein cattle were blood sampled into different\\u000a anticoagulants and plain tubes for harvesting plasma and serum. The concentrations of glucose, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine,\\u000a total protein, albumin and the activity of

  9. Studies of the pathogenesis of bovine pestivirus-induced ovarian dysfunction in superovulated dairy cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. McGowan; M. Kafi; P. D. Kirkland; R. Kelly; H. Bielefeldt-Ohmann; M. D. Occhio; D. Jillella

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments (Experiment I, n=12 Holstein–Friesian heifers; Experiment II, n=8 Jersey cows) were conducted to investigate the pathogenesis of bovine pestivirus-induced ovarian dysfunction in cattle. In both experiments the cattle were superovulated with twice daily injections of a porcine pituitary extract preparation of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P), for 4 days commencing on Day 10±2 after a presynchronised oestrus. The heifers

  10. Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function

    E-print Network

    Delany, Mary E.

    Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function R the influence of a 20% fluctuation in daily feed intake on performance and digestive function in Holstein steers-performance and digestive function were similar for both treatment groups. Implications A daily fluctuation in feed intake

  11. Genomic evaluation and identification of haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluation of dairy cattle in the US has been available for Holstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations allowing for the evaluation of this breed. Gains ...

  12. Cattle Differ in Ability to Adapt to Small Intestinal Digestion of Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-ruminal starch digestion on inflammatory response in dairy cattle. Six cull, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cannulated Holstein dairy cows (BW 804±101 kg) were fed a high forage diet ad libitum starting 15 d before the infusion p...

  13. Spectral properties of Holstein and breathing polarons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrill Slezak; Alexandru Macridin; George Sawatzky; Mark Jarrell; Thomas A Maier

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: (i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small

  14. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Soo; Rothschild, Max F.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%). Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in 11 genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for specialized adaptation when combined with methods for searching for the recent changes of haplotype frequency in an admixed population. PMID:25566325

  15. Efficacy of abamectin injection against Dermatobia hominis in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Cruz; C. Benitez-Usher; L. G. Cramer; S. J. Gross; A. B. Kohn

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of abamectin 1%, when injected subcutancously in cattle at a dose of 200 µg\\/kg body weight, against the larval stages (grubs) of the flyDermatobia hominis was evaluated in two trials in endemic areas of Brazil and Argentina. Eighteen Holstein x Brahman castrated males and 16 Brahman-cross with natural infestations were used. Larvae were counted by instar in situ

  16. Cattle Vaccines 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2005-11-11

    Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

  17. The SNPs in the ACACA gene are effective on fatty acid composition in Holstein milk.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Kenta; Bessho, Takuya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sasazaki, Shinji; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2012-09-01

    Fatty acid composition is an important economic trait for both dairy and beef cattle and controlled by genetic factors. Candidate genes controlling fatty acid composition may be found in fat synthesis and metabolism pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is the flux-determining enzyme in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in animal tissues. One of two isozymes of this enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-? (ACACA), catalyses the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in mammalian cytosol, leading to the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. In the current study, the sequence comparison of the coding sequence (CDS) and two promoter regions (PIA and PIII) in bovine ACACA gene was performed between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle to detect nucleotide polymorphisms influencing fatty acid composition in milk and beef. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the CDS region, 28 SNPs in the PIA region and three SNPs in the PIII region. Association study revealed that CCT/CCT type of PIII_#1, #2/PIA_#26 indicated a higher percentage of C14:0 in the milk of the Holstein cattle than CCT/GTC type (p = 0.050) and that a difference of the percentage of C16:0 was observed between CCT/CCT and GTC/GTC type (p = 0.023). CDS_#2 T/T type indicated a higher percentage of C18:0 than T/C type (p = 0.008). In addition, the Japanese Black cattle with CC/GT type of PIII_#1, #2 showed a higher percentage of C18:2 in the meat than those with GT/GT type (p = 0.025). Since PIII is the promoter specific to mammary gland during lactation, the altered expression of the ACACA gene owing to the SNPs in the PIII region may influence the fatty acid composition in the milk. PMID:22718502

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  19. Cattle and their origin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Howells

    2005-10-25

    Students will learn about different breeds of cattle, the history of cattle, and why cattle are considered ruminants. History of cattle CLick on the above link to explore the history of cattle. breeds of cattle Click on the above link to explore different breeds of cattle. Can you find any breeds that are new to you? Are any of these breeds found in this area? Ruminants Click on the above link to discover why cows ...

  20. Deleted copy number variation of Hanwoo and Holstein using next generation sequencing at the population level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variation (CNV), a source of genetic diversity in mammals, has been shown to underlie biological functions related to production traits. Notwithstanding, there have been few studies conducted on CNVs using next generation sequencing at the population level. Results Illumina NGS data was obtained for ten Holsteins, a dairy cattle, and 22 Hanwoo, a beef cattle. The sequence data for each of the 32 animals varied from 13.58-fold to almost 20-fold coverage. We detected a total of 6,811 deleted CNVs across the analyzed individuals (average length =?2732.2 bp) corresponding to 0.74% of the cattle genome (18.6 Mbp of variable sequence). By examining the overlap between CNV deletion regions and genes, we selected 30 genes with the highest deletion scores. These genes were found to be related to the nervous system, more specifically with nervous transmission, neuron motion, and neurogenesis. We regarded these genes as having been effected by the domestication process. Further analysis of the CNV genotyping information revealed 94 putative selected CNVs and 954 breed-specific CNVs. Conclusions This study provides useful information for assessing the impact of CNVs on cattle traits using NGS at the population level. PMID:24673797

  1. Independent Polled Mutations Leading to Complex Gene Expression Differences in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

  2. Comparing local and commercial breeds on functional traits and profitability: the case of Reggiana dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Maltecca, C; Pizzi, F; Bagnato, A; Rizzi, R

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fertility, longevity, milkability, and profitability of cows from the Reggiana and Holstein breeds in northern Italy. Profitability was gauged for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. Calving to first service interval, days open, and calving interval were significantly shorter in Reggiana than in Holstein cows. Reggiana cows conceived approximately one estrus cycle before Holstein and had a calving interval 33 d shorter. Holstein cows released a significantly higher quantity of milk per unit of time (1.81 vs. 1.28 kg/min). Reggiana cows had longer expected total and productive lives than Holstein cows, by 5.8 and 10.0 mo, respectively. Replacement rate was 26% higher in the Holstein. Standard 305-d milk production was 5,360 and 7,870 kg in Reggiana and Holstein, respectively. Comparing breeds on annual milk and meat production, instead of standard 305-d milk yield, changed marginally the difference in annual profitability between the Reggiana and Holstein, from -696 euros to -679 euros per cow per year. Including feeding, milking, replacement, and insemination costs reduced the gap between breeds by 32%, from -679 euros, measured on annual milk and meat production, to -460 euros. These differences in profitability assumed a pricing scenario referring to milk sold to the dairy industry where protein and fat contents are valued but not the breed origin of milk. Incentive payments to farmers of endangered cattle compensated partially (22%) the lower income from Reggiana cows. When Reggiana milk production was sold as branded Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, Reggiana cows were more profitable than Holstein cows by 1,953 euros per cow per year. PMID:17369242

  3. Cattle egret with food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J. M. Garg (None; )

    2006-01-10

    Cattle egrets are called so because they hang around pastures where cattle graze. The cattle stir up insects and ground-dwelling creatures with their hooves as they move around the pasture. The egret can easily find something to eat this way. This is a commensalistic relationship because the cattle egret benefits while the cattle are neither harmed nor helped.

  4. Short communication: A missense mutation in the PROP1 (prophet of Pit 1) gene affects male fertility and milk production traits in the US Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Lan, X Y; Peńagaricano, F; DeJung, L; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies, we reported significant associations of the POU1F1 pathway genes with reproduction and production traits in several dairy cattle populations. Polymorphisms in genes of this pathway were found to be associated with both female and male fertility traits in dairy cattle. The POU1F1 gene is a direct downstream target for the regulation of the prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) gene, also known as PROP paired-like homeobox 1. Interestingly, the position of PROP1 coincides with a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether PROP1 affects fertility and milk production traits in Holstein cattle. Using the DNA pooling sequencing approach, a missense single nucleotide polymorphism that replaces a histidine amino acid with an arginine was detected in exon 3 of PROP1. The arginine allele was found to be associated with a decrease in sire conception rate and an increase in productive life, protein yield, and net merit index in a population of 1,951 Holstein bulls. The transcription factors produced from the histidine and arginine isoforms are known to have different transcription, DNA binding, and regulation activities. As such, we propose that the association of the arginine isoform with decreased bull fertility is likely caused by reduced activity of this allele in male functions. The findings of this study suggest PROP1 polymorphisms as candidates in selection programs for fertility, health, and milk production traits in dairy cattle. PMID:23245960

  5. TALE nickase-mediated SP110 knockin endows cattle with increased resistance to tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibo; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mingqi; Lv, Jiaxing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome modification has been applied successfully to create transgenic animals in various species, such as mouse, pig, and even monkey. However, transgenic cattle with gene knockin have yet to be created using TALENs. Here, we report site-specific knockin of the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nickase-mediated SP110 nuclear body protein gene (SP110) via homologous recombination to produce tuberculosis-resistant cattle. In vitro and in vivo challenge and transmission experiments proved that the transgenic cattle are able to control the growth and multiplication of Mycobacterium bovis, turn on the apoptotic pathway of cell death instead of necrosis after infection, and efficiently resist the low dose of M. bovis transmitted from tuberculous cattle in nature. In this study, we developed TALE nickases to modify the genome of Holstein–Friesian cattle, thereby engineering a heritable genome modification that facilitates resistance to tuberculosis. PMID:25733846

  6. Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Muirhead, Tammy L.; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications. PMID:24982517

  7. Assignment of paternity in a judicial dispute between two neighbor Holstein dairy farmers.

    PubMed

    Lirón, Juan Pedro; Ripoli, María Verónica; García, Pilar Peral; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    DNA profiling was used as evidence to assign paternity in a dispute between two neighbors in a judicial case of undue appropriation of cattle offspring from five alleged Holstein sires. Five offspring were genotyped using ten genetic markers (nine microsatellites and the BOLA-DRB3 locus). The computer program CERVUS was used to estimate the LOD score values and the confidence of paternity assignments. The results presented here show that three out of five paternity cases were assigned at 95% of confidence to a single sire with a LOD score ranging from 2.53 to 3.55. A fourth male was assigned using its delta value. Finally, all alleged sires were excluded from the paternity of the fifth offspring, probably due to the existence of an non-sampled male in the studied population. We concluded that the likelihood-based approach, included into CERVUS program, was a powerful tool in cattle kinship analysis when dealing with judicial dispute particularly when the dam's genotype was absent, allowing the assignments of paternity at 95% level of confidence in situations usually used by dairy and beef cattle producers in Argentine (e.g., multi-sire pasture mating). PMID:14979351

  8. Synophthalmia in a Holstein cross calf

    PubMed Central

    Nourani, Hossein; Karimi, Iraj; Rajabi Vardanjani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Synophthalmia is a form of cyclopia, in which some elements of two eyes are fused and form a single eye in the middle region of the forehead. The head of a Holstein female calf born from a 5-year-old cow was referred to Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University due to multiple congenital anomalies. The calf had been slaughtered immediately after birth due to severe respiratory distress by the owner. The calf showed multiple birth defects, including synophthalmia, holoprosencephaly, absence of optic chiasma, hypoplastic maxilla, curved mandibles, arrhinia and dental pad agenesis. A normal tongue protruded from the defect and small oral cavity. To our knowledge, this particular combination of craniofacial defects has not been previously described in Holstein calf. PMID:25610588

  9. Spectral Properties of Holstein and Breathing Polarons

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.

  10. YIELD AND QUALITY OF HOLSTEIN BEEF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Schaefer

    Beef derived from Holstein steers is a significant source of the U. S. beef supply. The nation's 9.1 million dairy cows in 2003 were 22% of the U. S. cow herd (NASS, 2005). Given the typical breed distribution of dairy cows, calving interval, full-term pregnancy rate, peri-natal calf death loss (NAHMS, 2002), gender distribution, dairy beef placement (80%) and survival

  11. Genome-wide estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size in the spanish holstein population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia Teresa; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Delfino; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry) or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding). The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes. PMID:25880228

  12. Differential expression of liver proteins in Chianina and Holstein young bulls.

    PubMed

    Miarelli, M; Signorelli, F

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce and compare liver proteomic maps of cattle breeds that have been selected for different purposes: dairy (Holstein) and beef (Chianina). Liver was chosen because it displays functions of synthesis, homeostasis, excretion, and defense. Two dimensional electrophoresis analyses were performed on bovine livers collected from 4 individuals of each breed to evaluate differential protein expression. We found 9 spots differing in photodensity by >or=2-fold between the 2 breeds. Spots were analyzed through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A search against protein sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information databases indicated that the differentially expressed proteins correspond to liver-specific enzymes, with a major role in the metabolism of fatty acids, carbohydrates, AA, and the urea cycle. PMID:19897641

  13. A molecular study on Theileria and Babesia in cattle from Isfahan province, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid

    2013-10-01

    Bovine theileriosis and babesiosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. From March 2009 to July 2009, 176 blood samples of Holstein and crossbred cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from Isfahan province, Central Iran. The extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a set of primers derived from the 18s rRNA gene. 42 out of 176 blood samples (23.9 %) were positive for Theileria spp. and none of them was positive for Babesia spp.. The present study showed that Theileria is detectable in cattle without any sign of infection but maintained a persistant sub-clinical state in the carrier cattle, which can serve as reservoirs of infection for ticks and cause natural transmission of the disease. PMID:24431572

  14. The noxious effects of electroimmobilization in adult Holstein cows: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N

    1986-01-01

    Ten adult Holstein cows were used in an experiment to determine whether the induction of electroimmobilization was a noxious event. The cows were halter trained and accustomed to being led into a set of stocks. The time taken for the cattle to walk the last ten metres into the stocks was recorded. The heart rate of the cow was recorded for a three minute period prior to a ten second exposure to a high pitched sound (the conditioning stimulus). Measurements were collected for three repetitions and then the cows were assigned to two groups of five. One group was immobilized for 30 seconds using a commercial electroimmobilizer, the other group was not treated. This procedure was repeated ten times over a period of eight days. The cows were then exposed to the conditioning stimulus and their response observed. The treated group took significantly (P less than 0.05) longer to get into the stocks and the regression slopes for heart rate were significantly different from the control group. The treated cows responded to the conditioning stimulus at five and nine months after the end of the conditioning period. Adult Holstein cows regarded electroimmobilization as a noxious event and were very strongly conditioned to this stimulus. PMID:3756681

  15. Potential nutritional assessment of dwarf elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott) by chemical composition, digestion and net portal flux of oxygen in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V Kozloski; J Perottoni; M. L. S Ciocca; J. B. T Rocha; A. G Raiser; L. M. B Sanchez

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate changes in chemical composition of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days of growth, and its effect on apparent digestibility and particle-phase passage through the gastrointestinal tract (Experiment 1) and on oxygen utilization by the portal-drained viscera of cattle (Experiment 2). The experiments were carried out using four Holstein

  16. The Role of the Bovine Growth Hormone Receptor and Prolactin Receptor Genes in Milk, Fat and Protein Production in Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirja Viitala; Joanna Szyda; Sarah Blott; Nina Schulman; Martin Lidauer; Michel Georges; Johanna Vilkki

    2006-01-01

    We herein report new evidence that the QTL effect on chromosome 20 in Finnish Ayrshire can be explained by variation in two distinct genes, growth hormone receptor (GHR) and prolactin receptor (PRLR). In a previous study in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle an F279Y polymorphism in the transmembrane domain of GHR was found to be associated with an effect on milk yield

  17. Evaluation of the Control of Pathogen Load by an Anti-Salmonella Bacterium in a Herd of Cattle with Persistent Salmonella Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To isolate an anti-Salmonella bacterium that may control pathogen load in persistently-infected cattle herds. Animals: 24 Holstein calves. Procedures: An Escherchia coli (designated as P8E5) that possesses anti-Salmonella activity was isolated from Salmonella negative bovine feces ob...

  18. Copy number variation of PRAMEY across breeds and its association with male fertility in Holstein sires.

    PubMed

    Yue, X P; Chang, T C; DeJarnette, J M; Marshall, C E; Lei, C Z; Liu, W-S

    2013-01-01

    Multi-copy gene families are especially prevalent in the male-specific region (MSY) of the mammalian Y chromosome. Copy number variations (CNV) of these Y-linked gene families have been shown to affect human and animal fertility. The PRAMEY (Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma, Y-linked) gene family is a newly identified, bovid-specific Y-linked gene family, which codes for a cancer/testis antigen that is expressed predominantly in testis and various tumors. The PRAMEY gene family is believed to play an important role in spermatogenesis and male fertility in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the CNV of PRAMEY within and across breeds and to determine whether CNV was associated with reproductive traits in Holstein bulls. A quantitative real-time PCR method was applied to measure the copy number of PRAMEY among 460 bulls using a Y-linked single copy gene, DDX3Y (DEAD box polypeptide 3, Y-linked), as a reference. The median copy number of PRAMEY was 13, ranging from 2 to 31. Significant variations in PRAMEY copy number were observed among 15 breeds investigated. Holstein bulls had the lowest median copy number (12), whereas Limousin bulls possessed the highest median copy number (26). Furthermore, bulls in the taurine lineage (13) had a significantly lower median copy number than those bulls in the indicine lineage (20). Association analysis revealed that PRAMEY copy number was correlated negatively with scrotal circumference (SC), relative scrotal circumference (RLSC), percentage of normal sperm (PNS), and nonreturn rate (NRR), but had no significant association with postthaw motility (PTM), incubated motility (IM), percentage of intact acrosome (PIA), sire conception rate (SCR), or relative breeding efficiency (RBE). The data from this study indicate that CNV of the PRAMEY gene family is associated with male reproductive traits and may serve as a valuable marker for sire fertility selection at an early age in cattle. PMID:24119816

  19. Relationship Between Reproduction Traits and Functional Longevity in Canadian Dairy Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sewalem; F. Miglior; G. J. Kistemaker; P. Sullivan; B. J. Van Doormaal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use survival analysis to assessthe relationshipbetween reproductiontraits and functional longevity of Canadian dairy cattle. Data con- sisted of 1,702,857; 67,470; and 33,190 Holstein, Ayrsh- ire, and Jersey cows, respectively. Functional longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving to culling, death, or censoring; adjusted for the effect of milk yield.

  20. EFFECTS OF LIMESTONE AND SODIUM BICARBONATE BUFFERS ON RUMEN MEASUREMENTS AND RATE OF PASSAGE IN CATTLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Haaland; H. F. Tyrrell

    Summary Eight rumen-fistulated cattle (four Angus steers and four nonlactating Holstein cows) were fed a cracked corn-based concentrate (65% of dry matter) and corn silage (35% of dry matter) diet containing: (1) no buffer, (2) 2.5% limestone, (3) 2% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or (4) 1.25% limestone and 1.25% NaHCO3. Each diet was fed at approximately maintenance and-two times maintenance levels

  1. Effect of genetic and certain environmental factors on reproductive efficiency of tropically adapted beef cattle

    E-print Network

    Dickey, James Ronald

    1966-01-01

    with a reduction or gain resulting. Kidwell et al. (1954) traced female sterility in a linebred Holstein-Friesian herd back to the original foundation sire. This supported the hypothesis of Gregory et al. (1945) that a sex-limited autosomal recessive... is expressed as a recessive sex-limited gene which, in Shorthorn cattle, is linked to the recessive white gene. Hypoplasia, an autosomal dominant factor, according to Rollinson (1955), causes underdevelopment of the testes and epididymides of the bull...

  2. Environmental (season) effects on the maintenance requirements and body composition of two diverse biological types of cattle 

    E-print Network

    Laurenz, Jamie Colin

    1988-01-01

    requirements (Byers et al. , 1984). The clearest example of this can be seen when comparing cattle of beef vs. dairy breeding. Solis et aL (1988) documented that Jersey and Holstein cows had daily maintenance requirements that were 52 and 19% higher than... Angus, 40. 7 and 10. 2% higher than Herefords and 55. 1 and 21. 4% higher than Brahman cows on a weight basis (152 and 119 vs 100, 108 and 98 kcal ME/kg. ~S for Jersey, Holstein, Angus, Hereford and Brahman cows, respectively). These differences were...

  3. The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Serdal; Ustuner, Hakan; Orman, Abdulkadir

    2012-03-01

    Heat stress has important effects on the welfare of livestock. The effects of heat stress in cattle include changes in biological functions and behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral differences between light and heavy feedlot cattle reared in a hot environment. Sixteen male Holstein feedlot cattle were allocated to light (353.8 ± 15.5 kg, n = 8) and heavy (737.1 ± 15.8 kg, n = 8) groups according to their live weight and were kept in a semi-open feedlot barn. The individual behavioral response variables measured were standing, lying, feeding, drinking, ruminating, locomotor activity and elimination (urinating and defecating). The effects of group, day, observation time, replicate and all interactions were included in an explanatory statistical (GLM) model. The data were analyzed using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS. Overall, the heavy cattle spent more time standing ( P < 0.001), lying ( P < 0.001), and eliminating ( P < 0.05) compared to the light group. In contrast, the light group spent more time eating, drinking and ruminating ( P < 0.001). Locomotor activity did not differ significantly between groups ( P > 0.05). During the day, heavy cattle spent more time standing (at 1600 hours) and less time eating in comparison with the light cattle ( P < 0.001) (at 1300 and 1600 hours). Light and heavy feedlot cattle behaved differently in a hot environment. The findings of the study indicate that the welfare of the heavy Holstein feedlot cattle was impacted negatively when the ambient temperature was high (at 1300 hours).

  4. Potential Consequences Of Selection On Gestation Length On Holstein Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper was to determine if genetic evaluations of Holstein gestation length (GL) were reliable and to assess potential consequences of selection for either shorter or longer GL by examining impact on performance in the subsequent lactation. Holstein bulls used to develop predict...

  5. Potential consequences of selection on gestation length on Holstein performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were assessed also by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls, each with...

  6. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  7. Chinese Alchemy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Read

    1927-01-01

    COMMUNICATIONS upon the subject of Chinese alchemy have appeared several times in NATURE during the past year by Prof. J. R. Partington and have greatly interested me. The Pent'sao and similar books upon Chinese mineral drugs make repeated reference to the transmutation of metals into gold. However, few of these books have very old editions extant, so I have been

  8. Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

  9. Beef Cattle Center - 1 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2009-01-01

    Block supplements offer cattle producers a means of supplementing the diets of their grazing beef cattle. This publication discusses the types of blocks available and recommendations for the use of each....

  10. Fed Cattle Grid Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted C. Schroeder; Ernest E. Davis

    Value-based marketing refers to pricing cattle on an individual animal basis. Prices differ according to the underlying value of beef and by-products produced from each animal. It has been difficult to achieve value-based marketing of fed cattle, because incentives to sell cattle on averages and problems associated with identifying beef quality have inhibited development of value-based pricing. Both cattle feeders

  11. Hepatic transcriptome profiling identifies differences in expression of genes associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth between Hereford and Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, Pawel; Ko?ciuczuk, Ewa M; Go?cik, Joanna; Pierzcha?a, Mariusz; Rowi?ska, Barbara; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-04-01

    This study examined liver transcriptomic profiles of cattle distinctly different in meat and milk production capacity. It was performed on bulls of two different genetic backgrounds: Herefords (H), a meat breed, and Holstein-Friesians (HF), a dairy breed. Using bovine long oligo-microarrays and qPCR, we identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed between the two breeds. In H bulls, we observed up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism (CD36, CAT, HSD3B1, FABP1, ACAA1) and involved in insulin signaling (INSR, INSIG2, NR4A1) and down-regulation of genes involved in somatotropic axis signaling (IGF1, GHR, IGFBP3) as compared to HF. Transcriptome profiling of these two breeds allowed us to pinpoint the transcriptional differences between Holstein and Hereford bulls at hepatic level associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth. PMID:24304134

  12. The place of Sanga cattle in dairy production in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Grimaud, P; Mpairwe, D; Chalimbaud, J; Messad, S; Faye, B

    2007-04-01

    A survey was carried out on milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle: 24 farms, with a total of 900 animals and distributed in four agro-ecological zones, were visited every 15 days over 18 months. Cows were fed on natural pastures as the only source of feed, and animal performance was dependent on the season and exhibited a dramatic drop in dry spells. Numeric productivity indices integrating productive performance for settler's, multipurpose, crop-livestock integrated and modern farms were 0.56, 0.74, 0.69 and 0.63, respectively. Milk productivity was higher on modem farms (6.7 L/cow per day) than in the other systems, and higher with Holstein-Friesian cows (7.7 L/cow per day) than with indigenous cattle (1.8 L/cow per day) or crossbred animals (3.7 L/cow per day). This paper speculates on the opportunity to improve the genetic potential of indigenous cattle, concomitantly with the efforts to adapt exotic cattle to a mountainous equatorial environment. PMID:17691546

  13. Chinese weapons

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-07-29

    From a very early date the Chinese were making extremely sophisticated and standardized weapons, often in huge quantities. The development of weapons manufacture and the threat of barbarian invasions is described by Christopher Cullen....

  14. Changing Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Betty Lee

    1977-01-01

    Notes that in many ways the makeup of today's Chinese immigrants tends toward the extremes. At one end they are highly educated, at the other, they are the beneficiaries of the nonquota provisions of the immigration law. (Author/AM)

  15. Determining the value of Mexican cattle vs. sale barn cattle 

    E-print Network

    Horn, Shelby W.

    1992-01-01

    Feedyard managers are faced with cattle purchasing decisions almost daily. In making these decisions, they must be able to accurately estimate the performance, death loss, and a medicine charges of the cattle being considered. Sale barn cattle...

  16. Changes in mRNA Expression for Gluconeogenic Enzymes in Liver of Dairy Cattle During the Transition to Lactation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Greenfield; M. J. Cecava; S. S. Donkin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to profile phospho- enolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) mRNA expression in the liver of dairy cattle during the peripartum transition and determine changes in abundance of these mRNA in response to protein fed during the prepartum period. Thirty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing either 12% crude protein (CP) and 26%

  17. Nucleotide Substitution in 3' Arm of Bovine MIR-2467 in Five Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    ?ukaszewicz, Aneta; Basiak, Szymon; Proskura, Witold Stanis?aw; Dybus, Andrzej

    2015-10-01

    The T > C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MIR2467 gene was investigated in order to confirm its presence in cattle genome and to check for possible differences in its genotype distribution among different breeds. Additional purpose of the study was to investigate in silico potential effect of that substitution on the structure and stability of precursor mir-2467. The study involved 634 individuals of five cattle breeds: Angus, Hereford, Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and Limousin, which were genotyped using PCR-RFLP assay. In this study, the presence of T > C polymorphism at position 24 was observed in all the cattle breeds excepting Hereford. In addition, the differences in the genotype distribution among analyzed breeds were indicated. On the basis of minimum free energy structure prediction, the C allele was indicated to have possible impact on decreasing the stability of the pre-mir-2467, thus altering its ability to regulate target genes expression. PMID:26158459

  18. Postnatal development of antral ovarian follicles in Holstein heifers 

    E-print Network

    Goff, Bradley Alan

    1984-01-01

    POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANTRAL OVARIAN FOLL ICLES IN HOLSTEIN HEIFERS A Thesis by BRADLEY ALAN GOFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1984 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANTRAL OVARIAN FOLLICLES IN HOLSTEIN HEIFERS A Thesis by BRADLEY ALAN GOFF Approved as to style and content by: David W. Forrest (Chairman of Committee) Paul G. Harms...

  19. Postnatal development of antral ovarian follicles in Holstein heifers

    E-print Network

    Goff, Bradley Alan

    1984-01-01

    POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANTRAL OVARIAN FOLL ICLES IN HOLSTEIN HEIFERS A Thesis by BRADLEY ALAN GOFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1984 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANTRAL OVARIAN FOLLICLES IN HOLSTEIN HEIFERS A Thesis by BRADLEY ALAN GOFF Approved as to style and content by: David W. Forrest (Chairman of Committee) Paul G. Harms...

  20. Genetic parameters for natural antibodies and associations with specific antibody and mastitis in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, K A; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) natural antibodies (NAb) in Canadian Holstein cows, (2) genetic parameters and associations between NAb and specific antibody (SpAb), and (3) the association of NAb with clinical mastitis and differences in incidence rates of clinical mastitis (IRCM) among cows classified as high, average, or low responders for NAb. Natural antibodies (IgG and IgM) to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and SpAb to a type 2 test antigen were measured on 451 Holsteins from 41 herds across Canada. A series of uni- and tri-variate linear animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and breeding values for NAb and SpAb. The models included the fixed effects of parity and stage of lactation and the random effects of herd-technician, animal, and residual. Using estimated breeding values for NAb, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders and phenotypic associations with the IRCM were investigated and a logistic regression performed. The estimated heritability was 0.27 for SpAb, and was 0.32 and 0.18 for NAb of the IgG and IgM isotypes, respectively. No significant genetic correlations were found between SpAb and NAb. Although no significant differences in the IRCM were found when cows were classified based on NAb IgG, cows classified as high responders for NAb IgM tended to have a lower IRCM compared with other cows. Immunoglobulin-M was associated with a decreased risk of clinical mastitis (odds ratio=0.958). Results of this study suggest the potential to use NAb IgM as an additional tool to select for disease resistance in cattle, but results need to be validated with a larger sample size. PMID:23587396

  1. Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances 

    E-print Network

    Sartwelle III, James D.; Davis, Ernest E.; Mintert, James R.; Borchardt, Rob

    2000-09-13

    Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances James D. Sartwelle, III, Ernest E. Davis, James Mintert and Rob Borchardt* Ever-tightening profit margins and recurring cyclical downturns in cattle and calf markets have forced many cattle producers to search... (Gelbvieh Alliance), and North American Limousin Foundation (Limousin Grid) all offer direct access to carcass pricing devices that are at least partially negotiated by association personnel. (For a sample carcass pricing grid and a more detailed...

  2. External Parasites of Cattle

    E-print Network

    Price, Manning A.; Hamman, Philip J.; Newton, Weldon H.

    1969-01-01

    , while secondary breeding sites are the sides of the neck, the dewlap, back, base of the horns and base of the tail. If the infestation is severe, these lice may breed in any area of the animal's hair coat. During summer, a few lice usually can.... ........................................................... Short-nosed cattle louse ............................. Cattle tail louse ........................................... Long-nosed cattle louse ............................. "Little blue" ("capillate") louse .............. Mange and Scab Mites...

  3. Chinese Herbalism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

  4. Zinc-65 absorption and tissue distribution in two- and six-month-old holstein calves and lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Stake, P E; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P

    1975-01-01

    Holstein calves and cows in first lactation were fed a low-zinc (16.6 ppm) experimental diet. Zinc-65 absorption and tissue distribution were determined following a single oral tracer dose of zinc-65 given 14 days prior to sacrifice. Net zinc-65 absorptions for the cows and 2- and 6-mo-old calves were 53.4, 49.7 and 47.2% of the dose. Tissue zinc-65 content, adjusted for body weight and zinc-65 of milk of the cows was not significantly different from that of either age calves in 13 of 20 comparable tissues. Greatest differences in tissue zinc-65 were in tibia and rib with the 6-mo-old group highest and cows lowest. Lactation represents a major homoeostatic demand for zinc, and the intestinal absorptive ability of adult cattle remains responsive to physiological need. PMID:1112935

  5. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring: biased milk production as a function of fetal sex, and calving difficulty.

    PubMed

    Grćsbřll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Sřren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441

  6. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) profile of Holstein-Friesian cows as compared to dual-purpose and beef cows.

    PubMed

    Shahin, M; Friedrich, M; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are produced by mono- and binucleate trophoblast cells in the ruminant placenta. PAG appears in maternal blood and, from approximately 4 weeks after fertilization onward, may serve as a reliable means of diagnosing pregnancy. A range of factors are said to affect plasma PAG concentrations, such as number and sex of foetus, mass of calf and placenta, level of milk production and genetic constitution. In this study, PAG pregnancy profiles of a dual-purpose (Simmental) and two beef breeds (Uckermark and Aubrac) are compared with the profile of the specialized dairy breed Holstein-Friesian. Holstein-Friesian cows were sampled weekly; the levels of the other breeds were presented at 3-week intervals. The overall significant breed difference (p = 0.013) was founded on deviations during the initial 3 weeks of pregnancy and from 23 weeks onward. During the period critical for the detection of pregnancy, between four and 22 weeks, agreement between PAG levels of various breeds was close (p > 0.05). No significant effect of body mass of cow or calf (relative to mass of dam) was detected. These findings imply that the PAG pregnancy test may be executed uniformly irrespective of breed or type of cow, affirming the suitability of the test as a valuable asset for the cattle industry. PMID:24888733

  7. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  8. Neosporosis in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L Anderson; A. G Andrianarivo; P. A Conrad

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade, Neospora caninum infection has emerged as an important reproductive disease in cattle throughout the world. Abortion, occurring during the middle of gestation, is the primary clinical sign of the infection in cattle. Surveys in several countries from three continents have identified N. caninum infection as the major diagnosed cause of bovine abortion. Both endemic and epidemic

  9. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  10. [Molecular Genetic Markers of Economically Important Traits in Dairy Cattle].

    PubMed

    Yudin, N S; Voevoda, M I

    2015-05-01

    The selection efficiency of complex quantitative economically important traits in dairy cattle depends on the identification of candidate genes responsible for these traits, as well as the determination of causative DNA polymorphism in these genes. Here, we review examples of DNA polymorphisms in coding and noncoding parts of genes that are associated with milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, milk fat and protein percentages, the biochemical composition of milk, and other milk production traits. Together with data with of foreign authors, which were obtained predominantly for Holstein animals, much attention in the review is paid to domestic studies on Russian cattle breeds. Particular attention is dedicated to DNA polymorphisms in the genes encoding transcription factors, which can potentially affect a large number of traits. The results of association analyses are summarized in a table, and they present the progress of research in this area in recent years. Our analysis indicates that the majority of SNPs, which are associated with significant effects on milk production traits, are in fact in a linkage disequilibrium with yet unknown mutations. The identification of functionally significant DNA polymorphisms and other genetic factors (epimutations, VNTR) is necessary for effective marker-assisted selection and genomic selection of diary cattle breeds. PMID:26137639

  11. Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

    1994-01-01

    Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

  12. Risk factors for abortion in dairy cows from commercial Holstein dairy herds in the Tehran region.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Nima; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Hanson, Timothy E

    2010-09-01

    In last decade, pregnancy loss in dairy cattle has had an upward trend bringing difficulties for breeders: the annual cost is estimated around 396 billion Rials (i.e. around 40 million US$) for the Iranian dairy industry. The present study was conducted to determine the influence of maternal factors on abortion and to predict the probability of abortion as well as the effect of these factors on the fetal lifetime in Holstein dairy cattle. Data from 44,629 established pregnancies that included 14,226 heifers and 30,403 pregnancies from 12,265 parous cows in nine industrial dairy herds around Tehran were used. Overall, 4871 pregnancies of parous cows resulted in abortion. Prediction of the probability of abortion (PPA) was estimated by a logistic regression model. Survival analysis was performed using an accelerated failure time (AFT) model assuming a multi-modal hazard function. Effective factors included age of dam at conception, gravidity, open days, number of previous abortion(s), abortion before/after 60 days of gestation in previous conception, herd and season of insemination. The PPA decreased with increasing open days, increasing gravidity and no previous abortion. In addition, the PPA was greater for cows which had been inseminated during summer versus winter. However, the difference between autumn and spring was not significant. Overall, 25 sires out of 695 from which sperm was collected for artificial insemination (AI) had significantly higher risk of abortion, with odds ratios ranging between 1.44 and 4.73 compared to the average. The survival probability increased slightly during gestation as gravidity increased for cows that had a previous abortion. Cows that had aborted before 60 days of gestation in previous conception tended to abort later in their next conceptions. PMID:20598387

  13. Pest Management Recommendations for Dairy Cattle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Pest Management Recommendations for Dairy Cattle A Cornell and Penn State Cooperative Extension ....................................................................1 Flies In and Around Livestock Barns..........................2 Flies on Pastured Cattle (Excluding Cattle Grubs) ..............................................5 Cattle Grubs

  14. Narthecium asiaticum Maxim. Poisoning of grazing cattle: observations on spontaneous and experimental cases.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Kobayashi, M; Ito, A; Nakgawa, M

    1985-04-01

    A total of 39 Holstein cattle were grazed in tracts of wild grassland on account of shortage in pasture grass. Twenty-nine cattle were affected and 26 of them died during a 21-day period. The main signs were depression, anorexia, ascites, and oliguria. There was elevated serum urea nitrogen and sugar and protein in the urine. Pathological examination revealed turbid swelling of the kidney, an increase in the amount of fluid in the body cavity, edema in the perirenal adipose tissue and hemorrhage in various visceral organs and tissues. Histologically, acute tubular necrosis in the kidney, hypoplasia of the erythroblast series in the bone marrow, atrophy and degeneration of the lymphatic tissue and focal necrosis of the liver were observed in many of the cattle. Among cows experimentally fed Narthecium asiaticum Maxim., Polygonum sachalinense Fr. Schum., and Vitis coignetiae Pulliat which were presumed to have been ingested in large amounts by grazing cattle in the field, the cows fed N. asiaticum revealed the clinical, biochemical and pathological changes similar to those noticed in naturally affected cattle. Cows fed P. sachalinense and V. coignetiae showed no distinct systemic symptoms except transient anorexia and hypothermia. PMID:3987297

  15. Efficacy of Timed Embryo Transfer with Fresh and Frozen In Vitro Produced Embryos to Increase Pregnancy Rates in Heat-Stressed Dairy Cattle1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Ambrose; M. Drost; R. L. Monson; J. J. Rutledge; M. L. Leibfried-Rutledge; M.-J. Thatcher; T. Kassa; M. Binelli; P. J. Hansen; P. J. Chenoweth

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen- thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchro- nized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2? and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows

  16. Effect of dietary fermented fish waste on the digestion of feed and supply of unsaturated fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acid in cattles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-S. Shin; M. Hanada; J.-S. Shin; K.-I. Sung; B.-W. Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented fish waste (FW) on the digestion of fiber and the flow of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) to the duodenum and plasma in cattle. Four Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and cows were provided with one of four treatments consisting 0, 5.5, 11, and 16.5% of

  17. Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.

    PubMed

    Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

    2014-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association studies were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBV in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBV within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multibreed reference population. Therefore, a multibreed reference population is a useful resource to find SNP with a greater than average association with RFI in 1 breed and use them to estimate GEBV in another breed. PMID:25074450

  18. Genome scan for BSE susceptibility and/or resistance in European Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) has been observed in many species including humans and sheep. Evidence for the presence of susceptibility genes on several bovine chromosomes has been reported. More recently, there have been reports of associations w...

  19. Relationships between Longevity and Linear Type Traits in Holstein Cattle Population of Southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Setati; D. Norris; C. B. Banga; K. Benyi

    2004-01-01

    Relationships between longevity and linear type traits were estimated using data on 34 201 cows with lifetime information and linear type scores. The longevity trait considered was the number of lactations initiated and the linear type traits were rump height, body depth, angularity, rear udder height, fore udder attachment, udder depth, fore teat placement and fore teat length. Fixed effects

  20. Role of the major histocompatibility complex in immune responsiveness in a Holstein Charolais cattle cross population 

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Rebecca Jayne

    2011-06-27

    Infectious disease is a major issue facing the livestock industry. Further understanding of the role of genetic factors in the observed phenotypic variability of the immune response to pathogens and vaccination could ...

  1. Identification of loci associated with tolerance to Johne's disease in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease is a bacterial illness caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with genetic tolerance in cows infected with Map. Tolerance was defined as a cow's fitness at a given level of Map infection intensity. ...

  2. Prediction of parturition in Holstein dairy cattle using electronic data loggers.

    PubMed

    Titler, M; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gordon, E; McCullough, K; Federico, P; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of parturition on behavioral activity [steps, standing time, lying time, lying bouts (LB), and duration of LB] 4 d before calving using electronic data loggers. Animals (n=132) from 3 herds were housed in similar freestall barns using a prepartum pen 21 d before the expected calving date and were moved into a contiguous individual maternity pen for parturition. Electronic data loggers were placed on a hind leg of prepartum heifers (heifers, n=33) and cows (cows, n=99) at 7±3 d before the expected calving date and removed at 14±3 d in milk. Calving ease (scale 1-4), parity, calving date and time, and stillbirth (born dead or died within 24h) were recorded. The number of steps (no./d), standing time (min/d), lying time (min/d), number of LB (no./d), and duration of LB (min/b) were recorded. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS, adjusting for the herd effect. Only cows experiencing unassisted births (calving ease=1) were included in the study. An activity index was developed to predict calving time. Heifers and cows with unassisted births had significantly higher number of steps and longer standing time, decreased lying time, and more LB of shorter duration 24h before calving compared with d -4, -3, and -2. Additionally, the number of LB increased as both heifers and cows approached labor starting on d -2 and peaked at the day of calving. The time since the activity index increased over 50% to parturition did not differ between heifers and cows, and the activity index revealed the shift in activity on average 6h 14min (range from 2h to 14h 15min) before calf birth. This study provided evidence that heifers and cows approaching parturition showed a similar, but distinct, behavioral pattern that can be observed on average 6h before calf birth. The potential benefits of electronic data loggers as predictors of parturition along with proactive management practices should improve the overall survival and welfare of both the dam and calf. PMID:26074226

  3. Synchronizing Estrus in Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2007-04-13

    Cattle producers can synchronize estrus (heat) to breed fertile females rapidly. The manipulation of the reproductive process reduces the need to detect estrus, creates a more uniform calf crop, and shortens the breeding and calving seasons...

  4. Anaplasmosis in Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Gill, Ronald J.

    1994-09-29

    percent of cattle with clinical anaplas- mosis die if untreated. Carrier Stage Unless adequately medicated, cattle that recover from anaplasmosis remain reservoirs (carriers) of the disease for the rest of their lives. During the carrier stage, an animal...- grams must include post-medication serologic testing. The animal may test positive for sever- al months after treatment ends, but the posi- tive reactor?s blood may not be infectious to susceptible animals. When testing 6 months after treatment ceases...

  5. Multiple trait genomic evaluation of conception rate in Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national data set of artificial inseminations in US Holsteins was used to obtain genetic evaluations for conception rate (CR). This objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and resulting accuracy from using all available phenotypic, pedigree and genomic information. Evaluations w...

  6. Comparison of steaks from Holstein and Simmental x Angus steers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Thonney; T. C. Perry; G. Armbruster; D. H. Beermann; D. G. Fox

    1991-01-01

    ABSTRACT and D. G. Fox Boneless rib eye steaks from 32 Holstein and 32 Simmental x Angus steers were evaluated by 55 supermarket meat managers. Within breed, steers were divided into light or heavy initial weights. Within initial weight groups, steers were either implanted with Revalor or not implanted. Steers were slaughtered commercially when they reached , and nonsignificant. All

  7. Relationships between type and longevity in the Holstein breed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélčne Larroque; Vincent Ducrocq

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between type traits and longevity was studied in the French Holstein breed using a survival analysis model. In this model, the phenotypic value adjusted for systematic fixed effects, the estimated breeding value, or the residual value (defined as the difference between the adjusted phenotypic value and the estimated breeding value) of the cow for each type trait was

  8. Ground band properties of the Holstein molecular crystal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldo Humberto Romero

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis we study the problem of a polaron, a mobile excitation (electron or exciton) together with its commoving lattice distortion. In particular, we focus on the local interaction of an excitation with an optical phonon mode described by an Einstein frequency, as in the Holstein molecular crystal model. Our approach embodies two points: (i) A confirmation of the

  9. Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...

  10. Original article Performance of a herd of Holstein cows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /kg). The somatic cell count was relatively high (326 000 and 484 000/ml for primiparous and multiparous cows and somatic cells, with growing individual differences. Between months 3 and 10 of lactation, the cows gained of 37 high-yielding Holstein cows managed without the dry period is described. Milk yield was high (9

  11. Genomic imputation and evaluation using 342 high density Holstein genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations for 73,749 Holsteins were computed using 636,967 of the 777,000 markers on the Illumina high density (HD) chip. Observed data included 342 animals with HD genotypes, 54,676 animals with 42,503 marker (50K) genotypes, 17,371 animals with 2,614 marker (3K) genotypes, and 1,360 nong...

  12. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  13. GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG FERTILITY TRAITS OF HOLSTEINS AND JERSEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy Herd Improvement data with service dates from 2,195,643 Holstein and 171,981 Jersey sire-identified lactations from 1995 through 2000 were used to assess genetic variation in and relationships among fertility traits: days to first service (D1), days to last reported service (DL), nonreturn rat...

  14. Estrous Intensity and Conception Rates in Holsteins[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Stevenson; M. K. Schmidt; E. P. Call

    1983-01-01

    During 34 mo, 732 inseminations were evaluated in Holstein cows and heifers of breeding age. Females were submitted for insemination after detection of either 1) standing estrus, 2) mounting activity, or 3) other subtle symptoms of estrus (clear mucus, general appearance of genitalia or tailhead, and excessive vocalization). Conception rates were similar following standing estrus and mounting activity (50 versus

  15. Application of the support vector machine to predict subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mammadova, Nazira; Keskin, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  16. Chemical and electron microscopic studies of cattle (Bos taurus) with four types of phenotypic pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Renieri, C; Ceccarelli, P; Gargiulo, A M; Lauvergne, J J; Monacelli, G

    1993-06-01

    The biological behavior of the pigmentary phenotypes of four breeds of cattle has been analysed: the black pigmentation of Holstein Friesian; the red pigmentation of Limousin; the dilution in Charolais; and the postnatal disappearance of red pigmentation in Chianina. The analytic techniques included the characterization of melanins by high-performance liquid chromatography, the examination of follicular melanocytes by light microscopy, and the examination of melanosomes by electron microscopy. The black phenotype was very strongly eumelanogenic. The red phenotype in Limousin is polymorphic: individual follicular melanocytes contain both mature eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes. Charolais and Chianina cattle exhibited a dramatic reduction in melanogenic activity, which was characterized by the almost exclusive presence of prephaoemelanosomes in Charolais and of immature premelanosomes in Chianina. In the dilute Charolais phenotype, the density of distribution of follicular melanocytes also seemed to be reduced. The genes that are responsible for these four phenotypes seem to act on the maturation, differentiation, and density of distribution of the melanosomes. PMID:8234202

  17. Comparison of microsatellite and blood group diversity among different genotypes of cattle.

    PubMed

    Zidek, Radoslav; Jakabová, Daniela; Trandzík, Jozef; Buleca, Ján; Jakab, Frantisek; Massányi, Peter; Zöldág, László

    2008-09-01

    Genetic variability and relationships among five cattle breeds (Holstein, Pinzgau, Limousin, Slovak Spotted and Charolais) bred in the Slovak Republic were investigated separately using 11 microsatellite markers and 61 blood group systems. Allele frequency, heterozygosity (Ho, HE) and PIC values were investigated. F-statistics were computed separately. For microsatellite markers FIS, FIT, FST and for blood groups HS, HT, GST parameters were calculated. Microsatellite and blood group comparison showed similar results by F-statistics but some differences were marked using the other methods. Both methods were able to detect close relation between Slovak Pinzgau and Slovak Spotted cattle breeds. Their relation was confirmed by genetic distance, principal component analysis (PCA) and coefficient of admixture (mY). Important divergences between different markers used in the study were observed by the characterisation of Limousin and Charolais breeds. PMID:18828484

  18. Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    McCollum III, Ted

    1997-11-03

    Supplemental nutrients for cattle--as concentrated feeds, harvested forages, or a complementary grazing program--accounts for a significant portion of annual production costs in a cattle operation. The producer should know how a supplement affects...

  19. Grid Pricing of Fed Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Ted C.; Hogan, Robert J.; Anderson, David P.

    2009-03-02

    There are several value-based fed cattle pricing systems, including formula pricing, price grids and alliances. This publication describes the different cattle pricing methods and helps you decide which is best for you....

  20. Chinese Posters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fascinating site, brought to fruition by Dutch Sinologist Stefan R. Landsberger, seeks to provide â??a visual chronicle of the history of modern Chinaâ?ť through the exhibition of over 5,000 Peopleâ??s Republic of China propaganda posters. Viewers may want to start with the Gallery of Chinese Propaganda Posters â?? an overview of 200 highlights from the collection. A visit to Our Most Visited Theme Pages and Recently Added Posters also pays intellectual dividends (Iron Women and Foxy Ladies is an especially great find). But perhaps the true gem of the site is the 200 theme presentations found under the Themes link, where readers can explore categories such as Before the Peopleâ??s Republic, Campaigns â?? 1949-1965, Models and Martyrs, and Mao Zedong.

  1. Images of Chinese and Chinese Americans Mirrored in Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Mingshui

    1994-01-01

    Examines how 73 picture storybooks portrayed Chinese and Chinese Americans and how the books reflect the Chinese culture. Finds that most present positive images of Chinese and Chinese Americans, that cultural inauthenticity is the main flaw of many books, and that more picture books are needed that feature flesh and blood contemporary Chinese and…

  2. Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer.

    PubMed

    Golder, Helen M; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM. PMID:24891639

  3. Chaotic polaronic and bipolaronic states in the adiabatic Holstein model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Aubry; Gilles Abramovici; Jean-Luc Raimbault

    1992-01-01

    A rigorous proof for the existence of bipolaronic states is given for the adiabatic Holstein model for any lattice at any dimension, periodic or not, and for an arbitrary band filling, provided that the electron-phonon coupling (in dimensionless units) is large enough. The existence of mixed polaronic-bipolaronic states is also proven, but for larger electron-phonon coupling. These states consist of

  4. Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Helen M.; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM. PMID:24891639

  5. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance. PMID:21110091

  6. A pilot study exploring the use of breath analysis to differentiate healthy cattle from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Christine K; Stahl, Randal S; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V; Rhyan, Jack C; VerCauteren, Kurt C; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M D

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

  7. Improvement of Prediction Ability for Genomic Selection of Dairy Cattle by Including Dominance Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chuanyu; VanRaden, Paul M.; Cole, John B.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both breeds; those SNPs also showed the largest dominance effects for fat yield (both breeds) as well as for Holstein milk yield. PMID:25084281

  8. Methane Emissions from Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Johnson; D. E. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentra- tions of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many

  9. Common Cattle Parasites 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.

    2005-11-11

    dermatitis may persist after the lice are gone. These signs may be confused with mal nu tri tion and al- lergies caused by horn fl ies, mosquitoes and gnats. Although chemicals do not harm lice eggs, cattle can be treated ef fec tive ly by administering...

  10. Testing candidate gene effects on milk production traits in dairy cattle under various parameterizations and modes of inheritance.

    PubMed

    Suchocki, T; Komisarek, J; Szyda, J

    2010-06-01

    The major objectives of this study were 1) to assess the statistical properties of models commonly used for the estimation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects under the assumption of various modes of inheritance and various parameterizations of SNP genotypes using simulated data, and 2) to compare effects of the selected polymorphisms located within butyrophilin (BTN1A1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), leptin (LEP), and leptin receptor (LEPR) candidate genes on milk production traits using data from 2 dairy cattle breeds (190 Jersey cows and 475 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows). Simulation results showed that type I error and power were not dependent on the assumed parameterization, but differences were observed regarding confidence intervals of estimated SNP effects. In the presence of epistasis, correct confidence intervals for all (epistatic and nonepistatic) SNP and all modes of inheritance were provided only by the parameterization proposed by C. H. Kao and Z. B. Zeng in 2002. However, if no dominance effect was included in the model, confidence intervals for SNP effects were correct for all parameterizations. Results based on real data showed that for both breeds the additive effects of polymorphisms were generally similar, except for LEPR, which had a different allele associated with increased fat content in Holstein-Friesians than in Jerseys. In both breeds, DGAT1 had the largest additive effect of the polymorphisms considered, but its effect on most milk traits was more pronounced in Jerseys than in Holstein-Friesians. Evidence of epistasis was found between LEPR and DGAT1, as well as between LEPR and BTN1A1, but only for milk content traits and only in the Holstein-Friesian breed. There was also more evidence for dominance in the Holstein-Friesian breed than in the Jersey breed. PMID:20494180

  11. Genome-wide association study for semen production traits in Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Suchocki, T; Szyda, J

    2015-08-01

    Identifying genomic regions, particularly individual genes associated with semen quality traits, may be very important for improving sire fertility via selective breeding. The aim of the study was to estimate (co)variance components and effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) on semen production traits and to find candidate genes for these traits. The analyzed data set originates from the Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population and consists of 1,212 bulls kept at 4 artificial insemination stations. For each bull, 5 semen production traits were collected: sperm concentration, semen volume, number of spermatozoa, motility, and motility score. A multitrait mixed model was used to estimate genetic parameters. The parameters obtained were used to estimate SNP effects for each trait separately by the mixed model, which is used in the Polish direct genomic value project. Additionally, genes located in the vicinity of significant SNP were selected as candidate genes. For motility, 20 genome-wide significant SNP, located on 12 autosomes, were identified. For sperm concentration, we found 7 significant SNP: 3 on chromosome X, and 1 on chromosomes 1, 6, 23, and 24. For semen volume and motility score, 3 and 1 significant SNP were detected, respectively. All these SNP were located on chromosome X. For the number of spermatozoa, 12 significant SNP were observed. Six SNP were located on chromosome X, 3 on chromosome 8, and 1 on chromosomes 2, 7, and 16. This study clearly indicated a key role of the X chromosome in the determination of semen quality and emphasized that including such traits into genetic evaluation should be strongly considered. PMID:26051317

  12. Incidence rates of clinical mastitis among Canadian Holsteins classified as high, average, or low immune responders.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen A; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  13. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  14. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

  15. Identification of newly isolated Babesia parasites from cattle in Korea by using the Bo-RBC-SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki; Kim, Jong-Taek; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Chung-Gil

    2002-01-01

    Attempts were made to isolate and identify Korean bovine Babesia parasite. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in Korea, and Babesia parasites were propagated in SCID mice with circulating bovine red blood cells for isolation. The isolate was then antigenically and genotypically compared with several Japanese isolates. The Korean parasite was found to be nearly identical to the Oshima strain isolated from Japanese cattle, which was recently designated as Babesia ovata oshimensis n. var. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most probable tick species that transmited the parasite. PMID:11949211

  16. Title: Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multi-breed cattle population.

    PubMed

    Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

    2014-07-10

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of genomic EBVs (GEBVs) for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to: 1) develop a method for calculating GEBVs in a multi-breed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBVs by using SNPs associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBVs using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model was the one including an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into one "breed-class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 months of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5 fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBVs were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBVs slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNPs that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle GWAS were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBVs in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBVs within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multi-breed reference population. Thus, a multi-breed reference population is a useful resource to find SNPs with a greater than average association with RFI in one breed and use them to estimate GEBVs in another breed. PMID:25012976

  17. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  18. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  20. Effective Cattle Management in Riparian Zones

    E-print Network

    Effective Cattle Management in Riparian Zones: A Field Survey and Literature Review Montana Characteristics and Functions of Riparian Areas .................................... 2 Impact of Cattle Principles for Grazing Cattle in Riparian Zones ....................... 19 Determining Season of Use

  1. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture ...Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals regardless...

  2. Chinese-Mandarin; Chinese Character Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This writing exercise book, designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course, consists of step-by-step illustrations for copying 825 characters in the Chinese writing system. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.] (AMM)

  3. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  4. Traumatic flexor tendon injuries in 27 cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D E; St-Jean, G; Morin, D E; Ducharme, N G; Nelson, D R; Desrochers, A

    1996-01-01

    Information for all cattle with a diagnosis of tendon injury entered into the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) was retrieved and selected medical records reviewed. The proportional morbidity rate for tendon disruption was 0.89 cattle/1,000 cattle admissions and 95 of 99 cattle survived. Female and dairy cattle had a greater risk of tendon disruption than male or beef cattle, respectively. Also, cattle 6 months to 7 years old had a greater risk than cattle younger than 6 months old. Complete medical records were examined for 27 cattle. Affected cattle were 2.5 +/- 1.8 years old and weighed 593.6 +/- 315.6 kg. Injuries were most commonly caused by accidents involving farm machinery (72%). Unilateral superficial digital flexor tendon injury occurred in 8 cattle (30%); multiple tendon injury occurred in the other 19 cattle (70%). A single limb was involved in 25 cattle, a rear limb was involved in 24 cattle, and an open wound was associated with the injury in 26 cattle. Wounds were identified most commonly at the mid (13 cattle) and proximal metatarsus (4 cattle). Treatment of tendon disruption included tenorrhaphy and casting (9 cattle), external coaptation, alone, (14 cattle), stall confinement, alone, (1 cow), and euthanasia or salvage (3 cattle). External coaptation was maintained for 74.4 +/- 34.3 days, and total confinement period was 88.3 +/- 59.5 days. Short-term complications included severe tendon laxity (one cow) and fatal septic peritonitis (one bull). Twenty-two of 24 cattle treated for tendon disruption survived. Follow-up information was available for 16 cattle; 14 cattle (87%) returned to productivity and 11 of 15 cattle with long-term follow-up (73%) were considered productive. Long-term complications included persistent lameness (56%) and persistent hyperextension of the digits (19%). PMID:8810022

  5. THE ECONOMICS OF CATTLE SUPPLY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Aadland

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to build a more complete model of cattle supply, which could be used to both explain aggregate cattle dynamics and, ultimately, guide policy decisions. Toward that end, I build a dynamic rational expectations model describing the supply of cattle that improves on existing models by allowing cow-calf operators to make period-by-period investment decisions

  6. Polaron band formation in the Holstein model G. Wellein and H. Fehske

    E-print Network

    Fehske, Holger

    Polaron band formation in the Holstein model G. Wellein and H. Fehske Physikalisches Institut results for the polaronic band structure of the Holstein molecular crystal model in one and two dimensions phonons that is what is usually called the polaron prob­ lem and numerous analytical techniques were tried

  7. Solution of the Holstein polaron anisotropy problem Andreas Alvermann and Holger Fehske

    E-print Network

    Fehske, Holger

    Solution of the Holstein polaron anisotropy problem Andreas Alvermann and Holger Fehske Institut 2008; published 8 October 2008 We study Holstein polarons in three-dimensional anisotropic materials. Using a variational exact diagonal- ization technique we provide highly accurate results for the polaron

  8. Dimensionality effects on the Holstein polaron Li-Chung Ku,1,2

    E-print Network

    Bonèa, Janez

    Dimensionality effects on the Holstein polaron Li-Chung Ku,1,2 S. A. Trugman,1 and J. Bonca3 1 developed variational method, we explore the properties of the Holstein polaron on an infinite lattice in D parameter to date for polaron problems, 21 digits for the one-dimensional 1D polaron at intermediate

  9. Fertility and hair coat characteristics of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. A. Bertipaglia; R. G. Silva

    2006-01-01

    This experiment deals with the effects of hair coat on the number of inseminations per conception in Brazilian Holstein cows. Data (n = 2446) were collected from 939 primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows in a commercial herd managed under an intensive free- stall system and provided with cooling units (fans and sprinklers). The following hair coat characteristics were considered: hair

  10. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between certain body measurements and milk production of first lactation Holsteins 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Joseph Calbert

    1958-01-01

    LIBRARY * &M COLLEGE OF PHENOTYPIC AND GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CERTAIN BODY MEASUREMENTS AND MILK PRODUCTION OF FIRST LACTATION HOLSTEINS A Dissertation by Joseph Calbert Johnson, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate School... PRODUCTION OF FIRST LACTATION HOLSTEINS A Dissertation by PHENOT YICANDG PHTREHRL PDS Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of Committee J January 1959 CONTENTS Page Introduction ........................... ................... 1 Related...

  11. LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS AND MUSCLE DISTRIBUTION IN F) HOLSTEIN X FRIESIAN INTACT MALES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtiss M. Bailey; T. Liboriussen; B. Bech Andersen

    Influence of sire, dietary regimen and slaughter weight on wither height, body depth, heart girth, hip width and percentage of total muscle in each of nine commercial cuts of F 1 Holstein X Friesian bulls (N = 260) was studied. Sires were full-blooded or percentage Holstein; dams were commercial and purebred Danish Friesians. The young bulls received 100, 75, 50

  12. Reproductive status of Holstein and Jersey cows in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive information from USDA’s national dairy database since 1996 was used to provide yearly means in 8 traits in the Holstein and Jersey breeds. Respectively, data for Holsteins and Jerseys were from 20,746 and 1963 herds, 3,645,987 and 184,398 cows, 7,107,057 and 387,441 lactations, and 15,...

  13. Effect of Season and Exposure to Heat Stress on Oocyte Competence in Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Al-Katanani; F. F. Paula-Lopes; P. J. Hansen

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate sea- sonal variation in oocyte competence in Holstein cows and to test whether oocyte quality in summer is af- fected by the magnitude of heat stress. In the first experiment, ovaries of Holstein cows were collected from a slaughterhouse and used to harvest oocytes over 1 yr (n = 18 replicates). After in vitro

  14. Body Condition Scores and Dairy Form Evaluations as Indicators of Days Open in US Holsteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Dechow; G. W. Rogers; L. Klei; T. J. Lawlor; P. M. VanRaden

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic correlations among body condition score (BCS), dairy form, milk yield, and days open in US Holsteins and investigate the potential of using BCS or dairy form evaluations as early indicators of days open. Dairy form and BCS obtained from the Holstein Association USA, Inc., were merged with mature equivalents (ME) for

  15. SNP-based association mapping of the polled gene in divergent cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Seichter, D; Russ, I; Rothammer, S; Eder, J; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2012-10-01

    Naturally, hornless cattle are called polled. Although the POLL locus could be assigned to a c. 1.36-Mb interval in the centromeric region of BTA1, the underlying genetic basis for the polled trait is still unknown. Here, an association mapping design was set up to refine the candidate region of the polled trait for subsequent high-throughput sequencing. The case group comprised 101 homozygous polled animals from nine divergent cattle breeds, the majority represented by Galloway, Angus, Fleckvieh and Holstein Friesian. Additionally, this group included some polled individuals of Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey and Limousin breeds. The control group comprised horned Belgian Blue, Fleckvieh, Holstein Friesian and Illyrian Buša cattle. A genome-wide scan using 49,163 SNPs was performed, which revealed one shared homozygous haplotype block consisting of nine neighbouring SNPs in all polled animals. This segment defines a 381-kb interval on BTA1 that we consider to be the most likely location of the POLL mutation. Our results further demonstrate that the polled-associated haplotype is also frequent in horned animals included in this study, and thus the haplotype as such cannot be used for population-wide genetic testing. The actual trait-associated haplotype may be revealed by using higher-density SNP arrays. For the final identification of the causal mutation, we suggest high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, because the identification of functional candidate genes is difficult owing to the lack of a comparable model. PMID:22497248

  16. Biosecurity for Beef Cattle Operations 

    E-print Network

    Cleere, Jason; Gill, Ronald J.; Dement, Angela

    2008-10-06

    Biosecurity in the beef cattle industry involves understanding disease transmission and animal immunity, and then establishing a sound program for disease prevention. This publication explains general biosecurity practices....

  17. Cattle theileriosis in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxun Luo; Wenshun Lu

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Amongst the piroplasmoses of livestock in China, the commonest theilerioses are caused byTheileria annulata, T. sergenti andT. mutans. Research carried out over many years has shown these to be distributed mainly in Northern China but they also occur in Southern\\u000a China.T. annulata andT. sergenti are the most troublesome, affecting large numbers of cattle, especially those of exotic breeds. The incident

  18. Clinical aspects of experimentally induced chloride deficiency in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, D M; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Brown, S R; Crowell, W A; McGuire, S O; Gentry, R P

    1984-08-01

    A severe total body chloride deficit was induced in Holstein calves by feeding a low-chloride ration (0.063% Cl) and removing digesta daily from the abomasum through a surgically implanted cannula. Clinical signs of the deficit observed included polydipsia, polyuria, dehydration, anorexia, scleral injection, decreased respiratory rate, and blood and mucus in the feces. Necropsy findings included dehydration, blood in the lumen of the small intestine, and renal lesions. The most extensive histopathologic changes occurred in the renal tubular epithelium of the outer medulla where mineralization of the tubular epithelium and basement membranes was frequently seen. PMID:6476576

  19. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the conversion of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide in the rumen. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422758

  20. FEED\\/CATTLE PRICE RELATIONSHIPS AND THE OPTIMUM SYSTEM AND LOCATION OF CATTLE FEEDING IN TEXAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed Williams; Donald E. Farris

    1971-01-01

    Texas has developed into a major cattle feeding competitive advantage of feeding cattle in areas of State during the past few years, mainly because of the Texas which have different feed\\/cattle price ratios, existing favorable feed\\/cattle price relationships. (2) the optimum area in which to use selected cattle These price relationships are the result of the surplus feeding systems, and

  1. January 3, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $7 to $8 higher

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    January 3, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 01 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $7 to $8 higher.00 dressed. The past two weeks have been ex- tremely favorable to cattle feeders as prices for fed cattle broke out of a fall lull resulting in record setting fed cattle prices two weeks in a row. The last week

  2. November 15, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 higher

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    November 15, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 46 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 higher cattle prices, it appears the market is stagnant again. Much like the summer and fall fed cattle prices seem to have plat- eaued. The past few weeks, cattle have been trading in a narrow range and it does

  3. December 13, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle was $1 lower com-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    December 13, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 50 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle was $1 lower com and no dressed trade was reported. A year ago prices were $123.22 live and $197.00 dressed. Fed cattle trade- ment provided little to no incentive for packers to place cattle on the rail. Cattle have consistently

  4. January 10, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $2 higher com-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    January 10, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 02 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $2 higher com.10 dressed. Cattle feeding margins must be looking much better compared to the week before Christmas due to the sharp rise in fed cattle prices. Cattle coming off feed spent the majority of their time consuming new

  5. January 17, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $3 higher

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    January 17, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 03 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $3 higher.76 dressed. The short supply of cattle continues to be priced into the market. Fed cattle prices have not done anything but increase since the Christ- mas holiday. The price for cattle marketed on a live basis

  6. December 6, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady com-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    December 6, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 49 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady com. Steady cattle prices are not necessarily a bad thing if they maintain this level for cattle feeders has had tremendous negative repercussions on cattle in the feedlot, but cold weather can decrease feed

  7. January 24, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $5 to $6 high-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    January 24, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 04 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $5 to $6 high and $197.93 dressed. Many are asking how fed cattle prices can continue to set record highs week after week reason is the short sup- ply of market ready cattle. Cattle on feed reports from 4 to 6 months ago

  8. February 14, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 higher on a

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    February 14, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 07 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 higher of steady to stronger fed cattle prices over the next cou- ple of weeks. It would not appear the mar- ket fall mode, the same cannot be said about the price of fed cattle. Fed cattle pric- es have stabilized

  9. Halogeton poisoning in range cattle.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, S D; Black, B

    1980-04-15

    Acute Halogeton glomeratus poisoning occurred in 16 of 680 range cattle during and following a trail drive. Signs of toxicosis included posterior ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Histopathologically, abundant, refractile calcium oxalate crystals were seen in renal tubules. Inasmuch as the plant is generally unpalatable for cattle, poisoning in this case was enhanced by a preceding period of food deprivation. PMID:7410153

  10. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14 Animals and...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  11. Improving Cattle Health Through Trace Mineral Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry W. Spears

    1995-01-01

    A number of trace minerals are required by beef cattle. Feeds consumed by cattle may supply most trace minerals in adequate amounts. However, some minerals may be severely or at least marginally deficient in beef cattle diets. Even marginal mineral deficiencies can reduce growth, reproduction and\\/or health of cattle showing few if any clinical signs of deficiency. Other trace minerals

  12. Learn Chinese Characters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harbaugh, Rick

    Zhongwen.com is a valuable online resource for individuals just beginning to learn Chinese, as well as those who want to learn more. The site contains the complete on line text of "Chinese Character: A Genealogy and Dictionary". All the Chinese characters are hyperlinked so that users of the site can quickly decipher new and unfamiliar characters in English. Additionally, the site has readings about Chinese culture written in Chinese such as the "Art of War" and "Mao Sayings". Finally, for those who may just have basic questions about the Chinese language there is a frequently asked questions section that addresses common questions such as "Why are characters so complicated?" and "Are they pictures?"

  13. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen activity may lead to decreased methane production and concomitantly to improved feed efficiency. A major effort should be dedicated to this new field of research and particularly to rumen flora metagenomics. Low input in cattle production is very important and tomorrow's cow will need to adapt to a less intensive production environment, particularly lower feed quality and limited care. Finally, global climate change will increase pathogen pressure, thus more accurate predictors for disease resistance will be required. PMID:22436268

  14. Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Yu, Dayeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Lim, Dajeong

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. A total of approximately 3.12 and 3.07 billion sequence reads were mapped to the bovine reference sequence assembly (UMD 3.1) at an average of approximately 10.71- and 10.53-fold coverage for Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 17,936,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were yielded, of which 22.3% were found to be novel. By annotating the SNPs, we further retrieved numerous nonsynonymous SNPs that may be associated with traits of interest in cattle. Furthermore, we performed whole-genome screening to detect signatures of selection throughout the genome. We located several promising selective sweeps that are potentially responsible for economically important traits in cattle; the PPP1R12A gene is an example of a gene that potentially affects intramuscular fat content. These discoveries provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds. PMID:26018558

  15. Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Yu, Dayeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Lim, Dajeong

    2015-05-31

    Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. A total of approximately 3.12 and 3.07 billion sequence reads were mapped to the bovine reference sequence assembly (UMD 3.1) at an average of approximately 10.71- and 10.53-fold coverage for Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 17,936,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were yielded, of which 22.3% were found to be novel. By annotating the SNPs, we further retrieved numerous nonsynonymous SNPs that may be associated with traits of interest in cattle. Furthermore, we performed whole-genome screening to detect signatures of selection throughout the genome. We located several promising selective sweeps that are potentially responsible for economically important traits in cattle; the PPP1R12A gene is an example of a gene that potentially affects intramuscular fat content. These discoveries provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds. PMID:26018558

  16. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert; Stothard, Paul; van Binsbergen, Rianne; Brřndum, Rasmus F; Liao, Xiaoping; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Grohs, Cécile; Esquerré, Diane; Bouchez, Olivier; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fritz, Sébastien; Eggen, André; Bowman, Phil J; Coote, David; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Anderson, Charlotte; VanTassell, Curt P; Hulsegge, Ina; Goddard, Mike E; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Veerkamp, Roel F; Boichard, Didier A; Fries, Ruedi; Hayes, Ben J

    2014-08-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes project, we sequenced the whole genomes of 234 cattle to an average of 8.3-fold coverage. This sequencing includes data for 129 individuals from the global Holstein-Friesian population, 43 individuals from the Fleckvieh breed and 15 individuals from the Jersey breed. We identified a total of 28.3 million variants, with an average of 1.44 heterozygous sites per kilobase for each individual. We demonstrate the use of this database in identifying a recessive mutation underlying embryonic death and a dominant mutation underlying lethal chrondrodysplasia. We also performed genome-wide association studies for milk production and curly coat, using imputed sequence variants, and identified variants associated with these traits in cattle. PMID:25017103

  18. Multibreed genomic evaluations using purebred Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic models were developed and tested using the 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2009 USD...

  19. Searching new signals for production traits through gene-based association analysis in three Italian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Milanesi, Marco; Bomba, Lorenzo; Cappelli, Katia; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely applied to disentangle the genetic basis of complex traits. In cattle breeds, classical GWAS approaches with medium-density marker panels are far from conclusive, especially for complex traits. This is due to the intrinsic limitations of GWAS and the assumptions that are made to step from the association signals to the functional variations. Here, we applied a gene-based strategy to prioritize genotype-phenotype associations found for milk production and quality traits with classical approaches in three Italian dairy cattle breeds with different sample sizes (Italian Brown n = 745; Italian Holstein n = 2058; Italian Simmental n = 477). Although classical regression on single markers revealed only a single genome-wide significant genotype-phenotype association, for Italian Holstein, the gene-based approach identified specific genes in each breed that are associated with milk physiology and mammary gland development. As no standard method has yet been established to step from variation to functional units (i.e., genes), the strategy proposed here may contribute to revealing new genes that play significant roles in complex traits, such as those investigated here, amplifying low association signals using a gene-centric approach. PMID:25997511

  20. External Parasites of Cattle.

    E-print Network

    Price, Manning A.; Hamman, Philip J.; Newton, Weldon H.

    1969-01-01

    and only partially recognized because insect, tick or mite infestations are usually not fatal. Losses from irritation, annoyance and nutritional competition are more diffi- cult to assess. The actual monetary loss caused by cattle parasites is difficult... Unfed nymphs and adults overwinter in most of[t tick tlistributional range in Texas. In the extrbu southern range, all stages may be found on hosts throulN out the year, but during the winter months they oclt t only in small numbers. Males emerge...

  1. Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

  2. Double Muscling in Cattle

    E-print Network

    Kieffer, Nat M.; Cartwright, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    TOOC - ZTA245.7 B873 r\\O.1325 ,;J Cover photo: This lO-month-old bull is the product of a two-breed cross. He shows classic symptoms of double muscling and illustrates that the double-muscled gene is the same in different breeds of cattlr... Double Muscling ......... In Cattle Nat M. Kieffer Professor T. C. Cartwright Professor The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (Department of Animal Science) 2 Contents 2 Summary 3 Introduction 3 Historical Background 4 Physical...

  3. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle. PMID:22444040

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle in Korea between 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun; Hwang, Sun Young; Kwon, Ka Hee; Kim, Ki Yeon; Kim, Jae Hong

    2014-01-01

    A total of 156 Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from fecal samples of Korean native (100/568, 18%) and Holstein dairy cattle (56/524, 11%) in Korea between September 2010 and July 2011. Fifty-two STEC isolates (33%) harbored both of shiga toxin1 (stx1) and shiga toxin2 (stx2) genes encoding enterohemolysin (EhxA) and autoagglutinating adhesion (Saa) were detected by PCR in 83 (53%) and 65 (42%) isolates, respectively. By serotyping, six STEC from native cattle and four STEC from dairy cattle were identified as O-serotypes (O26, O111, O104, and O157) that can cause human disease. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns highlighted the genetic diversity of the STEC strains and difference between strains collected during different years. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the multidrug resistance rate increased from 12% in 2010 to 42% in 2011. Differences between isolates collected in 2010 and 2011 may have resulted from seasonal variations or large-scale slaughtering in Korea performed to control a foot and mouth disease outbreak that occurred in early 2011. However, continuous epidemiologic studies will be needed to understand mechanisms. More public health efforts are required to minimize STEC infection transmitted via dairy products and the prevalence of these bacteria in dairy cattle. PMID:23820205

  5. The Chinese Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostic, N.; Segan, S.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.

  6. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  7. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  8. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  9. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may...

  10. Application of the a posteriori granddaughter design to the Holstein genome.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Cole, J B; Vanraden, P M; Wiggans, G R

    2014-04-01

    An a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to estimate quantitative trait loci genotypes of sires with many sons in the US Holstein population. The results of this analysis can be used to determine concordance between specific polymorphisms and segregating quantitative trait loci. Determination of the actual polymorphisms responsible for observed genetic variation should increase the accuracy of genomic evaluations and rates of genetic gain. A total of 52 grandsire families, each with ?100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests, were analyzed for 33 traits (milk, fat and protein yields; fat and protein percentages; somatic cell score (SCS); productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; heifer and cow conception rates; service-sire and daughter calving ease; service-sire and daughter stillbirth rates; 18 conformation traits; and net merit). Of 617 haplotype segments spanning the entire bovine genome and each including ~5×106 bp, 5 cM and 50 genes, 608 autosomal segments were analyzed. A total of 19 335 unique haplotypes were found among the 52 grandsires. There were a total of 133 chromosomal segment-by-trait combinations, for which the nominal probability of significance for the haplotype effect was <10-8, which corresponds to genome-wide significance of <10-4. The number of chromosomal regions that met this criterion by trait ranged from one for rear legs (rear view) to seven for net merit. For each of the putative quantitative trait loci, at least one grandsire family had a within-family contrast with a t-value of >3. Confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by the nonparametric bootstrap for the largest effect for each of nine traits. The bootstrap distribution generated by 100 samples was bimodal only for net merit, which had the widest 90% CI (eight haplotype segments). This may be due to the fact that net merit is a composite trait. For all other chromosomes, the CI spanned less than a third of the chromosome. The narrowest CI (a single haplotype segment) was found for SCS. It is likely that analysis by more advanced methods could further reduce CIs at least by half. These results can be used as a first step to determine the actual polymorphisms responsible for observed quantitative variation in dairy cattle. PMID:24636822

  11. Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Hernandez, L L

    2015-04-01

    Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day -3 compared with -5 and -7 precalving (167.7 ± 80 vs 1511.1 ± 602 ng/mL). 5-HT nadir was on day -1 precalving and remained low postcalving (481.4 ± 49 ng/mL). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased precalving (P = 0.008) and were positively correlated with 5-HT during the precalving period (r = 0.55, P = 0.043). On day 1, postcalving hepatic messenger RNA expression of 5-HT1D, 2B, 3C, 6, and 7 receptors were decreased compared with day -7 (P < 0.048). The 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B decreased on day 7. The 5-HT2A increased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). The 5-HT1F and 5-HT1A receptors were increased 2.5- and 3.8-fold on day 7, respectively, compared with days -7 and 1 (P < 0.046). The 5-HT5A was not detected, and 5-HT4 was detected on days -7 and 1 only. Expression of Glut-2,-5 and SGLT1 were decreased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05), whereas Glut-1 was increased on day 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 5-HT could be important for liver glucose homeostasis possibly through receptor mediated signaling at specific times. Additional research is needed to further explore the functional role of these receptors in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. PMID:25528206

  12. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Liu; C. Hoede

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example, we found that knowledge graphs have a

  13. Hormones, metabolites, and reproduction in Holsteins, Jerseys, and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Brown, K L; Cassell, B G; McGilliard, M L; Hanigan, M D; Gwazdauskas, F C

    2012-02-01

    Holsteins (HH), Jerseys (JJ), and their crosses in first (n=157) and second (n=107) lactation were used to determine if reproduction, progesterone (P4), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and milk production differed between genetic groups. Thirty-four cows were Holstein-Jersey (HJ) crosses, 46 were Jersey-Holstein (JH) crosses, 48 were purebred Holsteins (HH), and 29 were purebred Jerseys (JJ) in first lactation, whereas the second-lactation animals included 23 HJ, 35 JH, 35 HH, and 14 JJ. Blood samples were collected weekly for the first 10 wk postpartum. Analyses were conducted using the MIXED, chi-square, and GLIMMIX procedures (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Seasons of calving were cold (November to May) and hot (June to October) and were combined with year to form 8 year-seasons. Days open and number of services were affected by genetic group. The HH were open 169±8 d, which was greater than HJ (143±9 d), JJ (132±10 d), and JH (127±8 d). The HH had 2.4±0.1 services per pregnancy, which was greater than JH (1.9±0.1), but not different from HJ (2.1±0.2) or JJ (2.1±0.2). Concentrations of NEFA were greater in lactation 2 (0.52±0.02 mEq/L) than in lactation 1 (0.45±0.02 mEq/L) and decreased over the 10-wk period. Concentrations of NEFA were greater in the cold season except in yr 3. Insulin in lactation 1 (0.81±0.03 ng/mL) was greater than in lactation 2 (0.72±0.03 ng/mL); insulin decreased to wk 2 then gradually increased. The HJ had the greatest insulin concentrations (0.87±0.04 ng/mL) and the JJ had the lowest (0.66±0.04 ng/mL), and IGF-1 gradually increased over the 10-wk period. Milk production (actual yield in the first 305 d, not adjusted for fat and protein) was affected by genetic group, lactation number, year-season, and wk 1 insulin. The HH produced 10,348±207 kg of milk, which was greater than the HJ (9,129±230 kg), the JH (9,384±190 kg), and the JJ (7,080±240 kg). Milk production in lactation 2 (9,676±163 kg) was greater than that in lactation 1 (8,294±160 kg). The JJ (10.3±4.7%) had the highest frequency of mastitis. The chance of getting mastitis for HH (1.1±0.9%) differed from that for HJ (9.4±4.1%), JH (8.1±3.4%), and JJ (10.3±4.7%). Genetic group affected hormones and metabolites, which may partially explain differences in reproductive measures and milk yield. PMID:22281334

  14. Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.

    PubMed

    Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G

    1992-01-01

    Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals. PMID:1554771

  15. Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

  16. ADVANCED CHINESE. YALE LINGUISTIC SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DE FRANCIS, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE THIRD IN A SERIES OF TEXTS PREPARED AT SETON HALL UNIVERSITY, THIS ADVANCED TEXT PRESUPPOSES MASTERY OF "BEGINNING CHINESE,""BEGINNING CHINESE READER," AND LESSONS 1 TO 6 OF "INTERMEDIATE CHINESE READER." A COMPANION VOLUME TO THIS ONE, "CHARACTER TEXT FOR ADVANCED CHINESE," PROVIDES READING PRACTICE AND REPETITION OF THE 904 NEW CHARACTERS…

  17. Estimating Grazeable Acreage for Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Hohlt, Jason C.; Lyons, Robert K.; Hanselka, C. Wayne; McKown, David

    2009-04-17

    Estimating Grazeable Acreage for Cattle Jason C. Hohlt, Robert K. Lyons, C. Wayne Hanselka and David McKown* B-6222 4-09 *Natural Resources Conservation Service; and Professor and Extension Range Specialist, Professor and Extension Range Specialist...

  18. Bovine Paratuberculosis of Beef Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.; Roussel, Allen J.; Thrift, Todd A.; Gill, Ronald J.; Magee, Derry D.

    2002-02-05

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's (pronounced "Yo-nees) disease, is a chronic intestinal infection of cattle. It is increasingly recognized in both dairy and beef herds. This publication discusses transmission of the bacteria and control and prevention...

  19. Bovine Paratuberculosis of Dairy Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Faries Jr., Floron C.; Jordan, Ellen R.; Stokes, Sandra R.; Magee, Derry D.; Roussel, Allen J.

    1999-03-11

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's (pronounced "Yo-nees) disease, is a chronic intestinal infection of cattle. It is increasingly recognized in both dairy and beef herds. This publication discusses transmission of the bacteria, and control and prevention...

  20. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. The effect of chilled drinking water on heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Christopher Charles

    1987-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CHILLED DRINKING WATER ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER CHARLES BAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 5 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECT OF CHILLED DRINKING WATER ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER CHARLES BAKER Approved as to style and content: Carl E. Coppock (Chair of Committee...

  2. Performance and efficiency of North-Central Texas DHIA Holstein herds 

    E-print Network

    De Sainz, Adriano

    1992-01-01

    PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY OF NORTH-CENTRAL TEXAS DHIA HOLSTEIN HERDS A Thesis by ADRIANO DE SAINZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Dairy Science PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY OF NORTH-CENTRAL TEXAS DHIA HOLSTEIN HERDS A Thesis by ADRIANO DE SAINZ Approved as to style and content by: Jer y F, Taylor (Chair of Committee) Ronald D. Lacewell...

  3. Antral follicular development and estrogen secretion in the prepuberal Holstein heifer 

    E-print Network

    Schulze, Aaron Lee

    1985-01-01

    ANTRAL FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT AND ESTROGEN SECRETION IN THE PREPUBERAL HOLSTEIN HEIFER A Thesis by AARON LEE SCHULZE Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas AZcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major subject~ Physiology of Reproduction ANTRAL FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT AND ESTROGEN SECRETION IN THE PREPUBERAL HOLSTEIN HEIFER A Thesis by AARON LEE SCHULZE Approved as to style and content by: David W. Forrest...

  4. Evidence for pulsatile release of LH during early and late gestation in Holstein cows 

    E-print Network

    Little, Daniel Edward

    1980-01-01

    EVIDENCE FOR PULSATILE RELEASE OF LH DURING EARLY AND LATE GESTATION IN HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by DANIEL EDWARD LITTLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction EVIDENCE FOR PULSATILE RELEASE OF LH DURING EARLY AND LATE GESTATION IN HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by DANIEL EDWARD LITTLE Approved as to style and content by: (Ch irman...

  5. Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk 

    E-print Network

    Dachir, Shlomit

    1983-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS QF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COWS QF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FQR MILK A Thesis by SHLQMIT OACHIR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COIAIS OF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FOR MILK A Thesis by SHLOMIT OACHIR Approved as to style...

  6. Genomic Differences Between Highly Fertile and Sub-Fertile Holstein Dairy Heifers 

    E-print Network

    Navarrette, Ashley Elizabeth

    2012-07-16

    GENOMIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HIGHLY FERTILE AND SUB-FERTILE HOLSTEIN DAIRY HEIFERS A Thesis by ASHLEY ELIZABETH NAVARRETTE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2012 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction Genomic Differences Between Highly Fertile and Sub-Fertile Holstein Dairy Heifers Copyright 2012 Ashley...

  7. Ovarian control of luteinizing hormone secretion in prepuberal and postnatal Holstein heifers

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Wendy Jo

    1984-01-01

    OVARIAN CONTROL OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN PREPUBERAL AND POSTNATAL HOLSTEIN HEIFERS A Thesis by WENDY JO ANDERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements f' or the degree... of' MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN CONTROL OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN PREPUBERAL AND POSTNATAL HOLSTEIN HEIFERS A Thesis by WENDY JO ANDERSON Approved as to style and content by...

  8. Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk

    E-print Network

    Dachir, Shlomit

    1983-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS QF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COWS QF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FQR MILK A Thesis by SHLQMIT OACHIR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COIAIS OF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FOR MILK A Thesis by SHLOMIT OACHIR Approved as to style...

  9. ASSOCIATION AMONG FLUID, GRAIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN IN HOLSTEIN BULL CALVES 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez Ferreira, Marcelo A.

    2010-07-14

    ASSOCIATION AMONG FLUID, GRAIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN IN HOLSTEIN BULL CALVES A Thesis by MARCELO GONZALEZ FERREIRA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2009 Major Subject: Dairy Science ASSOCIATION AMONG FLUID, GRAIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN IN HOLSTEIN BULL CALVES A Thesis by MARCELO GONZALEZ FERREIRA Submitted to the Office...

  10. Acclimation of Holstein Calves to Transit Stress: The Integration of Endocrine, Immune, and Behavior Systems

    E-print Network

    Adams, Amber

    2012-10-19

    ACCLIMATION OF HOLSTEIN CALVES TO TRANSIT STRESS: THE INTEGRATION OF ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE, AND BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS A Dissertation by AMBER LYNN ADAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial..., and Behavior Systems Copyright 2012 Amber Lynn Adams ACCLIMATION OF HOLSTEIN CALVES TO TRANSIT STRESS: THE INTEGRATION OF ENDOCRINE, IMMUNE, AND BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS A Dissertation by AMBER LYNN ADAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  11. Evaluation of Ontario Holstein Dairy Sires for Milk and Fat Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Schaeffer; M. G. Freeman; E. B. Burnside

    1975-01-01

    Milk and fat production records of 176,380 Ontario 2-yr-old Holstein cows from 1958 to 1972 were used to evaluate 433 Holstein sires. The objectives of the study were to utilize the sire comparison procedures currently used in the north- eastern United States on Ontario Hol- stein data; to determine feasible strate- gies of grouping sires to account for genetic trend;

  12. Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.

    1987-09-01

    Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

  13. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results indicated that management of diet CP levels of confined finishing steers mitigates NH3 emissions from steers but does not affect enteric CH4. In addition, results suggested that soil characteristics might be as important as manure N content to generate NH3 and greenhouse gases from soils receiving manure fertilization. PMID:25568381

  14. Genetic characterization of a herd of the endangered Danish Jutland cattle.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi, C; Purfield, D C; Berg, P; Jensen, T H; Bach, O S; Vingborg, R; Kristensen, T N

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present results from a genetic characterization of a herd of the Danish Jutland cattle breed named the Kortegaard herd (n = 135; 57 males and 78 females). The herd is genotyped on the Bovine HD BeadChip microarray with 697,548 evenly spaced SNP across the bovine genome. The aim of the study was to characterize the genetic profile of the Kortegaard herd, which has been closed for several generations, by quantifying the degree of genetic homogeneity within the herd and to compare its genetic profile to that of other cattle breeds. A total of 868 animals from the Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Holstein-Friesian crosses, Limousin, and Simmental breeds was used for genetic profile comparisons. The level of genetic variation within the breeds were quantified by the expected heterozygosity (H(E)), observed heterozygosity (H(O)), average minor allele frequency (MAF), the degree of polymorphism, and runs of homozygosity (ROH), which are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes of varying length. Interestingly, the Kortegaard herd had the lowest within-breed genetic variation (lowest H(E), H(O), and MAF), showed moderate levels of short ROH (<5 Mb), and had the highest mean long ROH (>5 Mb) compared to all the other breeds. This is possibly due to recent consanguineous matings, a strong founder effect, and a lack of gene flow from other herds and breeds. We further examined whether the observed genetic patterns in the Kortegaard herd can be used to design breeding strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool by focusing on a subset of SNP outside homozygote regions. By calculating the pairwise identical-by-state between all possible matings, we designed a breeding plan that maximized heterozygosity in the short term. The benefits and limitations of such a breeding strategy are discussed. PMID:24671594

  15. Copy number variation of individual cattle genomes using next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bickhart, Derek M.; Hou, Yali; Schroeder, Steven G.; Alkan, Can; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Song, Jiuzhou; Schnabel, Robert D.; Ventura, Mario; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Eichler, Evan E.; Liu, George E.

    2012-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) affect a wide range of phenotypic traits; however, CNVs in or near segmental duplication regions are often intractable. Using a read depth approach based on next-generation sequencing, we examined genome-wide copy number differences among five taurine (three Angus, one Holstein, and one Hereford) and one indicine (Nelore) cattle. Within mapped chromosomal sequence, we identified 1265 CNV regions comprising ?55.6-Mbp sequence—476 of which (?38%) have not previously been reported. We validated this sequence-based CNV call set with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), achieving a validation rate of 82% and a false positive rate of 8%. We further estimated absolute copy numbers for genomic segments and annotated genes in each individual. Surveys of the top 25 most variable genes revealed that the Nelore individual had the lowest copy numbers in 13 cases (?52%, ?2 test; P-value <0.05). In contrast, genes related to pathogen- and parasite-resistance, such as CATHL4 and ULBP17, were highly duplicated in the Nelore individual relative to the taurine cattle, while genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism, including APOL3 and FABP2, were highly duplicated in the beef breeds. These CNV regions also harbor genes like BPIFA2A (BSP30A) and WC1, suggesting that some CNVs may be associated with breed-specific differences in adaptation, health, and production traits. By providing the first individualized cattle CNV and segmental duplication maps and genome-wide gene copy number estimates, we enable future CNV studies into highly duplicated regions in the cattle genome. PMID:22300768

  16. Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important

    E-print Network

    Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Challenges Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important part of the economy in the Texas Rolling Plains region. Wheat and stocker cattle business decisions are impacted by a variety of issues, including cattle and wheat prices, animal health, weather

  17. December 2, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 to $2 high-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    December 2, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 48 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 to $2 high.29 dressed. After sputtering around the past few weeks, live cattle cash prices found some support during the holi- day shortened week. As the cash price found support, so did live cattle futures prices which made

  18. January 31, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: The fed cattle market was not

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    January 31, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 05 FED CATTLE: The fed cattle market ago prices were $124.96 live and $197.63 dressed. Feedlot managers were pricing cattle steady little interest in nega- tive margins. Fed cattle prices are expected to decline over the next few weeks

  19. December 20, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady with a

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    December 20, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 51 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady. The majority of fed cattle trade took place on Thursday with mostly steady trade which is probably viewed prices but feeders maintain some of the lever- age especially with cattle marketings remain- ing fairly

  20. February 7, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $5 lower on a

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    February 7, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 06 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $5 lower ago prices were $126.52 live and $198.41 dressed. Fed cattle prices continue to decline this week than expected, but many feeders are willing to move cattle at current prices as there is still

  1. November 22, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 lower com-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    November 22, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 47 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 lower com.33 live and $200.39 dressed. Live cattle futures contracts have struggled as of late as has the live cattle cash price. Packers are finding it difficult to push beef to a higher price which leaves more beef

  2. February 21, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $3 higher on a

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    February 21, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 08 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $3 higher.58 dressed. The fed cattle market is in favor of the feed- lot as packers are short bought and in need of inventory. This provides feedlot manag- ers a little leverage to force live cattle prices a little higher

  3. February 28, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $6 to $7 high-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    February 28, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 09 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $6 to $7 high $127.84 live and $203.30 dressed. Live cattle are setting record high prices again in February. Prices for live cattle have increased about $10 per hun- dredweight the past three weeks, and they may have

  4. October 25, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle trade was $2 higher

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    October 25, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 43 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle trade was $2 higher. Live cattle prices have increased $13 since the summer low which is nearly an 11 percent increase in prices. The supply of harvest ready fed cattle continues to dwindle which will continue to support fed

  5. October 18, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle trade was mostly $1

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    October 18, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 42 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle trade was mostly $1 were mainly $203 to $204. It appears that feeders have the ma- jority of the leverage in the fed cattle to keep an eye on the basis as the October live cattle contract expires and the December contract moves

  6. November 8, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 lower com-

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    November 8, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 45 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 lower com and $195.00 dressed. There were hints of a softer fed cattle mar- ket late last week. Those hints have be- proaches. Fed cattle prices the previous two weeks traded about 11% higher than the summer low. This 11

  7. March 7, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 to $2 lower

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    March 7, 2014Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 10 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were $1 to $2 lower $127.72 live and $203.26 dressed. Fed cattle prices softened this week with futures prices fol- lowing fundamentals will soon be shifting as the supply of market ready cattle will increase. This will make

  8. October 11, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle trade was not well

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    October 11, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 41 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle trade was not well at $126 to $127 which would be steady to firm compared to a week ago. The fed cattle market has continued provide sup- port for fed cattle prices. Prices are ex- pected to catch a little fire as November rolls

  9. Using a Slide in Beef Cattle Marketing 

    E-print Network

    Machen, Richard V.; Gill, Ronald J.

    1998-08-21

    Selling cattle in advance of delivery requires the seller to estimate the future weight of the cattle. The sale price usually must be adjusted because delivery weights differ from estimated weights. This publication explains how to use an "up slide...

  10. Arthroscopy in cattle: technique and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lardé, Hélčne; Nichols, Sylvain

    2014-03-01

    Arthroscopy has all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery in cattle. Specialized equipment and knowledge of normal joint anatomy of cattle are mandatory for successful arthroscopy. The surgical technique is different in cattle compared with the horse. Thick skin and joint capsules complicate movement of the arthroscope within the joints. In cattle, septic arthritis and osteochondrosis are the most frequent disorders suitable for arthroscopic treatment. PMID:24534667

  11. Genetic analysis of heat stress effects on yield traits, udder health, and fatty acids of Walloon Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hammami, H; Vandenplas, J; Vanrobays, M-L; Rekik, B; Bastin, C; Gengler, N

    2015-07-01

    Genetic parameters that considered tolerance for heat stress were estimated for production, udder health, and milk composition traits. Data included 202,733 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score (SCS), 10 individual milk fatty acids (FA) predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry, and 7 FA groups. Data were from 34,468 first-lactation Holstein cows in 862 herds in the Walloon region of Belgium and were collected between 2007 and 2010. Test-day records were merged with daily temperature-humidity index (THI) values based on meteorological records from public weather stations. The maximum distance between each farm and its corresponding weather station was 21km. Linear reaction norm models were used to estimate the intercept and slope responses of 23 traits to increasing THI values. Most yield and FA traits had phenotypic and genetic declines as THI increased, whereas SCS, C18:0, C18:1 cis-9, and 4 FA groups (unsaturated FA, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and long-chain FA) increased with THI. Moreover, the latter traits had the largest slope-to-intercept genetic variance ratios, which indicate that they are more affected by heat stress at high THI levels. Estimates of genetic correlations within trait between cold and hot environments were generally high (>0.80). However, lower estimates (<=0.67) were found for SCS, fat yield, and C18:1 cis-9, indicating that animals with the highest genetic merit for those traits in cold environments do not necessarily have the highest genetic merit for the same traits in hot environments. Among all traits, C18:1 cis-9 was the most sensitive to heat stress. As this trait is known to reflect body reserve mobilization, using its variations under hot conditions could be a very affordable milk biomarker of heat stress for dairy cattle expressing the equilibrium between intake and mobilization under warm conditions. PMID:25958288

  12. Collegiate Cattle Growers 2012 Jackpot Show

    E-print Network

    Guerriero, Vince

    Collegiate Cattle Growers 2012 Jackpot Show February 18-19 At the U of A Ag Center Campbell Ave the evening before the show from 6 to 7 pm Make payment out to: Collegiate Cattle Growers Association Mail to: University of Arizona of Animal Sciences Attn. Collegiate Cattle Growers P.O. Box 210038, Tucson, AZ 85721

  13. PRAIRIE DOG DENSITY AND CATTLE GRAZING RELATIONSHIPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL W. URESK; JAMES G. MacCRACKEN; ARDELL J. BJUGSTAD

    Blacktail prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) were more abundant (P < 0.01) in areas of southwestern South Dakota heavily grazed by cattle than in areas where cattle were excluded. Results suggest that periodic exclusions or reduced cattle stocking rates, in combination with control programs, help regulate prairie dog population increase and expansion as indexed by burrow counts.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in beef cattle and dairy cattle in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhang, Xu; Sheng, Zhong-Hua; Chang, Qiao-Chen; Zhao, Quan; Wu, Song-Ming; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in beef cattle and dairy cattle in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China, was surveyed between April 2009 and May 2011. A total of 1803 (693 beef cattle and 1110 dairy cattle) serum samples were collected from 10 administrative regions rearing beef cattle and dairy cattle, and antibodies to T. gondii were examined by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in beef cattle and dairy cattle was 2.6% (46/1803), and the prevalence in beef cattle (3.0%) was slightly higher than that in dairy cattle (2.3%). The prevalence of antibodies in adult animals was higher than that in calves, but the differences among the age groups were not significant (p>0.05). The seroprevalence in female (3.4%) and male (2.5%) beef cattle was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Though the prevalence in intensively reared beef cattle and dairy cattle was lower than that in semi-intensively reared animals, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The results of this survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in beef cattle and dairy cattle in Heilongjiang Province, the coldest province in China, which may cause economic losses to the local livestock industry, and may be a source of T. gondii infection for humans in this region. PMID:22545962

  15. A genome-wide scan for signatures of differential artificial selection in ten cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the times of domestication, cattle have been continually shaped by the influence of humans. Relatively recent history, including breed formation and the still enduring enormous improvement of economically important traits, is expected to have left distinctive footprints of selection within the genome. The purpose of this study was to map genome-wide selection signatures in ten cattle breeds and thus improve the understanding of the genome response to strong artificial selection and support the identification of the underlying genetic variants of favoured phenotypes. We analysed 47,651 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). Results We set the significance thresholds using the maximum XP-EHH values of two essentially artificially unselected breeds and found up to 229 selection signatures per breed. Through a confirmation process we verified selection for three distinct phenotypes typical for one breed (polledness in Galloway, double muscling in Blanc-Bleu Belge and red coat colour in Red Holstein cattle). Moreover, we detected six genes strongly associated with known QTL for beef or dairy traits (TG, ABCG2, DGAT1, GH1, GHR and the Casein Cluster) within selection signatures of at least one breed. A literature search for genes lying in outstanding signatures revealed further promising candidate genes. However, in concordance with previous genome-wide studies, we also detected a substantial number of signatures without any yet known gene content. Conclusions These results show the power of XP-EHH analyses in cattle to discover promising candidate genes and raise the hope of identifying phenotypically important variants in the near future. The finding of plausible functional candidates in some short signatures supports this hope. For instance, MAP2K6 is the only annotated gene of two signatures detected in Galloway and Gelbvieh cattle and is already known to be associated with carcass weight, back fat thickness and marbling score in Korean beef cattle. Based on the confirmation process and literature search we deduce that XP-EHH is able to uncover numerous artificial selection targets in subpopulations of domesticated animals. PMID:24359457

  16. Investigating a dilution effect between somatic cell count and milk yield and estimating milk production losses in Irish dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boland, F; O'Grady, L; More, S J

    2013-03-01

    Increased somatic cell counts (SCC) are associated with reduced milk yield. Additionally, it has been hypothesized that as milk yield increases, SCC is diluted in cattle without an intramammary infection (IMI). If the hypothesis is correct, estimates of SCC from high-yielding cattle without an IMI are likely to be lower than those from low-yielding cattle without an IMI. The objectives of this paper were to investigate the presence of a potential dilution effect between SCC and milk yield, overall and by parity, and to estimate lactation milk production losses with increasing SCC in Irish dairy cattle. The data consisted of 100 randomly selected herds from all milk recording herds between 2008 and 2010. The data set comprised 8,229 cows, of which approximately 90% were Holstein or Holstein crossbred animals. Various adjustments were used to investigate the presence of a potential dilution effect between SCC and milk yield; additionally, lactation milk production losses with increasing SCC and parity were estimated. The data had an inherent hierarchical structure, with lactations nested within cows and cows within herds; thus, a linear mixed model with 2 random effects was used. We found no evidence of a dilution effect of SCC with increasing milk yield in Irish dairy cattle. Average milk production losses were estimated, and they increased with increasing SCC compared with the referent of ? 50,000 cells/mL. Additionally, for all SCC values for parities 1 to 3, this production loss increased significantly with increasing parity. Estimated milk losses for parities 4 and 5 did not differ, and differences between parities 3 and 4 were significant only for SCC values <300,000 cells/mL. The estimated milk loss with increasing SCC varies greatly across studies, with the results from the current study exceeding most previously published results (except for results from the UK). Several factors could explain these differences, including geographic factors such as milk yield and predominant mastitis pathogens. The dilution effect warrants further work, as does the effect of prior duration of increased SCC on milk yield and the potential for compensation of milk yield losses over a lactation. PMID:23295120

  17. INCIDENCE OF SUBCLINICAL KETOSIS IN COWS SUPPLEMENTED WITH A MONENSIN CONTROLLED-RELEASE CAPSULE IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE, FLORIDA, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a monensin controlled-release capsule on the proportion of cows with subclinical ketosis (SK). During July to August 2001, 300 cows dried-off 50-70 days before expected parturition were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 150, oral...

  18. Association analysis of bovine bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein gene polymorphisms with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is expressed primarily in bovine neutrophils and epithelial cells and functions as a binding protein of bacterial lipopolysaccharide produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The protein is important in host defense against bacterial infections and may pl...

  19. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  20. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  1. Cattle industry and zoonotic risk.

    PubMed

    Cavirani, S

    2008-09-01

    The intensive farming of dairy and beef cattle has elicited a decrease in the herds and an increase in the number of animals per herd. The high concentration of cattle and the movement of the animals among herds has led to an increase in the health risks. In this context we have to consider the role of microbial agents of zoonoses, such as bacteria, parasites, and in some cases viruses. Notably, foodstuffs, such as meat, milk and dairy products, are the main sources of zoonoses of bovine origin. In particular, raw milk must be considered at high risk for trasmission of pathogens from cattle to humans. The European Regulation concerning food safety provides specific requirements for animal products and in bovine health management. Given the direct responsibility of the producer, the adoption of a self-regulation regimen on animal health, dairy and meat products must be planned by farmers. PMID:18686003

  2. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although absolute rates of CH4 emissions (g/day) were lower from cattle grazing UG than LG, cattle grazing UG would be expected to take longer to reach an acceptable finishing weight, thereby potentially off-setting this apparent advantage. Methane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

  3. Chinese Tea Tea, a drink pioneered by the Chinese,

    E-print Network

    and the least caffeine content of all Chinese tea classes. Aroma is medium to high, flavor is light to medium amount of caffeine in Chinese tea classes. PU'ER White Tea is sometimes considered a subclass of Green. It has very low caffeine content. Longevity Eyebrow KING Chinese Oolong Tea Oolong Tea is half way

  4. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course. Glossary: Chinese-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This Chinese-English glossary provides a ready-reference to all lexical items introduced in the 180 lessons of the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course. The contents are arranged alphabetically from Chinese to English. Each entry has a reference number that corresponds to the lesson number of the basic course in which the item was introduced. (NCR)

  5. The fibroblast growth factor 2 gene is associated with embryonic mortality in cattle.

    PubMed

    Khatib, H; Maltecca, C; Monson, R L; Schutzkus, V; Wang, X; Rutledge, J J

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) gene with embryonic survival and fertilization rate in cattle. This gene was chosen because of its role in regulating trophectoderm expression of interferon-tau, the maternal pregnancy recognition factor in ruminants. To evaluate the effect of FGF2 on fertility traits, we produced in vitro-fertilized embryos from 281 Holstein cows and from 7 sires. A total of 4,542 in vitro fertilizations were performed, from which a total of 3,171 embryos were produced. Survival and fertilization rates were assessed at d 7 of embryonic development. Using the pooled DNA sequencing approach, we identified 2 SNP in FGF2, SNP11646 and SNP23. All sires and cows were genotyped for these SNP. For fertilization rate, no significant differences between genotypes were found for either SNP, whereas the effect on survival rate was significant for SNP11646. The survival rate of embryos produced from GG cows for this SNP was 37%, compared with 28 and 29% for embryos produced from AG and AA cows, respectively. Although the molecular mechanisms that cause embryonic mortality have not yet been identified, this study provides the first evidence of association between FGF2 and embryonic mortality in cattle. Thus, we propose that FGF2 can be used in animal breeding strategies to test for improved reproductive performance. PMID:18469054

  6. Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) genes in cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Lourenco-Jaramillo, Diana Lelidett; Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María; Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; de la Rosa-Reyna, Xochitl Fabiola; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Arellano-Vera, Williams

    2012-01-01

    DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds. PMID:22888292

  7. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  8. Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. William Skinner

    1959-01-01

    Approximately 10 million overseas Chinese reside in Southeast Asia where they have economic power and political significance out of all proportion to their numbers. Southeast Asian governments are determined to loosen the Chinese grip on their national economies, to achieve an unequivocal clarinca tion of the citizenship status of resident Chinese, to end foreign political activity among and to proceed

  9. Towards Unified Chinese Segmentation Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Lee Wang; Xiaotie Deng; Feng Zou

    As Chinese is an ideographic character-based language, the words in the texts are not delimited by spaces. Indexing of Chinese documents is impossible without a proper segmentation algorithm. Many Chinese segmentation algorithms have been proposed in the past. Traditional segmentation algorithms cannot operate without a large dictionary or a large corpus of training data. Nowadays, the Web has become the

  10. CHINESE STUDIES Rujie Wang, Chair

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Mark A.

    and Chinese literature. Its objective is to teach students the basic skills of reading, lis- tening, speaking in Chinese language and literature, together with related courses from the departments of Anthropology skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening comprehension; it introduces Chinese calligraphy

  11. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  12. Effects of supplementary concentrate level in winter, and subsequent finishing on pasture or indoors, on performance and carcass traits of Holstein–Friesian, Aberdeen Angus × Holstein–Friesian and Belgian Blue × Holstein–Friesian steers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Keane; M. J. Drennan

    2009-01-01

    Pure bred Holstein–Friesian (FR) and beef breed×FR male calves are used for beef production in Ireland. Beef breeds used for crossbreeding on FR cows include Aberdeen Angus (AA) and Belgian Blue (BB) which represent extremes in terms of maturity. The objective of this study was to compare spring-born steers of FR, AA and BB breed types, offered two feeding levels

  13. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected to exert only limited effects on the REC traits. Instead, breeders may be able to exploit genetic variations in the %CY, particularly RECFAT and RECPROTEIN. This last component is not explained by the milk protein content, suggesting that its direct selection could be beneficial for cheese production aptitude. Collectively, our findings indicate that breeding strategies aimed at enhancing CY and REC could be easily and rapidly implemented for dairy cattle populations in which FTIR spectra are routinely acquired from individual milk samples. PMID:25958274

  14. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  15. Chinese Foreign Policy Net

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.

  16. ASSOCIATION AMONG FLUID, GRAIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN IN HOLSTEIN BULL CALVES

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez Ferreira, Marcelo A.

    2010-07-14

    . The hypothesis of this study is that ad libitum water intake of Holstein bull calves can be affected by the addition of Betaine 96% to milk replacer at 2 g/d and the addition of Protimax? at label recommended amounts to milk replacer during the summer months... water intake in Holstein bull calves through day 54 as a control and as compared to treatments with the addition of Betaine 96% and Protimax? at label recommended amounts to milk replacer. In addition, the secondary objective of this study...

  17. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  18. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  19. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis...

  20. 2014 Cattle Feeder Days U of M Beef Team

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    2014 Cattle Feeder Days U of M Beef Team Value of oil-extracted distillers grains in feedlot cattle in the feedlot Dr. Alvaro Garcia, SDSU Mineral nutrition of feedlot cattle Nicole Kenney Rambo, U of M Beef Team

  1. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis...

  2. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  3. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12 Section...BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not...

  4. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis...

  5. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7 Section 78.7 Animals... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis...

  6. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

  7. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  8. Aspiration in Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huey-Ju.

    This dissertation studies aspiration in Chinese in these four areas: the temporal relationships between aspiration and the vowel of the syllable, the perception of aspiration, the correlation between pitch and aspiration, and the role of aspiration in a historical change in Chinese. Data based on 144 words with aspiration contrasts were derived from the experiments which involved production and perception by a total of 28 Chinese speakers. On the basis of the measurements of acoustical characteristics of the voice onset time and the lengths of the syllable, a constant ratio model has been proposed to describe the timing relationships among the elements within a syllable. The perceptual experiment tested the cues of aspiration by deleting the portion of the voice onset time from the syllable on the front, back, middle and both ends. The results are reported and discussed. The effects of aspiration on intrinsic tone heights in Mandarin were measured and the significance calculated. Finally some attempts are made to solve the development of aspiration from voiced obstruents under the condition of different tones from Middle Chinese to modern dialects.

  9. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  10. Moxidectin in cattle: correlation between plasma and target tissues disposition.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Imperiale, F; Sutra, J F; Galtier, P; Lanusse, C; Alvinerie, M

    1999-08-01

    The time of parasite exposure to active drug concentrations determines the persistence of the antiparasitic activity of endectocide compounds. This study evaluates the disposition kinetics of moxidectin (MXD) in plasma and in different target tissues following its subcutaneous (s.c.) administration to cattle. Eighteen male, 10-month old Holstein calves weighing 120-140 kg were subcutaneously injected in the shoulder area with a commercially available formulation of MXD (Cydectin 1%, American Cyanamid, Wayne, NJ, USA) at 200 micrograms/kg. Two treated calves were killed at each of the following times post-treatment: 1, 4, 8, 18, 28, 38, 48, 58 and 68 days. Abomasal and small intestine mucosal tissue and fluids, bile, faeces, lung, skin and plasma samples were collected, extracted, derivatized and analysed to determine MXD concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. MXD was extensively distributed to all tissues and fluids analysed, being detected (concentrations > 0.1 ng/g; ng/mL) between 1 and 58 days post-treatment. MXD peak concentrations were attained during the first sampling day. MXD maximum concentration (Cmax) values ranged from 52.9 (intestinal mucosa) up to 149 ng/g (faeces). The mean residence time (MRT) in the different tissues and fluids ranged from 6.8 (abomasal mucosa) up to 11.3 (bile) days. MXD concentrations in abomasal and intestinal mucosal tissue were higher than those detected in plasma; however, there was a high correlation between MXD concentrations observed in plasma and those detected in both gastrointestinal mucosal tissues. MXD concentrations were markedly greater in the mucosa than in its respective digestive fluid (P < 0.01). MXD concentrations in skin were higher than those found in plasma (P < 0.01). Drug concentrations recovered in the dermis were greater than those detected in the hypodermal tissue (P < 0.05). Large concentrations of MXD were excreted in bile and faeces. These findings may contribute to an understanding of the relationship between the kinetic behaviour and the persistence of the antiparasite activity of MXD against different ecto-endoparasites in cattle. PMID:10499239

  11. Analysis of the cattle liver proteome by high-sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Timperio, Anna Maria; D'Amici, Gian Maria; Zolla, Lello

    2012-01-01

    The present chapter describes methods for the separation and identification of proteins in liver metabolism through a comparison of the protein expression profiles of the two breeds taken into account as a model: Holstein Friesian and Chianina cattle. The liver has received special attention, containing as it does, enzymes involved in energy generation, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and xenobiotic metabolism, as well as proteins involved in polypeptide synthesis, folding, and cell structure. The first step in the procedure is the preparation of purified protein fractions from liver tissues, followed by sample preparation for 2-DE analysis in order to identify proteins which could be differentially expressed in the livers of the two breeds and relate them to different liver functions. Data can be then statistically elaborated with cluster analysis, which stressed the up-/on-regulation trend of these proteins. Quantitative data can be used to perform a two-way hierarchical cluster analysis of the 39 differentially expressed protein spots, either up- or on-regulated in Chianina versus Holstein Friesian liver samples. Thus, spots from 2-DE maps can be carefully excised from the gel and subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in their contents. PMID:22903708

  12. Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

  13. Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Villarino, Mario A.

    2009-05-04

    E-567 05-09 Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle I t is very important to administer medications to dairy cattle in the proper way. That means using the correct drug, dosage and injection technique; handling animals... labeled for use in dairy ? cattle. Refer to the vaccine label for this information. Using a vaccine in an animal species for which it is not labeled is illegal. Give the proper dosage as indicated on the label. ? Always give an injection in the body...

  14. CHINESE (CHIN) (Department of East Asian Languages

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    ASSISTANT PROFESSOR CHANG Chinese 100 (6)--Supervised Study Abroad: Beginning Chinese Prerequisites the emergence of modern China and its changing culture. Fu. Spring Chinese 101 (3)--Exploring Chinese Language is expressed and departmental resources permit. Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 433 (3), 436 (6), 439 (9)--Tutorial

  15. Facts and Figures about Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Chinese Teachers, San Francisco, CA.

    In this brief collection of facts and figures about Chinese Americans, information and data are presented on the geographic location of Chinese in America, the pattern of Chinese immigration to the United States, and income and occupations of Chinese Americans. In addition, a brief chronology of Chinese American history is presented. (Author/AM)

  16. Symmetry in Chinese Arts Yip Lixia, Sabrina

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    Symmetry in Chinese Arts Done by: Group 3 Lim Li Yan Yip Lixia, Sabrina Lee Weitian, Ivan Zhong Shengmin Goh Yoon Keong 1 #12;2 CONTENTS · Introduction · Symmetry in Chinese Literature · Chinese Paper Cuttings · Symmetry in Chinese buildings · Chinese Music · Conclusion · Bibliography #12;3 Introduction

  17. The g.841G>C SNP of FASN gene is associated with fatty acid composition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kiri; Sakamoto, Takayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Yamaji, Keita; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Sasago, Nanae; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Maruyama, Shin; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study is to evaluate the association between fatty acid composition and fatty acid synthase gene polymorphisms as responsible mutations. For this purpose, we selected seven previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FASN gene, including one within promoter region (g.841G>C) and six non-synonymous SNPs (g.8805C>T, g.13126C>T, g.15532A>C, g.16024A>G, g.16039C>T, g.17924A>G), and genotyped them in Japanese Black cattle. Genotyping results revealed that g.8805 C>T and g.17924 A>G were monomorphic loci. Genome-wide association analysis including the other five SNPs revealed that only g.841G>C showed significant associations with the percentages of C14:0, C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1 at 5% genome-wide significance level. In order to further evaluate the effect, we genotyped g.841G>C using additional three populations, including two Japanese Black populations and a Holstein cattle population. g.16024A>G was also genotyped and included in the analysis because it has been reported to be associated with fatty acid composition in Japanese Black cattle. In the result of analysis of variance, g.841G>C showed stronger effects on fatty acid percentage than those of g.16024A>G in all populations. These results suggested that g.841G>C would be a responsible mutation for fatty acid composition and contribute to production of high-grade beef as a selection marker in beef cattle. PMID:25597874

  18. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  19. Milk, Fat, Protein, Somatic Cell Score, and Days Open Among Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Their Crosses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Dechow; G. W. Rogers; J. B. Cooper; M. I. Phelps; A. L. Mosholder

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare Holstein (HO), Brown Swiss (BS), and their crosses for milk, fat, and protein yields, somatic cell score (SCS), days open (DO), and age at first calving (AFC), and to estimate the effects of heterosis and recombination. First through fifth lactation records were obtained from 19 herds milking crosses among BS and HO.

  20. GENETIC EVALUATION OF STILLBIRTH IN UNITED STATES HOLSTEINS USING A SIRE-MATERNAL GRANDSIRE THRESHOLD MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sire-maternal grandsire threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in U.S. Holsteins. Calving ease and stillbirth records for herds reporting at least 10 dead calves were extracted from the AIPL database. About half of the 14 million calving ease records in the database have a k...

  1. Growth and Carcass Traits of Holstein Steers, Bulls, and Bulls Implanted with Diethylstilbestrol[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Martin; M. Stob

    1978-01-01

    Holstein male calves (36) were al- located at birth to one of three treatment groups, 1) castrated at 3 to 7 days of age (steers), 2) intact and untreated, and 3) implanted with diethylstilbestrol at birth, 3, 6, 8, and 10 mo of age. Daily gain and carcass traits of all animals and testicular measurements of bulls and implanted bulls

  2. Relationship Between Type Traits and Longevity of Daughters of Hew York Holstein Sires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. VAN VLECK; D. B. FILKINS; H. W. CARTER; C. L. HART

    The percentage of 40 or more daughters having four lactations of 81 New York Holstein artificially insemination sires was correlated with the percentage of daugh- ters in 66 type categories measured in the first lactation a,nd their average first-lac- tation milk yield. Multiple regression on these type and production traits accounted for 92% of the variation in percentage of daughters

  3. ANTIBODY DYNAMICS IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN HEIFERS VACCINATED WITH BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN 19, USING SEVEN SEROLOGICAL TESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Aguirre; V. R. Vanzini; S. Torioni de Echaide; B. S. Valentini; G. De Lucca; C. Aufranc; A. Canal; A. Vigliocco; K. Nielsen

    2002-01-01

    The serological response induced by Brucella abortus strain 19 was evaluated in 52 Holstein females from a brucellosis-free herd using seven serological tests. Each calf was vaccinated at an age of 4 and 8 months old with 3 × 10 CFU B. abortus S19 and the antibody response was determined as the proportion of positive results to each test. The

  4. Relationships between conformation traits and longevity of Holstein cows in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vacek; E. Štípková; J. Bouška

    The relationships between conformation traits and longevity traits were analyzed in 41 489 Holstein cows born in the years 1994-1999 which were culled by 30 th June 2005. Pearson correlation coefficients between type traits and the herd life or productive life of cows were calculated. The effects of type trait scoring level on the length of productive life were described

  5. Polaronic features in the optical properties of the Holstein t-J model E. Cappelluti

    E-print Network

    Cappelluti, Emmanuele

    Polaronic features in the optical properties of the Holstein t-J model E. Cappelluti SMC Research the magnetic and phonon features associated with polaron formation as a function of the exchange coupling J show that the optical absorption at the polaron crossover is charac- terized by a coexistence

  6. Holstein polaron FMF, University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, 1000, Slovenia

    E-print Network

    Bonèa, Janez

    Holstein polaron J. Bonca FMF, University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, 1000, Slovenia S. A computational resources 12-digit accuracy for the one-dimensional polaron energy at intermedi- ate coupling . We vector k in essentially all parameter regimes. Our results for the polaron energy band, effective mass

  7. Quantum entanglement and fidelity of the two-site Holstein model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Y. Zhang; X. G. Wang; Q. H. Chen

    2009-01-01

    We study the polaronic crossover properties in the two-site Holstein model by the quantum entanglement and the fidelity. Based on the exact wave function obtained by the extended bosonic coherent states, the linear entropy and the fidelity are evaluated. The maximum of the entanglement between the electron and surrounding phonons is observed in a small polaron regime. A smooth change

  8. Colostrum, Whole Milk, and Whole Milk plus Whey Protein Concentrate for Holstein Calves[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Muller; M. J. Owens; G. L. Beardsley; D. J. Schingoethe

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-six Holstein calves were fed 3.6 kg of one of three liquid diets once daily from birth until weaning at 4 wk. Diets were: (1) colostrum (collected for five milkings postpartum and frozen), (2) whole milk, and (3) whole milk plus sufficient whey proteinconcentrate to bring diets 1 and 3 to similar whey pro- tein. Compared to whole milk, colostrum

  9. Short Communication: Effect of Dietary Protein on Growth and Nitrogen Balance of Holstein Heifers1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Hoffman; N. M. Esser; L. M. Bauman; S. L. Denzine; M. Engstrom; H. Chester-Jones

    2001-01-01

    A growth study and a companion N balance study were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary protein on growth and N utilization of postpubertal Holstein heifers. Forty heifers (398 ± 9.4 kg) were fed one of four diets containing 8, 11, 13, or 15% crude protein (CP) for 121 d. Body measurements were taken at the beginning and end

  10. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  11. Dissection of genomic correlation matrices of US Holsteins using multivariate factor analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim of the study was to compare correlation matrices between direct genomic predictions for 31 production, fitness and conformation traits both at genomic and chromosomal level in US Holstein bulls. Multivariate factor analysis was used to quantify basic features of correlation matrices. Factor extr...

  12. Genetic Variation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis Infection in US Holsteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Gonda; Y. M. Chang; G. E. Shook; M. T. Collins; B. W. Kirkpatrick

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic variability of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculo- sis infection in US Holsteins. Blood and fecal samples were collected primarily from daughters of 12 bulls in their second or third lactation. Routine disease testing of the sires documented that they were not infected. Herds without a \\

  13. Relationship of reason for lactation termination with genetic merit of Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons that producers report to 4 dairy records processing centers for why individual cows exit the herd (lactation termination codes) were examined for 6.2 million US Holsteins with lactation records that ended in 2007 and 2008 to determine their relationship to genetic merit. The most frequent t...

  14. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  15. Initiativen zur Steigerung der Impfbereitschaft in Schleswig-Holstein – Impfschutz bei Erwachsenen in der Arbeitswelt 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-M. Bader; P. Egler

    2004-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die Impfkampagne in Schleswig-Holstein hat von Februar bis Dezember 2003 erstmals den Impfschutz von Erwachsenen in der Arbeitswelt in den Mittelpunkt gestellt. In den routinemäßigen arbeitsmedizinischen Vorsorgeuntersuchungen wurden sowohl der Impfschutz gegen Diphtherie, Tetanus, Polio, Masern, Mumps, Röteln, Hepatitis A und Hepatitis B (Vorlage des Impfpasses) als auch die Impfungen vor Ort (aktive Leistung) dokumentiert. Wir erhielten 12.720 anonyme,

  16. Application of a posteriori granddaughter and modified granddaughter designs to determine Holstein haplotype effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A posteriori and modified granddaughter designs were applied to determine haplotype effects for Holstein bulls and cows with BovineSNP50 genotypes. The a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to 52 sire families, each with '100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests. Fo...

  17. Genetic Parameters for Major Milk Fatty Acids and Milk Production Traits of Dutch Holstein-Friesians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Stoop; Arendonk van J. A. M; J. M. L. Heck; Valenberg van H. J. F; H. Bovenhuis

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for major milk fatty acids and milk production traits. One morning milk sample was collected from 1,918 Holstein-Friesian heifers located in 398 commercial herds in the Netherlands. Each sample was analyzed for total percentages of fat and protein, and for detailed fatty acid percentages (computed as fatty acid weight as

  18. EFFECT OF RUMINALLY DEGRADED PROTEIN SOURCE ON NITROGEN METABOLISM IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of ruminally degraded protein (RPD) source on microbial protein flow measured in the reticulum and duodenum using 15N and in milk, urine and blood using allantoin. Eight early lactation Holstein cows were arranged in a repeated 4x4 Latin square design balanc...

  19. Chloride Deficiency in Holstein Calves from a Low Chloride Diet and Removal of Abomasal Contents1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Neathery; D. M. Blackmon; W. J. Miller; Shelia Heinmiller; Susan McGuire; J. M. Tarabula; R. P. Gentry; J. C. Allen

    1981-01-01

    Chloride deficiency signs were pro- duced in young Holstein calves by a low chloride diet (.063% chlorine) and daily removal of chloride in abomasal contents. General clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, mild polydipsia, and mild polyuria. In latter stages of the deficiency, severe eye defects (scleral injection, sunken eyes, scaliness around eyes) and reduced respiration rate became evident.

  20. Lead toxicity and metabolism from lead sulfate fed to Holstein calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Logner; M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; R. P. Gentry; D. M. Blackmon; F. D. White

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen Holstein intact male calves averaging 85 kg and 74 days of age were assigned randomly to four dietary lead treatments according to body weight. They were fed for ad libitum consumption a control diet containing no added lead or the control diet supplemented with 500, 1500, or 4500 ppm lead as lead sulfate. One calf fed 1500 ppm lead

  1. Neutrophil function and energy status in Holstein cows with uterine health disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Hammon; I. M. Evjen; T. R. Dhiman; J. P. Goff; J. L. Walters

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected weekly from 1 week prior to calving (week ?1) through 4 weeks after calving and again at 8 weeks

  2. GENETIC EVALUATION OF STILLBIRTH IN UNITED STATES HOLSTEINS USING A SIRE-MATERNAL GRANDSIRE THRESHOLD MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sire-maternal grandsire (MGS) threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Holsteins. Data consisted of almost 7.5 million records, and over 41,000 AI bulls received evaluations. The model included effects of herd-year, year-season, parity-sex, sire, birth year group of sire...

  3. Effect of Protein on Nutrient Digestion and Milk Production by Holstein Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Ha; J. J. Kennelly

    1984-01-01

    Four multiparious Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to as- sess effects of increasing dietary protein on ruminal blood and duodenal traits, milk production, and nutrient digestion. Protein percents of 13, 15, 17, and 19 dry matter were achieved by rolled barley replaced with 0, 12, 24, and 36%

  4. Effects of Yeast Culture and Galacto-Oligosaccharides on Ruminal Fermentation in Holstein Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mwenya; B. Santoso; C. Sar; B. Pen; R. Morikawa; K. Takaura; K. Umetsu; K. Kimura; J. Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Four nonlactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for residual effects, to evaluate the effects of supple- menting dairy cow diets with yeast culture (Tri- chosporon sericeum; YC), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), or the mixture of YC and GOS on ruminal fer- mentation, microbial N supply,in situ degradation, and energy and nitrogen metabolism.

  5. Phase separation in the combined Falicov-Kimball and static Holstein model B. M. Letfulov

    E-print Network

    Freericks, Jim

    Phase separation in the combined Falicov-Kimball and static Holstein model B. M. Letfulov Institute The Falicov-Kimball model has been known to phase separate when the correlation strength is large electron correlations driving phase separation has been long conjectured in the Falicov- Kimball model1

  6. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Sesquicarbonate on Lactating Holsteins Fed a High Grain Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Solorzano; L. E. Armentano; R. R. Grummer; M. R. Dentine

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Ortho- gonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium

  7. Effects of Days Dry and Days Open on Holstein Milk Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Schaeffer; C. R. Henderson

    1972-01-01

    Holstein lactation records from the Dairy Herd Improvement test day files of the New York Dairy Records Processing Lab- oratory at Cornell University were used to study genetic and environmental relation- ships of days dry and days open with milk production. Age and month of calving significantly influenced length of dry period. Within herd heritability estimates of days dry were

  8. USE OF CUBIC SPLINES FOR ESTIMATING LACTATION CURVES OF HOLSTEIN COWS TREATED WITH BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cubic splines can be used to model fixed and random effects of lactation curves. A total of 64,138 test-day observations for first lactation Holstein cows recorded as treated with bovine somatotropin (bST) and 138,008 test-day observations for untreated cows were obtained from Dairy Records Manageme...

  9. Ruminal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Kristensen; B. M. L. Raun

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal can- nulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mes- enteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG). Each cow re- ceived 2 treatments: control (no infusion) and infusion of 650 g of PG into the rumen at

  10. Growth and Efficiency of Holstein Steers as Influenced by Live Weight and Energy Intake1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Almquist; V. H. Brungardt; W. J. Tyler; R. C. Waldman

    1971-01-01

    This investigation was to determine the influence of two energy intakes (H and M) in various sequences on live and carcass weight and muscle gains of 162 Holstein steers between birth and slaughter at 91, 227, 340, 454, or 590 kg live weight. Steers on M were fed to gain daily 60 to 70% of those on H fed ad

  11. Relationships Between Milk and Fat Production, Type, and Stayability in Holstein Sire Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. DE LORENZO; R. W. EVERETT

    1982-01-01

    Evaluations for milk, fat, 48- and 72-mo stayability, and official type classification on 1,053 Holstein sires from the United States and Canada were analyzed for relationships between sire evaluations for these traits. Although sire evaluations have been modified in both the Northeast Artificial Insemination Sire Comparison and the method by which type evaluations are calculated, cor- relations between milk and

  12. [Fujian oversea Chinese and Chinese traditional pharmacist in Southeast Asia].

    PubMed

    Hua, B; Du, J

    2000-10-01

    Hakka from Yongding and southern part of Fujian, engaged in Chinese traditional medicine enterprise in south - east Asia, make up the majority of overseas from Fujian. They played an important part in the development of traditional Chinese medicine and insurance of people's health, in planting Chinese herbs, opening pharmaceutical factory, organizing pharmaceutical company and associations of medicine etc. They made great contributions to the communication and cooperation of medicine between PR China and other countries, especially Fujian and south - east Asia. PMID:11871437

  13. Normal Growth of Range Cattle

    E-print Network

    Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

    1930-01-01

    of pasture weights of cattle during the 1 grazing season from about June 1st to about October 1st on summer range at the Salina Station in Utah. No records were kept for the remainder of the year. The animals were mostly loaned from the neigh- boring... .................... Width at hooks .................. Width at pelvis or thurls .......... Width at pin bones ............... Length of pelvis .................. Muzzle circumference ............. Cannon circumference ............. Paunch girth...

  14. Immunohistochemical evaluation of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) concentrations in erythrocytes of dairy cattle and farm-raised deer by a computer-assisted analysis of microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Pa?dzior-Czapula, K; Gesek, M; Rotkiewicz, T; Kluci?ski, W; Ko?odziejska, J; Kleczkowski, M; Fabisiak, M

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of the immunohistochemical method in determining Cu/Zn SOD concentrations in red blood cells of dairy cattle and farm-raised deer was evaluated by a computer-assisted analysis of microscopic images and scanning technique. Superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) concentrations in erythrocytes were determined in smears of whole blood samples collected from 16 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows and 22 farm-raised deer in spring. Mouse anti-bovine SOD (Cu-Zn) monoclonal antibodies (2F5, Serotec) were used in 1:50 dilution. The degree of immunostaining for SOD in red blood cells was determined with the use of the MIDI 3DHistech Panoramic Scanner (Hungary) and 3DHistech Panoramic Viewer, NuclearQuant and MembraneQuant software. Our findings indicate that the immunohistochemical method is a useful technique for evaluating Cu/Zn SOD concentrations in red blood cells of cattle and deer. PMID:24988853

  15. Mid-piece length of spermatozoa in different cattle breeds and its relationship to fertility.

    PubMed

    Shahani, S K; Revell, S G; Argo, C G; Murray, R D

    2010-08-15

    Recently positive correlation has been found between oxygen consumption (ZO2) in bull spermatozoa and non-return rates and concluded that an increase in ZO2, characteristic of the freeze/thaw process, was possibly associated with mitochondrial membrane damage during this procedure: alternatively, sperm may be hyperactivated through the capacitation-like effects of freezing/thawing. We speculated that the morphology of spermatozoa may be associated with their rate of ZO2 and fertility: for example, sperm mid-piece length where mitochondria are located. Such a relationship has not been investigated before, particularly in context of commercial cattle breeding programmes and bull fertility characteristics. Sperm biometry was performed on ejaculates obtained from 34 bulls representing six breeds: Holstein (yearlings and mature), Friesian, Belgian Blue, Aberdeen Angus, Charolais and Limousin. Five ejaculates were collected from every bull and from each sample a semen smear was fixed and stained with eosin/nigrosin: the mid-piece length of 40 sperm with normal morphology was measured in every sample. Data were analysed by breed, age and within each bull. Significant differences (p<0.01) between ejaculates in 9/34 bulls was found, as well as differences (p<0.001) between individual bulls within the same breed. The average mid-piece length for Aberdeen Angus was 13.35 microm, for Belgian Blues and Limousin around 13.8 microm and for Charolais 13.68 microm: for dairy breeds such as Holstein and Friesian it was about 13.4 microm. The mean value of mid-piece length for breed was compared with their 49 day non-return rate; a negative correlation (r = -0.53) was found in black and white dairy breeds. PMID:21850930

  16. Midwest Area Chinese American Resources Guide

    E-print Network

    Chinese American Librarians Association - Midwest Chapter; Wu, Pei-ling; McElroy, Anna; Chang, Ling-li; Sanders, R. Bruce; Lin, Shao-Chen

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Midwest Area Chinese American Resources Guide is to promote multicultural understanding of Chinese Americans and to provide easy access to the Chinese American communities in the Midwest. This 1995 edition ...

  17. Overview of genomic selection in dairy cattle populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection is most successful for traits recorded over many years in large populations. Holstein breeders have reference populations >10,000 proven bulls via cooperation among major countries, and countries with smaller Holstein populations can contribute additional bulls. Scandinavian red da...

  18. Including overseas performance information in genomic evaluations of Australian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E; Schrooten, C; Hayes, B J

    2015-05-01

    In dairy cattle, the rate of genetic gain from genomic selection depends on reliability of direct genomic values (DGV). One option to increase reliabilities could be to increase the size of the reference set used for prediction, by using genotyped bulls with daughter information in countries other than the evaluating country. The increase in reliabilities of DGV from using this information will depend on the extent of genotype by environment interaction between the evaluating country and countries contributing information, and whether this is correctly accounted for in the prediction method. As the genotype by environment interaction between Australia and Europe or North America is greater than between Europe and North America for most dairy traits, ways of including information from other countries in Australian genomic evaluations were examined. Thus, alternative approaches for including information from other countries and their effect on the reliability and bias of DGV of selection candidates were assessed. We also investigated the effect of including overseas (OS) information on reliabilities of DGV for selection candidates that had weaker relationships to the current Australian reference set. The DGV were predicted either using daughter trait deviations (DTD) for the bulls with daughters in Australia, or using this information as well as OS information by including deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull for bulls with only OS daughters in either single trait or bivariate models. In the bivariate models, DTD and DRP were considered as different traits. Analyses were performed for Holstein and Jersey bulls for milk yield traits, fertility, cell count, survival, and some type traits. For Holsteins, the data used included up to 3,580 bulls with DTD and up to 5,720 bulls with only DRP. For Jersey, about 900 bulls with DTD and 1,820 bulls with DRP were used. Bulls born after 2003 and genotyped cows that were not dams of genotyped bulls were used for validation. The results showed that the combined use of DRP on bulls with OS daughters only and DTD for Australian bulls in either the single trait or bivariate model increased the coefficient of determination [(R(2)) (DGV,DTD)] in the validation set, averaged across 6 main traits, by 3% in Holstein and by 5% in Jersey validation bulls relative to the use of DTD only. Gains in reliability and unbiasedness of DGV were similar for the single trait and bivariate models for production traits, whereas the bivariate model performed slightly better for somatic cell count in Holstein. The increase in R(2) (DGV,DTD) as a result of using bulls with OS daughters was relatively higher for those bulls and cows in the validation sets that were less related to the current reference set. For example, in Holstein, the average increase in R(2) for milk yield traits when DTD and DRP were used in a single trait model was 23% in the least-related cow group, but only 3% in the most-related cow group. In general, for both breeds the use of DTD from domestic sources and DRP from Interbull in a single trait or bivariate model can increase reliability of DGV for selection candidates. PMID:25771052

  19. Statistical distribution of Chinese names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Zhong; Chen, Qing-Hua; Wang, You-Gui

    2011-11-01

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames, first names and full names based on a credible sample. The distribution of Chinese surnames, unlike that in any other countries, shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part. The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents. Finally, the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network. Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.

  20. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  1. Genomics of Disease in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases have a considerable effect in the productivity of the beef cattle industry. Given the low heritability of immunity, it is necessary to identify genes involved in this response. Initial efforts to identify genomic regions associated with these characteristics in beef cattle have been limited...

  2. DEFINING POSTPARTUM UTERINE DISEASE IN CATTLE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uterine health is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist causing uterine disease, which is a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lac...

  3. COMPOSITION OF BISON AND CATTLE BLOODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEX W. L HAWLEYEU; G. PEI

    Composition of ration and season of sampling markedly affectedthe composition of blood in six tamed bison (Bison bison) steers and eight Hereford cattle (Bos taurus) steers. Observed values extended reported ranges for albumin, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in bison serum. There were several differencesbetween speciesin blood composition.In particular,erythrocyticand BUN values were higher in bison than in cattle. Overall

  4. Comparative Genome Map of Human and Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabina Solinas-Toldo; Christoph Lengauer; Ruedi Fries

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal homologies between individual human chromosomes and the bovine karyotype have been established by using a new approach termed Zoo-FISH. Labeled DNA libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on cattle chromosomes. All human DNA libraries, except the Y chromosome library, hybridized to one or more cattle chromosomes, identifying and delineating 50 segments

  5. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  6. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  7. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  8. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...

  9. An Econometric Model of Cattle Inventories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal R. Rucker; Oscar R. Burt; Jeffrey T. LaFrance

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic regression equations are estimated for each beef cattle breeding herd and beef cattle inventories at two levels of aggregation, the U.S. and Montana. The analysis for Montana was utilized as a guide for specification of the national equation to reduce the inference problem associated with letting the sample data help specify the model. Rational lags on average price received

  10. Abortions in Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Abortions in Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension Veterinarian University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Abortion is the premature expulsion of the fetus from the dam and usually have died in-utero due to disease and was expelled. Depending upon the cause of "abortion" a cow may

  11. Nutrition and Reproduction in Dairy Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Eduardo; P. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle, and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of the female bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during

  12. IMPACT OF NUTRITION ON DAIRY CATTLE REPRODUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Eduardo; P. Santos

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of the female bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin - like growth factor-I (IGF-I); reduced peak frequency of LH pulses; lowered

  13. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  14. Range Cattle Research & Education Center FIELD DAYOctober 1, 2013

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Range Cattle Research & Education Center FIELD DAYOctober 1, 2013 Forage and Cattle #12;RCREC Field and Center Director, Range Cattle Research and Education Center 10:15 AM Opening Remarks Henry Kempfer, Kempfer Cattle Company and PresidentElect, Florida Cattlemen's Association 10:30 AM Cogongrass

  15. FERTILITY OF CATTLE FOLLOWING PGF2o~ INJECTION 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Lauderdale; B. E. Seguin; J. N. Stellflug; J. R. Chenault

    Summary Cattle were randomly assigned on a stratified basis to one of three treatments at each of four locations such that similar numbers of cattle were assigned to each treatment. Cattle assigned to Treatment I (controls) were observed for estrus at least twice daily and inseminated at estrus detected during an 18- to 25-day interval. Cattle assigned to Treatments II

  16. Original article Diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection of cattle in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection of cattle in Tunisia: comparison and naturally infected cattle. The results obtained on 100 naive cattle showed that non-specific fluorescence of them were pos- itive for blood smears. A total of 109 cattle from an endemic region of tropical

  17. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    E-print Network

    Hillis, David

    New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events Emily Jane Mc December 17, 2012) Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European

  18. Cattle grazing Wahweap milkvetch in southeastern Utah.

    PubMed

    Ralphs, M H; James, L F; Nielsen, D B; Baker, D C; Molyneux, R J

    1988-12-01

    Cattle's grazing of the locoweed Wahweap milkvetch (Astragalus lentiginosus var. wahweapensis) was evaluated on desert and foothill winter range during the winter of 1986 to 1987. Dry, dead stalks of Wahweap milkvetch that had grown in 1985 and 1986 made up 15% of cattle diets overall, and 24% of diets when cattle grazed gravelly benches where it was abundant. Nutritional quality of Wahweap milkvetch was higher than of most associated forage, but its alkaloid concentration varied among the senescent stages. One cow aborted and two cows developed clinical signs of locoweed poisoning, including water belly (hydrops amnii). Microscopic lesions consisting of cytoplasmic foamy vacuolation were evident in both the dam and fetus. Because senescent stalks of Wahweap milkvetch are palatable and readily grazed by cattle, ranchers should not permit cattle to graze infested sites until other green forage is available in the spring. PMID:3230074

  19. Effects of drinking water temperature on water consumption, respiration rates, and body temperatures of lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-print Network

    Lanham, Jeffrey Kent

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by JEFFREY KENT LANHAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis...

  20. An economic evaluation of the effects of seasonal freshening on milk costs and returns from Holstein and Jersey cows 

    E-print Network

    Denton, James Sterling

    1966-01-01

    for the Laotaticm ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 7. Pounds of Ni1k Per Pound of Grain, Cxain Conmnsed During Dxy Period and RLLR Yield in Suooeeding Laotation, 452 Jersey and 1, 946 Holstein Cows. . . . . , 26 8. Nonthly Nilk Pxodootion, Peed Cost ~ Peed... Herd, September 1956 to kngust 1961 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Peroent Duttexfat Cantent of MUk? Holstein Cows, by Month of Pxesh?nxfng? Texas kkM University Dairy Herd? September 1956 to kngust 1961 Perosnt Dutterfat Content' of Milk, Jersey Cove, by Month...

  1. Inbreeding and crossbreeding parameters for production and fertility traits in Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Normande cows.

    PubMed

    Dezetter, C; Leclerc, H; Mattalia, S; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Ducrocq, V

    2015-07-01

    Breed differences and nonadditive genetic effects for milk production traits, somatic cell score (SCS), conception rate (CR), and days to first service (DFS) were estimated for Holstein × Montbéliarde and Holstein × Normande crossbreds, using an animal model adapted from the French genetic evaluation and extended to across-breed analysis. Inbreeding and breed differences were estimated from all purebred recorded cows. Only records from 1,137 herds with Holstein × Montbéliarde crossbred cows and from 1,033 herds with Holstein × Normande crossbred cows were used to estimate crossbreeding parameters. In these herds, crossbred cows represented about 13% of the total number of recorded animals compared with <1% when all herds were considered. Compared with the Montbéliarde and Normande breeds, the Holstein breed was genetically superior for production [+951kg and +2,444kg for 305-d mature-equivalent (305ME) milk, +40kg and +102kg for 305ME fat, +17kg and +54kg for 305ME protein, respectively] and inferior for fertility traits (-12 and -9% for CR, respectively). Inbreeding depression caused loss of yield for production traits (from -32 to -41kg of 305ME milk, -1.4 to -1.7kg of 305ME fat, and -1.1 to -1.3kg of 305ME protein per inbreeding percentage), a small increase in SCS (+0.001 to 0.006) and DFS (+0.12d), and a decrease in CR (-0.27 to -0.44%). Favorable heterosis effects were found for all traits (+494 to 524kg of 305ME milk, +21 to 22kg of 305ME fat, +15 to 16kg of 305ME protein, -0.05 to -0.04 SCS, +2 to 3% for CR, and -3 to 6d of DFS), to such a point that F1 crossbreds could compete with Holstein cows for milk production while having a better fertility. However, recombination losses suggested that some F1 heterosis was lost for backcross cows. PMID:25981069

  2. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  3. In vivo indices for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle: Comparison with in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Lean, I J; Golder, H M; Black, J L; King, R; Rabiee, A R

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) used in the feed industry to estimate the potential for grains to increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. The existing NIRS calibration was developed from in sacco and in vitro measures in cattle and grain chemical composition measurements. To evaluate the existing model, 20 cultivars of 5 grain types were fed to 40 Holstein heifers using a grain challenge protocol and changes in rumen VFA, ammonia, lactic acids, and pH that are associated with acidosis were measured. A method development study was performed to determine a grain feeding rate sufficient to induce non-life threatening but substantial ruminal changes during grain challenge. Feeding grain at a rate of 1.2% of BW met these criteria, lowering rumen pH (P = 0.01) and increasing valerate (P < 0.01) and propionate concentrations (P = 0.01). Valerate was the most discriminatory measure indicating ruminal change during challenge. Heifers were assigned using a row by column design in an in vivo study to 1 of 20 grain cultivars and were reassigned after a 9 d period (n = 4 cattle/treatment). The test grains were dry rolled oats (n = 3), wheat (n = 6), barley (n = 4), triticale (n = 4), and sorghum (n = 3) cultivars. Cattle were adapted to the test grain and had ad libitum access to grass silage 11 d before the challenge. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge feeding with 0.3 kg DM of silage followed by the respective test grain fed at 1.2% of BW. A rumen sample was taken by stomach tube 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after grain consumption. The rumen is not homogenous and samples of rumen fluid obtained by stomach tube will differ from those gained by other methods. Rumen pH was measured immediately; individual VFA, ammonia, and D- and L-lactate concentrations were analyzed later. Rumen pH (P = 0.002) and all concentrations of fermentation products differed among grains (P = 0.001). A previously defined discriminant score calculated at 200 min after challenge was used to rank grains for acidosis risk. A significant correlation between the discriminant score and the NIRS ranking (r = 0.731, P = 0.003) demonstrated the potential for using NIRS calibrations for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle. The overall rankings of grains for acidosis risk were wheat > triticale > barley > oats > sorghum. PMID:23482574

  4. Eprinomectin: a novel avermectin for use as a topical endectocide for cattle.

    PubMed

    Shoop, W L; Egerton, J R; Eary, C H; Haines, H W; Michael, B F; Mrozik, H; Eskola, P; Fisher, M H; Slayton, L; Ostlind, D A; Skelly, B J; Fulton, R K; Barth, D; Costa, S; Gregory, L M; Campbell, W C; Seward, R L; Turner, M J

    1996-11-01

    Eprinomectin (MK-397 or 4"-epi-acetylamino-4"-deoxy-avermectin B1) is a novel avermectin selected for development as a topical endectocide for all cattle, including lactating dairy cows. Herein, we show its anthelmintic, insecticidal and miticidal activity. To determine its anthelmintic capabilities, eprinomectin was tested topically on Jersey calves at 0.08, 0.2, or 0.5 mg kg-1 in a probe formulation against experimental infections of adult Haemonchus placei, ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, Cooperia oncophora, C. punctata, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Dictyocaulus viviparus. Eprinomectin removed > or = 99% and > or = 98% of the adult stage of every species at the 0.5 and 0.2 mg kg-1 dosage levels, respectively. The lowest dosage (0.08 mg kg-1) produced maximal or near maximal efficacy against most of the adult endoparasites with the exception of T. colubriformis (87%) and C. oncophora (88%). In a separate test, eprinomectin was evaluated topically against the immature stages of species at the same dosages. Results showed > or = 99% and > or = 98% removal of the immature stages of each species at the 0.5 and 0.2 mg kg-1 dosage levels, respectively. The 0.08 mg kg-1 dosage maintained > or = 97% efficacy against 6 species with reduced activity against H. placei (42%) and N. helvetianus (66%). For ectoparasites, eprinomectin was tested topically at 0.16, 0.24, 0.32 or 0.5 mg kg-1 on mixed breed cattle naturally infested with the sucking louse, Linognathus vituli. Complete elimination of lice at all dosages was observed by day 14. Topical delivery of eprinomectin at 0.16, 0.24, 0.32 or 0.5 mg kg-1 to Holstein calves experimentally challenged with horn fly, Haematobia irritans, produced 100% efficacy to challenge by week 2 post-treatment in all dosages groups and 94% and 99% efficacy to challenge at the 0.32 and 0.5 mg kg-1 dosage groups, respectively, at week 4. Topical delivery of eprinomectin at 0.16, 0.24 or 0.5 mg kg-1 to Deutsches Fleckvieh cattle infested with mange mites, Chorioptes bovis, produced > or = 95% control at all dosages levels by day 14 post-treatment and was maintained at or near this efficacious level for the 6-week duration of the trial. No adverse reaction was observed in any animal in any of these tests. In summary, these experimental data indicate that eprinomectin is an excellent broad-spectrum endectocide for cattle and is suitable for topical delivery. PMID:9024867

  5. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    PubMed

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. PMID:25676210

  6. Computer-controlled Chinese chess

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Sun Lee; Shun-Jih Wang; Heng-Yau Pang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a program written in Visual Basic on a personal computer (PC) moves the chessmen of Chinese chess according to the Chinese chess rules. When the serial port of the PC is connected to a single chip microcontroller installed with a radio frequency (RF) wireless emitter, the emitter sends data to robot cars installed with an RF receiver.

  7. Chinese Business Practices and Culture

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    and culture, interact with Chinese students and businesses followed by a 5 day business visit to internationalMGMT228 Chinese Business Practices and Culture School of Business and Economics 2014business Costs information on the course, or to apply: email: jeremy.orourke@canterbury.ac.nz web: www.bsec.canterbury.ac.nz/international-business

  8. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  9. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  10. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  11. CHINESE STUDIES Rujie Wang, Chair

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Mark A.

    students the basic skills of reading, lis- tening, speaking, and writing Chinese. Besides providing, together with related courses from the departments of Anthropology, History, Philosophy, and Religious, speaking, and listening comprehension; it introduces Chinese calligraphy, but the main emphases are oral

  12. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  13. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8±1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0±23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle. PMID:25997530

  14. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in exon 2 of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American cattle.

    PubMed

    Miretti, M M; Ferro, J A; Lara, M A; Contel, E P

    2001-10-01

    The Bola-DRB3 gene participates in the development of the immune response and is highly polymorphic. For these reasons, it has been a candidate gene in studies of the genetic basis of disease resistance and in population genetic analysis. South American native cattle breeds have been widely replaced by improved exotic breeds leading to a loss of genetic resources. In particular, South American native breeds have high levels of fertility and disease resistance. This work describes genetic variability in the BoLA-DRB3 gene in native (Caracu, Pantaneiro, Argentinean Creole) and exotic (Holstein, Jersey, Nelore, Gir) cattle breeds in Brazil and Argentina. PCR-RFLP alleles were identified by combining the restriction patterns for the BoLA-DRB3.2 locus obtained with RsaI, BstY and HaeIII restriction enzymes. Allelic frequencies and deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were also calculated. Analysis of the 24 BoLA-DRB3 PCR-RFLP alleles identified showed differences in the allele distributions among breeds. PMID:11758727

  15. Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

  16. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4) Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard; Hardt, Michael; Scheuermann, Petra; Freick, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA) and 289 White Galloway (WGA) cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed. PMID:26076463

  17. Chinese House The Chinese House has been a Living and Learning Center program since the

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    language skills, with the assistance of language faculty members of the Chinese Language Program at UVM for students who are learning Chinese language and are interested in Chinese culture. It is also a place where and reinforce students' Chinese language learning experiences after class. Action Steps Hold Chinese Tea Hour

  18. CHINESE DANCE CLASSES CICM 303 (008) CHINESE FOLK DANCE FOR CHILDREN

    E-print Network

    Powers, Robert

    CHINESE DANCE CLASSES CICM 303 (008) CHINESE FOLK DANCE FOR CHILDREN (Grades K-5) CICM 404 (007) CHINESE FOLK DANCE FOR CHILDREN (Grades 3-12) Jan.17­Apr.25 Saturdays11:30 am­12:30pm Jan.17­Apr.25 CHINESE ART CLASSES CICC 112 (002) BEGINNING CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY & PAINTING FOR CHILDREN (Ages 5-9) CICC

  19. Pit1 Gene Polymorphism, Milk Yield, and Conformation Traits for Italian Holstein-Friesian Bulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Renaville; N. Gengler; E. Vrech; A. Prandi; S. Massart; C. Corradini; C. Bertozzi; F. Mortiaux; A. Burny; D. Portetelle

    1997-01-01

    The growth hormone factor-1\\/pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is responsible for the expres- sion of growth hormone in mammals. Mutations in Pit-1 have been found in growth hormone disorders of mice and humans. We studied the eventual associa- tion between Pit-1 polymorphism using the HinfI en- zyme and the milk yield and conformation traits of 89 Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls. A strategy

  20. Kleinflächen und Meßstellen zur Kalkulation großflächiger Brutvogelbestände: Buteo buteo und Accipiter gentilis in Schleswig-Holstein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giinther Busche

    1989-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Großflächige Bestandszahlen vieler Vogelarten sind nur über Teilerfassungen zu erhalten. Quantitative Gitterfeldkartierung mit Konfidenzintervallberechnung ermöglicht, Bestandsgrößen ohne Schätzanteile zu ermitteln und die Größen der Stichproben zu disponieren (Abb. 2). Die Kalkulation des Mäusebussard-Bestandes für Schleswig-Holstein mit 15 % an Probefläche beträgt 2891 Paare (Intervall 88–112 %), mit 6 % Probefläche nur geringfügig abweichend 3048 (oder gerundet 2400–3700) Paare innerhalb

  1. Short Communication: Estimates of Genetic Variation of Milk Fatty Acids in US Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bobe; J. A. Minick Bormann; G. L. Lindberg; A. E. Freeman; D. C. Beitz

    2008-01-01

    Interest in changing the milk fatty acid profile is growing. However, little is known about the genetic variabilityofmilkfattyacidsintheUSHolsteinpopula- tion. Therefore, genetic parameters for milk fatty acids were estimated using a single-trait, mixed, linear ani- mal model on 592 individual milk samples from 233 daughtersof53siresinacowherdgeneticallyrepresen- tative of the US Holstein population. Heritability (h2) and repeatability (r) estimates ± standard errors for

  2. Environmental Factors Influencing Test-Day Somatic Cell Counts in Holsteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Kennedy; M. S. Sethar; A. K. W. Tong; J. E. Moxley; B. R. Downey

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Between February and December, 1977, 133,493 test-day observations of somatic cell count were taken on 27,009 Holstein,cows,in,676 herds,on,the Quebec Dairy Herd Analysis Service. Data were transformed to a log (natural) scale, and,analyses,were,separate,within,lacta- tion age group (42, 3, 4, 5, and \\/>6 yr). Joint estimates,of fixed effects of month of test, age of sample at time of labora- tory analysis,

  3. Performance and Milk Zinc from Low-zinc Intake in Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry

    1973-01-01

    Following a 1-week standardization pe- riod, a high beet pulp, low-zinc diet ( 16.6 parts per million) was fed with (39.5 parts per million total zinc) and without supplemental zinc as zinc oxide to 10 first-lactation Holstein cows (linearly de- clining phase of lactation) for 6 weeks. The low-zinc diet did not adversely affect milk production, fat-corrected milk, solids- corrected

  4. Effects of Drinking Water Temperature on Physiological Responses of Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ko LANHAM; C. E. Coppock; K. Z. Milam; J. M. Labore; D. H. Nave; R. A. Stermer; C. F. Brasington

    1986-01-01

    Nine Iactating Holstein cows were offered drinking water of 7.2, 15.6, and 23.9°C in a 3 x 3 Latin square design in Experiment 1. Water was offered for 10 min at 1300 h to simulate time in a milking parlor. Water consumption de- clined as drinking water temperature decreased. Respiration rates decreased as the drinking water temperature decreased. In Experiment

  5. Effect of Protein Quality and Evaporative Cooling on Lactational Performance of Holstein Cows in Hot Weather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Chen; J. T. Huber; C. B. Theurer; D. V. Armstrong; R. C. Wanderley; J. L. Sullivan; S. C. Chan

    1993-01-01

    ABSTRACT Twenty-four Holstein cows in midlac- tation during summer,in southern Ari- zona were fed diets supplemented,with a combination of blood, fish, and soybean meals (high quality protein) or corn glu- ten meal,(low quality protein). Diets were balanced for CP content and esti- mated ruminal protein degradability, but they differed in Lys concentration (.98 vs. .59% of DM). Milk yield for

  6. Influences of Different Milk Yields of Holstein Cows on Milk Quality Indicators in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Jan?; O. Hanuš; J. Frelich; A. Macek; I. Zají?ková; V. Gen?urová; R. Jedelská

    2007-01-01

    Jan? L., O. Hanuš, J. Frelich, a. Macek, I. Zají?ková, V. Gen?urová, R. Jedelská: Influences of Different Milk Yields of Holstein Cows on Milk Quality Indicators in the Czech Republic. acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 553-561. The milk yield (MY) is an important economic and health factor closely connected with the health status of dairy cows, their reproduction performance, longevity

  7. Effect of Propylene Glycol Dosage During Feed Restriction on Metabolites in Blood of Prepartum Holstein Heifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ric R. Grummer; Jon C. Winkler; Sandy J. Bertics; Vaughn A. Studer

    1994-01-01

    ABSTRACT Different doses of propylene,glycol were,compared,for lowering,plasma NEFA concentration,during,restricted feed intake. Eight Holstein heifers, aver- aging 90 d prior to calving at initiation of the trial, were in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 12-d periods. Heifers con- sumed,alfalfa silage on an ad libitum basis during d 1 to 7 of each period. During d 8 to 12,

  8. Phenotypic, Genetic, and Environmental Relationships of Milk Production and Type Ratings of Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Wilcox; K. O. Pfau; R. E. Mather; R. F. Gabriel; J. W. Bartlett

    1962-01-01

    SU)I~(ARY Data from 233 Holstein cows with 671 lactation records and 2,272 classifica- tion scores were analyzed. Milk records were adjusted to a 2 ×, 305-day M.E. basis; type scores were adjusted for the effects of age, season, stage of lacta- tion, classifier, and year. Repeatability of single-lactation records for milk yield, 4% FCM yield, and fat yield ranged from

  9. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  10. Chinese House John Yin, Faculty Director

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    , with the assistance of language faculty members of the Chinese Language Program at UVM and visiting instructors1 Chinese House John Yin, Faculty Director Ying Hu, Faculty Director Diana Sun, Faculty Director language and are interested in Chinese culture. It is also a place where American and Chinese students can

  11. The difference between Chinese and Western negotiations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Alan Buttery; T. K. P. Leung

    1998-01-01

    Guanxi is the foundation of Chinese business negotiations. The paper explains the meaning of Guanxi and uses it to differentiate between the characteristics of Chinese and Western negotiations in the marketing context. Guanxi is a characteristic of Chinese culture and provides a starting point for understanding the Chinese negotiating style. Western cultures have inherently different characteristics. As culture is so

  12. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  13. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered cattle for agricultural and biomedical applications. PMID:25596824

  14. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

  15. Eradication of Lice in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, O; Grřnstřl, H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals. PMID:11455904

  16. Eradication of lice in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nafstad, O; Grřnstřl, H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals. PMID:11455904

  17. Genome edited sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701

  18. Chinese Mainland Movie Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Fen; Xue, Yu-Hua; He, Da-Ren

    2008-03-01

    We propose describing a large kind of cooperation-competition networks by bipartite graphs and their unipartite projections. In the graphs the topological structure describe the cooperation-competition configuration of the basic elements, and the vertex weight describe their different roles in cooperation or results of competition. This complex network description may be helpful for finding and understanding common properties of cooperation-competition systems. In order to show an example, we performed an empirical investigation on the movie cooperation-competition network within recent 80 years in the Chinese mainland. In the net the movies are defined as nodes, and two nodes are connected by a link if a common main movie actor performs in them. The edge represents the competition relationship between two movies for more audience among a special audience colony. We obtained the statistical properties, such as the degree distribution, act degree distribution, act size distribution, and distribution of the total node weight, and explored the influence factors of Chinese mainland movie competition intensity.

  19. Biotech's Chinese connection

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, G.

    1992-03-27

    Hong Kong last month opened the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology (HKIB), a nonprofit R and D center. By combining Chinese expertise in medicinal compounds and cell culturing with Western technical and marketing skills, the institute hopes to develop products that could be licensed to Hong Kong or Western films. The institute is also developing experimental cell lines and making genetically engineered versions of promising compounds, taking advantage of the cell-culturing and cloning skills that are highly developed on the mainland. The Shanghai contingent is already involved in one of the institute's projects, an effort to transfer human genes into mouse fibroblasts to create cell lines for research on the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Other Chinese researchers are taking part in HKIB's joint venture with Syntex, which was signed last April. The mainland researchers extract candidate medicinal compounds from plants and microorganisms. In Hong Kong, the compounds are tested for their effects on neurotransmitter receptors, while Syntex scientists in Palo Alto study how the same compounds affect enzyme activity and whole cells.

  20. Suppression of Stable Flies on Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2004-07-01

    Suppression of Stable Flies on Cattle Jeffery K. Tomberlin Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist The Texas A&M University System B ecause of its painful bite, the stable fly is a consider- able pest of livestock and people. Populations... of more than 20 flies per cow can significantly lower income for live- stock producers. Infestations of 50 flies per cow on beef cattle have reduced weight gain by 25 percent and, in dairy cattle, have decreased milk production by 40 to 60 percent...

  1. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the Secretary of Agriculture...

  2. Acclimation of Holstein Calves to Transit Stress: The Integration of Endocrine, Immune, and Behavior Systems 

    E-print Network

    Adams, Amber

    2012-10-19

    influence transport stress may have on the immune capabilities of cattle is especially important for feedlot cattle managers and owners. Feeder and stocker calves undergo various sources of stress (such as weaning 7 7 5 and castration) prior.... In one example, Fisher et al. (1996) demonstrated that the average daily gain (ADG) for calves was reduced post-castration, regardless of the method of castration implemented. Another common stressor calves experience is weaning; early-weaned calves...

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid constituents collected at the atlanto-occipital site of xylazine hydrochloride sedated, healthy 8-week-old Holstein calves.

    PubMed Central

    St Jean, G; Yvorchuk-St Jean, K; Anderson, D E; Moore, W E

    1997-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at the atlanto-occipital site and serum were obtained from 10 male, 8-week-old, Holstein calves after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Glucose, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Optical characteristics, specific gravity, total red blood cell and nucleated cell counts and differentials were also evaluated in the CSF. Additionally, CSF protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations were determined. Then, albumin quotients (AQ) were derived. Erythrocytes were observed in 9 of 10 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0-10 cells x 10(6)/L with a mean of 3 cells x 10(6)/L. Differential nucleated cell count in the CSF consisted primarily of lymphocytes/small mononuclear cells (57%), fewer monocytes/ large mononuclear cells (38%), and scant neutrophils (4%) and eosinophils (0.05%). The concentration of sodium (134 to 139 mEq/L) was similar to that of serum, but the concentration of potassium (2.8 to 3 mEq/L) was lower than that of serum. Creatine kinase activity (0 to 4 U/L) of CSF was markedly lower than serum activity. The CSF glucose concentration was approximately 80% of the serum value. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentration determined by electrophoresis ranged from 110 to 330 mg/L with a mean of 159 mg/L. Cerebrospinal fluid albumin ranged from 48 to 209 mg/L with a mean of 86 mg/L. In all CSF samples, radial immunodiffusion of unaltered CSF and concentrated CSF (four-fold concentration) revealed quantities undetectable by the present techniques in which the lowest standard values for IgG1, IgG, and IgM determinations was 70 mg/L and IgG2 was 30 mg/L. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.15 to 0.65 with a mean of 0.25. Based on the results of this study, CSF may be collected at the atlanto-occipital site safely and efficiently in calves, and reported values for CSF from adult cattle may not be suitable for evaluation of CSF collected from immature cattle. PMID:9114961

  4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using intratumoral injection of the 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for the treatment of eye cancer in cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Raduan; Mancilha, Geraldo; Zângaro, Renato A.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio

    2007-02-01

    A six-year old Holstein cow with an eye cancer (ocular squamous cell carcinoma) involving the third eyelid and conjunctiva was submitted to photodynamic therapy using intratumoral 20% aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA - Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, USA) and a light emitting diode (LED - VET LED - MMOptics (R)) with wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, power of 150 mW, light dose of 50 J/cm2 as a source of irradiation. Fifteen days after the experimental procedure we observed about 50% tumor reduction and complete remission after 3 months. Relapse was not observed up to 12 months after the treatment. Although the study only includes one animal not allowing definite conclusions, it indicates that PDT represents a safe and technically feasible approach in the treatment of eye cancer in cattle.

  5. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    PubMed

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (<9 months of age) have resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  6. Measuring value added characteristics in feeder cattle 

    E-print Network

    Mathews, Crystal Dawn

    2009-05-15

    According to the USDA, there were 52.7 million marketings of cattle through live and internet auction markets and other venues in 2005. With the national average herd size at 43 head, most producers have limited bargaining ...

  7. Implanting Beef Calves and Stocker Cattle 

    E-print Network

    McCollum III, Ted

    1998-04-24

    Implanting beef calves offers one of the highest benefit-to-cost ratios of all the management practices available to cow/calf and stocker cattle producers. This publication offers advice on implant administration....

  8. Vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop FMDV transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Bravo DE Rueda, C; Dekker, A; Eblé, P L; DE Jong, M C M

    2015-08-01

    We quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. The (partial) reproduction ratios (R) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. A 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (NGM) was constructed using these estimates. The dominant eigenvalue of the NGM, the R for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different proportions of cattle and sheep and for three different vaccination strategies. The higher the proportion of cattle in a mixed cattle-sheep population, the higher the R for the mixed population. Therefore the impact of vaccination of the cattle is higher. After vaccination of all animals R = 0·1 independent of population composition. In mixed cattle-sheep populations with at least 14% of cattle, vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to reduce R to < 1. PMID:25464822

  9. [Is coccidiosis in mature cattle an exception?].

    PubMed

    van Hateren, A K; Cuperus, T; Walgemoed, J

    1985-07-15

    An outbreak of coccidiosis in a group of forty Jersey cattle is reported. This group formed part of a population of 200 dairy cattle. Severe infection by Dictyocaulus viviparus occurred prior to this outbreak of coccidiosis. The two clinical pictures were confined to the group of Jerseys, which animals had been imported from Denmark during the previous autumn and winter (1983-1984). PMID:2930912

  10. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Nutritional value of ensiled grocery food waste for cattle.

    PubMed

    Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L; Azain, M J; Michot, P; Rekaya, R

    2014-11-01

    Assessment of nutrient variability, feed value, ensiling capability, intake, and digestibility of grocery food waste recycled from large retail stores was conducted in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, 115 proximate nutrient analyses of grocery byproduct feed (GBP) from stores in the southern United States from April 8, 2011, to November 18, 2012, were evaluated for variation in nutrient concentration. Grocery byproduct feed was characterized as being a readily fermentable, high-moisture energy feed with an average DM content of 17.5 ± 3.7% and TDN of 89.8 ± 7.1%. In Exp. 2 and 3, grocery food waste consisting of fruit, vegetables, and bakery items from large retail stores in the Atlanta, GA, area was used for ensiling and feeding studies. The GBP material for Exp. 2 was processed on farm into homogenous slurry and treated to reduce its moisture content and preserved in experimental silos. Drying treatments included 3 levels of citrus pulp substitution (8, 16, and 24% as-fed basis), or passively removing liquid as seepage after stacking for 24 h, or oven drying (24 h at 80°C). All GBP mixtures effectively ensiled after 28 d, as determined by changes in pH, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation acids. Ensiled GBP was moderately stable during 72-h aerobic exposure. In Exp. 3, a feeding/digestibility trial, 8 yearling Holstein steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square and fed 4 incremental levels of ensiled GBP in total mixed rations (TMR). Steers were fed 0, 18, 36, and 54% ensiled GBP as part of a TMR containing 68% wheat silage and 32% concentrate on a DM basis. The rations averaged 35.9, 30.7, 26.8, and 23.8% DM with incremental levels of GBP. Steers increased DM intake and digestibility when fed increasing GBP (P < 0.5). Digestible energy and TDN were linearly related to the level of GBP fed (P < 0.01). The TDN content of GBP was 82.7% (DM basis) and similar to predicted TDN values from commercial feed analyses of GBP. The feeding and nutritive value of ensiled GBP indicates it can be priced to be used effectively as an energy supplement in TMR for cattle. PMID:25349356

  12. Factors affecting dystocia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zaborski, D; Grzesiak, W; Szatkowska, I; Dybus, A; Muszynska, M; Jedrzejczak, M

    2009-06-01

    The paper reviews the various factors affecting dystocia in cattle. It is based mainly on the recent studies found in the literature of the subject but refers occasionally to some older papers as well. The factors are grouped into four main categories: direct factors, phenotypic factors related to calf and cow, non-genetic and genetic factors. The first group includes malpresentations and uterine torsion. The second one includes: calf birth weight, multiple calvings, perinatal mortality, cow pelvic area, cow body weight and body condition at calving, gestation length. The non-genetic factors are: cow age and parity, year and season of calving, place of calving, maintenance practises, disorders, calf sex and nutrition. Other non-genetic factors are the level of hormones in the periparturient period, in vitro production of embryos and embryo cloning. Finally, the genotypes of cow, bull and calf, inbreeding, muscular hypertrophy, selection and quantitative trait loci form the fourth group of genetic factors. PMID:19055561

  13. Chinese Constellations and Star Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

  14. Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A mathematics professor from UC Berkeley, currently on sabbatical and at the National University of Singapore, has posted this information about the Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar. Professor Helmer Aslaksen gives some background on why he has developed this webpage, noting that "Chinese New Year is the main holiday of the year for more than one quarter of the world's population; very few people, however, know how to compute its date." Having little success in finding any information on the rules of the Chinese Calendar, he decided to work it out himself. Posted here are some of his papers on the Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar, along with an overall explanation of his method of calculation and several astronomical Java Applets and Animations to help explain the motion of the Earth and the Sun. His website on Heavenly Mathematics provides further ideas on ways to teach astronomy in a cultural context.

  15. Chinese Passives: Transformational or Lexical?

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiuwu; Wen, Xiaohong

    1989-01-01

    There are two types of passive constructions in Chinese. Type I is a syntactic passive since it is derived through a transformational rule. Type II is a lexical passive. It has certain properties in common with the predicate ...

  16. "Fractal Expression" in Chinese Calligraphy

    E-print Network

    Yuelin Li

    2008-12-19

    We show that from historical record and mathematic analysis, "fractal expressions" may have been a conscious pursuit at least one thousand years ago as an element of beauty in ancient Chinese calligraphy.

  17. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  18. Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C; Nichols, P; Collins, G H

    1991-11-01

    The epidemiology of paramphistomosis in cattle was studied using tracer calves in a subtropical location in eastern Australia. Two species of paramphistomes were present; Calicophoron calicophorum and Paramphistomum ichikawai. The former species was the most abundant. Gyraulus scottianus and Helicorbis australiensis acted as intermediate hosts, respectively. Paramphistome burdens varied seasonally and were dependent upon the number of infected host snails. Peak fluke burdens and clinical paramphistomosis occurred in late summer in year 1 and early winter in year 2. The peak fluke burdens coincided with prolonged inundation of the grazing areas resulting in rapid multiplication and infection of host snails, and the period after the inundated areas dried out. The prevalence of infection in snails was high in both years, peaking at 98% in year 1 and 58% in year 2. The main host snail, G. scottianus, aestivated and retained infection for at least 24 weeks in soil, and in vegetable debris on the surface of the soil, resulting in rapid reappearance of host snails and infective metacercariae after the onset of seasonal rain. Metacercariae survived on herbage for up to 12 weeks, depending on the environmental conditions. Paramphistome burdens in calves could be predicted from the prevalence of infection in the host snail, the water levels and an index of surface water on the grazing site. Control of paramphistomosis during and after flooding may be achieved by removal of susceptible cattle from pasture or regular treatment during these periods. Strategic treatment during the dry season may reduce contamination of snail habitats and infectivity of the pasture in the following wet season. PMID:1774118

  19. HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC EFFECTS OF CHINESE TEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. C. YANG; M. W. L. KOOU

    1997-01-01

    Chinese teas with different degrees of fermentation were examined for their effect on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. The teas tested were Chinese Green tea, Jasmine, Iron Buddha, Oolong and Pu erh. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rats with a cholesterol-enriched diet for 1 week. They were then treated with different tea extracts together with a cholesterol-enriched diet for another 8

  20. Bulimia nervosa in the Chinese.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U

    1993-12-01

    Typical DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa with self-induced vomiting was found in 2 women of Hong Kong Chinese origin and a Chinese man from Malaysia. All 3 cases had a family history of obesity. In 2 of the cases a period of weight gain and in the third case frank obesity preceded the onset of the eating disorder. Cultural transition seemed to play an important part in the onset and maintenance of the eating disorder. PMID:8293034