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Genome wide association studies for body conformation traits in the Chinese Holstein cattle population  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for revealing the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, studies using GWAS for conformation traits of cattle is comparatively less. This study aims to use GWAS to find the candidates genes for body conformation traits. Results The Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with body conformation traits. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was applied to detect multiple SNPs simultaneously for 29 body conformation traits with 1,314 Chinese Holstein cattle and 52,166 SNPs. Totally, 59 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were detected by genome-wide association analysis; five SNPs were within previously reported QTL regions (Animal Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database) and 11 were very close to the reported SNPs. Twenty-two SNPs were located within annotated gene regions, while the remainder were 0.6–826 kb away from known genes. Some of the genes had clear biological functions related to conformation traits. By combining information about the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, we identified DARC, GAS1, MTPN, HTR2A, ZNF521, PDIA6, and TMEM130 as the most promising candidate genes for capacity and body depth, chest width, foot angle, angularity, rear leg side view, teat length, and animal size traits, respectively. We also found four SNPs that affected four pairs of traits, and the genetic correlation between each pair of traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.86, suggesting that these SNPs may have a pleiotropic effect on each pair of traits. Conclusions A total of 59 significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were identified in the Chinese Holstein population. Six promising candidate genes were suggested, and four SNPs showed genetic correlation for four pairs of traits. PMID:24341352



Altered Molecular Expression of the TLR4/NF-?B Signaling Pathway in Mammary Tissue of Chinese Holstein Cattle with Mastitis  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated activation of the nuclear transcription factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway by mastitis initiates expression of genes associated with inflammation and the innate immune response. In this study, the profile of mastitis-induced differential gene expression in the mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated by Gene-Chip microarray and bioinformatics. The microarray results revealed that 79 genes associated with the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway were differentially expressed. Of these genes, 19 were up-regulated and 29 were down-regulated in mastitis tissue compared to normal, healthy tissue. Statistical analysis of transcript and protein level expression changes indicated that 10 genes, namely TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and IL-10, were up-regulated, while, CD14, TNF-?, MD-2, IL-?, NF-?B, and IL-12 were significantly down-regulated in mastitis tissue in comparison with normal tissue. Analyses using bioinformatics database resources, such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and the Gene Ontology Consortium (GO) for term enrichment analysis, suggested that these differently expressed genes implicate different regulatory pathways for immune function in the mammary gland. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence for better understanding the differential expression and mechanisms of the TLR4 /NF-?B signaling pathway in Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis. PMID:25706977

Wu, Jie; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Huang, Shuai; Tang, Juan; Yu, Pan; Wang, Genlin



Genetic polymorphisms of the BMAP-28 and MASP-2 genes and their correlation with the somatic cell score in Chinese Holstein cattle.  


DNA sequencing, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to investigate mutations in the coding regions of the bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-28 (BMAP-28) and mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) genes in 249 Chinese Holstein dairy cows. The associations between the polymorphisms and somatic cell score (SCS) were analyzed to determine the potential of these genes as genetic markers for breeding mastitis-resistant dairy cattle. The results revealed a C-86G synonymous mutation in the BMAP-28 gene that caused no alteration in the amino acid sequence. G553A mutation was found in the MASP-2 gene that led to the substitution of glycine with serine. The chi-square test showed that the G553A mutation was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the Chinese Holstein dairy cows, whereas the C-86G mutation was not. The variance analysis of the influence of group loci and different genotypes on the SCS showed that the SCS of genotype CC was significantly lower than those of genotypes CG and GG (P < 0.05) of the C-86G mutation, and that the SCS of genotype GG was significantly lower than those of genotypes GA and AA (P < 0.05) of the G553A mutation. Genotype combination analysis showed that the combination of the BMAP-28 genotype CC and the MASP-2 genotype GG was the best one, in which the SCS was significantly lower than those in the other combinations. Thus, this combination might be useful as a molecular and genetic marker of mastitis in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25729929

Wu, J; Bai, J Y; Li, L; Huang, S; Li, C M; Wang, G L



Paternal origins of Chinese cattle.  


To determine the genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 302 males from 16 Chinese native cattle breeds as well as 30 Holstein males and four Burma males as controls were analysed using four Y-SNPs and two Y-STRs. In Chinese bulls, the taurine Y1 and Y2 haplogroups and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in seven, 172 and 123 individuals respectively, and these frequencies varied among the Chinese cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4%), and Y3 dominates in southern China (90.8%). Central China is an admixture zone, although Y2 predominates overall (72.0%). The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies revealed a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China. The three Y haplogroups were further classified into one Y1 haplotype, five Y2 haplotypes and one Y3 haplotype in Chinese native bulls. Due to the interplay between taurine and indicine types, Chinese cattle represent an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. The Y haplotype distribution of Chinese cattle exhibited a clear geographical structure, which is consistent with mtDNA, historical and geographical information. PMID:23347145

Li, R; Zhang, X M; Campana, M G; Huang, J P; Chang, Z H; Qi, X B; Shi, H; Su, B; Zhang, R F; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z



Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...


Y chromosome diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle.  


To determine the Y chromosome genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 369 bulls from 17 Chinese native cattle breeds and 30 bulls from Holstein and four bulls from Burma were analyzed using a recently discovered USP9Y marker that could distinguish between taurine and indicine cattle more efficiently. In total, the taurine Y1, Y2 haplogroup and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in 7 (1.9 %), 193 (52.3 %) and 169 (45.8 %) individuals of 17 Chinese native breeds, respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst the Chinese native cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4 %), while Y3 dominates in southern China (81.2 %). Central China is an admixture zone with Y2 predominating overall (72.0 %). Our results demonstrate that Chinese cattle have two paternal origins, one from B. taurus (Y2) and the other from B. indicus (Y3). The Y1 haplogroup may originate from the imported beef cattle breeds in western countries. The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies reveal a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China, and male taurine introgression from north to south China. PMID:24065546

Li, Ran; Xie, Wen-Mei; Chang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Dang, Rui-Hua; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao



The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...


Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins  

PubMed Central

The Mexican Holstein (HO) industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN + USA) HO germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv) and the low income (Lowi) system. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican HO cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US HO populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303, and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree HO animals from the Conv, Lowi, and CAN + USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE) and Brown Swiss (BS) genotypes (162 and 86, respectively) were used to determine if Mexican HOs were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC), admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (LD; r2) analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HO × JE and HO × BS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN + USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN + USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN + USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN + USA. Mexican HO cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN + USA but have different genetic signatures. PMID:25709615

García-Ruiz, Adriana; Ruiz-López, Felipe de J.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Montaldo, Hugo H.; Huson, Heather J.



A nonsense mutation in the optic atrophy 3 gene ( OPA3) causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Red Holstein cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiomyopathies are severe degenerative disorders of the myocardium that lead to heart failure. During the last three decades bovine dilated cardiomyopathy (BDCMP) was observed worldwide in cattle of Holstein–Friesian origin. In the Swiss cattle population BDCMP affects Fleckvieh and Red Holstein breeds. The heart of affected animals is enlarged due to dilation of both ventricles. Clinical signs are caused by

Marta Owczarek-Lipska; Philippe Plattet; Ljerka Zipperle; Cord Drögemüller; Horst Posthaus; Gaudenz Dolf; Martin H. Braunschweig



Study on genetic variations of PPAR? gene and its effects on thermal tolerance in Chinese Holstein.  


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. In this research, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to amplify 766 and 589 bp fragments of intron 3 and 7 of PPAR? gene in Chinese Holstein (n = 771). Sequencing results showed that three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at position 44087 (G/A), 65550 (G/A), and 65676(G/A) in the PPAR? gene. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology was used to genotype the three SNPs. Association analysis showed that cows with H1H8 (P < 0.05), H2H8 (P < 0.01), H5H7 (P < 0.05), H5H8 (P < 0.05), and H8H8 (P < 0.05) haplotype combinations had lower potassium content in erythrocytes than those with H2H6 haplotype combination. Cows with H1H8, and H8H8 haplotype combinations had lower decrease rate of milk yield than those with H2H6 and H6H8 haplotype combinations (P < 0.05). Cows with H2H8 and H8H8 haplotype combinations had lower rectal temperature than those with H5H8 and H7H7 haplotype combinations (P < 0.05). In conclusion, H8H8 haplotype combination may be advantageous for heat resistance traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. PMID:24469708

Fang, Wenliang; He, Jianbin; Huang, Jinming; Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Changfa; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Li, Rongling; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Qiuling



Whole-Genome Analyses of Korean Native and Holstein Cattle Breeds by Massively Parallel Sequencing  

PubMed Central

A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea—Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein—using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions–deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding. PMID:24992012

Stothard, Paul; Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeon, Heoyn-Jeong; Miller, Stephen P.; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Jeong-Koo; Yang, Bokyoung; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Han, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Jeong, Dongkee; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Sung-Jin



Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components are related to technological and nutritional properties of milk. Consequently, they are important for the dairy industry and in the animal feeding and breeding strategies. Considerable variation in most of the principal components of milk were observed among the animals. The milk of RCC and IC contained higher protein, CN, ?-CN, whey protein, lactose, total mineral and P. They were more or less similar in most of the all other components. The B milk was found higher in CN number, in the content of ?s2-, ?-CN and ?-lactalbumin, free amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, Ca and Ca:P. The B milk was also lower in ?-lactoglobulin content and had the largest CMS and MFGS. Proportion of CN to whey protein was lower in HX milk and this milk was found higher in ?-lactoglobulin and naturally occuring peptides. Considering the results obtained including the ratio of ?s1-, ?s2-, ?- and ?-CN, B and RCC milk showed best data both from nutritional and technological aspects. PMID:25050028

Islam, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Islam, M. N.; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.



Novel SNPs of the mannan-binding lectin 2 gene and their association with production traits in Chinese Holsteins.  


The mannan-binding lectin gene (MBL) participates as an opsonin in the innate immune system of mammals, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MBL cause various immune dysfunctions. In this study, we detected SNPs in MBL2 at exon 1 using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing techniques in 825 Chinese Holstein cows. Four new SNPs with various allele frequencies were also found. The g.1164 G>A SNP was predicted to substitute arginine with glutamine at the N-terminus of the cysteine-rich domain. In the collagen-like domain, SNPs g.1197 C>A and g.1198 G>A changed proline to glutamine, whereas SNP g.1207 T>C was identified as a synonymous mutation. Correlation analysis showed that the g.1197 C>A marker was significantly correlated to somatic cell score (SCS), and the g.1164 G>A locus had significant effects on SCS, fat content, and protein content (P < 0.05), suggesting possible roles of these SNPs in the host response against mastitis. Nine haplotypes and nine haplotype pairs corresponding to the loci of the 4 novel SNPs were found in Chinese Holsteins. Haplotype pairs MM, MN, and BQ were correlated with the lowest SCS; MN with the highest protein yield; MM with the highest protein rate, and MN with the highest 305- day milk yield. Thus, MM, MN, and BQ are possible candidates for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:23096694

Zhao, Z L; Wang, C F; Li, Q L; Ju, Z H; Huang, J M; Li, J B; Zhong, J F; Zhang, J B



Original article Genetic variation in eight Chinese cattle  

E-print Network

lines for crossbreeding with Chinese indigenous cattle breeds. Such breed- ing schemes have contributed, and USA. However, such crossbreeding with foreign * Corresponding author: Genet. Sel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Genetic variation in eight Chinese cattle breeds based on the analysis of microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability and genetic relationships were investigated among eight Chinese cattle breeds using 12 microsatellite markers. Three hundred and fifty-two alleles were detected and the average number of alleles per locus ranged from 8.33 ± 1.67 in the Jiaxian breed to 21.33 ± 5.60 in the Qinchuan breed with a mean value of 13.91. The total number of alleles per microsatellite ranged from 21 (INRA005, HEL1) to 40 (HEL13), with a mean of 29.33 per locus. The fixation indices at the 12 loci in the eight breeds were very low with a mean of 0.006. A principal components analysis and the construction of a neighborjoining tree showed that these eight Chinese cattle breeds cluster into three groups i.e. the Yanbian andChineseHolstein, theNanyang and Jiaxian, and the four remaining breeds.This clustering agrees with the origin and geographical distributions of these Chinese breeds. PMID:18990358

Sun, Weibin; chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao; Lei, Xueqin; Zhang, Yinghan



The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.  


The SLICK haplotype ( in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. PMID:24996281

Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J



Genome-wide characteristics of copy number variation in Polish Holstein and Polish Red cattle using SNP genotyping assay.  


Copy number variation (CNV), which results from deletions or amplifications of large fragments of genomic DNA, is widespread in mammalian genomes and apart from its potential pathogenic effect it is considered as a source of natural genetic diversity. In cattle populations, this kind of genetic variability remains still insufficiently elucidated and studies focusing on the detection of new structural genomic variants in different cattle populations may contribute to a better understanding of cattle breeds' diversity and genetic basis of production traits. In this study, by using BovineSNP50 assay and cnvPartition algorithm we identified CNVs in two different cattle breeds: Holstein (859 animals) and Polish Red (301). In Holstein cattle we found 648 CNVs which could be reduced to 91 non-redundant variable genomic regions (CNVRs) covering in total 168.6 Mb of the genomic sequence. In Polish Red cattle we detected 62 CNVs, localized in 37 variable regions encompassing 22.3 Mb of the sequence, corresponding to 0.89 % of the autosomal genome. Within the regions we identified 1,192 unique RefSeq genes which are engaged in a variety of biological processes. High concordance of the regions' distribution was found between the studied breeds, however copy number variants seemed to be more common in Holstein cattle. About 26 % of the regions described in this study could be classified as newly identified. The results of this study will broaden the knowledge of CNVs in genomes of cattle of different breeds and will provide foundations for further research aiming to identify a relationship between this type of genetic variation and phenotypic traits. PMID:25648957

Gurgul, A; Jasielczuk, I; Szmato?a, T; Pawlina, K; Z?bek, T; ?ukowski, K; Bugno-Poniewierska, M



Y-SNPs haplotype diversity in four Chinese cattle breeds.  


To investigate the genetic diversity of Chinese cattle, 96 male samples of 4 Chinese native cattle breeds were investigated using 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms specific to the bovine Y chromosome. Two previously described haplotypes (taurine Y2 and indicine Y3) were detected in 74 and 22 animals, respectively. The haplotype frequencies varied amongst the four native breeds. The taurine Y2 haplotype dominated in the Qinchuan, Dabieshan, and Yunba breeds. However, the indicine Y3 haplotype occurred in high frequency in the Enshi breed. Among the four native breeds, Yunba had the highest haplotype diversity (0.4330 ± 0.0750), followed by Qinchuan (0.2899 ± 0.1028) and Enshi (0.2222 ± 0.1662), Dabieshan was the least differentiated (0.1079 ± 0.0680). Compared with some foreign cattle breeds, the low level of haplotype diversity was detected in our breeds (0.2633 ± 0.1030). PMID:23947665

Zhang, Runfeng; Cheng, Ming; Li, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fuying; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Xiaofei; Meng, Quanke



Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.  


The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined. PMID:25501190

Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M



Effect of BoLA-DRB3 exon2 polymorphisms on lameness of Chinese Holstein cows.  


The involvement of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) in immune system and its role in susceptibility/resistance to infectious diseases has been extensively studied. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the association between BoLA and gait scores. Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in BoLA gene are associated with susceptibility of lameness in 435 Chinese Holstein cows. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3.2 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) with three restriction endonucleases (BstUI, BstYI and HaeIII). The relationship between the polymorphisms in BoLA-DRB3.2 gene and gait scores was analyzed by least-squares linear model. The gait score was non-significant among all five BstUI-RFLP and BstYI-RFLP genotypes. However, analysis of seven HaeIII-RFLP genotypes revealed a significantly higher gait score for AB genotype than others. In conclusion, BoLA-DRB3.2 may be a candidate gene for lameness susceptibility in Chinese Holstein cows. PMID:23065285

Sun, Liping; Song, Yapan; Riaz, Hasan; Yang, Liguo



Populationwide investigation of two indel polymorphisms at the prion protein gene in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.  


The allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies among 837 Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle were determined at two regulatory indel polymorphisms of the PRNP gene. Allele frequencies at the 23 bp indel promoter polymorphism were 0.622 (del) and 0.378 (ins), with 0.613 and 0.387 in sires and 0.633 and 0.366 in dams. Allele frequencies at the 12 bp indel intron polymorphism were 0.527 (del) and 0.473 (ins), with 0.529 and 0.471 in sires and 0.543 and 0.456 in dams. Four haplotypes were identified in this population (23-12del, 23-12ins, 23del-12ins, and 23ins-12del). Haplotype 23-12del occurred most frequently in both sire and dam groups. Comparative analysis of Polish Holstein-Friesian and German Holstein populations revealed a similar genetic structure for the 23 bp indel polymorphism and a significantly different one for the 12 bp indel polymorphism. In allele and haplotype analysis, significant differences were observed between the Polish Holstein-Friesian population and a BSE-free German Holstein population. PMID:21221760

Czarnik, Urszula; Strychalski, Janusz; Zabolewicz, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra S



Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.  


When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most effective explanatory variables in predicting pregnancy outcome. PMID:24290820

Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent



Low incidence of an altered endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile in repeat breeder Holstein heifers and differential effect of parity on the EGF profile between fertile Holstein (dairy) and Japanese Black (beef) cattle.  


A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2-4 and 13-14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows. PMID:24064789

Katagiri, Seiji; Moriyoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki



Genetic Association Analysis of Paratuberculosis Forms in Holstein-Friesian Cattle  

PubMed Central

A genetic susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants has been longtime suspected to exist. Recently, natural infections in cattle have been reclassified into latent and patent forms based on histopathological findings and their associations with immunological and microbiological variables. This study aims to explore whether these newly defined phenotypes are associated with twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six bovine candidate genes: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1), nuclear body protein SP110 (SP110), toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, and CD209 (also known as DC-SIGN, dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin). SNPs were genotyped for 772 Holstein-Friesian animals (52.6% apparently free; 38.1% latent; 9.3% patent) by TaqMan OpenArray technology. Genotypic-phenotypic associations were assessed by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age at slaughter, under five models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and log-additive), and corrected for multiple testing. The rs208222804 C allele (CD209 gene) was found to be associated with latent paratuberculosis (log-additive model: P < 0.0034 after permutation procedure; OR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.48–0.86). No significant association was detected between any SNP and the patent phenotype. Consequently, CD209 gene may play a key role in the pathogenesis of bovine paratuberculosis. PMID:24971191

Vázquez, Patricia; Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Garrido, Joseba M.; Manzano, Carmen; Agirre, Mikel; Estonba, Andone; Juste, Ramón A.



Across-country test-day model evaluations for Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey.  


Three random regression models were developed for routine genetic evaluation of Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cattle. Data included over 169 million test-day records with milk, protein, and fat yield observations from over 8.7 million dairy cows of all breeds. Variance component analyses showed significant differences in estimates between Holstein, Nordic Red Cattle, and Jersey, but only small to moderate differences within a breed across countries. The obtained variance component estimates were used to build, for each breed, their own set of covariance functions. The covariance functions describe the animal effects on milk, protein, and fat yields of the first 3 lactations as 9 different traits, assuming the same heritabilities and a genetic correlation of unity across countries. Only 15, 27, and 7 eigenfunctions with the largest eigenvalues were used to describe additive genetic animal effects and nonhereditary animal effects across lactations and within later lactations, respectively. These reduced-rank covariance functions explained 99.0 to 99.9% of the original variances but reduced the number of animal equations to be solved by 44%. Moderate rank reduction for nonhereditary animal effects and use of one-third-smaller measurement error correlations than obtained from variance component estimation made the models more robust against extreme observations. Estimation of the genetic levels of the countries' subpopulations within a breed was found sensitive to the way the breed effects were modeled, especially for the genetically heterogeneous Nordic Red Cattle. Means to ensure that only additive genetic effects entered the estimated breeding values were to describe the crossbreeding effects by fixed and random cofactors and the calving age effect by an age × breed proportion interaction, and to model phantom parent groups as random effects. To ensure that genetic variances were the same across the 3 countries in breeding value estimation, as suggested by the variance component estimates, the applied multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment method had to be tailored using country-specific reference measurement error variances. Results showed the feasibility of across-country genetic evaluation of cows and sires based on original test-day phenotypes. Nevertheless, applying a thorough model validation procedure is essential throughout the model building process to obtain reliable breeding values. PMID:25434332

Lidauer, Martin H; Pösö, Jukka; Pedersen, Jørn; Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Per; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S; Eriksson, Jan-Åke; Johansson, Kjell; Pitkänen, Timo; Strandén, Ismo; Aamand, Gert P



Eight SNVs in NF-?B pathway genes and their different performances between subclinical mastitis and mixed Chinese Holstein cows.  


The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway proteins are key players in controlling both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the information on NF-?B pathway genes is very limited in mastitis resistance and milk production of Chinese Holstein cows. In this study, we examine the association of the NF-?B pathway gene variants with milk quality traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in Chinese Holstein cows. Eight single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified within the bovine NF-?B pathway genes, using DNA pooled sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and forced PCR-RFLP methods. These SNVs include SNV1: g. 536 C>T (exon 10 of Rel), SNV2: g. 94 G>A (exon 20 of p100), SNV3: g. 43 T>C (intron 6 of p105), SNV4: g. 2397 T>G (intron 9 of p105), SNV5: g. 382 G>C (intron 1 of I?B?), SNV6: g. 21 C>T (exon 5 of I?B?), SNV7: g. 272 G>A (intron 6 of I?B?), and SNV8: g. 18 C>T (intron 10 of I?B?). The association analysis in mixed Chinese Holstein population showed that SNV1 was significantly or highly significantly associated (P<0.01 and P<0.05) with fat rate, protein rate and SCS. Furthermore, the SNV1-CC (wild genotype) determined serine showed the significantly lower SCS and higher milk production traits compared to TT and TC. SNV2 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with SCS; SNV3 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate; and SNV4 was significantly associated (P<0.05) with fat rate and SCS. In 199 subclinical mastitis Chinese Holstein cows, the statistical results absolutely differed from the mixed Chinese Holstein individuals. Splice-site prediction by SplicePort showed that single nucleotide difference at eight SNVs results in the acceptor score and donor score changing obviously that may lead to alternative splicing. In brief, SNV1, SNV2, SNV3 and SNV4 could be useful genetic markers for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein cows. Furthermore, whether these SNVs lead to alternative splicing need further research. PMID:25447913

Chen, Ling; Han, Yujiao; Chen, Yu; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Yu; He, Hua; Chen, Si; Liu, Xiaolin



Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein  

PubMed Central

Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv



Use of computerized mate selection programs to control inbreeding of Holstein and Jersey cattle in the next generation.  


The expected role of computerized mate selection programs with regard to inbreeding and lifetime profitability of Holstein and Jersey cattle was examined using data from 25 large registered herds of each breed. Sire selection and mate allocation were carried out using linear programming with the following objectives: 1) minimum inbreeding, 2) maximum net merit subject to a fixed inbreeding threshold, and 3) maximum expected lifetime profit after adjustment for inbreeding depression. Inbreeding of actual matings was similar to inbreeding from random matings, indicating that current inbreeding avoidance programs in these herds are ineffective. Inbreeding was reduced by 1.6 and 1.9% in Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively, when a mate allocation program was applied with service sires and usage levels fixed at the actual values. Benefits of mate selection programs increased when both sire selection and mate pair allocation were considered. Maximization of mean net merit with inbreeding restricted to a fixed level (5% in Holsteins and 8% in Jerseys) led to decreases in inbreeding of 0.9 and 1.4% and increases in lifetime profit of $16.66 and $26.86 in Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively, relative to programs that ignored inbreeding. Maximization of mean expected lifetime profit after adjustment for inbreeding depression decreased inbreeding by 1.8 and 2.8% and increased lifetime profit by $37.37 and $59.77 in Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively. Inbreeding coefficients estimated with pedigree traced to 1985 were inadequate predictors of inbreeding coefficients estimated with pedigrees traced to 1960. Mate selection programs cannot function optimally unless extensive historical pedigree data are available, particularly for service sires. Computerized mate selection programs can reduce inbreeding in the next generation, which will lead to an increase in farm profitability. However, if genetic diversity is to be maintained in the long term, procedures for selecting parents of AI sires must also be considered. PMID:10791799

Weigel, K A; Lin, S W



Polymorphisms of two Y chromosome microsatellites in Chinese cattle  

PubMed Central

Two Y chromosome specific microsatellites UMN2404 and UMN0103 were genotyped and assessed for polymorphisms in a total of 423 unrelated males from 25 indigenous Chinese cattle breeds. Consistently, both microsatellites displayed specific indicine and taurine alleles in each bull examined. The indicine and taurine alleles were detected in 248 males (58.6%), and 175 males (41.4%), respectively, although these frequencies varied amongst different breeds examined. The indicine alleles dominated in the southern group (92.4%), while the taurine alleles dominated in the northern group (95.5%). Hainan Island was possibly the site for the origin of Chinese zebu, and Tibetan cattle were probably independently domesticated from another strain of Bos primigenius. The geographical distribution of these frequencies reveals a pattern of male indicine introgression and a hybrid zone of indicine and taurine cattle in China. The declining south-to-north and east-to-west gradient of male indicine introgression in China could be explained by historical data, geographical segregation and temperature and weather conditions. PMID:16954044

Cai, Xin; Chen, Hong; Wang, Shan; Xue, Kai; Lei, Chuzhao



Impact of Variation at the FTO Locus on Milk Fat Yield in Holstein Dairy Cattle  

PubMed Central

This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO) gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans. PMID:23691044

Zielke, Lea G.; Bortfeldt, Ralf H.; Reissmann, Monika; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Brockmann, Gudrun A.



PLCz Functional Haplotypes Modulating Promoter Transcriptional Activity Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter. PMID:23554927

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa



Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...


Association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CXCR1 gene with the milk performance traits of Chinese native cattle.  


Mastitis is an economically devastating disease affecting the dairy industry. Dairy cows with mastitis give reduced milk yield and produce milk that is unfit for consumption. The chemokine receptor CXCR1 is an excellent prospective genetic marker for mastitis resistance in cattle because it regulates neutrophil migration, killing, and survival during infection. We detected 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CXCR1 gene in Chinese native cattle and analyzed their associations with milk traits. Screening for genetic variations in CXCR1 among 648 Chinese Holstein, Luxi Yellow, and Bohai Black cattle by created restriction site polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, and DNA sequencing revealed 4 new SNPs with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.676 to 0.821, 0.706 to 0.803, 0.647 to 0.824, and 0.558 to 0.581. All four CXCR1 gene SNPs were located in exon II. Two SNPs, c.337A>G and c.365C>T, were nonsynonymous mutations [ATC (Ile) > GTC (Val) and GCC (Ala) > GTC (Val)], whereas two, c.291C>T and c.333C>T, were synonymous mutations [TTC (Gly) > TTT (Gly) and GGC (Phe) > GGT (Phe)]. Statistical analyses revealed the significant association of c.337A>G and c.365C>T with the somatic cell score, which suggests the possible role of these SNPs in the host response against mastitis. Our data suggest that combined genotypes CCAC/CCGC, CCAC/CTAT, and CCAT/CTAT (lowest somatic cell scores); CTAC/CTAT (highest protein rate); CCAC/CTGC (highest fat rate); and CCAT/CTAT (highest 305-day milk yield) can be used as possible candidates for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programs. PMID:23979897

Zhou, L; Wang, H M; Ju, Z H; Zhang, Y; Huang, J M; Qi, C; Hou, M H; An, L G; Zhong, J F; Wang, C F




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twin calving records (n = 96,069) collected from 1996 to 2004 were extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement archives to estimate the incidence of monozygous (MZ) twinning in a population of Holstein cattle and to evaluate how varying the twin sex ratio and frequency of same-sex twins affects ...


Accuracy of imputation to whole-genome sequence data in Holstein Friesian cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The use of whole-genome sequence data can lead to higher accuracy in genome-wide association studies and genomic predictions. However, to benefit from whole-genome sequence data, a large dataset of sequenced individuals is needed. Imputation from SNP panels, such as the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, to whole-genome sequence data is an attractive and less expensive approach to obtain whole-genome sequence genotypes for a large number of individuals than sequencing all individuals. Our objective was to investigate accuracy of imputation from lower density SNP panels to whole-genome sequence data in a typical dataset for cattle. Methods Whole-genome sequence data of chromosome 1 (1737 471 SNPs) for 114 Holstein Friesian bulls were used. Beagle software was used for imputation from the BovineSNP50 (3132 SNPs) and BovineHD (40 492 SNPs) beadchips. Accuracy was calculated as the correlation between observed and imputed genotypes and assessed by five-fold cross-validation. Three scenarios S40, S60 and S80 with respectively 40%, 60%, and 80% of the individuals as reference individuals were investigated. Results Mean accuracies of imputation per SNP from the BovineHD panel to sequence data and from the BovineSNP50 panel to sequence data for scenarios S40 and S80 ranged from 0.77 to 0.83 and from 0.37 to 0.46, respectively. Stepwise imputation from the BovineSNP50 to BovineHD panel and then to sequence data for scenario S40 improved accuracy per SNP to 0.65 but it varied considerably between SNPs. Conclusions Accuracy of imputation to whole-genome sequence data was generally high for imputation from the BovineHD beadchip, but was low from the BovineSNP50 beadchip. Stepwise imputation from the BovineSNP50 to the BovineHD beadchip and then to sequence data substantially improved accuracy of imputation. SNPs with a low minor allele frequency were more difficult to impute correctly and the reliability of imputation varied more. Linkage disequilibrium between an imputed SNP and the SNP on the lower density panel, minor allele frequency of the imputed SNP and size of the reference group affected imputation reliability. PMID:25022768



Mutations in HSP70-2 gene change the susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein.  


To select the molecular markers susceptible to mastitis and reduce the loss induced by mastitis, the PCR-SSCP method was adopted to investigate the correlation between SNPs of the HSP70-2 gene and mastitis in 103 Chinese Holstein. 25 new polymorphisms were detected in this study: 9 SNPs (g.-115 G?A, g.-98 T?C, g.117 C?A, g.156 A?C, g.1743 G?A, g.1746 C?T, g.1761 T?G, g.1770 C?G, g.1877 G?C) were found to be associated with mastitis; 2 key SNPs led to amino-acid changes: g.1770 C?G (590 Asp?Glu), g.1877 G?C (626 Gly?Ala). 626 Gly?Ala affected the protein secondary structure. 3 potential cow HSP70-2 proteins were found in all the 103 individuals, but predicted three-dimensional structures of 3 proteins are the same with each other. It is suggested that 9 SNPs increase the susceptibility to mastitis due to their low polymorphisms and can be used as molecular markers to breed the dairy cows resistant to mastitis. PMID:25592821

Huang, Pin; Lu, Chunwan; Li, Jun; Xu, Jun; Liu, Zaiqun; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhao; Huo, Jiayan; Li, Honglin; Teng, Yong; Cai, Yafei



Effects of milk fat composition, DGAT1, and SCD1 on fertility traits in Dutch Holstein cattle.  


Recently, selective breeding was proposed as a means of changing the fatty acid composition of milk to improve its nutritional quality. Before implementing such breeding objectives, effects on other economically important traits should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to examine 1) the effect of milk fat composition, and 2) the effect of polymorphisms of DGAT1 and SCD1 genes on female fertility in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,745 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. We found that higher concentrations of trans fatty acids within total milk fat negatively affected reproductive performance. Furthermore, results suggested a potential effect of the DGAT1 polymorphism on nonreturn rates for insemination 28 and 56 d after the first service. Our results can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk fat composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation. PMID:19841232

Demeter, R M; Schopen, G C B; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Meuwissen, M P M; van Arendonk, J A M



Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...


Study of immunological dysfunction in periparturient Holstein cattle selected for high and average milk production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from twenty assays of traits associated with innate and adaptive immunity were evaluated from 137 periparturient Holstein cows. These cows had been selected through planned matings for four different levels of milk production (high and average pounds of milk, and high and average pounds of milk fat plus protein). For up to seven generations, the genetic lines were produced

J. C. Detilleux; M. E. Kehrli; J. R. Stabel; A. E. Freeman; D. H. Kelley




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cows to determine the influence of time of day (AM vs PM), parity, and lactation phase [ 60 d in milk (DIM)] on shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), Escherichia coli (EC),...


Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.  


The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P < 0.05) were developed for prediction of N (g/d) and OM (kg/d) excretion in feces and urine. The present data were also used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve national inventories of manure N output and greenhouse gas emissions and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies for young Holstein cattle. PMID:24879759

Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A



Estimation of variance components and genetic trends for twinning rate in Holstein dairy cattle of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calving records from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, collected from January 1991 to December 2007 and comprising 1,163,594 Holstein calving events from 2,552 herds, were analyzed using a linear animal model, linear sire model, threshold animal model, and threshold sire model to estimate variance components, heritabilities, genetic correlations, and genetic trends for twinning rate in the first, second, and

N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh; A. Nejati-Javaremi; S. R. Miraei-Ashtiani; H. Kohram



Effect of Artificial Selection on Runs of Homozygosity in U.S. Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

The intensive selection programs for milk made possible by mass artificial insemination increased the similarity among the genomes of North American (NA) Holsteins tremendously since the 1960s. This migration of elite alleles has caused certain regions of the genome to have runs of homozygosity (ROH) occasionally spanning millions of continuous base pairs at a specific locus. In this study, genome signatures of artificial selection in NA Holsteins born between 1953 and 2008 were identified by comparing changes in ROH between three distinct groups under different selective pressure for milk production. The ROH regions were also used to estimate the inbreeding coefficients. The comparisons of genomic autozygosity between groups selected or unselected since 1964 for milk production revealed significant differences with respect to overall ROH frequency and distribution. These results indicate selection has increased overall autozygosity across the genome, whereas the autozygosity in an unselected line has not changed significantly across most of the chromosomes. In addition, ROH distribution was more variable across the genomes of selected animals in comparison to a more even ROH distribution for unselected animals. Further analysis of genome-wide autozygosity changes and the association between traits and haplotypes identified more than 40 genomic regions under selection on several chromosomes (Chr) including Chr 2, 7, 16 and 20. Many of these selection signatures corresponded to quantitative trait loci for milk, fat, and protein yield previously found in contemporary Holsteins. PMID:24348915

Kim, Eui-Soo; Cole, John B.; Huson, Heather; Wiggans, George R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Crooker, Brian A.; Liu, George; Da, Yang; Sonstegard, Tad S.



Deletion/insertion polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.  


The aim of the present study was to identify the deletion/insertion polymorphism of the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) within the promoter sequence (23 bp), intron 1 (12 bp) and 3' untranslated region (14 bp). DNA was isolated from blood of 234 randomly tested Polish Holstein-Friesian cows and from semen of 47 sires used for artificial insemination (AI) in 2004. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of genotypes and alleles between cows and breeding bulls in the 3 analysed polymorphic sites within the PRNP gene. Only 3 haplotypes were identified in sires and 4 haplotypes in cows. PMID:17272863

Czarnik, Urszula; Zabolewicz, Tadeusz; Strychalski, Janusz; Grzybowski, Grzegorz; Bogusz, Marcin; Walawski, Krzysztof



Genome-Wide Association Study of Susceptibility to Infection by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is a chronic, granulomatous, gastrointestinal tract disease of cattle and other ruminants caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of Johne's disease is based on programs of testing and culling animals positive for infection with MAP while concurrently modifying management to reduce the likelihood of infection. The current study is motivated by the hypothesis that genetic variation in host susceptibility to MAP infection can be dissected and quantifiable associations with genetic markers identified. For this purpose, a case-control, genome-wide association study was conducted using US Holstein cattle phenotyped for MAP infection using a serum ELISA and/or fecal culture test. Cases included cows positive for either serum ELISA, fecal culture or both. Controls consisted of animals negative for the serum ELISA test or both serum ELISA and fecal culture when both were available. Controls were matched by herd and proximal birth date with cases. A total of 856 cows (451 cases and 405 controls) were used in initial discovery analyses, and an additional 263 cows (159 cases and 104 controls) from the same herds were used as a validation data set. Data were analyzed in a single marker analysis controlling for relatedness of individuals (GRAMMAR-GC) and also in a Bayesian analysis in which multiple marker effects were estimated simultaneously (GenSel). For the latter, effects of non-overlapping 1 Mb marker windows across the genome were estimated. Results from the two discovery analyses were generally concordant; however, discovery results were generally not well supported in analysis of the validation data set. A combined analysis of discovery and validation data sets provided strongest support for SNPs and 1 Mb windows on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 17 and 29. PMID:25473852

Alpay, Fazli; Zare, Yalda; Kamalludin, Mamat H.; Huang, Xixia; Shi, Xianwei; Shook, George E.; Collins, Michael T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian W.



Genetic evaluation of Ethiopian Boran cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian for growth performance in central Ethiopia.  


Breed additive and non-additive effects, and heritabilities of birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6 months weight (SMWT), yearling weight (YWT), eighteen months weight (EWT), 2 years weight (TWT) and average daily weight gain from birth to 6 months (ADG1) and from 6 months to 2 years (ADG2) were estimated in Ethiopian Boran (B) cattle and their crosses with Holstein Friesian (F) in central Ethiopia. The data analysed were spread over 15 years. Ethiopian Boran were consistently lighter (p < 0.01) than the B-F crosses at all ages. Ethiopian Boran also gained lower weight than all the crosses. At birth, 50% F crosses were significantly (p < 0.01) lighter than all the other crosses. However, the differences in SMWT, YWT, EWT, TWT, ADG1 and ADG2 were all non-significant among the crosses. The individual additive breed differences between B and F breeds were positive and significant (p < 0.01) for all traits. The individual heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.05) for all traits except WWT for which the effect was non-significant. The maternal heterosis effects were significant (p < 0.01) for BWT (2.5 kg) and WWT (-3.0 kg). The heritability estimates for all traits in B and crosses were generally moderate to high indicating that there is scope for genetic improvement through selection. Selection within B and crossbreeding should be the strategy to enhance the growth performance under such production systems. PMID:21385228

Haile, A; Joshi, B K; Ayalew, W; Tegegne, A; Singh, A



Effect of LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1 gene polymorphisms on reproductive traits in the Iranian Holstein cattle.  


During the last decades, genetic selection for milk production traits has led to increased fertility and health problems in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of three polymorphisms located in the ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2 transporter (ABCG2), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes on reproductive traits and somatic cell count (SCC). The analysis was conducted on 408 randomly selected cows. The SNPs within the genes (LEPR, ABCG2 and SCD1) were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. All three possible genotypes were observed for SCD1-T878C and LEPR-T945M SNPs, but not for ABCG2-Y581S SNP. LEPR-T945M and ABCG2-Y581S SNPs had no statistically significant effect on the studied reproductive traits and SCC. However, SCD1-T878C SNP were negatively and significantly related to pregnancy length, dry days and open days (p < 0.05), which lead to decreased profitability in dairy herds. The results suggest that the T878C SNP of SCD1 might be useful as a DNA marker to decrease reproductive problems and improve production traits in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. PMID:25130486

Asadollahpour Nanaei, H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Edriss, M-A



Genetic parameters for energy balance, feed efficiency, and related traits in Holstein cattle.  


Objectives of the current study were to estimate genetic parameters in Holstein cows for energy balance (EB) and related traits including dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, and gross feed efficiency (GFE), defined as the ratio of total ECM yield to total DMI over the first 150 d of lactation. Data were recorded for the first half of lactation on 227 and 175 cows in their first or later lactation, respectively. Random regression models were fitted to longitudinal data. Also, each trait was averaged over monthly intervals and analyzed by single and multivariate animal models. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.27 to 0.63, 0.12 to 0.62, 0.12 to 0.49, 0.63 to 0.72, and 0.49 to 0.53 for DMI, ECM yield, EB, BW, and BCS, respectively, averaged over monthly intervals. Daily heritability estimates ranged from 0.18 to 0.30, 0.10 to 0.26, 0.07 to 0.22, 0.43 to 0.67, and 0.25 to 0.38 for DMI, ECM yield, EB, BW, and BCS, respectively. Estimated heritability for GFE was 0.32. The genetic correlation of EB at 10d in milk (DIM) with EB at 150 DIM was -0.19, suggesting the genetic regulation of this trait differs by stage of lactation. Positive genetic correlations were found among DMI, ECM yield, and BW averaged over monthly intervals, whereas correlations of these traits with BCS depended upon stage of lactation. Total ECM yield for the lactation was positively correlated with DMI, but a negative genetic correlation between total ECM yield and EB was found. However, the genetic correlation between total ECM yield and EB in the first month of lactation was -0.02, indicating that total production is not genetically correlated with EB during the first month of lactation, when negative EB is most closely associated with diminished fitness. The genetic correlation between GFE and EB ranged from -0.73 to -0.99, indicating that selection for more efficient cows would favor a lower energy status. However, the genetic correlation between EB in the first month of lactation and GFE calculated from 75 to 150 DIM was not significant, indicating that the unfavorable correlation between GFE and EB in early lactation may be minimized with alternative definitions of efficiency. Thus, EB, GFE and related traits will likely respond to genetic selection in Holstein cows. However, the impact of selection for improved feed efficiency on EB must be carefully considered to avoid potential negative consequences of further reductions in EB at the onset of lactation. PMID:22916946

Spurlock, D M; Dekkers, J C M; Fernando, R; Koltes, D A; Wolc, A



Genetic parameters for producer-recorded health data in Canadian Holstein cattle.  


Health traits are of paramount importance for economic dairy production. Improvement in liability to diseases has been made with better management practices, but genetic aspects of health traits have received less attention. Dairy producers in Canada have been recording eight health traits (mastitis (MAST), lameness (LAME), cystic ovarian disease (COD), left displaced abomasum (LDA), ketosis (KET), metritis (MET), milk fever (MF) and retained placenta (RP)) since April 2007. Genetic analyses of these traits were carried out in this study for the Holstein breed. Edits on herd distributions of recorded diseases were applied to the data to ensure a sufficient quality of recording. Traits were analysed either individually (MAST, LAME, COD) or were grouped according to biological similarities (LDA and KET, and MET, MF and RP) and analysed with multiple-trait models. Data included 46 104 cases of any of the above diseases. Incidence ranged from 2.3% for MF to 9.7% for MAST. MET and KET also had an incidence below 4.0%. Variance components were estimated using four different sire threshold models. The differences between models resulted from the inclusion of days at risk (DAR) and a cow effect, in addition to herd, parity and sire effects. Models were compared using mean squared error statistic. Mean squared error favoured, in general, the sire and cow within sire model with regression on DAR included. Heritabilities on the liability scale were between 0.02 (MET) and 0.21 (LDA). There was a moderate, positive genetic correlation between LDA and KET (0.58), and between MET and RP (0.79). PMID:22436272

Neuenschwander, T F-O; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Berke, O; Kelton, D F; Schaeffer, L R



Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting lameness and leg conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle.  


Lameness is an important factor for culling animals. Strong legs and feet improve herd life of dairy cows. Therefore, many countries include leg and feet conformation traits in their breeding programs, often as early predictors of longevity. However, few countries directly measure lameness related traits to include these in a breeding program. Lameness indices in 3 different lactations and 5 leg conformation traits (rear legs side view, rear legs rear view, hock quality, bone quality, and foot angle) were measured on granddaughters of 19 Danish Holstein grandsires with 33 to 105 sons. A genome scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the 29 autosomes using microsatellite markers. Data were analyzed across and within families for QTL affecting lameness and leg conformation traits. A regression method and a variance component method were used for QTL detection. Two QTL each for lameness in the first [Bos taurus autosome (BTA); BTA5, BTA26] and second (BTA19, BTA22) lactations were detected. For the 5 different leg conformation traits, 7 chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected across families for rear legs side view, 5 for rear legs rear view, 4 for hock quality, 4 for bone quality, and 1 for foot angle. For those chromosomes where a QTL associated with 2 different traits was detected (BTA1, BTA11, BTA15, BTA26, and BTA27), a multitrait-1-QTL model and a multitrait-2-QTL model were performed to characterize these QTL as single QTL with pleiotropic effects or distinct QTL. PMID:17183116

Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Thomasen, J R; Thomsen, B; Nielsen, V Hunnicke; Bendixen, C; Guldbrandtsen, B



Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rectal Temperature during Heat Stress in Holstein Cattle  

PubMed Central

Heat stress compromises production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One mitigation strategy is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of either physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature or adverse consequences of failure to regulate body temperature. Thus, selection for regulation of body temperature during heat stress could increase thermotolerance. The objective was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for rectal temperature (RT) during heat stress in lactating Holstein cows and identify SNPs associated with genes that have large effects on RT. Records on afternoon RT where the temperature-humidity index was ?78.2 were obtained from 4,447 cows sired by 220 bulls, resulting in 1,440 useable genotypes from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip with 39,759 SNP. For GWAS, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 adjacent SNP were averaged to identify consensus genomic regions associated with RT. The largest proportion of SNP variance (0.07 to 0.44%) was explained by markers flanking the region between 28,877,547 and 28,907,154 bp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 24. That region is flanked by U1 (28,822,883 to 28,823,043) and NCAD (28,992,666 to 29,241,119). In addition, the SNP at 58,500,249 bp on BTA 16 explained 0.08% and 0.11% of the SNP variance for 2- and 3-SNP analyses, respectively. That contig includes SNORA19, RFWD2 and SCARNA3. Other SNPs associated with RT were located on BTA 16 (close to CEP170 and PLD5), BTA 5 (near SLCO1C1 and PDE3A), BTA 4 (near KBTBD2 and LSM5), and BTA 26 (located in GOT1, a gene implicated in protection from cellular stress). In conclusion, there are QTL for RT in heat-stressed dairy cattle. These SNPs could prove useful in genetic selection and for identification of genes involved in physiological responses to heat stress. PMID:23935954

Dikmen, Serdal; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Hansen, Peter J.



An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus) using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus). We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in beef (Angus) and dairy (Holstein) cattle and outgroup species Bison, Yak and Banteng in an indirect test of inbreeding and positive selection in Domestic cattle. Results Outgroup species: Bison, Yak and Banteng, were genotyped with high levels of success (90%) and used to determine ancestral and derived allele states in domestic cattle. Frequency spectrums of the derived alleles in Angus and Holstein were examined using Fay and Wu's H test. Significant divergences from the predicted frequency spectrums expected under neutrality were identified. This appeared to be the result of combined influences of positive selection, inbreeding and ascertainment bias for moderately frequent SNP. Approximately 10% of all polymorphisms identified as segregating in B. taurus were also segregating in Bison, Yak or Banteng; highlighting a large number of polymorphisms that are ancient in origin. Conclusion These results suggest that a large effective population size (Ne) of approximately 90,000 or more existed in B. taurus since they shared a common ancestor with Bison, Yak and Banteng ~1–2 million years ago (MYA). More recently Ne decreased sharply probably associated with domestication. This may partially explain the paradox of high levels of polymorphism in Domestic cattle and the relatively small recent Ne in this species. The period of inbreeding caused Fay and Wu's H statistic to depart from its expectation under neutrality mimicking the effect of selection. However, there was also evidence for selection, because high frequency derived alleles tended to cluster near each other on the genome. PMID:19393053

MacEachern, Sean; Hayes, Ben; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike



Sire effect on early and late embryonic death in French Holstein cattle.  


We investigated the effect of maternal sire on early pregnancy failure (between D0, day of insemination and D90) in their progeny during the first and second lactations (n=3508) in the Holstein breed. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for cow fertility of 12 bulls (reliability?0.95) was used to create the following three groups: low, medium and high EBV (EBV from -0.7 to 1 expressed as genetic standard deviation relative to the mean of the breed). In their daughters (93 to 516 per bull), progesterone measurement was carried out on the day of artificial insemination (AI; D0) to check whether the cows were in the follicular phase and on D18 to 25 to assess non-fertilisation-early embryonic mortality (NF-EEM). Late embryonic mortality (LEM) and early foetal death (FD) were determined by ultrasonography on D45 and D90 and by the return to oestrus after the first AI. Frequencies of NF-EEM, LEM, FD and pregnancy were 33.3%, 11.7%, 1.4% and 48.5% and incidences were 35.1, 19.0, 2.7 and 51.1, respectively. Sire EBV was significantly related to the incidences of pregnancy failure between D0 and D90, fertilisation failure-early embryonic mortality (FF-EEM) and LEM but not to the incidence of FD between D45 and D90 of pregnancy. The relative risk (RR) of FF-EEM was significantly higher (RR=1.2; P<0.05) for the progeny group of low EBV bulls when compared with high EBV bulls. The same effect was observed when comparing LEM of the progeny groups from the low EBV bulls to those from moderate and high EBV bulls (RR, respectively, of 1.3 and 1.4; P<005). The incidence of FF-EEM was significantly higher when cows were inseminated before 80 days postpartum compared with later, and for the extreme values of the difference between milk fat and protein content measured during the first 3 months of lactation. FF-EEM was also significantly related to the year of observation. The incidence of LEM was higher for the highest producing cows and was influenced by interaction between milk yield×lactation rank and milk yield×milk protein content. In conclusion, this study showed large differences in early pregnancy failure between progeny groups and highlights the interest of accurate characterisation of embryonic death in order to identify potential candidate genes for female fertility. PMID:25544038

Ledoux, D; Ponsart, C; Grimard, B; Gatien, J; Deloche, M C; Fritz, S; Lefebvre, R; Humblot, P



Polymorphisms in lipogenic genes and milk fatty acid composition in Holstein dairy cattle.  


Changing bovine milk fatty acid (FA) composition through selection can decrease saturated FA (SFA) consumption, improve human health and provide a means for manipulating processing properties of milk. Our study determined associations between milk FA composition and genes from triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway. The GC dinucleotide allele of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1:g.10433-10434AA >GC was associated with lower palmitic acid (16:0) concentration but higher oleic (18:1 cis-9), linoleic (18:2 cis-9, cis-12) acid concentrations, and elongation index. Accordingly, the GC dinucleotide allele was associated with lower milk fat percentage and SFA concentrations but higher monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) concentrations. The glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial haplotypes were associated with higher myristoleic acid (14:1 cis-9) concentration and C14 desaturation index. The 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 haplotypes were associated with higher PUFA and linoleic acid concentrations. The results of this study provide information for developing genetic tools to modify milk FA composition in dairy cattle. PMID:25304740

Nafikov, Rafael A; Schoonmaker, Jon P; Korn, Kathleen T; Noack, Kristin; Garrick, Dorian J; Koehler, Kenneth J; Minick-Bormann, Jennifer; Reecy, James M; Spurlock, Diane E; Beitz, Donald C



Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System  

PubMed Central

Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.



Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.  


This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2±3.0 vs. 21.3±2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1±1.4 vs. 11.7±1.3 h), mounting period (6.9±2.7 vs. 18.2±2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2±2.8 vs. 17.5±2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1±4.0 vs. 17.6±4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6±1.3 vs. 5.5±1.3) with longer average duration (0.42±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3±6.2 vs. 18.1±6.3) and per hour (2.6±0.4 vs. 1.5±0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4±5.0 vs. 18.5±5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1.6±0.3 vs. 0.6±0.3) per hour than did NRF during mount estrus. A significant effect of milk yield was demonstrated only on this behavior. For other estrous signs, HF cows initiated chase-up (2.0±0.5 vs. 0.5±0.4) and anogenital sniff (3.7±0.6 vs. 2.0±0.5) more frequently (counts per hour), whereas NRF expressed more total head butt behavior (32.3±4.7 vs. 14.2±4.8) during mount estrus. Body condition score had a significant effect on receptive behavior. Measures of estrus duration, sexually active group activity, and behavior related to estrus should be subjected to larger studies for improved heat detection and possible implementation in breeding programs. PMID:25622876

Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E



Genetic evaluation of calf and heifer survival in Iranian Holstein cattle using linear and threshold models.  


Calf and heifer survival are important traits in dairy cattle affecting profitability. This study was carried out to estimate genetic parameters of survival traits in female calves at different age periods, until nearly the first calving. Records of 49 583 female calves born during 1998 and 2009 were considered in five age periods as days 1-30, 31-180, 181-365, 366-760 and full period (day 1-760). Genetic components were estimated based on linear and threshold sire models and linear animal models. The models included both fixed effects (month of birth, dam's parity number, calving ease and twin/single) and random effects (herd-year, genetic effect of sire or animal and residual). Rates of death were 2.21, 3.37, 1.97, 4.14 and 12.4% for the above periods, respectively. Heritability estimates were very low ranging from 0.48 to 3.04, 0.62 to 3.51 and 0.50 to 4.24% for linear sire model, animal model and threshold sire model, respectively. Rank correlations between random effects of sires obtained with linear and threshold sire models and with linear animal and sire models were 0.82-0.95 and 0.61-0.83, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between the five different periods were moderate and only significant for 31-180 and 181-365 (rg  = 0.59), 31-180 and 366-760 (rg  = 0.52), and 181-365 and 366-760 (rg  = 0.42). The low genetic correlations in current study would suggest that survival at different periods may be affected by the same genes with different expression or by different genes. Even though the additive genetic variations of survival traits were small, it might be possible to improve these traits by traditional or genomic selection. PMID:25100295

Forutan, M; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sargolzaei, M



Mutations in lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene change the susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein.  


Mastitis is an unsolved human challenge all dairy farms facing with, which leads to immeasurable economic loss to the farmers. LBP gene plays a vital role in the innate immune recognition of Gram-negative bacterium that is a major cause of bovine clinical mastitis, but little is known about LBP mutations and their effects on cows' susceptibility to clinical mastitis. In this study, PCR-SSCP method was adopted to analyze SNPs of LBP gene in Chinese Holstein for the first time. 17 SNPs were found in the promoter core region, exon1, exon2, exon3, exon4 and exon8. The mutation g.-81C ? T in promoter leads to an AP-2 binding site lost. Two mutations, g.11T ? C (4 Leu ? Ser) and g.68G ? C (23Gly ? Ala) in signal peptide brought about molecular secondary structural change, meanwhile, g.11T ? C made a Big-1 domain lost, and there was an N-myristoylation site at the g.68G/C locus. The three mutations above were in complete linkage disequilibrium in allele A. In mature LBP protein, five mutations were found: g.3034G ? A(36Asp ? Asn), g.3040A ? G(38Asn ? Asp), g.3056T ? C(43Ile ? Thr) in allele D; g.4619G ? A(67Ala ? Thr) in allele F; 19975G ? A (282Val ? Met) in allele J. And SNPs in allele D and F were in complete linkage disequilibrium, also in which 38Asn ? Asp and 67Ala ? Thr influenced the protein secondary structure. Prediction of the 3-D structure shows mutations 36Asp ? Asn, 38Asn ? Asp and 43 Ile ? Thr were on the concave surface of LBP protein at barrel-N, 67Ala ? Thr was in the apolar pocket at barrel-N. Motif analysis shows 36Asp ? Asn causes loss of a CK2 phosphorylation site, 67 Ala ? Thr forms a new PKC phosphorylation site. And 43Ile ? Thr, 67Ala ? Thr made hydrophobic amino acids to be hydrophilic amino acids. Interestingly, the morbidity of AB (mixed type g.-81C/T, g.11T/C, g.68G/C), CD (mixed type g.3034G/A, g.3040A/G, g.3056T/C) and EF (mixed type g.4619G/A) genotype cows are significant higher than others in this study (P < 0.01), and it can be deduced that the SNPs in these 3 genotypes might affect the secretion of LBP protein and regulate the binding ability of LBP protein to LPS. Taken together, it is revealed that these SNPs may hold the secret of susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein. PMID:22733492

Cheng, Jienan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenxin; Cai, Yafei; Wang, Genlin



Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.  


The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. PMID:24952782

Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J



Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls  

PubMed Central

Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556



Ex-situ conservaton of Holstein-Friesian cattle comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve as much genetic diversity as possible for this breed. Genetic variability of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active male HF populations in ...


Crossbreeding Dairy Cattle. II. Weights and Body Measurements of Purebred Holstein and Guernsey Females and Their Reciprocal Crossbreds1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body weights and five linear body mea- surements of reciprocal crossbred and pure- bred Holstein and Guernsey females were analyzed and compared. Weights and measurements were taken at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 months of age. Means of the crossbreds were larger than those of the purebreds at all ages for all variables. Effects of crossbreeding

R. W. Touchberry; Ben Bereskin



Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low- heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (>= 1.7; n=288) or low (<= -2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was geno...


Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...


Genetic effects on coat colour in cattle: dilution of eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments in an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population  

PubMed Central

Background In cattle, the gene coding for the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) is known to be the main regulator of the switch between the two coat colour pigments: eumelanin (black pigment) and phaeomelanin (red pigment). Some breeds, such as Charolais and Simmental, exhibit a lightening of the original pigment over the whole body. The dilution mutation in Charolais (Dc) is responsible for the white coat colour of this breed. Using an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population which includes animals with both pigment backgrounds, we present a linkage mapping study of the Charolais dilution locus. Results A Charolais × Holstein crossbred population was investigated for genetic effects on coat colour dilution. Three different traits representing the dilution of the phaeomelanin, eumelanin, and non-pigment-specific dilution were defined. Highly significant genome-wide associations were detected on chromosome 5 for the three traits analysed in the marker interval [ETH10-DIK5248]. The SILV gene was examined as the strongest positional and functional candidate gene. A previously reported non-synonymous mutation in exon 1 of this gene, SILV c.64A>G, was associated with the coat colour dilution phenotype in this resource population. Although some discrepancies were identified between this mutation and the dilution phenotype, no convincing recombination events were found between the SILV c.64A>G mutation and the Dc locus. Further analysis identified a region on chromosome 28 influencing the variation in pigment intensity for a given coat colour category. Conclusion The present study has identified a region on bovine chromosome 5 that harbours the major locus responsible for the dilution of the eumelanin and phaeomelanin seen in Charolais crossbred cattle. In this study, no convincing evidence was found to exclude SILV c.64A>G as the causative mutation for the Charolais dilution phenotype, although other genetic effects may influence the coat colour variation in the population studied. A region on chromosome 28 influences the intensity of pigment within coat colour categories, and therefore may include a modifier of the Dc locus. A candidate gene for this effect, LYST, was identified. PMID:17705851

Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Wiener, Pamela; Williams, John L



Genetic diversity of MYH3 gene associated with growth and carcass traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.  


MYH3, whose function is to convert chemical energy to mechanical energy through ATP hydrolysis, is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle at various stages and is indispensable in the procedure of development of skeletal muscle and heart. In the study, genetic variations and genotypes of MYH 3 gene in a total of 365 Qinchuan cattles were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, as well as verified the effect on growth and carcass traits. After PCR products were digested by restriction enzymes, eight SNPs were identified and individuals were genotyped. It showed that the SNPs at nucleotides were all in low linkage disequilibrium, therefore no dominated haplotype was found in the population. The result of statistic analysis indicated seven SNPs were significantly associated with growth and carcass traits (P < 0.05, N = 365) except locus G13791A. To sum up, the result of the study proved that polymorphisms in MYH3 gene are associated with the growth performance of Chinese Qinchuan cattle, so the variations of the gene could be used as possible molecular assisted-makers in the beef cattle breeding program and management. PMID:24065521

Niu, Fubiao; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Hongliang; Yang, Jing; Liu, Yu; Chen, Ling



Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for BSE-resistance polymorphisms from healthy U.S. holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. Two regulatory region polymorphisms in the bovine prion gene are associated with resistance to classical BSE disease: a 23 bp region in the promoter that contains a binding si...


A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...


Abnormal segregation of alleles and haplotypes at the polymorphic site of the PRNP gene within promoter and intron 1 regions in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.  


Allele and haplotype segregation at the polymorphic sites within the promoter (23indel) and intron 1 (12indel) regions of the PRNP gene was analyzed in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. More 23del/del homozygotes and fewer 23ins/ins homozygotes than expected were observed in the offspring of ? 23ins/del × ? 23ins/del parents. In the offspring of ? 23ins/del × ? 23del/del parents and ? 23del/del × ? 23ins/del parents, a trend toward more 23del/del animals and fewer 23ins/del animals than expected was noted. At the 12indel polymorphic site, the only trend found was one toward fewer 12ins/ins genotypes and more 12ins/del and 12del/del genotypes than expected in the offspring of ? 12ins/del × ? 12ins/del parents. An analysis of haplotype segregation revealed more 23del-12del/23del-12del diplotypes and fewer 23ins-12ins/23ins-12ins diplotypes at the significance threshold than expected in the offspring of ? 23ins-12ins/23del-12del × ? 23ins-12ins/23del-12del parents. PMID:22258312

Strychalski, Janusz; Czarnik, Urszula; Zabolewicz, Tadeusz



Effects of supplemental recombinant bovine somatotropin and mist-fan cooling on the renal tubular handling of sodium in different stages of lactation in crossbred Holstein cattle.  


The effect of supplementary administration of recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) on the renal tubular handling of sodium in crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle housed in normal shade (NS) or mist-fan cooled (MF) barns was evaluated. The cows were injected with 500 mg rbST at three different stages of lactation. The MF barn housed cows showed a slightly decreased ambient temperature and temperature humidity index, but an increased relative humidity. Rectal temperature and respiration rates were significantly lower in cooled cows. The rbST treated cows, housed in NS or MF barns, showed markedly increased milk yields, total body water, extracellular fluid and plasma volume levels, along with a reduced rate of urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and osmolar clearance, in all three stages of lactation. Renal tubular sodium and water reabsorption were increased after rbST administration without any alteration in the renal hemodynamics. Lithium clearance data suggested that the site of response is in the proximal nephron segment, which may be mediated via increases in the plasma levels of aldosterone and IGF-1, but not vasopressin, during rbST administration. PMID:21862090

Boonsanit, Dolrudee; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Efficiency of production of first and second calf Hereford, Hereford x Holstein (Crossbred) and Holstein cows was determined in drylot and estimated for corresponding cattle under range conditions. Within breed, cows were fed either a Moderate or High level of winter supplement. In addition, a group of Holsteins were fed a Very High level. Moderate, High and Very High

J. W. Holloway; D. F. Stephens; J. V. Whiteman; Robert Totusek



Craniometrical estimation of the native Japanese Mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.  


The present study on measurement of the skull of Mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native Japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. The data of the skull of Mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. Korean cattle (Hamhung, Pyongyang, Chinju Suwon, and Kwangju), Mongolian cattle, Hainan Tao cattle, northeastern Chinese cattle (Shuangliao, Shenyang, Tongliao, Lüta, and Chilin), Astatic Water Buffalo, Yak, Bos Banteng, American Bison, and Holstein-Friesian. The Mishima cattle was included in the group of Korean breeds, especially it was closed on the group of Pyongyang and Chinju breeds. The distance on the craniometrical multivariate analyzing co-ordinate between Mishima cattle and Hainan Tao breed of Zebu cattle was larger than the distance between Mishima cattle and Korean breeds. While result, as a above the present study was very important for the origin of "Wagyu" (native Japanese cattle). Since the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle has been reported on the type of serum enzymes and hemotypes. It was suggested that the craniometrical multivariate analysis supported to the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle. PMID:2764276

Ogawa, Y; Daigo, M; Amasaki, H



Short Communication: Allele, Genotype, and Haplotype Data for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy-Resistance Polymorphisms from Healthy US Holstein Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neuro- degenerative disease of cattle caused by abnormally folded prion proteins. Two regulatory region polymor- phisms in the bovine prion gene are associated with resistancetoclassicalBSEdisease:a23-bpregioninthe promoter that contains a binding site for the repressor protein RP58, and a 12-bp region in intron 1 that has abinding sitefor thetranscription factorSP1.The pres- ence of these binding

B. W. Brunelle; M. E. Kehrli Jr.; J. R. Stabel; D. Moody Spurlock; L. B. Hansen; E. M. Nicholson



Pedigree- and marker-based methods in the estimation of genetic diversity in small groups of Holstein cattle.  


Genetic diversity is often evaluated using pedigree information. Currently, diversity can be evaluated in more detail over the genome based on large numbers of SNP markers. Pedigree- and SNP-based diversity were compared for two small related groups of Holstein animals genotyped with the 50 k SNP chip, genome-wide, per chromosome and for part of the genome examined. Diversity was estimated with coefficient of kinship (pedigree) and expected heterozygosity (SNP). SNP-based diversity at chromosome regions was determined using 5-Mb sliding windows, and significance of difference between groups was determined by bootstrapping. Both pedigree- and SNP-based diversity indicated more diversity in one of the groups; 26 of the 30 chromosomes showed significantly more diversity for the same group, as did 25.9% of the chromosome regions. Even in small populations that are genetically close, differences in diversity can be detected. Pedigree- and SNP-based diversity give comparable differences, but SNP-based diversity shows on which chromosome regions these differences are based. For maintaining diversity in a gene bank, SNP-based diversity gives a more detailed picture than pedigree-based diversity. PMID:22583324

Engelsma, K A; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Bijma, P; Windig, J J



Comparative gene mapping in cattle, Indian muntjac, and Chinese muntjac by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  


The Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis) has a karyotype of 2n = 6 in the female and 2n = 7 in the male. The karyotypic evolution of Indian muntjac via extensive tandem fusions and several centric fusions are well documented by molecular cytogenetic studies mainly utilizing chromosome paints. To achieve higher resolution mapping, a set of 42 different genomic clones coding for 37 genes and the nucleolar organizer region were used to examine homologies between the cattle (2n = 60), human (2n = 46), Indian muntjac (2n = 6/7) and Chinese muntjac (2n = 46) karyotypes. These genomic clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Localization of genes on all three pairs of M. m. vaginalis chromosomes and on the acrocentric chromosomes of M. reevesi allowed not only the analysis of the evolution of syntenic regions within the muntjac genus but also allowed a broader comparison of synteny with more distantly related species, such as cattle and human, to shed more light onto the evolving genome organization. PMID:18283540

Murmann, Andrea E; Mincheva, Antoaneta; Scheuermann, Markus O; Gautier, Mathieu; Yang, Fentang; Buitkamp, Johannes; Strissel, Pamela L; Strick, Reiner; Rowley, Janet D; Lichter, Peter



Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...


Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production  

PubMed Central

Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New discovery and application of molecular genetics to cattle breeding is occurring rapidly. In this invited paper, we briefly review domestication, migration and classical genetic improvement of beef and dairy cattle. This introduction is followed by a more comprehensive review of genome mapping re...


Evaluation of inbreeding depression in Holstein cattle using whole-genome SNP markers and alternative measures of genomic inbreeding.  


The effects of increased pedigree inbreeding in dairy cattle populations have been well documented and result in a negative impact on profitability. Recent advances in genotyping technology have allowed researchers to move beyond pedigree analysis and study inbreeding at a molecular level. In this study, 5,853 animals were genotyped for 54,001 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); 2,913 cows had phenotypic records including a single lactation for milk yield (from either lactation 1, 2, 3, or 4), reproductive performance, and linear type conformation. After removing SNP with poor call rates, low minor allele frequencies, and departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 33,025 SNP remained for analyses. Three measures of genomic inbreeding were evaluated: percent homozygosity (FPH), inbreeding calculated from runs of homozygosity (FROH), and inbreeding derived from a genomic relationship matrix (FGRM). Average FPH was 60.5±1.1%, average FROH was 3.8±2.1%, and average FGRM was 20.8±2.3%, where animals with larger values for each of the genomic inbreeding indices were considered more inbred. Decreases in total milk yield to 205d postpartum of 53, 20, and 47kg per 1% increase in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively, were observed. Increases in days open per 1% increase in FPH (1.76 d), FROH (1.72 d), and FGRM (1.06 d) were also noted, as well as increases in maternal calving difficulty (0.09, 0.03, and 0.04 on a 5-point scale for FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively). Several linear type traits, such as strength (-0.40, -0.11, and -0.19), rear legs rear view (-0.35, -0.16, and -0.14), front teat placement (0.35, 0.25, 0.18), and teat length (-0.24, -0.14, and -0.13) were also affected by increases in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively. Overall, increases in each measure of genomic inbreeding in this study were associated with negative effects on production and reproductive ability in dairy cows. PMID:23684028

Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Vukasinovic, N; Nkrumah, J D



Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and liveweight in first-parity Holstein cattle.  


Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between traits across lactation difficult, let alone the possibility for selection of breeding animals. However, estimating national breeding values through cheaper and more easily measured correlated traits, such as milk yield and liveweight (LW), could be a first step to predict DMI. Combining DMI data across historical nutritional experiments might help to expand the data sets. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters for DMI, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield, and LW across the entire first lactation using a relatively large data set combining experimental data across the Netherlands. A total of 30,483 weekly records for DMI, 49,977 for FPCM yield, and 31,956 for LW were available from 2,283 Dutch Holstein-Friesian first-parity cows between 1990 and 2011. Heritabilities, covariance components, and genetic correlations were estimated using a multivariate random regression model. The model included an effect for year-season of calving, and polynomials for age of cow at calving and days in milk (DIM). The random effects were experimental treatment, year-month of measurement, and the additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual term. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using a third-order orthogonal polynomial. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.21 to 0.40 for DMI, from 0.20 to 0.43 for FPCM yield, and from 0.25 to 0.48 for LW across DIM. Genetic correlations between DMI at different DIM were relatively low during early and late lactation, compared with mid lactation. The genetic correlations between DMI and FPCM yield varied across DIM. This correlation was negative (up to -0.5) between FPCM yield in early lactation and DMI across the entire lactation, but highly positive (above 0.8) when both traits were in mid lactation. The correlation between DMI and LW was 0.6 during early lactation, but decreased to 0.4 during mid lactation. The highest correlations between FPCM yield and LW (0.3-0.5) were estimated during mid lactation. However, the genetic correlations between DMI and either FPCM yield or LW were not symmetric across DIM, and differed depending on which trait was measured first. The results of our study are useful to understand the genetic relationship of DMI, FPCM yield, and LW on specific days across lactation. PMID:25022692

Manzanilla Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Zom, R; van Knegsel, A; Pryce, J E; De Haas, Y



Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment.  


The aim of this study was to determine how evaporative cooling modifies body function with respect to water metabolism and other variables relevant to milk synthesis in crossbred cattle. The study was conducted on two groups of 0.875HF:0.125RS crossbred Holstein cattle (87.5%) housed in an open-sided barn with a tiled roof (non-cooled animals) and in a close-sided barn under an evaporative cooling system (cooled animals). The maximum ambient temperature and relative humidity for the non-cooled group were 33 degrees C and 61%, with the corresponding values for the evaporatively cooled barn being 28 degrees C and 84%, respectively. The temperature humidity index (THI) of under non-cooled conditions was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the cooled barn. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of non-cooled animals were higher (P < 0.05) than those of cooled animals. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) of cooled animals was higher while water intakes were lower (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals. The mean absolute values of plasma volume, blood volume, and extracellular fluid (ECF) of cooled animals were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-cooled animals throughout all stages of lactation. Milk yields of cooled animals were higher by 42%, 36% and 79% on average than those of non-cooled animals during early-, mid- and late-lactation, respectively. The decline in milk yields as lactation advances was markedly apparent in late-lactating non-cooled animals, while no significant changes in milk composition at different stages of lactation were observed in either group. Mean arterial plasma concentrations, arteriovenous concentration differences (A-V differences) and the extraction ratio across the mammary gland for acetate, glucose and triglyceride of cooled animals were not significantly different compared with values for non-cooled animals. No differences were seen in plasma hormonal levels for triiodotyronine (T(3)) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T(4)) levels tended to be lower in non-cooled animals. This study suggests that low cooling temperature accompanied by high humidity influences a galactopoietic effect, in part through increases in ECF, blood volume and plasma volume in association with an increase in DMI, which partitions the distribution of nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Cooled animals were unable to maintain high milk yield as lactation advances even though a high level of body fluids was maintained during long-term cooled exposure. The decline in milk yield, coinciding with a decrease in net energy for lactation as lactation advances, could be attributed to a local change within the mammary gland. PMID:18427839

Chaiyabutr, N; Chanpongsang, S; Suadsong, S



Visualization of the transmission of direct genomic values for paternal and maternal chromosomes for 15 traits in U.S. Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reliable haplotypes are available for 171,420 Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey bulls and cows that received genomic evaluations in April 2012. Differences in least-squares means of direct genomic values (DGV) for paternal and maternal haplotypes of Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 1, 6, 14, and 18 for lif...


Effect of suspension method and aging time on meat quality of Chinese fattened cattle M. Longissimus dorsi.  


Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of suspension method and aging time on quality traits of Chinese fattened cattle M. Longissimus dorsi (LD). At the end of the slaughter line, the right sides of carcasses were re-hung from the pelvic bone obturator foramen, while the left sides remained hung by Achilles tendon suspension (AS). LD muscles were aged for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days and were then evaluated for quality index. Pelvic suspension (PS) significantly decreased the WBSF of beef muscle at 1 d and 7 d postmortem compared with AS. The tenderness with PS at 7 d postmortem was similar with that of AS at 14 d. Moreover, PS increased sarcomere length and decreased purge loss of LD significantly. In addition, aging time had a significant effect on pH, meat color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and myofibril fragmentation index of LD muscle. To conclude, PS is valuable to be introduced to the beef industry in China for rapid (within 7 days) improvement of beef tenderness and decreased aging time of Chinese fattened cattle. PMID:24056407

Hou, Xu; Liang, Rongrong; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Wang, Renhuan; Liu, Chenglong; Liu, Yuqing; Luo, Xin



Effect of Ultimate pH on Postmortem Myofibrillar Protein Degradation and Meat Quality Characteristics of Chinese Yellow Crossbreed Cattle  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the complex effects of postmortem ultimate pH (pHu) on Chinese Yellow crossbreed cattle quality during postmortem ageing and provides an explanation of how pHu affects beef tenderness. High pHu beef had the highest initial tenderness (P < 0.05) compared with other groups at 1 day postmortem. Intermediate and low pHu beef had similar initial WBSF at 1 day postmortem, but intermediate pHu beef had slower tenderization rate than low pHu beef (P < 0.05). Purge loss, cooking loss, L*, a*, and b* values decreased with increasing pHu during ageing (P < 0.05). Myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) was higher in high pHu beef than intermediate and low pHu beef throughout ageing (P < 0.05). Protein degradation studies found that desmin and troponin-T appeared degraded within 0.5?h postmortem for high and low pHu beef, compared to >2 days for intermediate pHu beef. Overall, Chinese Yellow crossbred cattle tenderness is related to pHu, which may be affected by proteolytic enzymatic activity. Therefore, pHu may be used to predict beef tenderness and other quality characteristics during postmortem ageing. To achieve consistent tenderness, different ageing times should be used, depending on pHu. PMID:25197695

Wang, Tiantian; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Niu, Lebao; Liang, Rongrong; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin



DNA sequence polymorphism within the bovine adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) is associated with production traits in Chinese cattle.  


The objectives of the present study were to detect an 18-bp deletion mutation in the bovine adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) gene and analyze its effect on growth traits in 2 Chinese cattle breeds using DNA sequencing and agarose electrophoresis. The five 19-bp polymerase chain reaction products of the AMPD1 gene exhibited 3 genotypes and 2 alleles: WW: homozygote genotype (wild-type); DD: homozygote genotype (mutant-type); WD: heterozygote genotype. Frequencies of the W allele varied from 66.15-70.35%. The associations between the 18-bp deletion mutation in the AMPD1 gene with production traits in 226 Jia-Xian red cattle was analyzed. The animals with genotype WW showed significantly higher heart girth and body weight than those with genotypes WD and DD at 24 months (P < 0.01). Our results indicate that the deletion mutation in the AMPD1 gene is associated with production traits, and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:25730042

Wei, C-B; Wang, J-Q; Chen, F-Y; Niu, H; Li, K



Association between an alternative promoter polymorphism and sperm deformity rate is due to modulation of the expression of KATNAL1 transcripts in Chinese Holstein bulls.  


Katanin p60 subunit A-like 1 (KATNAL1) is an ATPase that regulates Sertoli cell microtubule dynamics and sperm retention. We evaluated one novel splice variant and characterized the promoter and a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the bovine KATNAL1 gene to explore its expression pattern, possible regulatory mechanism and relationship with semen traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. A novel splice variant, KATNAL1 transcript variant 2 (KATNAL1-TV2) of the retained 68 bp in intron 2, was identified by RT-PCR and compared with KATNAL1 transcript variant 1 (KATNAL1-TV1, NM 001192918.1) in various tissues. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that KATNAL1 transcription was regulated by two promoters: P1 in KATNAL1-TV1 and P2 in KATNAL1-TV2. Results of qRT-PCR revealed that KATNAL1-TV1 had higher expression than did KATNAL1-TV2 in testes of adult bulls (P < 0.05). Promoter luciferase activity analysis suggested that the core sequences of P1 and P2 were mapped to the region of c.-575˜c.-180 and c.163-40˜c.333+59 respectively. One novel SNP (c.163-210T>C, ss836312085) located in intron 1 was found using sequence alignment. The SNP in P2 resulted in the presence of the DeltaE binding site, improving its basal promoter activity (P < 0.05); and we observed a greater sperm deformity rate in bulls with the genotype CC than in those with the genotype TT (P < 0.05), which indicated that different genotypes were associated with the bovine semen traits. Bioinformatics analysis of the KATNAL1 protein sequence predicted that the loss of the MIT domain in the KATNAL1-TV2 transcript resulted in protein dysfunction. These findings help us to understand that a functional SNP in P2 and subsequent triggering of expression diversity of KATNAL1 transcripts are likely to play an important role with regard to semen traits in bull breeding programs. PMID:24990491

Zhang, X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Ju, Z; Qi, C; Wang, X; Huang, J; Zhang, S; Li, J; Zhong, J; Shi, F



[The polymorphism of bovine POMC gene and its association with the growth traits of Nanyang cattle].  


Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) plays an important role on animal ingestive behavior and energy homeostasis. Genetic variation of POMC was detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing techniques in 480 individuals from seven cattle breeds (i.e., Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jiaxian Red cattle, Jinnan, Luxi, Angus, and Chinese Holstein), and association analyses were carried out to evaluate the effects of genotypes of the candidate genes on growth traits in Nanyang cattle. Three SNPs (811845 C>T, 811821 T>C and 811797 A>G, ref. NW_928357) in linkage were detected in P3 locus, which were located at the 3' flanking region of bovine POMC gene. The body weight at 6-month-old and the average daily gain of 0~6-month-old were higher in Nanyang cattle with the genotype BB than with the genotype AA (P<0.05). PMID:20042389

Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Fang, Xing-Tang; Wang, Ju-Qiang; Ma, Gui-Bian; Niu, Hui; Xiao, Jie



An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus) using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus). We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in beef

Sean MacEachern; Ben Hayes; John McEwan; Mike Goddard



Holstein polaron  

SciTech Connect

We describe a variational method to solve the Holstein model for an electron coupled to dynamical, quantum phonons on an infinite lattice. The variational space can be systematically expanded to achieve high accuracy with modest computational resources (12-digit accuracy for the one-dimensional polaron energy at intermediate coupling). We compute ground-state and low-lying excited-state properties of the model at continuous values of the wave vector {ital k} in essentially all parameter regimes. Our results for the polaron energy band, effective mass, and correlation functions compare favorably with those of other numerical techniques, including the density-matrix renormalization-group technique, the global-local method, and the exact diagonalization technique. We find a phase transition for the first excited state between a bound and unbound system of a polaron and an additional phonon excitation. The phase transition is also treated in strong-coupling perturbation theory. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bonca, J. [FMF, University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, 1000 (Slovenia)] [FMF, University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, 1000 (Slovenia); Trugman, S.A. [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Batistic, I. [Institute of Physics of the University, HR-1000, Zagreb (Croatia)] [Institute of Physics of the University, HR-1000, Zagreb (Croatia)



Effects of misty-fan cooling and supplemental rbST on rumen function and milk production of crossbred Holstein cattle during early, mid and late lactation in a tropical environment.  


Two groups of five crossbred 87.5% Holstein cattle were housed in normal shade only (NS) as non-cooled cows and in shaded housing with misty-fan cooling (MF) as cooled cows. The cows were treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in early, mid and late lactation with three consecutive injections of rbST in every 14 days. Ambient temperatures and the temperature humidity index in the NS barn were significantly higher than those of the MF barn, whereas relative humidity in MF was higher than that of NS barn. The DMI of cooled cows were higher than those of non-cooled cows, and cooled cows exhibited more response to rbST treatment. Exogenous rbST significantly increased milk yield throughout lactation. The rbST-treated cows had higher total ruminal fermentation products as volatile fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen than the non-rbST treated cows and associated changes were greater in cooled animals in all stages of lactation. Exogenous rbST increased the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen in both groups. These results suggest that the changes in ruminal fermentation with greater production of total VFA and NH(3)N in response to rbST in crossbred cows whether under misty-fan cooling or not, is in part through an increase in feed intake, thereby making more substrate available to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. PMID:20438505

Chanchai, Wilaiporn; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak



Short communication: Analysis of genomic predictor population for Holstein dairy cattle in the United States-Effects of sex and age.  


Increased computing time for the ever-growing predictor population and linkage decay between the ancestral population and current animals have become concerns for genomic evaluation systems. The effects on reliability of US genomic evaluations from including cows and bulls in the Holstein predictor population and also from excluding older bulls from the predictor population were examined. Holstein data collected for December 2013 US genomic evaluations were used in cutoff studies to determine reliability gains, regression coefficients, and bias for 5 yield, 3 fitness, 2 fertility, and 18 conformation traits. Three predictor populations were examined based on animal sex: 30,852 cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, 21,883 bulls with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, and a combined group of all bulls and cows. Three subsets of the bull predictor population were examined to determine effect of age: bulls born before 1996 excluded (25% of bulls excluded), bulls born before 2001 excluded (50%), and bulls born before 2005 excluded (75%). The validation set for all predictor populations was either bulls or cows first receiving a traditional evaluation between August 2012 and December 2013. Across all traits, the addition of cows to the bull predictor population increased reliability gains by 0.4 percentage points for validation bulls and 4.4 points for validation cows. Across all traits, excluding bulls born before 1996 from the bull-only predictor population decreased gains in genomic reliability by 1.8 percentage points. For 19 of 28 traits, excluding bulls born before 2005 from the predictor population resulted in lower bias in genomic evaluations of validation bulls. Although the contribution of cows and older bulls to improved accuracy of US genomic evaluations is small, a plateau of achievable gain has not yet been reached. PMID:25648811

Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M



Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. PMID:20670403



Pre-rigor temperature control of Chinese yellow cattle carcasses to 12-18 °C during chilling improves beef tenderness.  


This study evaluates the effects of pre-rigor temperature control on quality traits of Chinese yellow cattle M. longissimus lumborum (LL). One stepwise chilling (SC) treatment was used on one half-carcass, involved a fast chilling (-11 ± 1 °C;0.5 m/s) for 2h, then the refrigeration was stopped to hold a core temperature of 12-18 °C until 10h postmortem, followed by a 1 ± 1 °C chilling (0.5 m/s) to 48h postmortem. The other half-carcass was conventional chilled at 1 ± 1 °C (0.5 m/s) until 48h as control chilling (CC). Quality attributes were evaluated at 1, 7 and 14 days. The SC treatment resulted in decreased WBSF and increased myofibril fragmentation index compared with control. SC-treated LL at 7d postmortem had a lower WBSF than those of CC-treated at 14d. This pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a realistic alternative for the beef industry in China to ensure adequate tenderness and shorten aging time. PMID:25460117

Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Liang, Rongrong; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Meng, Xianyong; Luo, Xin



SNP exploring in the middle and terminal regions of the IGF-1 gene and association with production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.  


Five primer sets were designed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in middle and terminal exons (2 to 6) and in some flanking intronic regions of the bovine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene. Sequencing results of PCR products for 10% of animals showed no variant in exons but a SNP at intron 4 was occurred. Both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and high resolution melting (HRM) methods were developed to genotype samples. The PCR-RFLP results showed the presence of three fragments on agarose gel for the C allele due to two cleavage sites while two fragments for the T allele were observed. Melting curves of 123bp fragments in HRM analysis showed a difference between temperature melting (Tm) of two homozygous genotypes as the CC genotypes had higher Tm than the TT genotypes. Melting curve of the CT genotype was different and crossed two parallel patterns of homozygous genotypes. The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 0.6, 0.37 and 0.03, respectively. Also, the estimated allele frequencies were 0.785 and 0.215 for the C and T alleles, respectively. Results showed higher accuracy of the HRM analysis compared to the PCR-RFLP method. Least square means (LSMs) comparison of the different genotypes in the SNP showed significant association with milk fat yield trait in the first lactation and open days after the second calving. The polymorphism did not have a significant effect on other milk production or reproduction traits. It seems that other variants or QTLs known in this region underlie genetic variation in the production and reproduction of dairy cattle. PMID:24530703

Abdolmohammadi, A; Zamani, P



Exploring genotype-phenotype relationships of the LHX3 gene on growth traits in beef cattle.  


The LIM-homeobox gene 3 (LHX3) plays an essential role in pituitary gland and nervous system development. Sequence variants (SVs) in coding and non-coding regions of LHX3 gene have an impact on LHX3 transcription and growth traits in cattle. Previously, we have identified 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-3) in all exons and intron 2 regions of the LHX3 gene in cattle. Here, 7 novel SNPs (SNPs: 4-10) were identified by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. In the present study, a total of 10 SNPs were assessed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 802 cows representing four main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, Qinchuan, Jiaxian, and Chinese Holstein). The assessment results demonstrated that 17 haplotypes and 18 diplotypes were revealed in these cattle populations. Moreover, association analysis indicated that the genotypes of SNPs 1-6 are associated with the body weight at 6, 12 and 18months of age in Nanyang cattle (P<0.01 or P<0.05), whereas no significant association was found between the 18 diplotypes and growth traits. Our results provide evidence that some SNPs in LHX3 gene may be associated with body weight at certain age, and LHX3 gene may be used as candidate gene for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding. PMID:25688878

Huang, Yong-Zhen; Jing, Yong-Jie; Sun, Yu-Jia; Lan, Xian-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong



Haplotype combination of polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene promoter is associated with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.  


Adiponectin modulates lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissues and is also related to bone metabolism. Polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene likely have an impact on growth traits in cattle. In this study, we examined the relationship between ADIPOQ polymorphisms and body measurement parameters in Chinese beef cattle. First, we sequenced ADIPOQ and 1.2 kb of DNA upstream of its promoter, and we found 14 polymorphisms. With the luciferase reporter assay, we showed that the two polymorphisms SNP PR_-135 A>G and PR_-68 G>C, which are located in the core region of promoter, influence promoter activity of ADIPOQ. Second, we identified three haplotypes involved in these two polymorphic sites: A (A-135/C-68), B (A-135/G-68), and C (G-135/G-68). Haplotypes B and C are major haplotypes in five Chinese populations of cattle (Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jiaxian, Hazakh, and Chinese Holstein). We studied the effects of these three haplotypes on body measurements, gene expression, and promoter activity, and we found that the genotypes are associated with body measurement parameters in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with genotype BC (AG/GG) had significantly higher body height and heart girth than others, and this result may be interpreted by the following two observations. The promoter activity with haplotype B (A/G) is significantly higher than those with A (A/C) and C (G/G) in driving reporter gene transcription; the ADIPOQ mRNA level in cattle with genotype BC (AG/GG) is relatively lower than that in cattle with genotype BB (AA/GG). PMID:24099391

Zhang, Liangzhi; Li, Mijie; Lai, Xinsheng; Yang, Mingjuan; Xu, Yao; Hua, Liushuai; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong



Professor Bjrn Holstein Tiltrdelsesseminar  

E-print Network

Universitet 14.10-15.00: "Mesurement of social class and social inequalities in health and behaviors in childProfessor Bjørn Holstein Tiltrædelsesseminar "Social inequalities in health and behaviors in child.00-15.45: "Social Disadvantage, Perceived Social Status, and Social Inequalities in Adolescent Health." v. Elizabeth

Michelsen, Claus


Genome-wide detection of copy number variations using high-density SNP genotyping platforms in Holsteins  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in the human or animal genome and are a significant source of genetic variation, which has been demonstrated to play an important role in phenotypic diversity. Advances in technology have allowed for identification of a large number of CNVs in cattle. Comprehensive explore novel CNVs in the bovine genome would provide valuable information for functional analyses of genome structural variation and facilitating follow-up association studies between complex traits and genetic variants. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide CNV detection based on high-density SNP genotyping data of 96 Chinese Holstein cattle. A total of 367 CNV regions (CNVRs) across the genome were identified, which cover 42.74Mb of the cattle genome and correspond to 1.61% of the genome sequence. The length of the CNVRs on autosomes range from 10.76 to 2,806.42 Kb with an average of 96.23 Kb. 218 out of these CNVRs contain 610 annotated genes, which possess a wide spectrum of molecular functions. To confirm these findings, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed for 17 CNVRs and 13(76.5%) of them were successfully validated. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the high density SNP array can significantly improve the accuracy and sensitivity of CNV calling. Integration of different platforms can enhance the detection of genomic structure variants. Our results provide a significant replenishment for the high resolution map of copy number variation in the bovine genome and valuable information for investigation of genomic structural variation underlying traits of interest in cattle. PMID:23442346



Comparison of Holstein and Jersey Innate Immune Responses to Escherichia coli Intramammary Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in cattle and remains among the most costly diseases to the dairy industry. Various surveys have indicated a higher prevalence of and risk for mastitis in Holstein cows than in Jersey cows. The innate immune system comprises the immediate host defense...


Superovulation of holstein heifers by a single subcutaneous injection of FSH dissolved in polyvinylpyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine whether a single injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) would induce a superovulatory response in cattle. Holstein heifers were given a single injection of pFSH (30mg, sc) dissolved in saline (Group 1, n = 5); 50% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; Group 2, n = 5); or 25% PVP (Group 3, n = 4). Group-4 heifers (n =

T. Takedomi; Y. Aoyagi; M. Konishi; H. Kishi; K. Taya; G. Watanabe; S. Sasamoto



Retrofitting genetic-economic indexes to demonstrate responses to selection across 2 generations of Holsteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that would have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein bulls were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25 cow groups ...


Effect of Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism on Milk Quality Traits in Crossbred Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biswas, T.K., Bhattacharya, T.K., Narayan, A.D., Badola, S., Kumar, P., Kumar, S. and Sharma, A. 2003. Effect of growth hormone gene polymorphism on milk quality traits in crossbred cattle. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 24: 145–151.The study was conducted on 1\\/2 HarianaX1\\/2 Holstein Friesian (FH cross), 1\\/2 Holstein Friesian × 1\\/4 Brown Swiss × 1\\/4 Hariana (FBH cross) and 1\\/2 Holstein

T. K. Biswas; T. K. Bhattacharya; A. D. Narayan; S. Badola; Pushpendra Kumar; Satish Kumar; Arjava Sharma



Prediction of cow fertility based on productivity traits in dairy cattle under different production systems   

E-print Network

A study to examine factors that influence dairy cattle fertility was conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) and Malawi. Productivity data from the UK comprising 56,014 records from 574 Holstein cows were retrieved from ...

Banda, Liveness Jessica



Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cattle and buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from two breeds of cattle, viz., [Hariana (Bos indicus), Holstein (Bos taurus)] and Indian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalus), was analyzed using 13 restriction endonucleases which recognized an average of about 40 six-base sites. Polymorphism among\\u000a cattle was detected with six of these enzymes. The two Holstein differed at six sites, whereas the Hariana breed (Bos indicus) did

P. P. Bhat; B. P. Mishra; P. N. Bhat



Comparing mRNA levels of genes encoding leptin, leptin receptor, and lipoprotein lipase between dairy and beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body weight and fat mass vary distinctly between German Holstein (dairy cattle) and Charolais (beef cattle). The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of the obese (Ob) gene and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in fat tissues and expression of the long isoform leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) gene in the hypothalamus were different between these two cattle breeds.

M. Q. Ren; J. Wegner; O. Bellmann; G. A. Brockmann; F. Schneider; F. Teuscher; K. Ender



Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus?×?Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus?×?Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2?×?2?×?2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901



Holstein's milk detection in cheeses inferred from melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene polymorphism.  


For some French Registered Designation of Origin (RDO) cheeses Prim'Holstein's milk is not allowed for cheese making (e.g., Reblochon, Abondance, and Beaufort cheeses). To find molecular markers for Prim'Holstein's milk detection in RDO cheese, four genes affecting coat color in cattle (c-kit, MGH, TYRP1, and MC1R) have been sequenced for three mountain breeds and the Prim'Holstein breed. Only the MC1R gene (E-locus) has shown variation between the four breeds. Among the 25 French and Italian breeds sequenced for the MC1R gene, only the Vosgienne breed has presented the same allele as the black Prim'Holstein breed (E(D)). A quick and easy DNA-based method to detect Holstein's milk in RDO cheese is proposed based on ED allele detection. A DNA extraction from cheese, a preamplification of the gene and a competitive oligonuleotide priming PCR on MC1R mutations were performed. Using an automated sequencer, differences in fluorescence and fragment size reveal the allele type. This simple approach provides good reproducibility and is shown to be relatively sensitive, with a detection limit of about 1% of Holstein's milk in milk curd. PMID:12018414

Maudet, C; Taberlet, P



Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria infections in post-weaned and adult cattle on three Maryland farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria, in healthy, asymptomatic, post-weaned and mature cattle was investigated on three Maryland farms. One farm, a dairy research facility, had 150 multiparous Holstein milking cows; 24 were examined and Cryptosporidium andersoni was detected in three (12.5%) but neither Giardia nor Eimeria was detected. The second farm, a commercial dairy, had 57 multiparous Holstein

R Fayer; J. M Trout; T. K Graczyk; E. J Lewis



Assessment of biodiversity in Chilean cattle using the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II BoLA-DRB3 allele.  


Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease. PMID:25430590

Takeshima, S-N; Miyasaka, T; Matsumoto, Y; Xue, G; Diaz, V de la Barra; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Giovambattista, G; Ortiz, M; Oltra, J; Kanemaki, M; Onuma, M; Aida, Y



A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...


Cavernous sinus syndrome in a holstein bull.  


A 13-month-old Holstein bull was presented for right-sided exophthalmos. Ophthalmologic examination noted that the animal was visual in both eyes, but that the right pupil was persistently dilated and very sluggish to constrict when stimulated with a bright light and that normal ocular motility was absent. Fundic examination of the right eye was normal as was a complete ophthalmologic examination of the left eye. Radiographs at presentation did not reveal the presence of sinusitis or other skull abnormalities. Initial treatment comprised intravenous antibiotics and anti-inflammatories for orbital inflammation over a 14-day period. There was no perceptible change in the appearance or neuro-ophthalmologic examination of the right eye during hospitalization. The animal was discharged to the owner's care, but 3 weeks later was found recumbent with unilateral strabismus of the left eye and a fixed right pupil. Due to the inability to rise and rapid deterioration, humane euthanasia was performed, and a full postmortem examination, preceded by a MRI, was performed that identified abscesses extending bilaterally through the round foramina obliterating the cavernous sinus region, as well as abscessation of the right mandible, right trigeminal neuritis, right-sided sinusitis, and right-sided otitis media. Cavernous sinus syndrome should be considered in cattle with a combination of exophthalmos and neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities involving cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, whose branches are located within the cavernous sinus. PMID:24256077

Jacob, Sarah I; Drees, Randi; Pinkerton, Marie E; Bentley, Ellison M; Peek, Simon F



Effect of dietary vitamin A restriction on marbling and conjugated linoleic acid content in Holstein steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of duration of dietary vitamin A restriction on site of fat deposition in growing cattle, 60 Holstein steers (BW = 218.4 ± 6.55 kg) were fed a diet based on high-moisture corn, with 2,200 IU of supplemental vitamin A\\/kg of DM (control) or no supplemental vitamin A for a long (243 d; LR) or short (131

M. A. Gorocica-Buenfil; F. L. Fluharty; C. K. Reynolds; S. C. Loerch



A study based on records taken at time of hoof trimming reveals a strong association between the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) gene and sole hemorrhage in Holstein cattle.  


Feet and leg problems have a major effect on the well-being and lifespan of the dairy cow and thus are economically important to the dairy farmer. Apart from approaches using genetic selection for classical traits from conformation scoring, attempts for genetic improvement can be based either on records of individual disease cases or on records of disorder status at time of hoof trimming. In this study, 1,962 first-lactation cows were subjected to hoof trimming with an assessment of disorder status for sole hemorrhage as a binary trait. Cows were from 7 large commercial herds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (northeastern Germany) that had similar housing with cubicles, slatted flooring, little use of straw for bedding, and total mixed ration feeding. Cows were trimmed and assessed once, focusing on cows in the first half of the lactation. Herds were visited at intervals to enable recording of cohorts at a similar stage of lactation. Each cohort or herd-visit included between 31 and 165 cows. Additional measurements included body weight, back fat thickness, and body condition at time of trimming. Further data on dairy production, conformation scores, and reproductive performance were merged after collection of records had finished. The DNA extracted from blood of 1,183 cows was used for analysis with a custom-made array of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The SNP were selected according to results from the literature for effects in classical conformation traits, from biochemical pathway analysis, and from comparative analysis of putative candidate genes in cattle, pigs, and sheep. Selection of cohorts of cows for SNP chip analysis was such that cohorts with extreme frequencies of disorders and cohorts with slightly deviating housing systems were excluded in this first step. The results from a mixed threshold model analysis with genotype included as a fixed effect and accounting for relationships among animals revealed that the intronic SNP rs29017173 (A/G) within the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, Bos taurus autosome 21) was significantly associated with disorder status. Back-transformed means of disorder status for the 3 genotypes were 0.37 (AA), 0.52 (AG), and 0.56 (GG). Using the full data set of 1,962 cows, including the less-suitable cohorts, gave back-transformed means of 0.51 (AA), 0.58 (AG), and 0.62 (GG). As SNP rs29017173 is included on the Illumina BovineSNP50 DNA Analysis BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), a sample of 2,394 artificial insemination sires from the German calibration sample for genomic selection from birth years 1998 to 2003 was studied for possible correlated effects. The A/G polymorphism of SNP rs29017173 studied here was also associated with substantial effects for feet and leg traits from the classical conformation score system. Selection using this polymorphism will be facilitated by the fact that the same allele is favored for all traits with substantial effects. PMID:24237756

Swalve, H H; Floren, C; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Schöpke, K; Pijl, R; Wimmers, K; Brenig, B




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Factors affecting fecal shedding of the foodborne pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle were evaluated. Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cattle to determine influence of time of day (morning vs late a...


Genetic diversity of cattle in south China as revealed by blood protein electrophoresis.  


Genetic variation of 31 blood protein loci in 236 cattle from eight South China populations (including mithan, Bos frontalis) and a Holstein population was investigated by means of horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Thirteen loci (ALB, CAR, Hb-b, Np, PGM, Amy-I, PEP-B, AKP, 6PGD, Cp, Pa, EsD, and TF) were found to be polymorphic. The comparison of average heterozygosities (H) shows that all the native cattle embrace a rich genetic diversity. Our results on protein polymorphism suggest that cattle in China originated mainly from Bos indicus and Bos taurus; Xuwen, Hainan, Wenshan, and Dehong cattle and the Dehong zebu are close to zebu-type cattle, and Diqing and Zhaotong cattle are close to the taurine. The mithan was very different from other native cattle, and we suggest that its origin was complicated and may be influenced by other cattle species. PMID:10624516

Nie, L; Yu, Y; Zhang, X Q; Yang, G F; Wen, J K; Zhang, Y P



Evaluation of breed-dependent differences in the innate immune responses of Holstein and Jersey cows to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mastitis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle. Various studies have reported breed-dependent differences in the risk for developing this disease. Among two major breeds, Jersey cows have been identified as having a lower prevalence of mastitis than Holstein cows. It is well established...


A new Robertsonian translocation in Holstein-Friesian cattle  

E-print Network

to elucidate the anomaly as a centric fusion between chromosomes 19 and 21. CBG-banding demonstrated coloration en bandes CBG montre que le chromosome transloqué est dicentrique. Une analyse cytogénétique des), and for CBG staining according to Summer (1972). Chromosomes were arranged according to the standard

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.  


Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 0 and 20 d on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that traditionally packaged steaks from calf-fed Holsteins treated with ZH for 0 d had a darker lean color (P < 0.05) than steaks from ZH-treated cattle on d 1 of display, whereas the lean color scores for ZH treatments of all durations were similar on d 4 of display. The scores of trained panelists indicated that ZH treatment had no effect on the discoloration of traditionally packaged, nonenhanced strip steaks from calf-fed Holsteins. Therefore, feeding ZH to beef or calf-fed Holstein steers had no detrimental effect on the lean color or color stability of strip loin steaks subjected to enhancement, packaged in modified-atmosphere or traditional packaging, and displayed under simulated retail conditions. PMID:19966164

Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F



A limited number of Y chromosome lineages is present in North American Holsteins.  


Holsteins are the most numerous dairy cattle breed in North America and the breed has undergone intensive selection for improving milk production and conformation. Theoretically, this intensive selection could lead to a reduction of the effective population size and reduced genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effective population size of the Holstein Y chromosome and the effects of limited Y chromosome lineages on male reproduction and the future of the breed. Paternal pedigree information of 62,897 Holstein bulls born between 1950 and 2013 in North America and 220,872 bulls evaluated by multiple-trait across-country genetic evaluations of Interbull (Uppsala, Sweden) were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the number of Y chromosome lineages in Holsteins has undergone a dramatic decrease during the past 50 years because of artificial selection and the application of artificial insemination (AI) technology. All current Holstein AI bulls in North America are the descendants of only 2 ancestors (Hulleman and Neptune H) born in 1880. These 2 ancestral Y-lineages are continued through 3 dominant pedigrees from the 1960s; namely, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, and Penstate Ivanhoe Star, with a contribution of 48.78, 51.06, and 0.16% to the Holstein bull population in the 2010s, respectively. The Y-lineage of Penstate Ivanhoe Star is almost eliminated from the breed. The genetic variations in the 2 ancestral Y-lineages were evaluated among 257 bulls by determining the copy number variations (CNV) of 3 Y-linked gene families: PRAMEY, HSFY, and ZNF280BY, which are spread along the majority (95%) of the bovine Y chromosome male-specific region (MSY). No significant difference was found between the 2 ancestral Y-lineages, although large CNV were observed within each lineage. This study suggests minimal genetic diversity on the Y chromosome in Holsteins and provides a starting point for investigating the effect of the extremely limited number of Y-lineages on male reproduction and other traits important for the future of the Holstein breed. PMID:25660742

Yue, Xiang-Peng; Dechow, Chad; Liu, Wan-Sheng



Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to the bluetongue virus (BTV) among dairy Holstein cattle of central Iran. From September 2010 to August 2011, 892 blood samples from Holstein dairy cattle were collected from healthy animals. Blood samples were divided according to type of farm (industrial and non-industrial), season (warm and cold), location (North, South, East, and West), cattle production groups (calf, heifer, dairy and dry) and age groups (under 6 months, 6 months-2 years and over 2 years). The sera were screened using a commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) kit. Twenty-four sera (2.69 %) were found to be positive for BTV. Bluetongue virus seroprevalence was significantly higher (?(2)=8.29, df=3, p < 0.05) in cattle in southern locations as compared to those in other locations. Older animals (>2 years) showed a relatively higher seroprevalence, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.06). No statistically significant difference in BTV seroprevalence was noted between farming systems, seasons and cattle production groups (p > 0.05). The results demonstrate that the seroprevalence of BTV is low in cattle from the Isfahan province, central Iran. Further studies are needed to determine the serotypes and vectors of BTV in the central region of Iran. PMID:23888413

Noaman, Vahid; Shirvani, Edris; Hosseini, Seyed M; Shahmoradied, Amir H; Heidari, Mohammad R; Raiszadeh, Hamid; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Bahreyari, Masoume



Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle  

PubMed Central

Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu



Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.  


Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu



Effects of Age, Temperature-Season, and Breed on Blood Characteristics of Dairy Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred twenty four dairy cattle (6 mo to second calving) representing four breeds (169 Holstein, 24 Guernsey, 19 Jersey, 12 Brown Swiss) were used to determine effects of age, temperature- season, and breed on blood characteristics. A total of 1183 blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture in the middle of each temperature-season. Covariate age affected blood profile except

L. Shaffer; J. D. Roussel; K. L. Koonce



Cattle Differ in Ability to Adapt to Small Intestinal Digestion of Starch  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-ruminal starch digestion on inflammatory response in dairy cattle. Six cull, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cannulated Holstein dairy cows (BW 804±101 kg) were fed a high forage diet ad libitum starting 15 d before the infusion p...



Microsoft Academic Search

Improved calcium status may facilitate transition dairy cattle to more effectively use higher levels of supplemental fat postpartum reducing health problems associated with negative energy balance. The capability of fresh cows to handle relatively high levels of dietary fat as being dependent on their calcium status was tested using a factorially designed experiment (2 X 2) with twelve multiparous Holstein



Efficacy of abamectin injection against Dermatobia hominis in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of abamectin 1%, when injected subcutancously in cattle at a dose of 200 µg\\/kg body weight, against the larval stages (grubs) of the flyDermatobia hominis was evaluated in two trials in endemic areas of Brazil and Argentina. Eighteen Holstein x Brahman castrated males and 16 Brahman-cross with natural infestations were used. Larvae were counted by instar in situ

J. B. Cruz; C. Benitez-Usher; L. G. Cramer; S. J. Gross; A. B. Kohn



Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa  

PubMed Central

Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%). Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in 11 genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for specialized adaptation when combined with methods for searching for the recent changes of haplotype frequency in an admixed population. PMID:25566325

Kim, Eui-Soo; Rothschild, Max F.



Cattle Vaccines  

E-print Network

Vaccines deliver antigens that stimulate the body's production of antibodies in response to disease. Cattle can be vaccinated with noninfectious or infectious vaccines. The types of vaccine products, proper handling of vaccines, and vaccination...

Faries Jr., Floron C.



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.  


The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo



Deleted copy number variation of Hanwoo and Holstein using next generation sequencing at the population level  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variation (CNV), a source of genetic diversity in mammals, has been shown to underlie biological functions related to production traits. Notwithstanding, there have been few studies conducted on CNVs using next generation sequencing at the population level. Results Illumina NGS data was obtained for ten Holsteins, a dairy cattle, and 22 Hanwoo, a beef cattle. The sequence data for each of the 32 animals varied from 13.58-fold to almost 20-fold coverage. We detected a total of 6,811 deleted CNVs across the analyzed individuals (average length =?2732.2 bp) corresponding to 0.74% of the cattle genome (18.6 Mbp of variable sequence). By examining the overlap between CNV deletion regions and genes, we selected 30 genes with the highest deletion scores. These genes were found to be related to the nervous system, more specifically with nervous transmission, neuron motion, and neurogenesis. We regarded these genes as having been effected by the domestication process. Further analysis of the CNV genotyping information revealed 94 putative selected CNVs and 954 breed-specific CNVs. Conclusions This study provides useful information for assessing the impact of CNVs on cattle traits using NGS at the population level. PMID:24673797



Cattle and their origin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about different breeds of cattle, the history of cattle, and why cattle are considered ruminants. History of cattle CLick on the above link to explore the history of cattle. breeds of cattle Click on the above link to explore different breeds of cattle. Can you find any breeds that are new to you? Are any of these breeds found in this area? Ruminants Click on the above link to discover why cows ...

Mr. Howells



Subchronic Administration of Technical Pentachlorophenol to Lactating Dairy Cattle: Performance, General Health, and Pathologic Changes[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical grade pentachlorophenol (penta) was fed subchronicaUy to lactating dairy cattle to establish whether exposure approximating farm environments con- taining substantial penta-treated wood represents a hazard to animal health, Four Holstein cattle in early lactation were fed .2 mg penta\\/kg body weight per day for 75 to 84 days followed by 2 mg penta\\/kg body weight per day for 56

J. H. Kinzell; N. K. Ames; S. D. Sleight; J. D. Krehbiel; C. Kuo; M. J. Zabik; L. R. Shull



Foreign meat identification by DNA breed assignment for the Chinese market.  


Methods for individual identification are usually employed for traceability, whereas breed identification is useful to detect commercial frauds. In this study, Chinese Yellow Cattle (CYC) samples plus data from six Bos taurus breeds, two Bos indicus breeds, and one composite breed were used to develop an allocation test based on 22 microsatellites. The test allowed discriminating all foreign breeds from the CYC, although some CYC individuals were wrongly allocated as Limousin or Holstein, probably due to the recent introduction of these breeds into China. In addition, CYC evidenced a previously reported Zebu cline (south-north) and a possible structure within the B. taurus component that should be confirmed. An independent test performed with meat samples of unknown breed origin from Argentina allocated 92% of them to either Angus, Hereford, or their crossbreed, but none was identified as CYC. We conclude that the test is a suitable tool to certify meat of foreign breed origin and to detect adulterations of CYC beef labeled as imported meat. PMID:25170818

Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Wei, S; Ripoli, M V; Guo, B L; Carino, M H; Castillo, N; Villegas Castagnaso, E E; Lirón, J P; Morales Durand, H F; Melucci, L; Villarreal, E; Peral-García, P; Wei, Y M; Giovambattista, G



Independent polled mutations leading to complex gene expression differences in cattle.  


The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord



Independent Polled Mutations Leading to Complex Gene Expression Differences in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord



Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 experimentation on adult cattle.  


Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an arthropod-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae), is an emerging pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV). EHDV serotype 6 (EHDV6) has recently caused outbreaks close to Europe in Turkey and Morocco and a recent experimental study performed on calves inoculated with these two EHDV6 strains showed that the young animals have remained clinically unaffected. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of an EHDV6 strain from La Reunion Island in adult Holstein (18-month-old heifers). This EHDV6 strain has induced clinical signs in cattle in the field. Samples taken throughout the study were tested with commercially available ELISA and real-time RT-PCR kits. Very mild clinical manifestations were observed in cattle during the experiment although high levels of viral RNA and virus were found in their blood. EHDV was isolated from the blood of infected animals at 8 dpi. Antibodies against EHDV were first detected by 7 dpi and persisted up to the end of the study. Virus was detected in various tissue samples until 35 dpi, but was not infectious. In view of the recent circulation of different arboviruses in Europe, this study demonstrates what the EHD induces a strong viraemia in adult Holstein cattle and shows that a spread of EHD on European livestock cattle is possible. PMID:23899717

Breard, Emmanuel; Belbis, Guillaume; Viarouge, Cyril; Riou, Mickael; Desprat, Alexandra; Moreau, Joël; Laloy, Eve; Martin, Guillaume; Sarradin, Pierre; Vitour, Damien; Batten, Carrie; Doceul, Virginie; Sailleau, Corinne; Zientara, Stéphan



Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Milk Production and Health of Dairy Cattle in a Large Outbred Pedigree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production and health of dairy cattle were mapped in a very large Holstein granddaughter design. The analysis included 1794 sons of 14 sires and 206 genetic markers distributed across all 29 autosomes and flanking an estimated 2497 autosomal cM using Kosambi's mapping function. All families were analyzed jointly with least-squares (LS) and variance components

Qin Zhang; Didier Boichard; Ina Hoeschele; Cynthia Ernst; Andre Eggen; B. Murkve; Margaret Pfister-Genskow; LaRee A. Witte; Fernando E. Grignola; Pekka Uimari; Georg Thaller; Michael D. Bishop


Possible Effects of 25 Years of Selection and Crossbreeding on the Genetic Merit and Productivity of New Zealand Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deterministic model was developed to evaluate the concurrent effects of selection and crossbreeding on the rate of genetic gain and productivity of New Zealand dairy cattle over 25 yr. Selection was based on an index, which included estimated breeding values for mature cow live weight and lactation yields of milk, fat, and protein. Mating strategies involving Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and

N. Lopez-Villalobos; D. J. Garrick; H. T. Blair; C. W. Holmes



Unilateral notomelia in a newborn Holstein calf  

PubMed Central

A 24-hour-old Holstein bull calf with notomelia was donated to the Atlantic Veterinary College. The extra limb was on the right side of the caudal neck adjacent to the withers. The limb was surgically removed under general anesthesia. The calf was adopted and discharged with no complications. PMID:24982517

Muirhead, Tammy L.; Pack, LeeAnn; Radtke, Catherine L.



TALE nickase-mediated SP110 knockin endows cattle with increased resistance to tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome modification has been applied successfully to create transgenic animals in various species, such as mouse, pig, and even monkey. However, transgenic cattle with gene knockin have yet to be created using TALENs. Here, we report site-specific knockin of the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nickase-mediated SP110 nuclear body protein gene (SP110) via homologous recombination to produce tuberculosis-resistant cattle. In vitro and in vivo challenge and transmission experiments proved that the transgenic cattle are able to control the growth and multiplication of Mycobacterium bovis, turn on the apoptotic pathway of cell death instead of necrosis after infection, and efficiently resist the low dose of M. bovis transmitted from tuberculous cattle in nature. In this study, we developed TALE nickases to modify the genome of Holstein–Friesian cattle, thereby engineering a heritable genome modification that facilitates resistance to tuberculosis. PMID:25733846

Wu, Haibo; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mingqi; Lv, Jiaxing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong



Identification of differential selection traces in two Polish cattle breeds.  


Genetic improvement of animals based on artificial selection is leading to changes in the frequency of genes related to desirable production traits. The changes are reflected by the neutral, intergenic single nucleotide polymorphims (SNPs) being in long-range linkage disequilibrium with functional polymorphisms. Genome-wide SNP analysis tools designed for cattle, allow for scanning divergences in allelic frequencies between distinct breeds and thus for identification of genomic regions which were divergently selected in breeds' histories. In this study, by using Bovine SNP50 assay, we attempted to identify genomic regions showing the highest differences in allele frequencies between two distinct cattle breeds - preserved, unselected Polish Red breed and highly selected Holstein cattle. Our study revealed 19 genomic regions encompassing 55 protein-coding genes and numerous quantitative trait loci which potentially may underlie some of the phenotypic traits distinguishing the breeds. PMID:25124517

Gurgul, Artur; Pawlina, Klaudia; Frys-?urek, Monika; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika



Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances  

E-print Network

Beef Cattle Marketing Alliances James D. Sartwelle, III, Ernest E. Davis, James Mintert and Rob Borchardt* Ever-tightening profit margins and recurring cyclical downturns in cattle and calf markets have forced many cattle producers to search...

Sartwelle III, James D.; Davis, Ernest E.; Mintert, James R.; Borchardt, Rob



Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel  

PubMed Central

Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds. PMID:25295053

Makina, Sithembile O.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.; van Marle-Köster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D.; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi



Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel.  


Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA) including Afrikaner (n = 44), Nguni (n = 54), Drakensberger (n = 47), Bonsmara (n = 44), Angus (n = 31), and Holstein (n = 29). Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR), expected heterozygosity (He) and inbreeding coefficient (f). Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei's genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE). Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner) to 1.73 (Nguni). Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He = 0.24) and the Drakensberger cattle (He = 0.30) had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of SA cattle breeds. PMID:25295053

Makina, Sithembile O; Muchadeyi, Farai C; van Marle-Köster, Este; MacNeil, Michael D; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi



Synophthalmia in a Holstein cross calf  

PubMed Central

Synophthalmia is a form of cyclopia, in which some elements of two eyes are fused and form a single eye in the middle region of the forehead. The head of a Holstein female calf born from a 5-year-old cow was referred to Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University due to multiple congenital anomalies. The calf had been slaughtered immediately after birth due to severe respiratory distress by the owner. The calf showed multiple birth defects, including synophthalmia, holoprosencephaly, absence of optic chiasma, hypoplastic maxilla, curved mandibles, arrhinia and dental pad agenesis. A normal tongue protruded from the defect and small oral cavity. To our knowledge, this particular combination of craniofacial defects has not been previously described in Holstein calf. PMID:25610588

Nourani, Hossein; Karimi, Iraj; Rajabi Vardanjani, Hossein



Chinese Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews Scotland offers this website on the history of Chinese Mathematics. Key features highlighted in the overview include: a discussion of the Chinese version of Pythagoras's theorem, a famous Chinese mathematics book commonly known as the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, and the work of several Chinese mathematicians. Visitors to the website can also browse a chronological listing of several Chinese mathematicians and read about their careers. Other features of the website include a section summarizing each chapter from the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a section highlighting ten other mathematical classics, a review of the Chinese numeral system, and a collection of Chinese problems, which are extracted from various articles in their archive.


Spectral Properties of Holstein and Breathing Polarons  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.

Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Performance of winter-calving, 3-year-old Hereford, Hereford x Holstein (Crossbred)and Holstein cows under taUgrass native range and drylot confinement conditions was determined. Two levels (Moderate and High) of a 30% protein supplement were fed during the winter to groups of cows within each breed. A group of Holstein cows was fed an additional level (Very High). Drylot cows were also

J. W. Holloway; D. F. Stephens; J. V. Whiteman; Robert Totusek



Genome-Wide Estimates of Coancestry, Inbreeding and Effective Population Size in the Spanish Holstein Population  

PubMed Central

Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry) or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding). The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes. PMID:25880228

Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia Teresa; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Delfino; Villanueva, Beatriz



Hot topic: performance of bovine high-density genotyping platforms in Holsteins and Jerseys.  


Two high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays have recently become available for bovine genomic analyses, the Illumina High-Density Bovine BeadChip Array (777,962 SNP) and the Affymetrix Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (648,874 SNP). These products each have unique design and chemistry attributes, and the extent of marker overlap and their potential utility for quantitative trait loci fine mapping, detection of copy number variation, and multibreed genomic selection are of significant interest to the cattle community. This is the first study to compare the performance of these 2 arrays. Deoxyribonucleic acid samples from 16 dairy cattle (10 Holstein, 6 Jersey) were used for the comparison. An independent set of DNA samples taken from 46 Jersey cattle and 18 Holstein cattle were used to ascertain the amount of SNP variation accounted by the 16 experimental samples. Data were analyzed with SVS7 software (Golden Helix Inc., Bozeman, MT) to remove SNP having a call rate less than 90%, and linkage disequilibrium pruning was used to remove linked SNP (r² ? 0.9). Maximum, average, and median gaps were calculated for each analysis based on genomic position of SNP on the bovine UMD3.1 genome assembly. All samples were successfully genotyped (? 98% SNP genotyped) with both platforms. The average number of genotyped SNP in the Illumina platform was 775,681 and 637,249 for the Affymetrix platform. Based on genomic position, a total of 107,896 SNP were shared between the 2 platforms; however, based on genotype concordance, only 96,031 SNP had complete concordance at these loci. Both Affymetrix BOS 1 and Illumina BovineHD genotyping platforms are well designed and provide high-quality genotypes and similar coverage of informative SNP. Despite fewer total SNP on BOS 1, 19% more SNP remained after linkage disequilibrium pruning, resulting in a smaller gap size (5.2 vs. 6.9 kb) in Holstein and Jersey samples relative to BovineHD. However, only 224,115 Illumina and 241,038 Affymetrix SNP remained following removal of SNP with a minor allele frequency of zero in Holstein and Jersey samples, resulting in an average gap size of 11,887 bp and 11,018 bp, respectively. Combining the 354,348 informative (r² ? 0.9), polymorphic (minor allele frequency ? 0), unique SNP data from both platforms decreased the average gap size to 7,560 bp. Genome-wide copy number variant analyses were performed using intensity files from both platforms. The BovineHD platform provided an advantage to the copy number variant data compared with the BOS 1 because of the larger number of SNP, higher intensity signals, and lower background effects. The combined use of both platforms significantly improved coverage over either platform alone and decreased the gap size between SNP, providing a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci and multibreed animal evaluation. PMID:22118099

Rincon, G; Weber, K L; Eenennaam, A L Van; Golden, B L; Medrano, J F



The noxious effects of electroimmobilization in adult Holstein cows: a pilot study.  

PubMed Central

Ten adult Holstein cows were used in an experiment to determine whether the induction of electroimmobilization was a noxious event. The cows were halter trained and accustomed to being led into a set of stocks. The time taken for the cattle to walk the last ten metres into the stocks was recorded. The heart rate of the cow was recorded for a three minute period prior to a ten second exposure to a high pitched sound (the conditioning stimulus). Measurements were collected for three repetitions and then the cows were assigned to two groups of five. One group was immobilized for 30 seconds using a commercial electroimmobilizer, the other group was not treated. This procedure was repeated ten times over a period of eight days. The cows were then exposed to the conditioning stimulus and their response observed. The treated group took significantly (P less than 0.05) longer to get into the stocks and the regression slopes for heart rate were significantly different from the control group. The treated cows responded to the conditioning stimulus at five and nine months after the end of the conditioning period. Adult Holstein cows regarded electroimmobilization as a noxious event and were very strongly conditioned to this stimulus. PMID:3756681

Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N



Polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish cattle affected by classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  


Recent attempts to discover genetic factors affecting cattle resistance/susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have led to the identification of two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms, located within the promoter and intron 1 of the prion protein gene PRNP, showing a significant association with the occurrence of classical form of the disease. Because the effect of the polymorphisms was studied only in few populations, in this study we investigated whether previously described association of PRNP indel polymorphisms with BSE susceptibility in cattle is also present in Polish cattle population. We found a significant relation between the investigated PRNP indel polymorphisms (23 and 12 bp indels), and susceptibility of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle to classical BSE (P < 0.05). The deletion variants of both polymorphisms were related to increased susceptibility, whereas insertion variants were protective against BSE. PMID:22170597

Gurgul, Artur; Czarnik, Urszula; Urszula, Czarnik; Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Miros?aw P; Strychalski, Janusz; S?ota, Ewa




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Eight rumen-fistulated cattle (four Angus steers and four nonlactating Holstein cows) were fed a cracked corn-based concentrate (65% of dry matter) and corn silage (35% of dry matter) diet containing: (1) no buffer, (2) 2.5% limestone, (3) 2% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or (4) 1.25% limestone and 1.25% NaHCO3. Each diet was fed at approximately maintenance and-two times maintenance levels

G. L. Haaland; H. F. Tyrrell


In Vitro Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Proliferation in a Crossbred Cattle Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune function measured by Staphylococcus aureus- and phytohemagglutinin- (PHA-) induced cell proliferationwasassessedinapopulationof445geneti- cally defined, F2 and backcross Charolais-Holstein crossbred cattle when the animals were approximately 5 mo of age. Variation in Staph. aureus-induced, PHA- induced, and control proliferation (peripheral blood mononuclearcell(PBMC)andmediaonly)wasobserved at d 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10 of in vitro culture. The levels of Staph. aureus-induced, PHA-induced,

F. J. Young; J. A. Woolliams; J. L. Williams; E. J. Glass; R. G. O’Neill; J. L. Fitzpatrick



Standards of Weight and Height for Holstein Heifers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a modern appraisal of growth of Holstein dairy heifers, height at withers and heart girth (body weight) data were collected for 5723 heifers representing 163 commercial Holstein dairy herds from October 1983 through May 1985. Quadratic regression equations of height and weight on age were com- puted for each herd. Estimated weight and height of heifers at 24

A. J. Heinrichs; G. L. Hargrove



Serum Prolactin and Growth Hormone in Holstein Bulls1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeatabilities among three estimates of serum prolactin and growth hormone collected in 71 Holstein bulls within 10 days were .13 and .30. However, befit- abilities of the serum hormone concen- trations were not different from 0. In another experiment of 86 Holstein bulls, serum collected in July contained more than twice as much prolactin as serum collected in January whereas

H. A. Tucker; J. A. Koprowski; J. H. Britt; W. D. Oxender



Genomic imputation and evaluation using high density Holstein genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic evaluations for 161,341 Holsteins were computed using 311,725 of the 777,962 markers on the Illumina high-density (HD) chip. Initial edits with 1,741 HD genotypes from 5 breeds revealed that 636,967 markers were usable but that half were redundant. Usable Holstein genotypes included 1,510 an...


Common Cattle Parasites  

E-print Network

and larvae develop in snails; and 3. Cattle swallow cysts on grass or hay. Clinical signs of digestive in ef fi - cien cy are evident in young cattle with acute liver disease and in older cattle with chronic liver disease. Fluky cattle show signs... and reinfection of the cattle. Strategically ad min is ter ing drugs reduces en vi ron men tal con tam i- na tion and infection of cattle and snails. A strategic method requires proper timing. This means that a drug against a parasite must be administered...

Faries Jr., Floron C.



Citrobacter koseri septicaemia in a holstein calf.  


A 4-day-old male Holstein calf with dull mentation, nystagmus and blindness was humanely destroyed and subject to necropsy examination. Gross lesions included severe suppurative meningitis characterized by diffuse cloudy thickening of the meninges, bilateral hypopyon and fibrinosuppurative polyarthritis affecting the hocks. Citrobacter koseri was isolated from the meninges, ocular fluid, synovial fluid, spleen and small intestine. Microscopically, there was neutrophilic and histiocytic meningitis with intralesional bacilli, endophthalmitis, neutrophilic splenitis and multiple renal microabscesses. Failure of passive transfer of colostrum was confirmed. This appears to be the first characterization of septicaemia in a calf caused by C. koseri, with lesions comparable with those described in human neonates. PMID:25242308

Komine, M; Massa, A; Moon, L; Mullaney, T



Chinese Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

Kane, Tony


Hepatic transcriptome profiling identifies differences in expression of genes associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth between Hereford and Holstein-Friesian bulls.  


This study examined liver transcriptomic profiles of cattle distinctly different in meat and milk production capacity. It was performed on bulls of two different genetic backgrounds: Herefords (H), a meat breed, and Holstein-Friesians (HF), a dairy breed. Using bovine long oligo-microarrays and qPCR, we identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed between the two breeds. In H bulls, we observed up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism (CD36, CAT, HSD3B1, FABP1, ACAA1) and involved in insulin signaling (INSR, INSIG2, NR4A1) and down-regulation of genes involved in somatotropic axis signaling (IGF1, GHR, IGFBP3) as compared to HF. Transcriptome profiling of these two breeds allowed us to pinpoint the transcriptional differences between Holstein and Hereford bulls at hepatic level associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth. PMID:24304134

Lisowski, Pawel; Ko?ciuczuk, Ewa M; Go?cik, Joanna; Pierzcha?a, Mariusz; Rowi?ska, Barbara; Zwierzchowski, Lech



Cattle Breed Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How many of you all grew up on a cattle farm? This is a diagram that we will use to tell some advantages and disadvantages about beef cattle as we study different beef breeds. Diagram Advantages and Disadvantages of beef cattle breeds The first website that we will look at for the identification of beef cattle breeds is The Beef Site. Choose three breeds and look for some advantages ...

Mr. Harbour



Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF) crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3) and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle. PMID:25133012

Zahid, Umar Nazir; Randhawa, Swaran Singh; Hussain, Syed Ashaq; Randhawa, Sarnarinder Singh; Dua, Kirti



Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle.  


Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions. PMID:25151887

Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Brøndum, R F; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S



[Aphakia in a German Holstein calf].  


Aphakia and further malformations of both eyes were diagnosed in a female German Holstein calf. Besides aphakia of the left eye, the calf exhibited microphthalmia, glaucoma and a hypoplastic uveoscleral tissue. Additional findings in the right eye were buphthalmus and glaucoma. Instead of aphakia, pathohistological and investigations revealed a very small (microphakia) and luxated lens. Neither the clinical nor the pathological examination revealed further malformations of other organs. A BVD infection could be excluded as cause for the ocular malformations observed. A deficiency or excess of vitamine A was unlikely because this would have also applied to all other calves born at the same time on the farm. An inbreeding coefficient of 3.168% for the malformed calf and the exclusion of environmental causes for these malformations of the eyes let us suppose a hereditary problem. PMID:17009814

Schulze, U; Kuiper, H; Schmidtbauer, S; Wohlsein, P; Krause, A; Haas, L; Distl, O



Glandless cottonseed flour in preweaning diets for holstein bull calves  

E-print Network

GLANDLESS COTTONSEED FLOUR IN PRENEANING DIETS FOR HOLSTEIN BULL CALVFS A Thesis by RICARDO CERRON SILVA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1979 Major Subject: Dairy Science GLANDLESS COTTONSEED FLOUR IN PREWEANING DIETS FOR HOLSTEIN HULL CALVES A Thesis by RICARDO CERRON SILVA Approved as to style and content by: ~rv '. V- ~J Ag, ~= Chairman of Committee Member ember , n...

Silva, Ricardo Cerron



Two-Site Holstein Model: a Variational Wavefunction Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel variational approach is proposed to calculate the ground-state (GS) properties of the two-site Holstein model. By the linear superposition of two coherent states, which simulate the behaviour of the weak and strong coupling limits, we can obtain very accurate GS energy for arbitrary electron-phonon coupling constant. Other GS properties are also discussed. Moreover, the present concise approach is hopefully generalized to many other Holstein models.

Ren, Qing-Bao; Chen, Qing-Hu



Determining the value of Mexican cattle vs. sale barn cattle  

E-print Network

Feedyard managers are faced with cattle purchasing decisions almost daily. In making these decisions, they must be able to accurately estimate the performance, death loss, and a medicine charges of the cattle being considered. Sale barn cattle...

Horn, Shelby W.



Association Between the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Gene Polymorphism and Milk Production Traits of Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Szatkowska, I., Dybus, A., Grzesiak, W., Jedrzejczak, M. and Muszy?ska, M. 2009. Association between the growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene polymorphism and milk production traits of dairy cattle. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 36: 119–123.The association between the GHRH\\/HaeIII gene polymorphism, and milk production traits of Polish Holstein and Jersey cows were analysed. A total of 427 animals were included

Iwona Szatkowska; Andrzej Dybus; Wilhelm Grzesiak; Magdalena Jedrzejczak; Magdalena Muszy?ska



Alterations of pH in Response to Increased Dietary Protein in Cattle are Unique to the Uterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken with two objectives: 1) to determine whether the effect of excess dietary protein on intrauterine pH in cattle is specific to the uterus or manifested in other bodily fluids and 2) to determine whether the effect of excess ruminally degradable protein on uterine pH can be ameliorated by substitution with a less-degradable protein source. Thirty-six Holstein

C. C. Elrod; M. Van Amburgh; W. R. Butler


Analysis of genetic relationships between 10 cattle breeds with 17 microsatellites.  


To guide genetic conservation programmes with objective criteria, general genetic variability has to be taken into account. This study was conducted to determine the genetic variation between 10 cattle breeds by using 17 microsatellite loci and 13 biochemical markers (11 blood groups, the transferrin and beta-casein loci). Microsatellite loci were amplified in 31-50 unrelated individuals from 10 cattle breeds: Charolais, Limousin, Breton Black Pied, Parthenais, Montbéliard, Vosgien, Maine-Anjou, Normande, Jersey and Holstein. Neighbor-joining trees were calculated from genetic distance estimates. The robustness of tree topology was obtained by bootstrap resampling of loci. A total of 210 alleles of the 17 microsatellites were detected in this study and average heterozygosities ranged from 0.53 in the Jersey breed to 0.66 in the Parthenais breed. In general, low bootstrap values were obtained: with the 17 microsatellites, the highest bootstrap values concerned the Holstein/Maine-Anjou grouping with an occurrence of 74%; with the biochemical markers, this node had an occurrence of 79% and the Charolais/Limousin grouping appeared with an occurrence of 74%; when microsatellites and biochemical polymorphism were analysed together, the occurrence of the Holstein/Maine-Anjou grouping was 90% and that of the Charolais/Limousin grouping was 42%. These results suggest that 30 microsatellites, a number currently considered as sufficient to distinguish closely related breeds is, in fact, probably insufficient. PMID:9363594

Moazami-Goudarzi, K; Laloë, D; Furet, J P; Grosclaude, F



Danish Holsteins Favor Bull Offspring: Biased Milk Production as a Function of Fetal Sex, and Calving Difficulty  

PubMed Central

In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441

Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo



Chinese Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

Skilling, William C.



Computer Chinese Chess  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the current state of computer Chinese chess (Xiang Qi). For two reasons, Chinese-chess programming is important in the field of Artificial Intelligence. First, Chinese chess is one of the most popular and oldest board games worldwide; currently the strength of a Chinese- chess program can be compared to that of human players. Second, the complexity of Chinese

Shi-jim Yen; Chang Chen; Tai-ning Yang; Shun-chin Hsu




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...


Forages for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

in energy content of various forages relative to the requirements of various classes of cattle. Forages for Beef Cattle David Bade and Donald J. Dorsett* Warm-season perennial grasses respond well to fertil- ization and, with heavy fertilization, can produce...

Bade, David H.; Dorsett, Donald J.



Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

Lipman, Jonathan



Alteration in clinico-biochemical profile and oxidative stress indices associated with hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes in cattle--a pilot study.  


The present study aimed to assess hyperglycaemia with special reference to diabetes mellitus in cattle by clinico-biochemical estimation and evaluation of oxidative stress indices. A total of 256 cattle exhibiting weakness, poor body condition and reduced milk yield in lactating cattle were included in the study. These animals were screened with blood glucose level, urine glucose and ketone bodies. Out of these, 32 (12.5%) cattle showed hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, of which 25% exhibited ketonuria. Diabetes was confirmed in five cattle by estimation of fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum fructosamine, intravenous glucose tolerance test and insulin level. This reports first confirmation of diabetes in cattle in India. All these five animals revealed low level of serum insulin suggestive of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in cattle. The level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was found to be increased in diabetic cattle. Oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed in hyperglycaemic cattle and five age-matched Holstein Friesian (HF) cross-bred healthy control animals. Diabetic cattle revealed significantly higher (P???0.01) levels of erythrocytic lipid peroxides in comparison with other hyperglycaemic cattle and healthy controls whereas the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was found to be significantly lower in diabetes-affected animals in comparison to healthy controls. Reduced glutathione did not show a significant difference between hyperglycaemic and control groups. It is concluded from the present study that oxidative stress associated with diabetes in cattle is obvious compared with other hyperglycaemic cattle. PMID:25433646

Deepa, Padinjare Melepat; Dimri, Umesh; Jhambh, Ricky; Yatoo, Mohd Iqbal; Sharma, Bhaskar



The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle.  


Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

Takeshima, S N; Miyasaka, T; Polat, M; Kikuya, M; Matsumoto, Y; Mingala, C N; Villanueva, M A; Salces, A J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y



The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.



Chinese Dinosaurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's "Jurassic Park" in Mandarin? That isn't easy to say, but if you're interested in Chinese dinosaurs, then you will love the new online (and real) exhibit hosted by the Australian Museum in Sydney. A vast land containing many of the world's best-preserved dinosaur specimens, China offers remnants of many species not commonly available in Western exhibits. With lots to explore, the site features a readily accessible list of dinosaurs, each arranged under its Chinese-derived species name. Not like anything most of us have ever heard, many of the specimens look and seem familiar, at least as members of the dinosaur family. While generally well-executed, particularly worthy of note is the site's presentation of China's celebrated feathered dinosaurs, Caudipteryx zoui and Protarchaeopteryx, two curious figures believed to represent part of the great reptilian leap from land to air.




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The productivity as 2-year-olds of Hereford, Hereford x Holstein (Crossbred) and Holstein cows was compared under tallgrass range and drylot confinement conditions. Cows within each breed were subjected to either two (Here- ford and Crossbred) or three levels (Holstein) of winter supplementation designated as Moder- ate, High and Very High. The base breed-treat- ment groups were the Moderate Herefords,

J. R. Kropp; D. F. Stephens; J. W. Holloway


Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Milk Production, Health, and Reproductive Traits in Holstein Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from two research groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Reposi- tory grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting economically important traits. Six families used by both groups had been genotyped for 367 microsatellite markers covering 2713.5 cM

M. S. Ashwell; D. W. Heyen; T. S. Sonstegard; C. P. Van Tassell; Y. Da; P. M. VanRaden; M. Ron; J. I. Weller; H. A. Lewin



Genome scan for BSE susceptibility and/or resistance in European Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic susceptibility to various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) has been observed in many species including humans and sheep. Evidence for the presence of susceptibility genes on several bovine chromosomes has been reported. More recently, there have been reports of associations w...


Identification of loci associated with tolerance to Johne's disease in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne's disease is a bacterial illness caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with genetic tolerance in cows infected with Map. Tolerance was defined as a cow's fitness at a given level of Map infection intensity. ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...


Non-additive genetic effects for fertility traits in Canadian Holstein cattle (Open Access publication )  

PubMed Central

The effects of additive, dominance, additive by dominance, additive by additive and dominance by dominance genetic effects on age at first service, non-return rates and interval from calving to first service were estimated. Practical considerations of computing additive and dominance relationships using the genomic relationship matrix are discussed. The final strategy utilized several groups of 1000 animals (heifers or cows) in which all animals had a non-zero dominance relationship with at least one other animal in the group. Direct inversion of relationship matrices was possible within the 1000 animal subsets. Estimates of variances were obtained using Bayesian methodology via Gibbs sampling. Estimated non-additive genetic variances were generally as large as or larger than the additive genetic variance in most cases, except for non-return rates and interval from calving to first service for cows. Non-additive genetic effects appear to be of sizeable magnitude for fertility traits and should be included in models intended for estimating additive genetic merit. However, computing additive and dominance relationships for all possible pairs of individuals is very time consuming in populations of more than 200 000 animals. PMID:17306200

Palucci, Valentina; Schaeffer, Lawrence R; Miglior, Filippo; Osborne, Vern



Estimation of ancestral inbreeding effects on stillbirth, calving ease and birthweight in German Holstein dairy cattle.  


In this study, the effect of different measurements of ancestral inbreeding on birthweight, calving ease and stillbirth were analysed. Three models were used to estimate the effect of ancestral inbreeding, and the estimated regression coefficient of phenotypic data on different measurements of ancestral inbreeding was used to quantify the effect of ancestral inbreeding. The first model included only one measurement of inbreeding, whereas the second model included the classical inbreeding coefficients and one alternative inbreeding coefficient. The third model included the classical inbreeding coefficients, the interaction between classical inbreeding and ancestral inbreeding, and the classical inbreeding coefficients of the dam. Phenotypic data for this study were collected from February 1998 to December 2008 on three large commercial milk farms. During this time, 36,477 calving events were recorded. All calves were weighed after birth, and 8.08% of the calves died within 48 h after calving. Calving ease was recorded on a scale between 1 and 4 (1 = easy birth, 4 = surgery), and 69.95, 20.91, 8.92 and 0.21% of the calvings were scored with 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient of inbred animals was 0.03, and average ancestral inbreeding coefficients were 0.08 and 0.01, depending on how ancestral inbreeding was calculated. Approximately 26% of classically non-inbred animals showed ancestral inbreeding. Correlations between different inbreeding coefficients ranged between 0.46 and 0.99. No significant effect of ancestral inbreeding was found for calving ease, because the number of animals with reasonable high level of ancestral inbreeding was too low. Significant effects of ancestral inbreeding were estimated for birthweight and stillbirth. Unfavourable effects of ancestral inbreeding were observed for birthweight. However, favourable purging effects were estimated for stillbirth, indicating that purging could be partly beneficial for genetic improvement of stillbirth. PMID:25100196

Hinrichs, D; Bennewitz, J; Wellmann, R; Thaller, G



Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibodies in bulk tank milk of industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk milk for the presence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from 38 industrial dairy cattle herds complexes with 250–3000 Holstein dairy cows in suburb of Mashhad-Iran was tested. None of the herds were vaccinated against BVDV. Commercial indirect ELISA-kit for the detection of specific antibodies was used. The result could be read visually where the optical density

M. Talebkhan Garoussi; A. Haghparast; H. Estajee



Vaccenic Acid and cis -9, trans -11 CLA in the Rumen and Different Tissues of Pasture and Concentrate-Fed Beef Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of present study was the comparison of trans-11 18:1 (VA) and cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations in the rumen and different tissues in beef cattle, and to examine the diet and breed effects on the\\u000a compound concentration and deposition. Sixty-four German Holstein and German Simmental bulls were randomly assigned to two\\u000a dietary treatments, based on concentrate or pasture. The concentration

Xiangzhen Shen; Karin Nuernberg; Gerd Nuernberg; Ruqian Zhao; Nigel Scollan; Klaus Ender; Dirk Dannenberger



Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.  


Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association studies were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBV in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBV within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multibreed reference population. Therefore, a multibreed reference population is a useful resource to find SNP with a greater than average association with RFI in 1 breed and use them to estimate GEBV in another breed. PMID:25074450

Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E



Manure Nutrient Excretion by Jersey and Holstein Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to evaluate feces, urine, and nitrogen (N) excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed two experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. H...


Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves  

E-print Network

Bovine Respiratory Disease Pathogens in Pre-weaned Holstein Calves H.M. Neibergs1, J. Williams1, B. Knie1, K.D. Sieverkropf1, E.R. Scraggs1, Z. Wang1, Bovine Respiratory Disease Consortium, H.L. Neibergs based on a scoring system based on the sum of points from 4 categories of clinical signs, with severity

Collins, Gary S.


Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism in a Maternal Lineage of Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mitochondrial genotypes are shown to exist within one Holstein cow maternal lineage. They were detected by the appearance of an extra Hae III recognition site in one genotype. The nucleotide sequence of this region has been determined and the genotypes are distinguished by an adenine\\/guanine base transition which creates the new Hae III site. This point mutation occurs within

William W. Hauswirth; Philip J. Laipis



Potential Consequences Of Selection On Gestation Length On Holstein Performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic evaluations of Holstein gestation length (GL) were analyzed to determine their reliability and repeatability. Potential consequences of selection on GL were assessed by examining impact on performance in the subsequent lactation. Service-sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for GL was e...


Malignant edema in postpartum dairy cattle.  


Five cases of postparturient vulvovaginitis and metritis in cattle caused by Clostridium septicum (malignant edema) are described in the current report. The diagnosis was established based on detection of C. septicum by culture and fluorescent antibody test. All animals were Holsteins, and 4 were primiparous (the parity of 1 animal was not reported). All animals developed clinical signs 1-3 days after calving, consisting of swelling of perineal and perivulvar areas, fever, and depression. Perineal, perivulvar, and perivaginal gelatinous and often hemorrhagic edema was consistently observed on gross examination. Longitudinal vulvar, vaginal, cervical, and uterine body tears, covered by fibrinous exudates, were also present. Microscopically, vulvar, vaginal, and uterine mucosae were multifocally necrotic and ulcerated. Large Gram-positive rods, some with subterminal spores, were present within the edematous subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. Clostridium septicum was demonstrated by culture and/or fluorescent antibody test in tissues of most animals. These cases of malignant edema were considered to be produced by C. septicum and predisposed by the trauma occurring during parturition. PMID:19901305

Odani, Jenee S; Blanchard, Patricia C; Adaska, John M; Moeller, Robert B; Uzal, Francisco A



Determining Pregnancy in Cattle  

E-print Network

The process of palpating to determine pregnancy in cattle and the equipment used during palpation are described and illustrated in this bulletin. The female reproductive system is discussed, along with the developmental stages of the embryo/fetus....

Beverly, John R.; Sprott, L. R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.



Reproductive Diseases in Cattle  

E-print Network

. To prevent leptospirosis: n Vaccinate cattle with bacterins containing three or five serotypes every six months; n Drain stagnant bodies of water; and n Eliminate rodents, especially rats, from any barns or sheds where cattle congregate. IBR and BVD complexes... because of vaginitis and/or a mild uterine infection. Because these diseases are so complex, be careful when using IBR and BVD vaccines. Some vaccines may result in abortions. Before vaccinating, consult a veterinarian for advice on the vaccination...

Sprott, L. R.; Field, Bob



Anaplasmosis in Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

not to recent infection of the susceptible cattle but to stress, which can lead to expression of the disease in infected cattle. In this situation, vaccination would not prevent further outbreaks during this non-vec- tor season. Vaccination works to prevent... of outbreak appears suddenly, without any earlier clinical cases being observed. Instrument-based transmission can be easily prevented by careful handling of dehorning saws, castrating knives, vaccinating and bleeding needles, tattoo instruments, and ear...

Gill, Ronald J.



Polymorphisms in the bovine HSP90AB1 gene are associated with heat tolerance in Thai indigenous cattle.  


Heat shock proteins act as molecular chaperones that have preferentially been transcribed in response to severe perturbations of the cellular homeostasis such as heat stress. Here the traits respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), pack cell volume (PCV) and the individual heat tolerance coefficient (HTC) were recorded as physiological responses on heat stress (environmental temperatures) in Bos taurus (crossbred Holstein Friesian; HF) and B. indicus (Thai native cattle: White Lamphun; WL and Mountain cattle; MT) animals (n = 47) in Thailand. Polymorphisms of the heat shock protein 90-kDa beta gene (HSP90AB1) were evaluated by comparative sequencing. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified, i.e. three in exons 10 and 11, five in introns 8, 9, 10 and 11, and one in the 3'UTR. The exon 11 SNP g.5082C>T led to a missense mutation (alanine to valine). During the period of extreme heat (in the afternoon) RR and RT were elevated in each of the three breeds, whereas the PCV decreased. Mountain cattle and White Lamphun heifers recorded significantly better physiologic parameters (p < 0.05) in all traits considered, including or particularly HTC than Holstein Friesian heifers. The association analysis revealed that the T allele at SNP g.4338T>C within intron 3 improved the heat tolerance (p < 0.05). Allele T was exclusively found in White Lamphun animals and to 84% in Mountain cattle. Holstein Friesian heifers revealed an allele frequency of only 18%. Polymorphisms within HSP90AB1 were not causative for the physiological responses; however, we propose that they should at least be used as genetic markers to select appropriate breeds for hot climates. PMID:22008953

Charoensook, Rangsun; Gatphayak, Kesinee; Sharifi, Ahmad Reza; Chaisongkram, Chavin; Brenig, Bertram; Knorr, Christoph



Survey of Chinese radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open information on about 200 Chinese radars including earlier radars is now available. By number of model types China is an important radar country. This Chinese radar survey paper shows that Chinese radars cover a wide spectrum of civilian and military applications. Chinese civilian radars include air-borne weather avoidance\\/navigation, air traffic control (ASR, ARSR, GCA, SSR), harbor surveillance, industrial applications,

S. L. Johnston



The Chinese in Houston.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are between seven and eight thousand Chinese Americans living in Houston, but there has never been a predominantly Chinese neighborhood in the city. This lack of geographical focus has prevented the development of easily identifiable aspects of ethnic concentration, such as a Chinese school or a Chinese business district. Apart from the…

Woodell, Thomas M.


Traditional Chinese herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal

You-Ping Zhu; Herman J. Woerdenbag



Molecular genotyping and epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis strains obtained from cattle in Iran.  


Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping was employed to analyze the population genetics of Mycobacterium bovis in Iran. One hundred and twenty-three isolates collected from slaughtered tuberculosis-suspect cattle and one clinically asymptomatic buffalo were subjected to RFLP analysis with probes of the polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS) and the direct repeat sequence (DR) using DNA digested with PvuII and AluI. All these methods detected a large homogeneous population in which only a few isolates had variant genotypes. Only AluI-based RFLPs of both the PGRS and DR sequences were able to clearly differentiate between BCG and field strains of M. bovis. As in previous reports, these findings seem to reflect a recent dispersal of one or a few strains in Iran following the substantial expansion of Holstein-Friesian cattle over the last few decades. PMID:21501934

Mosavari, Nader; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Jamshidian, Mahmoud; Shahpouri, Masoud Reza Seifiabadi; Forbes, Ken J; Pajoohi, Reza Aref; Keshavarz, Rouholah; Taheri, Mohammad Mohammad; Tadayon, Keyvan



Supplementation Strategies for Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Supplemental nutrients for cattle--as concentrated feeds, harvested forages, or a complementary grazing program--accounts for a significant portion of annual production costs in a cattle operation. The producer should know how a supplement affects...

McCollum III, Ted



Anthelmintics for cattle.  


A number of anthelmintics are available for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In North America, O. ostertagi, Cooperia spp., lung worm, and F. hepatica probably cause the greatest losses in production. The older anthelmintics are often deficient in their action against some of these parasites. Recently, the Paratect morantel tartrate slow-release bolus has provided a mechanism for the prevention of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worm, to some extent, and this has been shown to produce considerable economic benefits. Fenbendazole removes arrested O. ostertagi larvae; thus, its availability is an important step in the prevention of type-2 ostertagiasis. It also has a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most other nematodes and tapeworms and is a very safe anthelmintic. Ivermectin is highly effective against almost all cattle nematodes and also has great value for the control of arthropod ectoparasites. In addition, it and levamisole are the only anti-nematode drugs that can be administered to cattle by injection. Clorsulon is a new, safe anthelmintic that provides good control of liver fluke and, thus, fills a gap in the control of helminths of cattle in North America. The efficient use of anthelmintics in association with management based on a knowledge of parasite epidemiology can ensure that cattle do not rapidly become re-infected. In this way, the benefits from the use of anthelmintics can be very considerable and far greater than the costs of control. PMID:3488116

Prichard, R K



Diffuse coronary arteriodysplasia in a Holstein-Friesian cow.  


The coronary arteries of a 6-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow showed dysplastic lesions characterized by the following vascular changes: irregular, aneurysmal dilation; intimal fibrosis associated with myointimal cells; aberrant internal elastic lamina; oedema and mast cell infiltrates; and variation in the thickness of the media, including tortuosity with irregular dilation of the lumen of the artery and a plexiform structure formed from the right coronary artery. PMID:11032678

Ohfuji, S



Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.  


The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

McGrann, J M; Leachman, L



Localization of large polarons in the disordered Holstein model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the disordered Holstein model via the density-matrix renormalization group method to investigate the combined roles of electron-phonon coupling and disorder on the localization of a single charge or exciton. The parameter regimes chosen, namely the adiabatic regime, ?? /4t0=?'<1, and the large polaron regime, ? <1, are applicable to most conjugated polymers. We show that as a consequence of the polaron effective mass diverging in the adiabatic limit (defined as ?'?0 subject to fixed ?) self-localized, symmetry-breaking solutions are predicted by the quantum Holstein model for infinitesimal disorder, in complete agreement with the predictions of the Born-Oppenheimer Holstein model. For other parts of the (?', ?) parameter space, however, self-localized Born-Oppenheimer solutions are not expected. If ?' is not small enough and ? is not large enough, then the polaron is predominately localized by Anderson disorder, albeit more than for a free particle, because of the enhanced effective mass. Alternatively, for very small electron-phonon coupling (? ?1) the disorder-induced localization length is always smaller than the classical polaron size, 2/?, so that disorder always dominates. We comment on the implication of our results on the electronic properties of conjugated polymers.

Tozer, Oliver Robert; Barford, William



In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro.MethodologyMammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and

Han Hu; Jiaqi Wang; Dengpan Bu; Hongyang Wei; Linyun Zhou; Fadi Li; Juan J. Loor



Improvement of Prediction Ability for Genomic Selection of Dairy Cattle by Including Dominance Effects  

PubMed Central

Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both breeds; those SNPs also showed the largest dominance effects for fat yield (both breeds) as well as for Holstein milk yield. PMID:25084281

Sun, Chuanyu; VanRaden, Paul M.; Cole, John B.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.



A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.



A pilot study exploring the use of breath analysis to differentiate healthy cattle from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.  


Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

Ellis, Christine K; Stahl, Randal S; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V; Rhyan, Jack C; VerCauteren, Kurt C; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M D



Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.



Computers and Chinese Linguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth


Identification of newly isolated Babesia parasites from cattle in Korea by using the Bo-RBC-SCID mice  

PubMed Central

Attempts were made to isolate and identify Korean bovine Babesia parasite. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in Korea, and Babesia parasites were propagated in SCID mice with circulating bovine red blood cells for isolation. The isolate was then antigenically and genotypically compared with several Japanese isolates. The Korean parasite was found to be nearly identical to the Oshima strain isolated from Japanese cattle, which was recently designated as Babesia ovata oshimensis n. var. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most probable tick species that transmited the parasite. PMID:11949211

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki; Kim, Jong-Taek; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Chung-Gil



Title: Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multi-breed cattle population.  


Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of genomic EBVs (GEBVs) for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to: 1) develop a method for calculating GEBVs in a multi-breed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBVs by using SNPs associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBVs using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model was the one including an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into one "breed-class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 months of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5 fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBVs were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBVs slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNPs that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle GWAS were used to create an auxiliary genomic relationship matrix for estimating GEBVs in Holstein heifers. The empirical (and expected) accuracy of GEBVs within Holsteins increased from 0.33 (0.35) to 0.39 (0.36) and improved even more to 0.43 (0.50) when using a multi-breed reference population. Thus, a multi-breed reference population is a useful resource to find SNPs with a greater than average association with RFI in one breed and use them to estimate GEBVs in another breed. PMID:25012976

Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E



Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

U.S. Geological Survey



Some hormonal characteristics of high and low yielding Holstein cows and water buffaloes located in temperate and subtropical environments.  


The present study was carried out on 18 Holstein cows located in Missouri, USA (Holstein-M), 32 Holstein cows located in Egypt (Holstein-E), and 32 Egyptian water buffaloes (Buffaloes-E). Half of each group was high yielders and the other half was low with a mean daily milk yield of 32.2 and 18.6 kg for Holstein-M, 14.6 and 6.7 kg for Holstein-E, and 7.2 and 1.8 kg for Buffaloes-E, respectively. Blood samples were collected after the morning milking. Mean plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations were significantly higher in Holstein-M than those in Holstein-E or Buffaloes-E. In all animal groups, the high yielders generally had lower plasma thyroxine and antidiuretic hormone but higher plasma triiodothyronine contents than the low yielders. Buffaloes had lower plasma cortisol and 9-fold higher plasma antidiuretic hormone as compared with the two Holstein groups. PMID:2610676

el-Nouty, F D; Johnson, H D; Kamal, T H; Hassan, G A; Salem, M H



Fertility and hair coat characteristics of Holstein cows in a tropical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment deals with the effects of hair coat on the number of inseminations per conception in Brazilian Holstein cows. Data (n = 2446) were collected from 939 primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows in a commercial herd managed under an intensive free- stall system and provided with cooling units (fans and sprinklers). The following hair coat characteristics were considered: hair

E. C. A. Bertipaglia; R. G. Silva



Assessment of calving progress and reference times for obstetric intervention during dystocia in Holstein dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this observational study were (1) to assess the time from the appearance of the amniotic sac (AS) or feet outside the vulva to birth in Holstein cows (primiparous and multiparous) with (dystocia) or without assistance (eutocia) at calving, and (2) to estimate reference times to be used as guidelines for obstetric intervention in Holstein cows that need

G. M. Schuenemann; I. Nieto; S. Bas; K. N. Galvão; J. Workman



Effects of Feeding Rations with Genetically Modified Whole Cottonseed to Lactating Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition fromfeedingrationsthatcontaineddifferentsourcesof genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multipa- rous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square de- sign, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk

A. R. Castillo; M. R. Gallardo; M. Maciel; J. M. Giordano; G. A. Conti; M. C. Gaggiotti; O. Quaino; C. Gianni; G. F. Hartnell




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

International Bull Evaluation Service Holstein evaluations from February 1995 through August 2002 were used to determine characteristics of progeny testing for Holstein bulls in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United St...


Technical note: A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blood test for pregnancy in dairy and beef cattle.  


The ruminant trophoblast produces pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) that can be detected in the blood of pregnant animals. The objective was to determine the accuracy of a rapid ELISA PAG-based test for the purpose of pregnancy detection in cattle. Blood was sampled from dairy cattle (539 Holstein cows, 173 Holstein heifers, 73 Guernsey cows, 22 Guernsey heifers, and 12 Jersey heifers) and crossbred beef cattle (145 cows and 46 heifers) that were >or=25 d after insemination (range = 25 to 45 d for dairy and 29 to 56 d for beef). Cattle were examined by ultrasonography for detection of pregnancy within 2 d of blood collection. Whole blood or plasma was incubated in a polystyrene tube coated with a monoclonal PAG antibody for 15 min. The tubes were then washed and subjected to sequential incubations with a biotinylated polyclonal PAG antibody (15 min, followed by wash), a horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin solution (15 min, followed by wash), and a peroxidase substrate. Tubes were visually assessed for color after 15 min (clear solution = PAG negative, not pregnant; blue solution = PAG positive, pregnant). Total assay time was approximately 90 min. The ultrasound examination was used as the standard for pregnancy diagnosis. The sensitivity (99.8 +/- 0.2%), specificity (91.7 +/- 1.4%), and negative predictive value (99.7 +/- 0.3%) for the PAG test used in dairy cattle were similar for different breeds and for cows and heifers. The positive predictive value for the test was greater in dairy heifers than in dairy cows (96.5 +/- 1.4% vs. 90.5 +/- 1.7%, respectively). In beef cattle, the sensitivity (100%), specificity (92.3 +/- 3.0%), positive predictive value (95.0 +/- 2.0%), and negative predictive value (100%) for the PAG test were similar for cows and heifers. The accuracy of the test was not different for dairy and beef cattle. In conclusion, the rapid ELISA pregnancy test based on PAG was highly sensitive and specific for pregnancy detection in dairy and beef cattle. PMID:19620665

Green, J C; Volkmann, D H; Poock, S E; McGrath, M F; Ehrhardt, M; Moseley, A E; Lucy, M C



Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle. PMID:25049602

Matsui, T.



Transcriptional profiling of mammary gland in Holstein cows with extremely different milk protein and fat percentage using RNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has rapidly emerged as a major transcriptome profiling system. Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland transcriptome by RNA-seq is essential for identifying candidate genes that contribute to milk composition traits in dairy cattle. Results We used massive, parallel, high-throughput, RNA-seq to generate the bovine transcriptome from the mammary glands of four lactating Holstein cows with extremely high and low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. In total, we obtained 48,967,376–75,572,578 uniquely mapped reads that covered 82.25% of the current annotated transcripts, which represented 15549 mRNA transcripts, across all the four mammary gland samples. Among them, 31 differentially expressed genes (p?cattle using RNA-seq. Integrated analysis of differential gene expression and the reported quantitative trait loci and genome-wide association study data permitted the identification of candidate key genes for milk composition traits. PMID:24655368



Caractrisation de 90 000 lactations longues de vaches de race Prim Holstein Characterisation of 90,000 Prim'Holstein cows extended lactations  

E-print Network

Caractérisation de 90 000 lactations « longues » de vaches de race Prim Holstein Characterisation of 90,000 Prim'Holstein cows extended lactations TROU G. (1), PIQUEMAL B. (2), BROCARD V. (3), DISENHAUS caractéristiques des lactations plus longues ? Quel est le niveau génétique des vaches ayant réalisé ces lactations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Spinal dysraphism in a newborn Holstein-Friesian calf.  


Spinal dysraphism, not associated with vertebral defect or arthrogryposis, was found in a 3-day-old Holstein-Friesian calf that was clinically diagnosed as having encephalopathy. The dysraphic lesion occurred in the sixth (C6) and seventh (C7) segments of the cervical spinal cord. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by hydromyelia, syringomyelia, anomaly of the ventral median fissure, abnormal running of the myelinated nerve fibers in the white column, and absence of the central canal due to a developmental defect of the ependymal cells. PMID:10568443

Ohfuji, S



Allele frequencies of gene polymorphisms related to economic traits in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds.  


Allele frequencies of 10 representative polymorphisms for beef and milk traits were investigated for a total of 240 animals from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds, including two Japanese groups (Japanese Black and Japanese Brown), two East Asian groups (Korean and Mongolian), three European groups (Holstein, Angus and Hereford) and a Bos indicus group in South Asia (Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia). The Japanese Black revealed unique genetic construction in GH, FASN and SREBP-1 and the other Asian populations show intermediate frequencies between European and Japanese populations. The Bos indicus group showed low favorable allele frequencies in most of the genes. The study showed the variability and distribution of 10 genes affecting economic traits among world representative cattle breeds. The genetic information would contribute to elucidating the genetic background for worldwide cattle breeds and the possibility of improvement using the markers. PMID:22111625

Kaneda, Makoto; Lin, Bang Zhong; Sasazaki, Shinji; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki



The effect of incremental levels of dietary nitrate on methane emissions in Holstein steers and performance in Nelore bulls.  


Two experiments were conducted to study effects of dietary nitrate on enteric methane production, blood methemoglobin concentration, and growth rate in cattle. In Exp. 1, 36 Holstein steers (288 ± 25 kg BW) were fed increasing levels of dietary nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 3.0% of feed DM) in corn silage-based total mixed rations. Nitrate was introduced gradually in a 25-d adaptation period before methane production was determined in environmentally controlled rooms. In the rooms, feed intake was restricted and similar among all treatments. Methane production (g/d) decreased linearly as dietary nitrate concentration increased (P < 0.01). The apparent efficiency (measured methane reduction divided by potential methane reduction) with which enteric methane was mitigated was 49%. Blood methemoglobin levels increased with increasing nitrate dose. In Exp. 2, 300 Nelore bulls (392 ± 28 kg) were fed increasing levels of nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 2.4% of feed DM) in high-concentrate total mixed rations offered ad libitum. Feed intake decreased linearly with increasing level of dietary nitrate (P < 0.01). However, ADG was not affected by nitrate dose (P = 0.54), resulting in a linear improvement in G:F (P = 0.03) as dietary nitrate level increased. Carcass dressing percentage showed a quadratic response to incremental dietary nitrate, reaching the highest value at 0.96% of NO3/kg DM (P = 0.04). PMID:25349351

Newbold, J R; van Zijderveld, S M; Hulshof, R B A; Fokkink, W B; Leng, R A; Terencio, P; Powers, W J; van Adrichem, P S J; Paton, N D; Perdok, H B



Learn Chinese Characters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library is a valuable online resource for individuals just beginning to learn Chinese, as well as those who want to learn more. The site contains the complete on line text of "Chinese Character: A Genealogy and Dictionary". All the Chinese characters are hyperlinked so that users of the site can quickly decipher new and unfamiliar characters in English. Additionally, the site has readings about Chinese culture written in Chinese such as the "Art of War" and "Mao Sayings". Finally, for those who may just have basic questions about the Chinese language there is a frequently asked questions section that addresses common questions such as "Why are characters so complicated?" and "Are they pictures?"

Harbaugh, Rick



EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...


Cattle Tyrant Perched on Horse  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Cattle tyrant perched on horse near Asuncion Bay, Paraguay. Cattle tyrants feed on parasitic arthropods on mammals, an example of mutualism. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savanna, Pas...


Zero-inflated Poisson regression models for QTL mapping applied to tick-resistance in a Gyr × Holstein F2 population  

PubMed Central

Now a days, an important and interesting alternative in the control of tick-infestation in cattle is to select resistant animals, and identify the respective quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and DNA markers, for posterior use in breeding programs. The number of ticks/animal is characterized as a discrete-counting trait, which could potentially follow Poisson distribution. However, in the case of an excess of zeros, due to the occurrence of several noninfected animals, zero-inflated Poisson and generalized zero-inflated distribution (GZIP) may provide a better description of the data. Thus, the objective here was to compare through simulation, Poisson and ZIP models (simple and generalized) with classical approaches, for QTL mapping with counting phenotypes under different scenarios, and to apply these approaches to a QTL study of tick resistance in an F2 cattle (Gyr × Holstein) population. It was concluded that, when working with zero-inflated data, it is recommendable to use the generalized and simple ZIP model for analysis. On the other hand, when working with data with zeros, but not zero-inflated, the Poisson model or a data-transformation-approach, such as square-root or Box-Cox transformation, are applicable. PMID:22215960

Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Tunin, Karen P.; Rosa, Guilherme J.M.; da Silva, Marcos V.B.; Azevedo, Ana Luisa Souza; da Silva Verneque, Rui; Machado, Marco Antonio; Packer, Irineu Umberto



Zero-inflated Poisson regression models for QTL mapping applied to tick-resistance in a Gyr × Holstein F2 population.  


Now a days, an important and interesting alternative in the control of tick-infestation in cattle is to select resistant animals, and identify the respective quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and DNA markers, for posterior use in breeding programs. The number of ticks/animal is characterized as a discrete-counting trait, which could potentially follow Poisson distribution. However, in the case of an excess of zeros, due to the occurrence of several noninfected animals, zero-inflated Poisson and generalized zero-inflated distribution (GZIP) may provide a better description of the data. Thus, the objective here was to compare through simulation, Poisson and ZIP models (simple and generalized) with classical approaches, for QTL mapping with counting phenotypes under different scenarios, and to apply these approaches to a QTL study of tick resistance in an F2 cattle (Gyr × Holstein) population. It was concluded that, when working with zero-inflated data, it is recommendable to use the generalized and simple ZIP model for analysis. On the other hand, when working with data with zeros, but not zero-inflated, the Poisson model or a data-transformation-approach, such as square-root or Box-Cox transformation, are applicable. PMID:22215960

Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Tunin, Karen P; Rosa, Guilherme J M; da Silva, Marcos V B; Azevedo, Ana Luisa Souza; da Silva Verneque, Rui; Machado, Marco Antonio; Packer, Irineu Umberto



The influence of foraging benefits on association of cattle egrets ( Bubulcus ibis ) with cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of association between cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and cattle was studied during one summer on Saint Catherines Island, Georgia, USA. Previous work by Grubb (1976) and others indicated that cattle egrets foraging with cattle require fewer steps and less time to catch prey than egrets foraging without cattle and single egrets catch prey at a higher rate than

Charles F. Thompson; Scott M. Lanyon; Karen M. Thompson



Analysis of runs of homozygosity and their relationship with inbreeding in five cattle breeds farmed in Italy.  


Increased inbreeding is an inevitable consequence of selection in livestock populations. The analysis of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) facilitates the identification of long and uninterrupted runs of homozygosity (ROH) that can be used to identify chromosomal regions that are identical by descent. In this work, the distribution of ROH of different lengths in five Italian cattle breeds is described. A total of 4095 bulls from five cattle breeds (2093 Italian Holstein, 749 Italian Brown, 364 Piedmontese, 410 Marchigiana and 479 Italian Simmental) were genotyped at 54K SNP loci. ROH were identified and used to estimate molecular inbreeding coefficients (FROH ), which were compared with inbreeding coefficients estimated from pedigree information (FPED ) and using the genomic relationship matrix (FGRM ). The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 54 ± 7.2 in Piedmontese to 94.6 ± 11.6 in Italian Brown. The highest number of short ROH (related to ancient consanguinity) was found in Piedmontese, followed by Simmental. The Italian Brown and Holstein had a higher proportion of longer ROH distributed across the whole genome, revealing recent inbreeding. The FPED were moderately correlated with FROH  > 1 Mb (0.662, 0.700 and 0.669 in Italian Brown, Italian Holstein and Italian Simmental respectively) but poorly correlated with FGRM (0.134, 0.128 and 0.448 for Italian Brown, Italian Holstein and Italian Simmental respectively). The inclusion of ROH > 8 Mb in the inbreeding calculation improved the correlation of FROH with FPED and FGRM . ROH are a direct measure of autozygosity at the DNA level and can overcome approximations and errors resulting from incomplete pedigree data. In populations with high linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recent inbreeding (e.g. Italian Holstein and Italian Brown), a medium-density marker panel, such as the one used here, may provide a good estimate of inbreeding. However, in populations with low LD and ancient inbreeding, marker density would have to be increased to identify short ROH that are identical by descent more precisely. PMID:25530322

Marras, Gabriele; Gaspa, Giustino; Sorbolini, Silvia; Dimauro, Corrado; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Valentini, Alessio; Williams, John L; Macciotta, Nicolò P P




Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) feeding in close association with cattle catch insect prey at a significantly higher rate and expend less energy than do those foraging alone. Cattle Egrets once had a strong association with grazing cattle, but have now shifted themselves behind tractors specially in inundated agricultural fields. Captures per minute were 2.06 for the egrets feeding near the

Aeshita Mukherjee



Atmospheric methyl halides and dimethyl sulfide from cattle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured emissions of CH3Cl, CH3Br, and (CH3)2S (DMS) from Holstein cows. In one experiment, two cows were studied in separate metabolic research chambers for a 24-hour period while on a normal diet and were studied for an additional 24-hour period 1 week later after being placed on a diet enhanced in chloride and bromide. Methyl chloride emissions ranged between 0.4 × 10-3 and 1.5 × 10-3 g cow-1 d-1, while methyl bromide emissions were much smaller, 3 × 10-6-2 × 10-5 g cow-1 d-1. Daily emissions of methane from these cows were 134-180 g cow-1 d-1, quite similar to values found in many previous studies. A second 24-hour study of two different cows on normal diets yielded daily emissions of 0.6 × 10-3 and 0.9 × 10-3 g CH3Cl, 0-1.0 × 10-6 g CH3Br, and 191 and 176 g CH4. If these emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br are representative of the 1.3 billion head of cattle worldwide, then the global source of atmospheric CH3Cl and CH3Br from cattle would be 0.23-0.70 Gg yr-1 and (1-10) × 10-3 Gg yr-1, respectively. These emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br represent <0.02% and <0.005%, respectively, of the total annual global atmospheric sources of these compounds; therefore, emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br from cattle are insignificant contributors to their total sources. Discovered serendipitously, DMS emissions were between 0.17 and 0.24 g cow-1 d-1, and chloroform emissions were 2 × 10-4-3 × 10-3 g cow-1 d-1. DMS from cattle is not a major source over hemispheric or global scales but could be important in certain geographical regions. Chloroform (CHCl3) emissions were similarly detected and quantified, as were those of C2H5X (X = Cl or Br).

Williams, Jody; Wang, Nun-Yii; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Kurihara, Mitsunori; Terada, Fuminori



New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.  


Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen activity may lead to decreased methane production and concomitantly to improved feed efficiency. A major effort should be dedicated to this new field of research and particularly to rumen flora metagenomics. Low input in cattle production is very important and tomorrow's cow will need to adapt to a less intensive production environment, particularly lower feed quality and limited care. Finally, global climate change will increase pathogen pressure, thus more accurate predictors for disease resistance will be required. PMID:22436268

Boichard, D; Brochard, M



Genome scan of pigmentation traits in Friesian-Jersey crossbred cattle.  


Pigmentation traits expressed in animals are visual characteristics that allow us to distinguish between breeds and between strains within breed. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the pigmentation traits in approximately 800 F(2) grand daughter dairy cattle from a Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cross breed cattle. Traits analyzed included pigmentation phenotypes on the body, teat and hoop. The phenoypes were collected from digital photos or visual inspection of live animals. QTL mapping was implemented using half-sib and line-of-descent inheritance models. Our analysis initially detected a number of significant QTLs on chromosomes: 2, 6, 13, 15, 18 and 22. The significant QTLs were divided into two groups: one group influencing the pigmentation color and the other group affecting the absence or level of pigmentation. The most significant QTL peaks were observed on Bovine taurus autosome 18 (BTA18) close to melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) for the color traits, on BTA6 close to the receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) and BTA22 close to microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene for the spotting traits. Association studies were conducted for candidate regions or genes known to affect pigmentation in dairy cattle. PMID:19932462

Liu, Lin; Harris, Bevin; Keehan, Mike; Zhang, Yuan



Expressional Analysis of Immunoglobulin D in Cattle (Bos taurus), a Large Domesticated Ungulate  

PubMed Central

For decades, it has remained unknown whether artiodactyls, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, express immunoglobulin D (IgD), although the ? gene was identified in these species nearly 10 years ago. By developing a mouse anti-bovine IgD heavy chain monoclonal antibody (13C2), we show that secreted bovine IgD was present mainly as a monomer in serum and was heavily glycosylated by N-linked saccharides. Nonetheless, IgD was detectable in some but not all of the Holstein cattle examined. Membrane-bound IgD was detected in the spleen by western blotting. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IgD-positive B cells constituted a much lower percentage of B cells in the bovine spleen (?6.8% of total B cells), jejunal Peyer's patches (?0.8%), and peripheral blood leukocytes (?1.2%) than in humans and mice. Furthermore, IgD-positive B cells were almost undetectable in bovine bone marrow and ileal Peyer's patches. We also demonstrated that the bovine ? gene can be expressed via class switch recombination. Accordingly, bovine ? germline transcription, which involves an I? exon and is highly homologous to I?, was confirmed. However, we could not identify an I? promoter, despite bovine E? demonstrating both enhancer and promoter activity. This study has answered a long-standing question in cattle B cell biology and significantly contributes to our understanding of B cell development in this species. PMID:23028592

Xu, Beilei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhiguo; Sun, Yi; Tao, Qiqing; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng



Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.  


In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. PMID:19751983

Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa



Effect of microbial inoculants on the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.  


This study investigated the effect of a new microbial inoculant product on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage in big silo over one year that used beef cattle. Six Holstein beef steer (BW = 225 +/- 17) were allotted to 2 x 2 repeated Latin square design at two 21 days periods (adaptation, 14 days and sample collection, 7 days) for evaluation the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. Two treatments, forages were untreated or treated at ensiling with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici silage inoculants. After 45 days from ensiling, the ration that contained 94.5 and 5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1% of DM silage and ground barely, mineral-vitamin, dicalcium phosphate, salt, respectively, were offered for free choice consumption. Treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici inoculant increased daily dry matter intake and subsequently NDF, ether extract, crude protein and ash. Apparent digestibility of DM and nutrients were significantly increased by microbial inoculation. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. PMID:18819553

Kamarloiy, M; Yansari, A Teimouri



Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.


Fitting Beef Cattle into Central Texas Farming.  

E-print Network

and power required with each even a small beef cow herd was profitable. Cattle TABLE 6. SUMMARY OF CATTLE WEIGHTS, CATTLE SALES, FEED REQUIREMENTS AND PRODUCTION COSTS FOR STEER ENTERPRISES ON INDIVIDUAL CENTRAL TEXAS FRRMS Stocker cattle utilizing... separate enterprise. Farms rilere cattle are operated in this way usually are average in size. my Central Texas farmers prefer steers than cows because of the flexibility of the aterprise. The number of stockers pur- can be governed by feed supplies...

Magee, A. C.



Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle in Korea between 2010 and 2011  

PubMed Central

A total of 156 Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from fecal samples of Korean native (100/568, 18%) and Holstein dairy cattle (56/524, 11%) in Korea between September 2010 and July 2011. Fifty-two STEC isolates (33%) harbored both of shiga toxin1 (stx1) and shiga toxin2 (stx2) genes encoding enterohemolysin (EhxA) and autoagglutinating adhesion (Saa) were detected by PCR in 83 (53%) and 65 (42%) isolates, respectively. By serotyping, six STEC from native cattle and four STEC from dairy cattle were identified as O-serotypes (O26, O111, O104, and O157) that can cause human disease. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns highlighted the genetic diversity of the STEC strains and difference between strains collected during different years. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the multidrug resistance rate increased from 12% in 2010 to 42% in 2011. Differences between isolates collected in 2010 and 2011 may have resulted from seasonal variations or large-scale slaughtering in Korea performed to control a foot and mouth disease outbreak that occurred in early 2011. However, continuous epidemiologic studies will be needed to understand mechanisms. More public health efforts are required to minimize STEC infection transmitted via dairy products and the prevalence of these bacteria in dairy cattle. PMID:23820205

Kang, Eun; Hwang, Sun Young; Kwon, Ka Hee; Kim, Ki Yeon; Kim, Jae Hong



A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23409757



The Chinese Calendars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.

Kostic, N.; Segan, S.



Mandarin Chinese Yotam Feldman  

E-print Network

: Facts l Official language of l People's Republic of China (China) l Republic of China (Taiwan) l Singapore (but not a national language) l United Nations l Spoken also in l Malaysia l United States l ... l About one billion native speakers #12;Chinese Worldwide #12;Chinese: History l Part of the Sino

Dershowitz, Nachum


Chinese by Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

Beem, Kate



Ancient Chinese mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a timeline and examples of early Chinese mathematics. Included are the Chinese version of the Pythagorean Theorem, a method of solving a system of linear equations, Pascals triangle, permutations and combinations, rule of false position, rule of three, magic squares, and puzzles. Other terms: fractions, algebra, negative numbers, scholars. (Includes 11 references)

Tommasina Tripodi,Joint Creator



Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

Huang, Joe, Ed.



E-print Network


Aslaksen, Helmer


Quantum Monte Carlo approach to the Holstein polaron problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed quantum Monte Carlo approach to the Holstein model with one electron [Phys. Rev. B 69, 024301 (2004)] is extended in several aspects. In addition to a straight-forward generalization to higher dimensions, a checkerboard breakup for the hopping part of the Hamiltonian is introduced, which allows significantly faster simulations. Moreover, results are extrapolated towards the limit of continuous imaginary time to remove the error due to the Trotter-Suzuki approximation. The performance and accuracy of the current approach are compared to existing quantum Monte Carlo methods. To demonstrate the applicability of our method for almost arbitrary parameters, we study the small-polaron crossover in one to three dimensions by calculating the electronic kinetic energy.

Hohenadler, Martin; Evertz, Hans Gerd; von der Linden, Wolfgang



Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows.  


Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day -3 compared with -5 and -7 precalving (167.7 ± 80 vs 1511.1 ± 602 ng/mL). 5-HT nadir was on day -1 precalving and remained low postcalving (481.4 ± 49 ng/mL). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased precalving (P = 0.008) and were positively correlated with 5-HT during the precalving period (r = 0.55, P = 0.043). On day 1, postcalving hepatic messenger RNA expression of 5-HT1D, 2B, 3C, 6, and7 receptors were decreased compared with day -7 (P < 0.048). The 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B decreased on day 7. The 5-HT2A increased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). The 5-HT1F and 5-HT1A receptors were increased 2.5- and 3.8-fold on day 7, respectively, compared with days -7 and 1 (P < 0.046). The 5-HT5A was not detected, and 5-HT4 was detected on days -7 and 1 only. Expression of Glut-2,-5 and SGLT1 were decreased on days 1 and 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05), whereas Glut-1 was increased on day 7 compared with -7 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 5-HT could be important for liver glucose homeostasis possibly through receptor mediated signaling at specific times. Additional research is needed to further explore the functional role of these receptors in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. PMID:25528206

Laporta, J; Hernandez, L L



Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting twinning rate in Israeli Holsteins by the daughter design.  


Twinning rate was analyzed in the Israeli Holstein dairy cattle population by the multiple-trait animal model, and a daughter design genome scan for quantitative trait loci was performed. Each parity was considered a separate trait. Heritabilities of twinning rate were very low, but increased by parity from 0.01 in first parity to 0.03 in fifth parity. All genetic correlations among parities were >0.77, but all environmental correlations were <0.07. Genetic correlations between twinning rate and female fertility (measured as the inverse of the number of inseminations to conception) in the first 3 parities were negative for all 9 parity-by-trait combinations. All environmental correlations were very small, but generally negative. The overall genetic trend since 1985 was positive at 0.02% twinning/yr, whereas the phenotypic trends were positive for parities 3 and 4 and negative for the other parities, but all trends were quite small. A total of 5,221 cows, daughters of 11 sires, were genotyped for 73 markers spanning all 29 autosomes. There were 9 markers with significant effects on twinning rate at P < 0.05, for a false discovery rate of 0.4; thus, about 5 of these probably represent true effects. Significant effects were found on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, and 23. Of these, 3 effects were significant at P < 0.01, for a false discovery rate of 0.24. All 11 families were analyzed by interval mapping of chromosome 7. Only 2 families showed nominally significant effects, but chromosome-wise significance at P < 0.05 was not obtained for either family. Suggestive evidence of quantitative trait loci near the beginning of the chromosome and near position 50 cM were found in both families. Sire 3070 also had a significant effect for female fertility near the beginning of the chromosome. There was also evidence for a third quantitative trait loci at the end of the chromosome for sire 2357. PMID:18487670

Weller, J I; Golik, M; Seroussi, E; Ron, M; Ezra, E



Sequencing and annotated analysis of the Holstein cow genome.  


The aim of our study was to create a high-quality Holstein cow genome reference sequence and describe the different types of variations in this genome compared to the reference Hereford breed. We generated one fragment and three mate-paired libraries from genomic DNA. Raw files were mapped and paired to the reference cow (Bos taurus) genome assemblies bosTau6/UMD_3.1. BioScope (v1.3) software was used for mapping and variant analysis. Initial sequencing resulted in 2,842,744,008 of 50-bp reads. Average mapping efficiency was 78.4 % and altogether 2,168,425,497 reads and 98,022,357,422 bp were successfully mapped, resulting in 36.7X coverage. Tertiary analysis found 5,923,230 SNPs in the bovine genome, of which 3,833,249 were heterozygous and 2,089,981 were homozygous variants. Annotation revealed that 4,241,000 of all discovered SNPs were annotated in the dbSNP database and 1,682,230 SNPs were considered as novel. Large indel variations accounted for 48,537,190 bp of the entire genome and there were 138,504 of them. The largest deletion was 18,594 bp and the largest insertion was 13,498 bp. Another group of variants, small indels (n = 458,061), accounted for the total variation of 1,839,872 nucleotides in the genome. Only 92,115 small indels were listed in the dbSNP and therefore 365,946 small indels were novel. Finally, we identified 1,876 inversions in the bovine genome. In conclusion, this is another description of the Holstein cow genome and, similar to previous studies, we found a large amount of novel variations. Better knowledge of these variations could explain significant phenotypic differences (e.g., health, production, reproduction) between different breeds. PMID:23893136

Kõks, Sulev; Lilleoja, Rutt; Reimann, Ene; Salumets, Andres; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle



Ovarian activity patterns of postpartum Holstein and Jersey cows of diverse genetic abilities for milk  

E-print Network

yield was studied on 35 daughters of 24 Holstein sir es and 17 daughter s of 14 Jersey sires. Br cede were managed alike in the same dairy. Onsets of over ian activities and thier durations were deter mined by milk progesterone (sampled) thrice...OVARIAN ACTIVITY PATTERNS QF POSTPARTUM HOLSTEIN ANO JERSEY COWS QF OIVERSE GENETIC ABILITIES FQR MILK A Thesis by SHLQMIT OACHIR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Dachir, Shlomit



Multibreed genome wide association can improve precision of mapping causative variants underlying milk production in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in most cattle breeds result in large genomic intervals of significant associations making it difficult to identify causal mutations. This is due to the extensive, low-level linkage disequilibrium within a cattle breed. As there is less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, multibreed GWAS may improve precision of causal variant mapping. Here we test this hypothesis in a Holstein and Jersey cattle data set with 17,925 individuals with records for production and functional traits and 632,003 SNP markers. Results By using a cross validation strategy within the Holstein and Jersey data sets, we were able to identify and confirm a large number of QTL. As expected, the precision of mapping these QTL within the breeds was limited. In the multibreed analysis, we found that many loci were not segregating in both breeds. This was partly an artefact of power of the experiments, with the number of QTL shared between the breeds generally increasing with trait heritability. False discovery rates suggest that the multibreed analysis was less powerful than between breed analyses, in terms of how much genetic variance was explained by the detected QTL. However, the multibreed analysis could more accurately pinpoint the location of the well-described mutations affecting milk production such as DGAT1. Further, the significant SNP in the multibreed analysis were significantly enriched in genes regions, to a considerably greater extent than was observed in the single breed analyses. In addition, we have refined QTL on BTA5 and BTA19 to very small intervals and identified a small number of potential candidate genes in these, as well as in a number of other regions. Conclusion Where QTL are segregating across breed, multibreed GWAS can refine these to reasonably small genomic intervals. However, such QTL appear to represent only a fraction of the genetic variation. Our results suggest a significant proportion of QTL affecting milk production segregate within rather than across breeds, at least for Holstein and Jersey cattle. PMID:24456127



Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

Chen, Ping


Intake, digestibility and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fibre in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and\\/or starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of nitrogenous compounds and\\/or starch supplementation on the intake,\\u000a digestibility and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage. Four crossbred\\u000a heifers (Holstein?×?Zebu) with a body weight 231.9?±?15.5 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulae were used. The forage fed to\\u000a the animals consisted of low-quality signal

Marjorrie A. Souza; Edenio Detmann; Mário F. Paulino; Cláudia B. Sampaio; Ísis Lazzarini; Sebastião C. Valadares Filho



Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.  


Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals. PMID:1554771

Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G



Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan



Comparative infectivity of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia divergens-like parasite in cattle.  


Babesia divergens-like parasites identified in human babesiosis cases in Missouri and Kentucky and in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, share identical small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This sequence is 99.8% identical to that of Babesia divergens, suggesting that the U.S. parasite may be B. divergens, a causative agent of human and bovine babesiosis in Europe. Holstein-Friesian calves were inoculated with cultured Nantucket Island Babesia sp. (NR831) and B. divergens parasites and monitored by clinical signs, Giemsa-stained blood films, PCR, and culture. The NR831 recipients did not exhibit clinical signs of infection and remained negative for all assays. The B. divergens recipients developed clinical infections and became positive by all assays. NR831 recipients were fully susceptible upon challenge inoculation with B. divergens. This study confirms that the Nantucket Island Babesia sp. is not conspecific with B. divergens based on host specificity for cattle. PMID:16282295

Holman, Patricia J; Spencer, Angela M; Telford, Sam R; Goethert, Heidi K; Allen, Andrew J; Knowles, Donald P; Goff, Will L



Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers.  


Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds-Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black-are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan



Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.  


The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results indicated that management of diet CP levels of confined finishing steers mitigates NH3 emissions from steers but does not affect enteric CH4. In addition, results suggested that soil characteristics might be as important as manure N content to generate NH3 and greenhouse gases from soils receiving manure fertilization. PMID:25568381

Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N



Circadian rhythm of aldosterone in dairy cattle during the summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve Holstein heifers, pregnant from 120 150 days were used to study the circadian rhythm of aldosterone, cortisol, progesterone, sodium and potassium in dairy cattle during the summer in Louisiana. Cortisol was not significantly influenced by time (time 1 = 06.00 h). Aldosterone, sodium, potassium and progesterone changed significantly (P<.01) with time. Aldosterone peaked (116.5±17.2 pg/ml) at 08.00 h and then generally declined to 16.00 h (26.7±2.0 pg/ml). Sodium generally increased from 06.00 h (320.1±7.3 mg%) to 18.00 h (377.9±6.1 mg%), and then declined. Potassium generally increased from 06.00 h (20.9±0.5 mg%) to 22.00 h (23.0±0.3 mg%). Progesterone generally increased from 07.00 h (2.8±0.4 mg/ml) to 24.00 h (7.5±1.4 mg/ml). Aldosterone was significantly related to temperature associated with the time of the day samples were taken (r = 0.66, P<.02).

Aranas, T. J.; Roussel, J. D.; Seybt, S. H.



Characterization of bovine MHC DRB3 diversity in Latin American Creole cattle breeds.  


In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for diseases and immunological traits. However, none of the highly adapted Latin American Creole breeds have been characterized for BoLA gene polymorphism by high resolution typing methods. In this work, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 179 cattle (113 Bolivian Yacumeño cattle and 66 Colombian Hartón del Valle cattle breeds) using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified 36 previously reported alleles and three novel alleles. Thirty-five (32 reported and three new) and 24 alleles (22 reported and two new) were detected in Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds, respectively. Interestingly, Latin American Creole cattle showed a high degree of gene diversity despite their small population sizes, and 10 alleles including three new alleles were found only in these two Creole breeds. We next compared the degree of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels and the genetic distance in the two breeds with those previously reported in five other breeds: Holstein, Japanese Shorthorn, Japanese Black, Jersey, and Hanwoo. Both Creole breeds presented gene diversity higher than 0.90, a nucleotide diversity higher than 0.07, and mean number of pairwise differences higher than 19, indicating that Creole cattle had similar genetic diversity at BoLA-DRB3 to the other breeds. A neutrality test showed that the high degree of genetic variability may be maintained by balancing selection. The FST index and the exact G test showed significant differences across all cattle populations (FST=0.0478; p<0.001). Results from the principal components analysis and the phylogenetic tree showed that Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds were closely related to each other. Collectively, our results suggest that the high level of genetic diversity could be explained by the multiple origins of the Creole germplasm (European, African and Indicus), and this diversity might be maintained by balancing selection. PMID:23333729

Giovambattista, Guillermo; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Ripoli, Maria Veronica; Matsumoto, Yuki; Franco, Luz Angela Alvarez; Saito, Hideki; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko



Genetic and environmental effects on early growth and performance in purebred Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal crossbred calves.  


For this designed experiment, Holstein × Holstein (n=28), Jersey × Jersey (n=10), Holstein × Jersey (n=15), and Jersey × Holstein (n=15) bull and heifer calves were compared for body weight (BW), dry matter intake, feed efficiency, hip height, BW gain to 42 and 56 d, and days to weaning from birth to 8 wk. All traits were examined for purebred, maternal, and heterotic genetic effects. Purebred genetic effects significantly favored the Holstein breed for BW, dry matter intake, hip height, and BW gain to 42 and 56 d. Heterotic genetic effects were present for dry matter intake and hip height. Calf sex affected BW and BW gain to 56 d. Our results indicate that early calf growth is influenced primarily by purebred effects favoring the Holstein breed and to a lesser extent heterosis. PMID:25434341

Ware, J V; Franklin, S T; Jackson, J; McAllister, A J; Cassell, B G



Bovine Paratuberculosis of Dairy Cattle  

E-print Network

Paratuberculosis, or Johne's (pronounced "Yo-nees) disease, is a chronic intestinal infection of cattle. It is increasingly recognized in both dairy and beef herds. This publication discusses transmission of the bacteria, and control and prevention...

Faries Jr., Floron C.; Jordan, Ellen R.; Stokes, Sandra R.; Magee, Derry D.; Roussel, Allen J.



Bovine Paratuberculosis of Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Paratuberculosis, or Johne's (pronounced "Yo-nees) disease, is a chronic intestinal infection of cattle. It is increasingly recognized in both dairy and beef herds. This publication discusses transmission of the bacteria and control and prevention...

Faries Jr., Floron C.; Roussel, Allen J.; Thrift, Todd A.; Gill, Ronald J.; Magee, Derry D.



Managing Beef Cattle for Show  

E-print Network

This publication gives advice on raising beef cattle to exhibit at shows. Topics include animal selection, feeding, general health management, disease prevention, calf handling, and preparing for the show....

Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.



Soil ingestion by dairy cattle  

SciTech Connect

Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

Darwin, R.



Genetic characterization of a herd of the endangered Danish Jutland cattle.  


In this paper we present results from a genetic characterization of a herd of the Danish Jutland cattle breed named the Kortegaard herd (n = 135; 57 males and 78 females). The herd is genotyped on the Bovine HD BeadChip microarray with 697,548 evenly spaced SNP across the bovine genome. The aim of the study was to characterize the genetic profile of the Kortegaard herd, which has been closed for several generations, by quantifying the degree of genetic homogeneity within the herd and to compare its genetic profile to that of other cattle breeds. A total of 868 animals from the Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Holstein-Friesian crosses, Limousin, and Simmental breeds was used for genetic profile comparisons. The level of genetic variation within the breeds were quantified by the expected heterozygosity (H(E)), observed heterozygosity (H(O)), average minor allele frequency (MAF), the degree of polymorphism, and runs of homozygosity (ROH), which are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes of varying length. Interestingly, the Kortegaard herd had the lowest within-breed genetic variation (lowest H(E), H(O), and MAF), showed moderate levels of short ROH (<5 Mb), and had the highest mean long ROH (>5 Mb) compared to all the other breeds. This is possibly due to recent consanguineous matings, a strong founder effect, and a lack of gene flow from other herds and breeds. We further examined whether the observed genetic patterns in the Kortegaard herd can be used to design breeding strategies for the preservation of the genetic pool by focusing on a subset of SNP outside homozygote regions. By calculating the pairwise identical-by-state between all possible matings, we designed a breeding plan that maximized heterozygosity in the short term. The benefits and limitations of such a breeding strategy are discussed. PMID:24671594

Pertoldi, C; Purfield, D C; Berg, P; Jensen, T H; Bach, O S; Vingborg, R; Kristensen, T N



Characterisation of particle dynamics and turnover in the gastrointestinal tract of Holstein cows fed forage diets differing in fibre and protein contents.  


An improved understanding of the role of forage quality on the processes of particle dynamics and turnover is important for the development of healthier and cost-effective feeding strategies that aim at lowering the proportions of concentrates in the diets of cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding hays of different qualities on particle dynamics, digestion kinetics and turnover in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Three non-lactating, rumen fistulated Holstein cows were fed diets consisting exclusively of hay with either low quality [Group LH; 605 ± 12.4 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 63 ± 4.7 g/kg crude protein (CP)] or good quality (Group GH; 551 ± 20.1 g/kg NDF and 116 ± 3.6 g/kg CP). Data showed that in situ dry matter (DM) disappearance of the soluble fraction was greater for Group GH (p < 0.05). Feeding good quality hay also lowered the proportion of particles >1.18 mm particularly during the eating process (p < 0.05). Changes in the particle size occurring afterwards were greater for Group GH as well (p < 0.05); approximately 30% in the comminution in the particle size occurred postruminally. Feeding hay of good quality lowered DM content of solid rumen digesta (p < 0.05), accelerated (p < 0.05) the turnover rate of DM and NDF in the GIT and increased DM intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, feeding forages of better quality significantly promoted degradation processes and kinetics in the GIT with positive effects on turnover rate of digesta and feed intake in Holstein cows. PMID:22889132

Zebeli, Qendrim; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Drochner, Winfried



Copy number variation of individual cattle genomes using next-generation sequencing.  


Copy number variations (CNVs) affect a wide range of phenotypic traits; however, CNVs in or near segmental duplication regions are often intractable. Using a read depth approach based on next-generation sequencing, we examined genome-wide copy number differences among five taurine (three Angus, one Holstein, and one Hereford) and one indicine (Nelore) cattle. Within mapped chromosomal sequence, we identified 1265 CNV regions comprising ~55.6-Mbp sequence--476 of which (~38%) have not previously been reported. We validated this sequence-based CNV call set with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), achieving a validation rate of 82% and a false positive rate of 8%. We further estimated absolute copy numbers for genomic segments and annotated genes in each individual. Surveys of the top 25 most variable genes revealed that the Nelore individual had the lowest copy numbers in 13 cases (~52%, ?(2) test; P-value <0.05). In contrast, genes related to pathogen- and parasite-resistance, such as CATHL4 and ULBP17, were highly duplicated in the Nelore individual relative to the taurine cattle, while genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism, including APOL3 and FABP2, were highly duplicated in the beef breeds. These CNV regions also harbor genes like BPIFA2A (BSP30A) and WC1, suggesting that some CNVs may be associated with breed-specific differences in adaptation, health, and production traits. By providing the first individualized cattle CNV and segmental duplication maps and genome-wide gene copy number estimates, we enable future CNV studies into highly duplicated regions in the cattle genome. PMID:22300768

Bickhart, Derek M; Hou, Yali; Schroeder, Steven G; Alkan, Can; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Song, Jiuzhou; Schnabel, Robert D; Ventura, Mario; Taylor, Jeremy F; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Eichler, Evan E; Liu, George E



Determination of Genetic Diversity among Korean Hanwoo Cattle Based on Physical Characteristics  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to establish genetic criteria for phenotypic characteristics of Hanwoo cattle based on allele frequencies and genetic variance analysis using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genetic diversity among 399 Hanwoo cattle classified according to nose pigmentation and coat color was carried out using 22 microsatellite markers. The results revealed that the INRA035 locus was associated with the highest Fis (0.536). Given that the Fis value for the Hanwoo INRA035 population ranged from 0.533 (white) to 1.000 (white spotted), this finding was consistent with the loci being fixed in Hanwoo cattle. Expected heterozygosities of the Hanwoo groups classified by coat colors and degree of nose pigmentation ranged from 0.689±0.023 (Holstein) to 0.743±0.021 (nose pigmentation level of d). Normal Hanwoo and animals with a mixed white coat showed the closest relationship because the lowest DA value was observed between these groups. However, a pair-wise differentiation test of Fst showed no significant difference among the Hanwoo groups classified by coat color and degree of nose pigmentation (p<0.01). Moreover, results of the neighbor-joining tree based on a DA genetic distance matrix within 399 Hanwoo individuals and principal component analyses confirmed that different groups of cattle with mixed coat color and nose pigmentation formed other specific groups representing Hanwoo genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The results of this study support a relaxation of policies regulating bull selection or animal registration in an effort to minimize financial loss, and could provide basic information that can be used for establishing criteria to classify Hanwoo phenotypes. PMID:25049682

Choi, T. J.; Lee, S. S.; Yoon, D. H.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, C. D.; Hwang, I. H.; Kim, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Yang, C. G.; Seo, K. S.



Chinese restaurant syndrome  


... people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been blamed, but ... that some people are particularly sensitive to food additives, and MSG is chemically similar to one of ...


Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian


Chinese Business Law Postgraduate  

E-print Network

) · Consumer protection · Due diligence · Product quality legislation · Foreign trade regulations · Entry modes law 4 2 · Customs law & Regulations · Foreign trade law Chinese environmental law 3 2 · Environmental · Financial law · Foreign exchange regulation · Government procurement law · Price fixing regulations Courses

Einmahl, Uwe


Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important  

E-print Network

Wheat and Stocker Cattle Production Challenges Stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture is an important part of the economy in the Texas Rolling Plains region. Wheat and stocker cattle business decisions are impacted by a variety of issues, including cattle and wheat prices, animal health, weather


Analysis of genetic diversity in Brown Swiss, Jersey and Holstein populations using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of genetic diversity are essential in understanding the extent of differentiation between breeds, and in designing successful diversity conservation strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of genetic diversity within and between North American Brown Swiss (BS, n?=?900), Jersey (JE, n?=?2,922) and Holstein (HO, n?=?3,535) cattle, using genotyped bulls. GENEPOP and FSTAT software were used to evaluate the level of genetic diversity within each breed and between each pair of the three breeds based on genome-wide SNP markers (n?=?50,972). Results Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) exact test within breeds showed a significant deviation from equilibrium within each population (P?



Effects of amounts and degradability of dietary protein on lactation, nitrogen utilization, and excretion in early lactation Holstein cows.  


Five treatment diets varying in crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Diets were fed as a total mixed ration to 65 Holstein cows that were either primiparous (n = 28) or multiparous (n = 37) from 21 to 120 d in milk to determine effects on lactation and nitrogen utilization. Crude protein % and calculated RUP (% of CP) of diets [on a dry matter (DM) basis] were: 1) 19.4, 40 (HPMU), 2) 16.5, 34 (LPLU), 3) 16.8, 40 (LPMU), 4) 16.8, 46 (LPHU), 5) 17.2, 43 (LPHU + UREA), which is the result of adding 0.4% of the diet DM as urea to LPHU. The corn silage-based treatment diets contained an average of 24% acid detergent fiber and 1.6 Mcal/kg net energy of lactation. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentrations and body weights (BW) were used to calculate predicted amounts of urinary nitrogen (N) using the relationship: urinary N (g/d) = 0.0259 x BW (kg) x MUN (mg/dl). Cows fed HPMU had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, rumen ammonia, MUN, and predicted urinary N. Milk yield, fat yield, fat percent, protein yield, and protein percent were not significantly different among treatments. Parity primarily affected parameters that were related to body size and not measurements of N utilization. The interaction of treatment and parity was not significant for any measurements taken. In this study, cows fed LPHU had significantly lower MUN and predicted urinary N without limiting production. These results demonstrate the potential to optimize milk production while minimizing N excretion in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:12778579

Davidson, S; Hopkins, B A; Diaz, D E; Bolt, S M; Brownie, C; Fellner, V; Whitlow, L W



Low Stress Cattle Handling in Dairy Environments  

E-print Network

Using low-stress methods of handling dairy cattle is efficient in terms of time and labor. This publication explains how cattle's natural instincts affect their responses, and ways handlers can use that knowledge to make handling easier and less...

Villarino, Mario A.



Application of the BovineSNP50 assay for QTL mapping and prediction of genetic merit in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The previous fifteen years have produced numerous QTL mapping experiments aimed at the identification of causal or linked polymorphisms for use in marker assisted selection programs to increase the rate of genetic gain in livestock species. To date, very few causal mutations for QTL have been ident...


Association analysis of bovine bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein gene polymorphisms with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is expressed primarily in bovine neutrophils and epithelial cells and functions as a binding protein of bacterial lipopolysaccharide produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The protein is important in host defense against bacterial infections and may pl...


Pathogen-specific effects of quantitative trait loci affecting clinical mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holstein cattle.  


The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danish dairy population were analyzed: Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis. Data were analyzed using 2 approaches: an independence test and a generalized linear mixed model. Three different data sets were used to investigate the effect of data sampling: all samples, only samples that were followed by antibiotic treatment, and samples from first-crop daughters only. The results showed with high certainty that 2 QTL affecting SCS exhibited pathogen specificity against Staph. aureus and E. coli, respectively. The latter result might be explained by a pleiotropic QTL that also affects CM2 and CM3. Less certain results were found for QTL affecting CM. A QTL affecting CM1 was found to be specific against Strep. dysgalactiae and Staph. aureus, a QTL affecting CM2 was found to be specific against E. coli, and finally a QTL affecting CM3 was found to be specific against Staph. aureus. None of the QTL analyzed was found to be specific against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Strep. uberis. Our results show that particular mastitis QTL are highly likely to exhibit pathogen-specificity. However, the results should be interpreted carefully because the results are sensitive to the sampling method and method of analysis. Field data were used in this study. These kind of data may be heavily biased because there is no standard procedure for collecting milk samples for bacteriological analysis in Denmark. Furthermore, using only the mean SCS from d 10 to 180 after parturition may lead to truncated effects of SCS-QTL when samples collected after d 180 are used. Additionally, repeated samples were used, which could boost the difference in incidence of pathogens between daughters of sires inheriting the positive and negative QTL allele, respectively. However, the magnitude of these effects in this study is unclear. PMID:18487673

Sørensen, L P; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomasen, J R; Lund, M S



Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.


Fertility subindex for improving fertility performance in Iranian Holstein cows.  


Different fertility indices were constructed for improving fertility performance in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Number of inseminations per conception and days from calving to first insemination, each weighted by its economic value, were included as breeding goals in the aggregate genotype definition. Different fertility indices (FI) were constructed with different combinations of available fertility traits: number of inseminations to conception (INS), days from calving to first service (DFS), interval between first and last insemination (IFL), and days open (DO). The fertility index (FI1) that included INS and DFS had the greatest genetic gain for INS (-0.39 insemination), DFS (-7.47 days), and profit ($4.3) per generation. Genetic gain for profit, DFS, and INS including only DO showed slight differences regarding FI1. A selection index that included only INS (DFS) presented the larger (smaller) genetic gains for INS and smaller (larger) for DFS, which were -0.40 (-0.034) and -0.975 (-11.18) inseminations and days, respectively. The result of this study showed that recording INS and DFS are preferable traits for including in a fertility subindex. DO can be used in the absence of other fertility traits. PMID:25319449

Ghiasi, Heydar; Pakdel, Abbas; Nejati-Javaremi, Ardeshir; González-Recio, Oscar



Morphological variation of "complex vertebral malformation" in Holstein calves.  


A study was performed to investigate the morphological expression of the inherited syndrome "complex vertebral malformation" (CVM) in Holstein calves. A total of 107 late-term aborted, premature, or neonatal calves suspected of having CVM were necropsied and retrospectively analyzed for the causal mutation in the gene SLC35A3. Sixty-two calves were homozygous affected, 16 were heterozygous, and 29 were homozygous normal. Calves affected by CVM were growth retarded. Vertebral lesions identified by radiography were present in 61 cases, of which 58 also had costal malformation. Malformation of the head, primarily in the form of dysplasia or palatoschisis, was present in 15 cases. Bilateral symmetric flexion of the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints was present in all cases, whereas posterior arthrogryposis was found in 54 cases. Interventricular septal defects occurred in 33 calves, often in combination with other cardiac malformations. A wide spectrum of additional malformations was found. Other congenital syndromes were in most cases distinguishable from CVM on a morphological basis. However, a calf with a prenatal infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus constituted a phenocopy. The study demonstrated that the morphological expression of CVM is wide, but certain aspects, i.e., growth retardation, vertebral malformation, and symmetric arthrogryposis, are almost constant findings. However, cases without vertebral defects and phenocopies constitute a diagnostic problem. A presumptive diagnosis of CVM can in most cases be based on necropsy findings combined with information on descent and paternal CVM genotype, whereas a definitive diagnosis requires genotyping. PMID:15586570

Agerholm, Jorgen S; Bendixen, Christian; Arnbjerg, Jens; Andersen, Ole



Single-mode nonclassicality criteria via Holstein-Primakoff transformation  

E-print Network

Recently, two quantifications for nonclassicality of a single-mode field are shown to be equivalent; (i) the rank of entanglement it can generate by a beam-splitter and (ii) the number of terms needed to expand it as superposition of coherent states. We show that nonclassicality criteria can be obtained with an alternative approach. The rank of two-mode entanglement among 2-level identical particles converges to the rank of single-mode nonclassicality within the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, at the large particle number limit. In particular, we show that the entanglement criterion of Hillery & Zubairy converges to the Mandel's $Q$-parameter which is used to reveal nonclassicality, and spin-squeezing criterion of S{\\o}rensen et al. converges to single-mode squeezing condition. We obtain additional nonclassicality criteria not existing in the literature. We also discuss if single-mode nonclassicality can be visualized as the entanglement of space generating the photons. Moreover, in a forthcoming study we show that, linear optical response of an optomechanical cavity becomes noncausal above the critical coupling where output single-mode field becomes nonclassical.

Mehmet Emre Tasgin



Effects of limestone on starch digestion in Holstein steers.  


Eight calcitic and three dolomitic limestones were examined for particle size and reactivity with hydrochloric acid at pH 3.5 and 5.5. Reactivity was higher in calcitic than dolomitic limestone. Within calcitic limestones, reactivity was highly related to particle size. A highly reactive limestone was selected for use in two digestion trials with Holstein steers. In Trial 1, 4 steers (approximately 300 kg) were fed diets consisting of 40% corn silage and 60% concentrate (DM basis) with .62 or 2.34% limestone in a single reversal trial with 3-wk experimental periods. Added limestone affected only starch digestibility, which increased from 91.3 to 93.2%. Fecal pH increased from 5.7 to 6.4 by limestone addition. In trial 2, four rumen and duodenally cannulated steers (approximately 475 kg) were fed the same diets in the same design. Limestone addition increased fecal pH from 5.7 to 6.5. There were no effects of limestone on rumen or total tract digestion of starch or other nutrients. Limestone addition had no effect on rumen pH, buffering capacity, or VFA concentrations. Addition of a highly reactive limestone to diets containing high amounts of starch had little effect on starch digestion in either the rumen or lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:3372818

Tissera, G H; Vandersall, J H; Erdman, R A



Effects of Crossbreeding on Production Traits in Dairy Cattle[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productive performance of 176 cross- breds, representing 15 groups, was com- pared to that of the purebred contemporary Brown Swiss, Guernseys, and Holsteins. The Guernsey × Holstein and Holstein × Guernsey crosses were bred to Swiss bulls to obtain three-breed crosses. A rotational system using Guernsey or Holstein bulls, or both, was followed to obtain third- and fourth-generation crosses. Most

G. W. Brandt; C. C. Brannon; W. R. Harvey; R. E. McDowell



Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle.  


Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen causing respiratory disease, otitis media, arthritis, mastitis, and a variety of other diseases in cattle worldwide. It is increasingly recognized by the veterinary and livestock communities as having an important impact on the health, welfare, and productivity of dairy and beef cattle. M. bovis diseases can be difficult to diagnose and control because of inconsistent disease expression and response to treatments and vaccines, and large gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these diseases. There are limited data on which to base evidence-based decisions for treatment and control, and the literature contains differing clinical biases and opinions. This document is intended for veterinarians dealing with cattle and is focused on the cattle production systems of North America. The goal of the consensus statement panel was to encourage an evidence-based approach to M. bovis problems. The scientific literature was critically reviewed, including peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews obtained by database searches using the terms "Mycoplasma bovis" or "mycoplasma + cattle." Where other data were lacking, conference proceedings were reviewed as a source of expert opinion. PMID:21745245

Maunsell, F P; Woolums, A R; Francoz, D; Rosenbusch, R F; Step, D L; Wilson, D J; Janzen, E D



Clostridium botulinum in Cattle and Dairy Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and

Miia Lindström; Jan Myllykoski; Seppo Sivelä; Hannu Korkeala



A genome-wide scan for signatures of differential artificial selection in ten cattle breeds  

PubMed Central

Background Since the times of domestication, cattle have been continually shaped by the influence of humans. Relatively recent history, including breed formation and the still enduring enormous improvement of economically important traits, is expected to have left distinctive footprints of selection within the genome. The purpose of this study was to map genome-wide selection signatures in ten cattle breeds and thus improve the understanding of the genome response to strong artificial selection and support the identification of the underlying genetic variants of favoured phenotypes. We analysed 47,651 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). Results We set the significance thresholds using the maximum XP-EHH values of two essentially artificially unselected breeds and found up to 229 selection signatures per breed. Through a confirmation process we verified selection for three distinct phenotypes typical for one breed (polledness in Galloway, double muscling in Blanc-Bleu Belge and red coat colour in Red Holstein cattle). Moreover, we detected six genes strongly associated with known QTL for beef or dairy traits (TG, ABCG2, DGAT1, GH1, GHR and the Casein Cluster) within selection signatures of at least one breed. A literature search for genes lying in outstanding signatures revealed further promising candidate genes. However, in concordance with previous genome-wide studies, we also detected a substantial number of signatures without any yet known gene content. Conclusions These results show the power of XP-EHH analyses in cattle to discover promising candidate genes and raise the hope of identifying phenotypically important variants in the near future. The finding of plausible functional candidates in some short signatures supports this hope. For instance, MAP2K6 is the only annotated gene of two signatures detected in Galloway and Gelbvieh cattle and is already known to be associated with carcass weight, back fat thickness and marbling score in Korean beef cattle. Based on the confirmation process and literature search we deduce that XP-EHH is able to uncover numerous artificial selection targets in subpopulations of domesticated animals. PMID:24359457



Three novel SNPs in the coding region of PPAR? gene and their associations with meat quality traits in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates adipogenesis and many other biological processes. In the present study, we\\u000a carried out PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing analyses to examine SNPs in coding region of the PPAR? gene. A total of 660 individuals from five Chinese cattle breeds were genotyped. We identified three SNPs and their associations

Yue Yuan Fan; Lin Sen Zan; Chang Zhen Fu; Wan Qiang Tian; Hong Bao Wang; Yan Yan Liu; Ya Ping Xin



Chinese Tea Tea, a drink pioneered by the Chinese,  

E-print Network

and the least caffeine content of all Chinese tea classes. Aroma is medium to high, flavor is light to medium amount of caffeine in Chinese tea classes. PU'ER White Tea is sometimes considered a subclass of Green. It has very low caffeine content. Longevity Eyebrow KING Chinese Oolong Tea Oolong Tea is half way


Factors affecting physician visits in Chinese and Chinese immigrant samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines predictors of Western physician utilization using the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use for Chinese elders who reside in Shanghai and immigrant Chinese elders who reside in the US Chinese elders are under-studied relative to their population size and in the US are known to underutilize the healthcare system. Underutilization is highly correlated with poor health

Helen B. Miltiades; Bei Wu



Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle.  


Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle result from aggressive grain-feeding programs and are influenced by a number of dietary and management factors. They have a major economic impact on the feedlot industry because of liver condemnation and reduced animal performance and carcass yield. Ruminal lesions resulting from acidosis usually are accepted as the predisposing factors. Generally, control of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle has depended on the use of tylosin, which reduces abscess incidence by 40% to 70%. However, new methods and products for liver abscess control are needed. Corn milling by-products that are less fermentable may aide in the quest for cattle production techniques that lead to lower usage of antimicrobials. A vaccine is also commercially available. PMID:17606156

Nagaraja, T G; Lechtenberg, Kelly F



Feeding cotton products to cattle.  


Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C



Fatty Acid and Triglyceride Composition of Milk Fat from Lactating Holstein Cows in Response to Supplemental Canola Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the influence of di- etary lipid on total and sn-2 fatty acid composition and triglyceride structure of milk fat in lactating Holstein cows. Five primiparous Holstein cows surgically fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 × 5 incomplete Latin square. All cows received a basal diet. Treatments consisted of a basal

E. J. DePeters; J. B. German; S. J. Taylor; S. T. Essex; H. Perez-Monti



Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction  


... C, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Manheimer ... YC, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Vickers ...


Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.  


Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc



Carrion odor and cattle grazing  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been proposed on theoretical grounds that carrion odor from flowers may not only attract pollinators, but also repel mammalian herbivores. Two grazing experiments involving 16 to 26 cattle heads per year, one for eight years (1982–1989) and the other for seven (1994–2000), in a region with no large carnivores that could influence cattle behavior, show that cattle avoid areas where dead cattle have recently been dumped. They grazed much less in these unfenced plots that were used to dump dead cattle each year. In the first experiment, with an area of ca. 20,000 m2 per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 124.6 gr/m2 for the regular grazing area, whereas it was 236.5 gr/m2 for the carcass dumping area. In the second experiment, with a higher stocking level, with ca. 9,000 m2 per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 61.7 gr/m2 for the regular grazing area, and 153.7 gr/m2 for the carcass dumping area. These significant differences existed throughout the 15 y of the experiments. We propose that these results are clear evidence of necrophobia in cattle, a character that might defend them from both pathogenic microbes and predators. This in turn demonstrates that carrion odor, primarily used by plants to attract pollinators, can simultaneously defend plants from herbivory by mammals as proposed. PMID:25210579

Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gutman, Mario



The Early Chinese Canadians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bilingual website offered by the Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) explores Canada's early Chinese immigrants, covering the period 1858 to 1947. To learn why the Chinese immigrated to Canada, visitors should click on "The History" on the far left side of the page. Once there, visitors can choose from several specific sections to read about, including "Working in B.C.: Gold, Railway, Mining and Salmon", "Racism and Law in Society", and "Communities for Canada and China". Additionally, each contains suggestions for further reading on the subject for both adults and children. Visitors who desire to browse photos and documents can click on "Historical Photographs and Documents" on the far left side of the page. There are three sections, "Research Guide", "Gallery of Documents", and "Gallery of Photographs". The Research Guide provides a thorough explanation on how to research the "photographs, artwork, published books, personal archives, and, in particular, government records" of Chinese Canadians, which are dispersed throughout the LAC collection. The documents and photographs galleries allow visitors to view, and even order, a print or digital copy of the historic materials. Finally, the "Head Tax Records" link located on the far left side of the page, allows visitors to search for Chinese immigrants to Canada that were recorded in the General Registers of Chinese Immigration. Visitors can search these registers online by the person's name, arrival year, or certificate number. [KMG


Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin



Clinical pharmacology of analgesic drugs in cattle.  


Providing pain relief in cattle is challenging. In the absence of labeled drugs, the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act regulates the extralabel drug use of analgesics in cattle within the United States. Given the variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pain-relieving drugs, evidence needs to drive the development of analgesic protocols for cattle during pain-related events. This article reviews the commonly used analgesics investigated in cattle including local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, ?2-agonists, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists, and gabapentin. These compounds are examined with respect to evidence of analgesia in cattle during pain states. PMID:25578387

Stock, Matthew L; Coetzee, Johann F



Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.  


In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although absolute rates of CH4 emissions (g/day) were lower from cattle grazing UG than LG, cattle grazing UG would be expected to take longer to reach an acceptable finishing weight, thereby potentially off-setting this apparent advantage. Methane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O



Fluid therapy in mature cattle.  


Fluid therapy for mature cattle differs from that for calves because the common conditions that result in dehydration and the metabolic derangements that accompany these conditions are different. The veterinarian needs to know which problem exists, what to administer to correct the problem, in what quantity, by what route, and at what rate. Mature cattle more frequently suffer from alkalosis; therefore, acidifying solutions containing K(+) and Cl(-) in concentrations greater than that of plasma are frequently indicated. The rumen provides a large-capacity reservoir into which oral rehydration solutions may be administered, which can save time and money. PMID:24980730

Roussel, Allen J



Mango tree pruning hay in substitution of elephant grass in cattle diet.  


This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 %) of elephant grass by hay of mango tree pruning (HMTP) on intake and digestibility in cattle and on the in vitro gas production. Moreover, the effect of tannin in HMTP on the gas production and in vitro degradability of the dry matter was evaluated, using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The intake and digestibility were evaluated in a double 4 × 4 square Latin design, using eight Holstein intact bulls. To evaluate the gas production and degradability, in vitro semi-automated gas production technique was used. The substitution of elephant grass by HMTP decreased the intake (P<0.05) and the digestibility (P<0.05) of the nutrients and also the gas production (P<0.05). Furthermore, the utilization of PEG as a tannin-complexing agent increased the gas production and degradability of the HMTP (P<0.05). It was concluded that the high cell wall lignification and the presence of tannin limit the use of HMTP as the only source of roughage in cattle diets. PMID:23212837

de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Fernando Santos; de Souza Wanderley, Carlos Wagner; Neto, Alvaro Santos Lisboa



Presence of Atrazine in the Biological Samples of Cattle and Its Consequence Adversity in Human Health  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle can be considered as an important source for herbicides through nutrition. Therefore, herbicide residue in animal products is a potential human exposure to herbicides causing public health problems in human life. Triazines are a group of herbicides primarily used to control broadleaf weeds in corn and other feed ingredients and are considered as possible human carcinogens. To evaluate trace residue of these pollutants molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been developed, using biological samples. Methods: Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 45 Holstein cows in 3 commercial dairy farms in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Urine samples were also taken from the cows. Results: The mean ± SD concentrations of atrazine in serum and urine samples of the study group (0.739 ± 0.567 ppm and 1.389 ± 0.633 ppm, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than the concentrations in serum and urine samples of the control group (0.002 ± 0.005 ppm and 0.012 ± 0.026 ppm, respectively). Conclusion: Atrazine in the feed ingredients ingested by cattle could be transferred into the biological samples and consequently can be considered as a potential hazard for the public health. PMID:23113110

Peighambarzadeh, SZ; Safi, S; Shahtaheri, SJ; Javanbakht, M; Rahimi Forushani, A



Signatures of selection in five Italian cattle breeds detected by a 54K SNP panel.  


In this study we used a medium density panel of SNP markers to perform population genetic analysis in five Italian cattle breeds. The BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to genotype a total of 2,935 bulls of Piedmontese, Marchigiana, Italian Holstein, Italian Brown and Italian Pezzata Rossa breeds. To determine a genome-wide pattern of positive selection we mapped the F st values against genome location. The highest F st peaks were obtained on BTA6 and BTA13 where some candidate genes are located. We identified selection signatures peculiar of each breed which suggest selection for genes involved in milk or meat traits. The genetic structure was investigated by using a multidimensional scaling of the genetic distance matrix and a Bayesian approach implemented in the STRUCTURE software. The genotyping data showed a clear partitioning of the cattle genetic diversity into distinct breeds if a number of clusters equal to the number of populations were given. Assuming a lower number of clusters beef breeds group together. Both methods showed all five breeds separated in well defined clusters and the Bayesian approach assigned individuals to the breed of origin. The work is of interest not only because it enriches the knowledge on the process of evolution but also because the results generated could have implications for selective breeding programs. PMID:24442315

Mancini, Giordano; Gargani, Maria; Chillemi, Giovanni; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel Luis; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine



A Century of Chinese Cinema  

E-print Network

A Century of Chinese Cinema This retrospective will begin with what is often regarded as one screenings focusing on new waves and new directions in Chinese cinema. Kindly supported by the Confucius Institute. On Monday 30 June (13.00 ­ 18.00), we will be running a one-day starter course on Chinese cinema

Guo, Zaoyang


Mapping Charisma in Chinese Religion  

E-print Network

3 Mapping Charisma in Chinese Religion Introduction and Glossary Vincent Goossaert and David Ownby T he study of Chinese religion has long been a divided field.1 Philologically grounded sinologists have) of contemporary Chinese religion. Recent events, however, have fundamentally changed the reality, the percep- tion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Voice dictation of Mandarin Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese language is not alphabetic, and input of Chinese characters into computers remains a difficult problem even after decades of efforts made to overcome the problem. Voice dictation of Mandarin Chinese with a very large vocabulary is believed to be the perfect solution, but this is a highly challenging speech recognition problem with many technical issues yet unsolved. The

Lin-Shan Lee



On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

Wang, Catherine



Chinese American Experience: San Francisco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit encourages students to explore the history and current situation of Chinese Americans. Organized around five lesson plans, the unit's first lesson begins with the students' own perceptions of Chinese Americans, followed by a quiz that provides relevant background information. The second lesson examines the general history of Chinese…

Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.


Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing



Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

Ip, Po Keung



What Does the Cattle Buyer Look For in Feeder Cattle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This subject is steeped with opinion, prejudice and fact in a recipe similar to politics. Some issues are understood, definable and reflected in market prices. We all are aware of body weight, fill, frame, and flesh influences on price and value. Unfortunately, these four factors are inadequate for identifying as much of the profit potential differences between feeder cattle as

Robbi H. Pritchard



Productivity of grazing Holstein cows in Atlantic Canada.  


The feasibility and profitability of management-intensive grazing (MIG) in Atlantic Canada was studied. Productivity of MIG plus concentrate (1 kg:3 kg of milk) was compared with that of confinement feeding (Confined) using haylage (1996) or corn silage (1997) as 50% of dry matter (DM) in a total mixed ration (TMR). Each year, two groups of 10 Holsteins were used. In 1996, pasture CP content increased from 15.2 to 18.0% of DM, while those of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased (33.6 to 23.8%, and 55.6 to 35.4%, respectively) between July 10 and August 28. In 1997, pasture crude protein (CP) content decreased from 30.0 to 15.7%, while ADF and NDF increased (24.9 to 35.8% and 53.5 to 67.4%, respectively) from June 16 to July 14. Because pasture biomass was reduced by winter-kill followed by drought in 1997, MIG cows were supplemented with TMR. Estimated pasture DM intakes ranged from 14.2 to 18.1 kg/d per cow. Milk yields averaged 29.5 and 30.4 +/- 0.43 kg/d in 1996 and 32.5 and 31.8 +/- 0.61 kg/d in 1997 for Confined and MIG cows, respectively. In 1996, the dietary treatment x time interaction was significant. Cows in MIG had higher yields than those in Confined later in the trial, while fat and CP concentrations were usually lower in milk from MIG cows. Lower body weights resulted with MIG. Few differences between production systems were significant in 1997. Milk revenue (Canadian $/d) from Confined cows was higher (14.03 vs. 13.77 in 1996 and 16.10 vs. 15.39 in 1997), but partial profitability of the MIG system was marginally greater in both years. PMID:12086071

Fredeen, A H; Astatkie, T; Jannasch, R W; Martin, R C



Bibliographies for Chinese Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Dr. Barend ter Haar, an instructor in the social and economic history of China at the Sinologisches Seminar (Sinological Institute) at Heidelberg University, offers this collection of regularly updated (with one exception) bibliographies on various aspects of Chinese culture and history. Topics include violence in Chinese culture, literacy, writing and education, the study of Yao religion, Shamanism in China, and religious culture in China. Each bibliography varies in length, but most are prefaced by some helpful remarks on the field and/or the secondary literature. Suggestions are welcome.


Chinese Foreign Policy Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.


Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

Leonard, N. E.



Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.


Expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood of cattle infested with Rhipicephalus microplus.  


The bovine tick Rhipicephalus microplus is responsible for severe economic losses in tropical cattle production. Bos indicus breeds are more resistant to tick infestations than are Bos taurus breeds, and the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in this difference is important for the development of new methods of parasite control. We evaluated differences in the transcript expression of genes related to the immune response in the peripheral blood of cattle previously characterized as resistant or susceptible to tick infestation. Crossbreed F2 Gir x Holstein animals (resistant, N = 6; susceptible, N = 6) were artificially submitted to tick infestation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h after tick infestation and evaluated for transcript expression of the CD25, CXCL8, CXCL10, FoxP3, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) genes. Gene expression of CD25 (6.00, P < 0.01), IL-10 (31.62, P < 0.01), FoxP3 (35.48, P < 0.01), and CXCL10 (3.38, P < 0.05) was altered in the resistant group at 48 h compared with samples collected before infestation. In the susceptible group, CXCL8 (-2.02, P < 0.05) and CXCL10 (2.20, P < 0.05) showed altered expression 24 h after infestation. CXCL8 (-5.78, P < 0.05) also showed altered expression at 48 h after infestation when compared with samples collected before infestation. We detected a correlation between T ?? cell activity and the immunological mechanisms that result in a higher resistance to R. microplus in cattle. PMID:24938612

Domingues, R; Wohlres-Viana, S; Reis, D R L; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P; Guimarães, S E F; Prata, M C A; Furlong, J; Verneque, R S; Machado, M A



An experimental infection model to induce digital dermatitis infection in cattle.  


Bovine digital dermatitis (DD), also known as papillomatous digital dermatitis (foot warts), has been recognized as a major cause of lameness in cattle, with important economic and welfare consequences. The evaluation of therapeutic and preventive interventions aiming to control DD infections in dairy cattle is often challenged by the complex multifactorial etiology of the disease. An experimental infection model to induce acute DD lesions in a controlled environment is proposed. The goal was to provide a standard way of reproducing DD infections independent of external factors that could confound the natural course of the disease, such as management practices or infection pressure, resulting in transmission of DD between animals. A group of 4 yearling Holstein heifers free of any clinical evidence of hoof disease was recruited from a commercial dairy farm and housed in an experimental facility in 1 pen with slatted flooring. The hind feet were wrapped to mimic conditions of prolonged moisture (maceration) and reduced access to air (closure) and inoculated at the heel and dewclaw areas with a homogenate of a naturally occurring DD lesion skin biopsy or a culture broth of Treponema spp. After a period of 12 to 25 d, 4 of 6 and 1 of 4 dewclaw areas inoculated with biopsied DD lesion or a Treponema spp. culture, respectively, had gross lesions compatible with DD. Histopathology confirmed the gross diagnosis in the sites inoculated with tissue homogenate. In the site inoculated with Treponema spp. culture broth, histopathology revealed an incipient DD lesion. Treponema spp. were detected by PCR in both naturally occurring DD homogenate and Treponema spp. culture broth inoculation sites. An experimental infection model to induce acute DD in cattle was developed, which may be used to evaluate interventions to control DD and study the pathogenesis of this infectious hoof disease in a controlled manner. PMID:22459830

Gomez, A; Cook, N B; Bernardoni, N D; Rieman, J; Dusick, A F; Hartshorn, R; Socha, M T; Read, D H; Döpfer, D



The Chinese House Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

Lee, James R.



Traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Chinese pharmacopoeia describes a large number of herbal formulations that are used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This therapeutic approach is ignored by many and considered to be an alternative to conventional medicine by others. The scientific proof and clinical validation of these herbal formulations require a rigorous approach that includes chemical standardization, biological

Robert Yuan; Yuan Lin



Chinese Festivals and Customs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

Green, Sandra Aili


Chinese Education in Diplomacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reflects upon contemporary education in Chinese diplomacy covering three aspects: curriculum contents, teaching methods and teaching goals. It argues that the curriculum contents have the following shortcomings: poor awareness of the real problems in China's diplomatic practices, lack of global awareness that is consistent with China's image as a great country, blurring of the boundaries between academic and

Xi Xiao



Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

Swinson, Derek B.



Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda



Embryonic and early foetal losses in cattle and other ruminants.  


Embryo survival is a major factor affecting production and economic efficiency in all systems of ruminant milk and meat production. For heifers, beef and moderate yielding dairy cows, does and camelids it appears that fertilization generally lies between 90% and 100%. In high-producing dairy cows there is a less substantive body of literature, but it would appear that it is somewhat lower and perhaps more variable. In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs before day 16 following breeding with some evidence of greater losses before day 8 in high-producing dairy cows. In cattle late embryo loss, while numerically much smaller than early embryo mortality loss, nevertheless, causes serious economic losses to producers because it is often too late to rebreed females when they repeat. In multiple ovulating small ruminants, the loss rate is positively related to ovulation rate. Systemic concentrations of progesterone, during both the cycle preceding and following insemination, affect embryo survival rate with evidence that too high or indeed too low a concentration being negatively associated with survival rate. Uterine expression of mRNA for progesterone receptor, oestradiol receptor and retinol-binding protein appears to be sensitive to changes in peripheral concentrations of progesterone during the first week after artificial insemination. Energy balance and dry matter intake during 4 weeks after calving are critically important in determining conception rate when cows are inseminated at 70-100 days post-calving. Concentrate supplementation of cows at pasture during the breeding period has minimal effects on conception rates though sudden reductions in dietary intake should be avoided. For all systems of milk production, more balanced breeding strategies with greater emphasis on fertility and feed intake and/or energy balance must be developed. There is sufficient genetic variability within the Holstein breed for fertility traits. Alternative dairy breeds such as the Jersey or Norwegian Red could also be utilized. Genomic technology will not only provide scientists with an improved understanding of the underlying biological processes involved in fertilization and the establishment of pregnancy, but also, in the future, identify genes responsible for improved embryo survival. Its incorporation into breeding objectives would increase the rate of genetic progress for embryo survival. PMID:18638133

Diskin, M G; Morris, D G



Significance of Neospora caninum in British dairy cattle determined by estimation of seroprevalence in normally calving cattle and aborting cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case–control study was conducted to evaluate the significance of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in England and Wales. The prevalence of N. caninum in normally calving cattle (the control group; n=418) and aborting cattle (n=633) was estimated using a commercial antibody-detection ELISA. Prevalence estimates for bovine virus diarrhoea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Leptospira hardjo were also obtained

H. C. Davison; A. Otter; A. J. Trees



Temperature Driven Diet Quality Prediction for Free-Ranging Cattle  

E-print Network

A rapid and accurate method to determine or predict cattle diet quality is essential to effectively manage free-ranging cattle production. One popular tool currently available for predicting cattle diet quality is fecal Near Infrared Reflectance...

Zhang, Yingjie




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...


9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...



9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...



9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...have been determined to have tuberculosis shall not be imported into the...That the cattle are from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The...cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were...



Application of a posteriori granddaughter and modified granddaughter designs to determine Holstein haplotype effects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A posteriori and modified granddaughter designs were applied to determine haplotype effects for Holstein bulls and cows with BovineSNP50 genotypes. The a posteriori granddaughter design was applied to 52 sire families, each with '100 genotyped sons with genetic evaluations based on progeny tests. Fo...


Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-048, 04901658, Lausen Engine Division, New Holstein, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walk-through evaluations, employee interviews, and an environmental survey were conducted at the Lausen Engine Division, New Holstein, Wisconsin. The evaluations were conducted in response to two separate requests concerning employee exposure to formaldehyde and phenol vapors during the assembly of brake pads in the subassembly Department, and exposure to dusts during the grinding, cutting, and drilling of engine parts at




Effects of Days Dry and Days Open on Holstein Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holstein lactation records from the Dairy Herd Improvement test day files of the New York Dairy Records Processing Lab- oratory at Cornell University were used to study genetic and environmental relation- ships of days dry and days open with milk production. Age and month of calving significantly influenced length of dry period. Within herd heritability estimates of days dry were

L. R. Schaeffer; C. R. Henderson



Some Interrelationships between Vitamin E and Vitamin A in Holstein Calves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Thirty-six Holstein male calves, 64 days of age and partially depleted of their tocoph- erol and vitamin A stores were fed, in addition to a basal ration low in tocopherol and vitamin A, one of three levels of toc0pheryl acetate, equivalent to 1, 5, or 25 rag. of free tocopherol per pound live weight per day and one of

Martha W. Dicks; J. E. Rousseau Jr.; H. D. Eaton; R. Teichman; A. P. Grifo Jr.; H. A. Kemmerer Jr.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected w...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic evaluations for heat tolerance of US Holsteins were developed with national data. Hourly temperature and relative humidity records were available from 202 public weather stations across the United States. Production data included 57,315,661 first-parity test-day records from 1993 through 200...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to evaluate the effect of ruminally degraded protein (RPD) source on microbial protein flow measured in the reticulum and duodenum using 15N and in milk, urine and blood using allantoin. Eight early lactation Holstein cows were arranged in a repeated 4x4 Latin square design balanc...


Fertility in New York Artificially Inseminated Holstein Herds in Dairy Herd Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a field study to gain informa- tion on fertility of New York dairy herds and factors influencing it. Data were from 125 Dairy Herd Improvement Holstein herds with 9,750 cows. All breedings to milking cows were by artificial insemina- tion. Herds were further selected with equal numbers of small and large herds and free-stall and conventional (stan- chion)

R. W. Spalding; R. W. Everett; R. H. Foote




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cubic splines can be used to model fixed and random effects of lactation curves. A total of 64,138 test-day observations for first lactation Holstein cows recorded as treated with bovine somatotropin (bST) and 138,008 test-day observations for untreated cows were obtained from Dairy Records Manageme...


Acclimation of Holstein Calves to Transit Stress: The Integration of Endocrine, Immune, and Behavior Systems  

E-print Network

-six 4-month-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of six with each group randomly assigned to either transport (T) or control (C) treatments. The T calves were hauled for 6 h in a 7.3 m x 2.4 m goose-neck trailer, at an average density of 0...

Adams, Amber



Effects of chromium supplementation on early lactation performance of Holstein cows  

E-print Network

Effects of chromium supplementation on early lactation performance of Holstein cows WZ Yang, A Subiyatno DN Mowat University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 21N1, Canada Recently, chromium (Cr) supplementation and 4 cows. Chromium requirements are well-known to increase during periods of stress including late

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



E-print Network

This study was conducted to determine water intake. Forty-four Holstein bull calves were evaluated to investigate the effects of starter intake, body weight, temperature and time to predict water intake. A model was developed using PROC GLM in SAS...

Gonzalez Ferreira, Marcelo A.



Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes related to daughter pregnancy rate in Holstein cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ABSTRACT: Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 40 SNPs associated with daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) in dairy bulls. We evaluated 39 of these SNPs for relationship to DPR in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped on their predicted transmitting ability for DPR: <= -1 (n=1266) a...


Environmental, Management, and Genetic Factors Affecting Semen Production in Holstein Bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of environment, management, physiologi- cal status, and genetics on semen quality (volume of the ejaculate, sperm concentration, sperm motility, number of sperm, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate) of Canadian Holstein bulls. For this purpose, semen production data from 198 bulls were analyzed using mixed linear models. Young bulls

M. Mathevon; M. M. Buhr; J. C. M. Dekkers




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A sire-maternal grandsire (MGS) threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Holsteins. Data consisted of almost 7.5 million records, and over 41,000 AI bulls received evaluations. The model included effects of herd-year, year-season, parity-sex, sire, birth year group of sire...


Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...


Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...


The Interrelationship of Chinese Music and Poetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike its Western counterpart, Chinese poetry has a more important role in Chinese literary history, especially classical Chinese poetry, which dominated literature as well as art throughout history. However, when making an intratextual analysis of this genre, we find the generic roots of classical Chinese poetry have stemmed from music. The studies of the dichotomous nature of Chinese poetry and



The Chinese learner – a question of style  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges any misconceptions that Westerners may have about Chinese learning styles by highlighting how the Chinese mind operates and why certain styles of learning are preferred by Chinese students. The author discusses some of the reasons for the over-emphasis on education for the Chinese overseas, how cultural values and beliefs have helped to shape Chinese thinking and how

Sally Chan



Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year…

Kwok, Irene


Use of a single injection of long-acting recombinant bovine FSH to superovulate Holstein heifers: a preliminary study.  


Our objective was to compare several experimental preparations of a single injection of long-acting recombinant bovine FSH (rbFSH; types A and B) to a porcine pituitary-derived FSH (Folltropin) to superovulate Holstein dairy heifers. Nonlactating, nonpregnant virgin Holstein heifers (n = 56) aged 12 to 15 months were randomly assigned to one of four superstimulatory treatments. Beginning at a random stage of the estrous cycle, all follicles greater than 5 mm were aspirated. Thirty-six hours later, heifers received an intravaginal P4 device and superstimulatory treatments were initiated. Treatments were (1) 300 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (Folltropin) administered in eight decreasing doses over a period of 3.5 days; (2) a single injection of 50 ?g of A-rbFSH; (3) a single injection of 100 ?g of A-rbFSH; and (4) a single injection of 50 ?g of B-rbFSH. All heifers received 25 mg PGF2? at 48 and 72 hours after the insertion of P4 device. At 84 hours after insertion, P4 devices were removed, and ovulation was induced 24 hours later with hCG (2500 IU). Heifers were inseminated at 12 and 24 hours after hCG treatment. The number of ovulatory follicles was greatest for heifers treated with Folltropin and B50-rbFSH, least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH, and was intermediate for heifers treated with A100-rbFSH (25.7 ± 3.2, 18.9 ± 3.2, 5.9 ± 0.9, and 16.6 ± 3.1, respectively; P < 0.001). The number of corpora lutea was greatest for heifers treated with Folltropin, B50-rbFSH, and A100-rbFSH, and least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH (19.1 ± 2.4, 16.1 ± 3.0, 15.9 ± 2.9, and 2.6 ± 0.9, respectively; P < 0.001). The number of good-quality embryos differed among treatments and was greatest for heifers treated with B50-rbFSH, Folltropin, and A100-rbFSH and least for heifers treated with A50-rbFSH (7.6 ± 2.4, 6.5 ± 1.7, 4.3 ± 1.5, and 0.8 ± 0.5, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single injection of a preparation of long-acting rbFSH (either 100 ?g of A-rbFSH or 50 ?g of B-rbFSH but not 50 ?g of A-rbFSH) produced similar superovulatory responses resulting in the production of good-quality embryos when compared with a pituitary-derived FSH preparation administered twice daily for 4 days. More studies using different types of cattle and different doses of rbFSH are needed to confirm the findings reported in this preliminary study. PMID:24938802

Carvalho, Paulo D; Hackbart, Katherine S; Bender, Robb W; Baez, Giovanni M; Dresch, Ana R; Guenther, Jerry N; Souza, Alex H; Fricke, Paul M



December 6, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady com-  

E-print Network

December 6, 2013Tennessee Market Highlights Number: 49 FED CATTLE: Fed cattle were steady com, and such prices are not too raw of a deal for packers if beef prices remain strong. Though beef prices have efficiency as cattle need a larger por- tion of their diet to contribute to mainte- nance of current body

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.


Acute cattle intoxication from Nerium oleander pods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Nerium oleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57\\u000a animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from\\u000a offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the

B. Soto-Blanco; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; D. M. Silva; P. F. C. C. Reis; J. E. Nóbrega



Factors affecting physician visits in Chinese and Chinese immigrant samples.  


This study examines predictors of Western physician utilization using the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use for Chinese elders who reside in Shanghai and immigrant Chinese elders who reside in the US Chinese elders are under-studied relative to their population size and in the US are known to underutilize the healthcare system. Underutilization is highly correlated with poor health and well-being. A unique dataset allowed us to examine predictors of physician utilization for Chinese elders who resided in different countries, in an effort to determine how being an immigrant affects utilization. One hundred and seventy-seven Chinese elders in Boston and 420 Chinese elders in Shanghai participated in the survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for each sample. Predictors of physician visits for the Boston sample are insurance status, health, and social network, and for the Shanghai sample, use of Chinese medicine, health, and marital status predicted physician visits. We found that access to care variables significantly affects physician utilization for immigrant elders, and that Chinese elders in Shanghai utilize a bicultural system of care. The results indicate that in order to create effective healthcare practices for elder Chinese, alternative healthcare beliefs should be understood by Western physicians. PMID:17996348

Miltiades, Helen B; Wu, Bei



Photosensitization of Cattle in Texas.  

E-print Network

to the subdermal layers of the skin, reddening of the light-colored areas appears. Conjunctivitis usually is appar- , ent, particularly in cattle with light-colored eyes. As the reaction progresses, the skin may exude a serous fluid, erupt into watery blisters... and become yellowish, indicating jaundice (icterus) . After this initial reaction, the blistered or affected , skin usually sloughs, leaving raw areas which are highly susceptible to secondary infections, espe- cially by screwworms. At the outset...

Stroud, F. B.; Hoffman, G. O.; Turk, R. D.; Sperry, O. E.



Triaryl phosphate poisoning in cattle.  


Clinical signs, pathologic changes and biochemical changes occurred in cattle with natural and experimental triaryl phosphate poisoning. Natural poisoning was caused by triaryl phosphates escaping from a gas pipeline compressor station. The clinical signs were posterior motor paralysis, dyspnea, diarrhea and agalactia. Experimental doses of 1/2-1 gm/kg body weight of these organophosphate compounds caused depression of cholinesterase and axonal degeneration in the spinal cord. PMID:857397

Beck, B E; Wood, C D; Whenham, G R



British Museum: Chinese Jade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of jade is utterly fascinating, and those captivated by this material will have a field day here. This online tour is part of the British Museum's commitment to broadening access to their vast array of items that might not normally be visible to the general public. Here, visitors can learn about the Chinese fascination with jade through 21 slides that profile unique and valuable items constructed of jade. The tour illustrates the development of Chinese jade from around 5000 BC to the modern period. The items here include lovely, long, and smooth Neolithic blades to later plaques, ornaments, dragons, animal and human sculptures. First-time visitors simply must start by looking at the magnificent coiled dragon that offers smooth contours and compelling details.



Mid-piece length of spermatozoa in different cattle breeds and its relationship to fertility.  


Recently positive correlation has been found between oxygen consumption (ZO2) in bull spermatozoa and non-return rates and concluded that an increase in ZO2, characteristic of the freeze/thaw process, was possibly associated with mitochondrial membrane damage during this procedure: alternatively, sperm may be hyperactivated through the capacitation-like effects of freezing/thawing. We speculated that the morphology of spermatozoa may be associated with their rate of ZO2 and fertility: for example, sperm mid-piece length where mitochondria are located. Such a relationship has not been investigated before, particularly in context of commercial cattle breeding programmes and bull fertility characteristics. Sperm biometry was performed on ejaculates obtained from 34 bulls representing six breeds: Holstein (yearlings and mature), Friesian, Belgian Blue, Aberdeen Angus, Charolais and Limousin. Five ejaculates were collected from every bull and from each sample a semen smear was fixed and stained with eosin/nigrosin: the mid-piece length of 40 sperm with normal morphology was measured in every sample. Data were analysed by breed, age and within each bull. Significant differences (p<0.01) between ejaculates in 9/34 bulls was found, as well as differences (p<0.001) between individual bulls within the same breed. The average mid-piece length for Aberdeen Angus was 13.35 microm, for Belgian Blues and Limousin around 13.8 microm and for Charolais 13.68 microm: for dairy breeds such as Holstein and Friesian it was about 13.4 microm. The mean value of mid-piece length for breed was compared with their 49 day non-return rate; a negative correlation (r = -0.53) was found in black and white dairy breeds. PMID:21850930

Shahani, S K; Revell, S G; Argo, C G; Murray, R D



Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application used Chinese medicinal plants with Changbin Chen-- A plant scientist grew up in a remote area medicinal plants and their products. 2. Learn the methods of Chinese herbal classification

Weiblen, George D


Chinese Spacesuit Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

Croog, Lewis



Chinese Space Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China will soon make history by sending the first Chinese man to space. Scheduled for sometime in 2003, it will be the first step toward China's highly ambitious plans for space exploration.The China National Space Administration Web site (1) has a detailed description of the country's space policy. Aerospace China, a journal published online by the administration, has information on space development plans and other issues. The history of China's space program is recounted by the online Encyclopedia Astronautica (2). Several influential scientists and their contributions to Chinese rocketry and satellite technology are highlighted. The China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (3) sent the first Chinese satellite into space. Its home page showcases eight launch vehicles and offers an extensive technical description of the LM-3C model. The work of various research groups at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (4) deals with topics ranging from satellite dynamics to stellar astronomy. Some of the groups have details of their projects and facilities online. Another observatory studies molecular clouds and star formation (5). A large collection of its research papers are provided on its Web site. A news article from (6) discusses the forthcoming launch of the Shenzhou IV spacecraft, scheduled for later this year. It is generating considerable interest, since it is said to be identical to China's first manned spacecraft, expected to launch in 2003. Another article (7) considers China's rapidly developing space program. With the tremendous effort and lofty goals for moon bases and Mars missions, the author argues that China could eventually rival the US. Many more news stories about the Chinese space program can be found on the Dragon Space Web site (8).

Leske, Cavin.



Including overseas performance information in genomic evaluations of Australian dairy cattle.  


In dairy cattle, the rate of genetic gain from genomic selection depends on reliability of direct genomic values (DGV). One option to increase reliabilities could be to increase the size of the reference set used for prediction, by using genotyped bulls with daughter information in countries other than the evaluating country. The increase in reliabilities of DGV from using this information will depend on the extent of genotype by environment interaction between the evaluating country and countries contributing information, and whether this is correctly accounted for in the prediction method. As the genotype by environment interaction between Australia and Europe or North America is greater than between Europe and North America for most dairy traits, ways of including information from other countries in Australian genomic evaluations were examined. Thus, alternative approaches for including information from other countries and their effect on the reliability and bias of DGV of selection candidates were assessed. We also investigated the effect of including overseas (OS) information on reliabilities of DGV for selection candidates that had weaker relationships to the current Australian reference set. The DGV were predicted either using daughter trait deviations (DTD) for the bulls with daughters in Australia, or using this information as well as OS information by including deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull for bulls with only OS daughters in either single trait or bivariate models. In the bivariate models, DTD and DRP were considered as different traits. Analyses were performed for Holstein and Jersey bulls for milk yield traits, fertility, cell count, survival, and some type traits. For Holsteins, the data used included up to 3,580 bulls with DTD and up to 5,720 bulls with only DRP. For Jersey, about 900 bulls with DTD and 1,820 bulls with DRP were used. Bulls born after 2003 and genotyped cows that were not dams of genotyped bulls were used for validation. The results showed that the combined use of DRP on bulls with OS daughters only and DTD for Australian bulls in either the single trait or bivariate model increased the coefficient of determination [(R(2)) (DGV,DTD)] in the validation set, averaged across 6 main traits, by 3% in Holstein and by 5% in Jersey validation bulls relative to the use of DTD only. Gains in reliability and unbiasedness of DGV were similar for the single trait and bivariate models for production traits, whereas the bivariate model performed slightly better for somatic cell count in Holstein. The increase in R(2) (DGV,DTD) as a result of using bulls with OS daughters was relatively higher for those bulls and cows in the validation sets that were less related to the current reference set. For example, in Holstein, the average increase in R(2) for milk yield traits when DTD and DRP were used in a single trait model was 23% in the least-related cow group, but only 3% in the most-related cow group. In general, for both breeds the use of DTD from domestic sources and DRP from Interbull in a single trait or bivariate model can increase reliability of DGV for selection candidates. PMID:25771052

Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E; Schrooten, C; Hayes, B J



Chinese herb nephropathy  

PubMed Central

In 1994, a 44-year-old woman progressed from normal renal function to advanced renal failure and end-stage renal disease within 8 months. Biopsy revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with focal lymphocytic infiltration. She received a cadaveric renal transplant in January 1996 and had an uneventful posttransplant course. As a result of a minor motor vehicle accident, the patient had received acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine for pain relief approximately 5 months before the onset of renal symptoms. After the transplant, analysis of the herbal remedies clearly indicated the presence of aristolochic acid in 2 of the 6 Chinese herbs ingested. Ingestion of aristolochic acid has been linked to a newly defined entity, Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). This article discusses the history of CHN and its implication in the current case and in other recent similar cases and makes recommendations to avoid future problems caused by unregulated use of herbal medicines. This is the first reported case of CHN in the USA. PMID:16389336



The influence of recombinant bovine somatotropin on dietary energy level-related growth of Holstein-Friesian bull calves.  


Our objective for this study was to assess the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in overcoming the biological effects attributed to live weight increase and age on growth and fat deposition in male cattle. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 56; 182.2 +/- 14.7 d old) were allotted to four subtreatments in a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of two levels of rbST: 0 and 500 mg of Posilac, every 2 wk, and two dietary metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations: low metabolizable energy (LME) and high metabolizable energy (HME); 10 vs 11.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The effect of rbST treatment on daily gain was expressed mostly on the HME diets. The rbST treatment had no effect on the animals fed the LME diets before the age of 240 d was reached. Dry matter intake and the effect of rbST treatment on DM intake were inversely related to the energy concentration of the diet. The degree of fatness of the animals was significantly reduced by rbST treatment and significantly increased by energy concentration of the diet. The major effect of rbST, under the experimental conditions, in regards to adipose tissue deposition, was on the fat depots and not on the intramuscular fat. The concentration of bST, IGF-I, and insulin in the plasma was increased (P < .001) owing to rbST treatment. Lower metabolizable energy supply led to a higher (P < .001) plasma bST concentration, nonsignificantly lower plasma IGF-I and thyroid hormone concentrations, and lower (P < .001) plasma insulin concentration. A trend (P = .065) toward an increase in PUFA was found in the muscle of the rbST-treated and the HME diet animals. At a young age, when the natural growth potential is high, rbST treatment will be efficient only when a diet allowing a high digestible energy intake is provided. PMID:10764069

Holzer, Z; Aharoni, Y; Brosh, A; Orlov, A; Buonomo, F



Vulnerability in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows : risk factors for culling and effect of temperament on oestrus   

E-print Network

The general aims of the work were to determine the factors associated with vulnerability in Holstein- Friesian dairy cows in two scenarios: A) culling and B) the effect of temperament on days to first recorded oestrus ...

Chiumia, Daniel



Factors associated with mortality in feedlot cattle: the Bruce County Beef Cattle Project.  

PubMed Central

The design of and the analysis of data from the Bruch County Beef Cattle Project, particularity the field study, are presented and discussed. A major value of the study may lie in its ability to relate laboratory findings to events in the field. The factor most strongly related to mortality was ration, with cattle on hay based rations having a much lower mortality on average than cattle on corn based rations. In general, management activities associated with growing cattle (as opposed to fattening) over the first winter were sparing for mortality. Groups of cattle given prophylactic vaccines or drugs within two days of arrival tended to experience higher mortality (not statistically higher) than those cattle not receiving those measures, or cattle groups recieving the same prophylactics more than 48 hours after arrival. However, these results require validation in the remaining years of the study. Fibrinous pneumonia was the most frequent diagnosis in the calves on postmortem examination. PMID:7397593

Martin, S W; Meek, A H; Davis, D G; Thomson, R G; Johnson, J A; Lopez, A; Stephens, L; Curtis, R A; Prescott, J F; Rosendal, S; Savan, M; Zubaidy, A J; Bolton, M R



Effect of limestone reactivity on the digestibility of nutrients in sorghum based diets fed to lactating Holstein cows  

E-print Network


Malasri, Kriangchitt Banphabutr



Genetic parameters for calving and conformation traits in Charolais x Montbeliard and Charolais x Holstein crossbred calves.  


Charolais sires can be mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dairy cows to produce crossbred calves sold for meat production. Heritabilities and correlations between traits can differ when they are calculated within Charolais × Montbéliard or within Charolais × Holstein population. Moreover, the genetic correlation between the same trait measured on Charolais × Montbéliard and on Charolais × Holstein crossbred calves is not necessarily unity. The first objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlation between traits within Charolais × Montbéliard and within Charolais × Holstein population. The second objective was to investigate if those traits are genetically identical between crossbred populations. Traits studied were calving difficulty, birth weight, height, bone thinness, and muscular development. Data included 22,852 Charolais × Montbéliard and 16,012 Charolais × Holstein crossbred calves from 391 Charolais sires. Heritabilities estimated separately within each crossbred population were similar. Stronger genetic correlations were observed in Charolais × Holstein population compared with Charolais × Montbéliard between calving difficulty and height (0.67 vs. 0.54), calving difficulty and bone thinness (0.42 vs. 0.27), birth weight and bone thinness (0.52 vs. 0.20), and birth weight and muscular development (0.41 vs. 0.18). Bivariate analysis considering observations on Charolais × Montbéliard and on Charolais × Holstein as different traits showed that genetic variances and heritabilities were similar for all traits except height. Birth weight and muscular development were genetically identical traits in each crossbred populations, with genetic correlations of 0.96 and 0.99. Genetic correlations were 0.91 for calving difficulty, 0.80 for height, and 0.70 for bone thinness and log-likelihood ratio tests indicated that they were significantly different from 1 (P ? 0.01). Results show evidence for reranking of Charolais sires for calving difficulty, height, and bone thinness depending on whether they are mated to Montbéliard or Holstein cows. PMID:24085407

Vallée, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H



Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.  


Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than those fed a low-nutrition diet, and they provide clear evidence that nutritional modulation of Holstein bull calves during early life has profound effects on reproductive development. PMID:25497791

Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John



Chinese Library Services to a Predominantly Chinese-Speaking Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The San Francisco Public Library has developed some special services for Chinese-speaking patrons. A collection of Chinese materials at the Chinatown branch now contains 9,000 fiction and non-fiction books, 9 newspapers, 19 periodicals, and over 300 phonograph records. Bilingual citizenship books are provided, as are reference books on China and…

Chan, Stella W.


Abortions in Cattle Max Irsik DVM, MAB  

E-print Network

Virus Diarrhea (BVD) is caused by a viral agent. There are multiple strains of the BVD virus. Some of the more common infectious agents causing abortions in cattle will be briefly reviewed: Bovine. It is spread by aerosol or contact especially from persistently infected cattle. BVD is usually associated

Watson, Craig A.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cattle are important reservoirs of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), foodborne pathogens that cause severe diarrhea and sometimes kidney failure and death in humans. Our goal is to develop an effective vaccine to prevent cattle from beco...


Blood electrolytes changes in peritonitis of cattle.  


Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneal cavity and is one of the main causes of animal deaths. It has been reported that many diseases such as peritonitis cause electrolyte imbalance in the body. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the serum electrolyte concentration in cattle with peritonitis. In order to perform this study, 45 cattle with peritonitis were selected in the Karaj area, and 20 healthy cattle were used as the control group. After diagnosis of peritonitis in the infected cattle, 10-ml blood samples were taken from the jugular vein, the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and chloride were estimated using the spectrophotometric method, and sodium and potassium concentrations were assessed by a flame photometer device. The results showed that the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in cattle affected with peritonitis were reduced compared with the control group, but the differences were not statistically significant. The concentration of phosphorus in the peritonitis-infected cattle was significantly higher than in the healthy cattle. On the basis of the results of the present study, it can be concluded that inflammation of the peritoneal cavity in cattle causes blood electrolyte deterioration, and more attention needs to be focused on this factor in the treatment of infected animals. PMID:23205003

Mokhber Dezfouli, Mohammad Reza; Lotfollahzadeh, Samad; Sadeghian, Sirous; Kojouri, Gholam Ali; Eftekhari, Zohre; Khadivar, Farshid; Bashiri, Ali



Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...


9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...



9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...



Utilization of DDGS by Cattle 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), the major byproduct of ethanol production, is a good protein and energy feed for cattle. The DDGS can be fed wet or dried with animal performance usually similar when fed as wet or dried products; however, some research results favored the wet products. Cattle diets can contain DDGS as replacements for portions of both concentrates

David J. Schingoethe


Genetic aspects of twinning in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twinning in cattle ranges from about 1% for beef breeds to about 4% for dairy breeds. The incidence of double births may have both positive and negative ef- fects, which mainly depends on the purpose for which the cattle are raised. Because of freemartinism, as well as management problems connected e.g. with a greater risk of dystocia and retained placenta,





Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of ration and season of sampling markedly affectedthe composition of blood in six tamed bison (Bison bison) steers and eight Hereford cattle (Bos taurus) steers. Observed values extended reported ranges for albumin, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in bison serum. There were several differencesbetween speciesin blood composition.In particular,erythrocyticand BUN values were higher in bison than in cattle. Overall



9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...



9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...



9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All cattle over 1 month of age...Administrator has determined has an acceptable tuberculosis surveillance system at slaughter plants...that agrees to share any findings of tuberculosis in U.S. origin cattle with...



Human–cattle interactions in group housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional European tie stall barns the stockperson has close interaction with the cattle several times a day. New barns are, however, mostly loose housing units where the animals are group housed and normally have space to evade people. As group housed cattle can be less habituated to humans, they may be more difficult to handle compared to individually housed

Satu Raussi




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uterine health is often compromised in cattle by bacterial contamination of the uterine lumen after parturition, and pathogenic bacteria often persist causing uterine disease, which is a key cause of infertility in cattle. However, the definition or characterization of uterine disease frequently lac...


Evidence for Two Independent Domestications of Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and taxonomic status of domesticated cattle are controversial. Zebu and taurine breeds are differentiated primarily by the presence or absence of a hump and have been recognized as separate species (Bos indicus and Bos taurus). However, the most widely held view is that both types of cattle derive from a single domestication event 8000-10,000 years ago. We have

Ronan T. Loftus; David E. MacHugh; Daniel G. Bradley; Paul M. Sharp; Patrick Cunningham



The Commoditization of Chinese Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

Gates, Hill



The Anxiety of Chinese Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to better understand and counsel Chinese students in the United States, the trait anxiety and test anxiety of 67 Chinese graduate students in education attending two universities in Taiwan were measured. Normative assessments for the total group showed that the sample fell within the normal range of U.S. students as defined in Test…

MacDougall, Mary Ann; Corcoran, Miriam D.


A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

Lamb, John F., Jr.



Chinese Converstations: An Intellectual Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of how Chinese urban intellectuals view life in their country is presented. Information was obtained through many conversations with Chinese educators and students during the author's visit to China. Discussed are family, education, the cultural revolution, the Gang of Four, the quest for modernization, and the policy toward…

Cogan, John J.




E-print Network

4-day intervals in cattle which were having estrous cycles. Fertility was normal for inseminations cycles of cattle. To be effective for use of management of estrous cycles of cattle, prostaglandins must concerning use of prostaglandins to control estrous cycles and pregnancy in cattle. Some data reported have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Generalized Holstein model for spin-dependent electron-transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some chemical reactions are described by electron transfer (ET) processes. The underlying mechanism could be modeled as a polaron motion in the molecular crystal—the Holstein model. By taking spin degrees of freedom into consideration, we generalize the Holstein model (molecular crystal model) to microscopically describe an ET chemical reaction. In our model, the electron spins in the radical pair simultaneously interact with a magnetic field and their nuclear-spin environments. By virtue of the perturbation approach, we obtain the chemical reaction rates for different initial states. It is discovered that the chemical reaction rate of the triplet state demonstrates its dependence on the direction of the magnetic field while the counterpart of the singlet state does not. This difference is attributed to the explicit dependence of the triplet state on the direction when the axis is rotated. Our model may provide a possible candidate for the microscopic origin of the avian compass.

Yang, Li-Ping; Ai, Qing; Sun, C. P.



Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.  


Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. PMID:25676210

Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae



Estimating Grazeable Acreage for Cattle  

E-print Network

Estimating Grazeable Acreage for Cattle Jason C. Hohlt, Robert K. Lyons, C. Wayne Hanselka and David McKown* B-6222 4-09 *Natural Resources Conservation Service; and Professor and Extension Range Specialist, Professor and Extension Range Specialist... Economics, Acts of Congress of May 8, 1914, as amended, and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. Edward G. Smith, Direc- tor, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, The Texas A&M System. 8M, New Produced by Agri...

Hohlt, Jason C.; Lyons, Robert K.; Hanselka, C. Wayne; McKown, David



Comparative phenotypic profile of subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes in European (Bos taurus taurus) and Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus).  


Differences in cellular and humoral immunity in Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) and European (B. taurus taurus) cattle breeds, which may be related to differences in resistance or susceptibility to infectious or parasitic diseases, are largely unknown. This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of innate and adaptive immunity of European (including Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Hereford) and Zebu (including Gir, Nelore, and Guzera) breeds, by assessing their peripheral blood leukocyte profiles (i.e., monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD21(+) B cells). Higher frequencies of cells involved in innate immunity were observed in Zebu breeds, particularly monocytes and non-T and non-B cells (13.37 ± 0.9058 and 37.67 ± 1.55, respectively). This finding may contribute to the increased resistance of B. taurus indicus to certain infectious and parasitic diseases. Considering other leukocyte populations in the peripheral blood, among-breed variation was greater than differences between the two subspecies. This study will serve as a basis for further investigations regarding comparative immunology and resistance to infectious and parasitic diseases of cattle. PMID:24391031

Macêdo, A A; Marciano, A P V; Rocha, L M; Alves-Júnior, J R F; Faria, A M C; Bittar, J F F; Araújo, M S S; Santos, R L; Martins-Filho, O A



Effects of Drinking Water Temperature on Production Responses in Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During late summer, 24 lactating Holstein cows were offered 10 or 28°C (control) drinking water ad libitum at 1400 h for 10 rain to investigate the effects on respiration rates, body tem- peratures, dry matter intake, and milk production. Experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of the two drinking water temperatures with .8, 1.1, and 1.4% dietary

K. Z. Milam; C. E. Coppock; J. W. West; J. K. Lanham; D. H. Nave; J. M. Labore; R. A. Stermer; C. F. Brasington



Effects of Drinking Water Temperature on Physiological Responses of Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine Iactating Holstein cows were offered drinking water of 7.2, 15.6, and 23.9°C in a 3 x 3 Latin square design in Experiment 1. Water was offered for 10 min at 1300 h to simulate time in a milking parlor. Water consumption de- clined as drinking water temperature decreased. Respiration rates decreased as the drinking water temperature decreased. In Experiment

J. Ko LANHAM; C. E. Coppock; K. Z. Milam; J. M. Labore; D. H. Nave; R. A. Stermer; C. F. Brasington



Zur Mauser des Großgefieders beim Seeadler ( Haliaeetus albicilla ) in Schleswig-Holstein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Between 1955 and 2000 feathers moulted by White-tailed Eagles were collected systematically in the breeding territories in\\u000a Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. 581 tail feathers and 382 primaries from a maximum of 22 nest sites (1999) and more than 300\\u000a secondaries (81 collected between 1960 and 1970) were considered. Moulting process of primaries and secondaries is serially\\u000a continuous, with several moult waves proceeding

B. Struwe-Juhl; R. Schmidt



Diagnosis and management of a malignant granulosa cell tumor in a holstein nulligravida: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transrectal palpation of an 18-mo-old, anestrous Holstein nulligravida revealed an enlarged left ovary. Ultrasonographically, the mass resembled known equine granulosa cell tumor (GCT) images. Slowly, virilism developed. Fifty-five days after initial diagnosis, unilateral ovariectomy was performed The presurgical serum concentration of testosterone was equal to that of a mature bull. During the 3 mo period following surgery, estrus expression resumed,

D. E. Hosteller; D. J. Sprecher; B. Yamini; N. K. Ames



Kleinflächen und Meßstellen zur Kalkulation großflächiger Brutvogelbestände: Buteo buteo und Accipiter gentilis in Schleswig-Holstein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Großflächige Bestandszahlen vieler Vogelarten sind nur über Teilerfassungen zu erhalten. Quantitative Gitterfeldkartierung mit Konfidenzintervallberechnung ermöglicht, Bestandsgrößen ohne Schätzanteile zu ermitteln und die Größen der Stichproben zu disponieren (Abb. 2). Die Kalkulation des Mäusebussard-Bestandes für Schleswig-Holstein mit 15 % an Probefläche beträgt 2891 Paare (Intervall 88–112 %), mit 6 % Probefläche nur geringfügig abweichend 3048 (oder gerundet 2400–3700) Paare innerhalb

Giinther Busche



Efficacy of dried colostrum powders in the prevention of diarrhea in neonatal Holstein calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and twenty healthy Holstein calves were assigned randomly at birth to one of four groups; each group contained\\u000a 30 calves and the calves were received as follows: group A, 85?±?5 g of lyophilized colostrum powder dissolved in 3 kg of\\u000a whole milk; group B, 85?±?5 g of spray-dried colostrum powder dissolved in 3 kg of whole milk; group C, 750 ml frozen and

M. R. Mokhber Dezfouli; F. Rezazadeh; M. Rabbani; S. T. Zahraai; H. A. Seifi



Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37oC) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as

A. Fawzy




E-print Network


Powers, Robert


The Chinese University of Hong Kong  

E-print Network

Chinese Culture and Society Fundamentals in Chinese Medicine Government and Politics of China BuddhismThe Chinese University of Hong Kong International Summer School International Summer School 20102010 Founded in 1963, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) is a forward looking comprehensive

Takada, Shoji


Biotech's Chinese connection  

SciTech Connect

Hong Kong last month opened the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology (HKIB), a nonprofit R and D center. By combining Chinese expertise in medicinal compounds and cell culturing with Western technical and marketing skills, the institute hopes to develop products that could be licensed to Hong Kong or Western films. The institute is also developing experimental cell lines and making genetically engineered versions of promising compounds, taking advantage of the cell-culturing and cloning skills that are highly developed on the mainland. The Shanghai contingent is already involved in one of the institute's projects, an effort to transfer human genes into mouse fibroblasts to create cell lines for research on the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Other Chinese researchers are taking part in HKIB's joint venture with Syntex, which was signed last April. The mainland researchers extract candidate medicinal compounds from plants and microorganisms. In Hong Kong, the compounds are tested for their effects on neurotransmitter receptors, while Syntex scientists in Palo Alto study how the same compounds affect enzyme activity and whole cells.

Hodgson, G.



Chinese Armillary Spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

Sun, Xiaochun


Comparative geno-plasticity analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese isolate).  


Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun



Comparative Geno-Plasticity Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (Chinese Isolate)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in cattle has been epidemic in China since 2008. To investigate M. bovis pathogenesis, we completed genome sequencing of strain HB0801 isolated from a lesioned bovine lung from Hubei, China. The genomic plasticity was determined by comparing HB0801 with M. bovis strain ATCC® 25523™/PG45 from cow mastitis milk, Chinese strain Hubei-1 from lesioned lung tissue, and 16 other Mycoplasmas species. Compared to PG45, the genome size of HB0801 was reduced by 11.7 kb. Furthermore, a large chromosome inversion (580 kb) was confirmed in all Chinese isolates including HB0801, HB1007, a strain from cow mastitis milk, and Hubei-1. In addition, the variable surface lipoproteins (vsp) gene cluster existed in HB0801, but contained less than half of the genes, and had poor identity to that in PG45, but they had conserved structures. Further inter-strain comparisons revealed other mechanisms of gene acquisition and loss in HB0801 that primarily involved insertion sequence (IS) elements, integrative conjugative element, restriction and modification systems, and some lipoproteins and transmembrane proteins. Subsequently, PG45 and HB0801 virulence in cattle was compared. Results indicated that both strains were pathogenic to cattle. The scores of gross pathological assessment for the control group, and the PG45- and HB0801-infected groups were 3, 13 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile the scores of lung lesion for these three groups were 36, 70, and 69, respectively. In addition, immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that both strains were similarly distributed in lungs and lymph nodes. Although PG45 showed slightly higher virulence in calves than HB0801, there was no statistical difference between the strains (P>0.05). Compared to Hubei-1, a total of 122 SNP loci were disclosed in HB0801. In conclusion, although genomic plasticity was thought to be an evolutionary advantage, it did not apparently affect virulence of M. bovis strains in cattle. PMID:22693604

Qi, Jingjing; Guo, Aizhen; Cui, Peng; Chen, Yingyu; Mustafa, Riaz; Ba, Xiaoliang; Hu, Changmin; Bai, Zhidi; Chen, Xi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Huanchun



Eradication of Lice in Cattle  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals. PMID:11455904

Nafstad, O; Grønstøl, H



Genome edited sheep and cattle.  


Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701

Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C



Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.  


Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered cattle for agricultural and biomedical applications. PMID:25596824

Wang, Zhongde



Diet digestibility, rate of passage, and eating and rumination behavior of Jersey and Holstein cows.  


Diet digestibility and rate of passage, eating and rumination behavior, dry matter intake (DMI), and lactation performance were compared in 6 Jersey and 6 Holstein multiparous cows. Cows were fed gestation diets according to body weight (BW) beginning 7 wk before expected calving and ad libitum amounts of a lactation diet postpartum. Diet digestibility and rate of passage were measured in 5-d periods at wk 5 prepartum and wk 6 and 14 of lactation. Eating and ruminating behavior was measured over 5-d periods at wk 5 and 2 prepartum and wk 2, 6, 10, and 14 of lactation. Milk yield and DMI were higher in Holsteins, but milk energy output per kilogram of metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) and intake capacity (DMI/kg of BW) did not differ between breeds. Holsteins spent longer ruminating per day compared with Jerseys, but daily eating time did not differ between breeds. Jerseys spent more time eating and ruminating per unit of ingested feed. The duration and number of meals consumed did not differ between breeds, but the meals consumed by Jerseys were distributed more evenly throughout each 24-h period, providing a more regular supply of feed to the rumen. Feed passed through the digestive tract more quickly in Jerseys compared with Holsteins, suggesting particle breakdown and rumen outflow were faster in Jerseys, but this may also reflect the relative size of their digestive tract. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater in Jerseys, despite the shorter rumen retention time, but digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, starch, and N did not differ between breeds. Utilization of digested N for tissue retention was higher at wk 5 prepartum and lower at wk 14 of lactation in Jerseys. In contrast to numerous published studies, intake capacity of Jerseys was not higher than that of Holsteins, but in the present study, cows were selected on the basis of equal expected milk energy yield per kilogram of metabolic BW. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and rate of digesta passage were higher in Jerseys, probably as a consequence of increased mastication per unit of feed consumed in Jerseys and their smaller size. PMID:18292266

Aikman, P C; Reynolds, C K; Beever, D E



Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.



Genetic relationships of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness with milk yield and somatic cell score in first-lactation Canadian Holsteins.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships of the 3 most frequently reported dairy cattle diseases (clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness) with test-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) in first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows using random regression models. Health data recorded by producers were available from the National Dairy Cattle Health System in Canada. Disease traits were defined as binary traits (0=healthy, 1=affected) based on whether or not the cow had at least one disease case recorded within 305 d after calving. Mean frequencies of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 12.7, 8.2, and 9.1%, respectively. For genetic analyses, a Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied. Bivariate linear sire random regression model analyses were carried out between each of the 3 disease traits and test-day milk yield or SCS. Random regressions on second-degree Legendre polynomials were used to model the daily sire additive genetic and cow effects on test-day milk yield and SCS, whereas only the intercept term was fitted for disease traits. Estimated heritabilities were 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02 for clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness, respectively. Average heritabilities for milk yield were between 0.41 and 0.49. Average heritabilities for SCS ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The average genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 0.40, 0.26, and 0.23, respectively; however, the last estimate was not statistically different from zero. Cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield during the lactation were more susceptible to clinical mastitis and cystic ovaries. Estimates of genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis were moderate throughout the lactation. The genetic correlations between daily milk yield and cystic ovaries were near zero at the beginning of lactation and were highest at mid and end lactation. The average genetic correlation between daily SCS and clinical mastitis was 0.59 and was consistent throughout the lactation. The average genetic correlation between daily SCS and cystic ovaries was near zero (-0.01), whereas a moderate, but nonsignificant, correlation of 0.27 was observed between SCS and lameness. Unfavorable genetic associations between milk yield and diseases imply that production and health traits should be considered simultaneously in genetic selection. PMID:24996282

Koeck, A; Loker, S; Miglior, F; Kelton, D F; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S



Relationship between pregnancy per artificial insemination and early luteal concentrations of progesterone and establishment of repeatability estimates for these traits in Holstein-Friesian heifers.  


Pregnancy per insemination is a major determinant of reproductive efficiency in cattle and is affected by concentrations of progesterone (P4) during early pregnancy. The relationship between pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) and early luteal concentrations of P4, and repeatability of concentrations of P4 was examined on d 4, 5, 6, and 7 (day of standing estrus=d 0) in 118 Holstein Friesian heifers following 2 rounds of AI to 1 high-fertility sire. Repeatability estimates (R(e)) for P/AI were established following 4 rounds of AI. We found a linear and quadratic relationship between P/AI and concentrations of P4 on d 4 to 7 after estrus, as well as a linear and quadratic relationship between P/AI and the change in concentration of P4 from d 4 to 7 and from d 5 to 7. Optimum concentrations of P4 to maximize probability of P/AI were 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 5.2, and 3.5 ng/mL for d 4, 5, 6, and 7, and the change from d 4 to 7, respectively. Repeatability of P/AI following 4 rounds of AI was low (R(e)=0.07). Repeatability estimates for concentrations of P4 from cycle to cycle indicated low repeatability between d 4 (R(e)=0.05) and 7 (R(e)=0.20). These data indicated the importance of P4 in the early luteal phase for pregnancy survival, but also demonstrated that high concentrations of P4 on these days have a deleterious effect on embryo viability. Early luteal (d 4 to 5) concentrations of P4 were a reasonable predictor of concentrations on d 7 and could be used as a diagnostic tool to identify animals at risk of subsequent embryo loss. PMID:22541467

Parr, M H; Mullen, M P; Crowe, M A; Roche, J F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Diskin, M G



Elimination kinetics of cephapirin sodium in milk after an 8-day extended therapy program of daily intramammary infusion in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows.  


The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of extended therapy with intramammary (IMM) cephapirin in lactating dairy cattle. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were administered cephapirin (200mg) into all 4 mammary glands every 24 h after milking. Cows were milked 3 times per day and concentrations of cephapirin and desacetyl cephapirin were determined in bucket milk using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Milk concentration-time data after the last of the 8 IMM infusions were fitted using compartment and noncompartmental models. The maximum cephapirin concentration was 128±57 µg/mL (mean ± SD), the elimination rate constant from the central compartment was 0.278±0.046 (h(-1)), clearance was 0.053±0.023 L/h, the half time for elimination was 2.55±0.40 h, and the mean residence time was 2.65±0.79 h. The cephapirin concentration was below the approved tolerance in all cows by 96 h after the last infusion, which is the labeled withholding time for the preparation used. Extended therapy for 8 d provided milk cephapirin concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for common gram-positive mastitis pathogens (0.1 to 1.0 µg/mL) for the duration of therapy and for an additional 16 to 32 h after the end of treatment. Our findings suggest that this IMM cephapirin sodium formulation, which is labeled for 2 doses 12 h apart, could be administered at a 24-h interval for up to 8 d in cows milked 3 times per day, with no significant effect on residue levels by 96 h after the last treatment. Longer withdrawal times would be prudent for cows with low milk production. PMID:23684021

Gorden, P J; van der List, M; Lehman, F D; Lantz, R K; Constable, P D



Health Information in Chinese - Simplified (????): MedlinePlus  


... PDF Health Information Translations Back Injuries Back Care - English ???? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Exercises for Your Back ???? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF ...


WMCI Community Courses (Beginning Chinese I, II, III; Business Chinese;  

E-print Network

and Community Courses at W&MWashington DC Office Summer Session Chinese Bridge Summer Camp July 2013 Summer Camp Confucius Institute Spring and Summer 2013 Events and Activities (757) 221

Lewis, Robert Michael


Pattern of expression of the uterine milk protein gene and its association with productive life in dairy cattle.  


The uterine milk proteins (UTMP) are the major proteins secreted by the endometrium, primarily under the control of progesterone. Specific functions of UTMP are poorly understood, but may include protease inhibition, nutrition of the conceptus, growth control, and suppression of the maternal immune system. The uterine milk protein gene (UTMP) was chosen for this study because of its possible roles in health traits and results of previous studies on the association of the UTMP region with milk production and productive life in dairy cattle. Expression of UTMP was examined in 198 bovine tissues obtained from 10 fetuses and 17 cows. Transcripts of UTMP were found in all cotyledon tissues examined and to a lesser extent in ovary, pituitary, and spleen tissues obtained from fetuses. The UTMP gene was predominantly expressed in endometrium (17/17), ovary (15/16), and caruncle (12/12) tissues obtained from cows. The predominant expression of UTMP in reproductive tissues is consistent with an important role of this gene in reproductive success. To investigate the association between UTMP and production traits in cattle, we identified 2 synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at positions 1179 (A/G) and 1296 (A/G) using the pooled DNA sequencing approach. The DNA was extracted from 28 Holstein sires and their 1,362 sons obtained from the Cooperative Dairy DNA Repository and from 913 cows from the University of Wisconsin resource population. Single nucleotide polymorphism 1296 was associated with a significant increase in productive life in both populations. This finding is similar to results previously obtained for the protease inhibitor gene, which is near UTMP and was also found to be associated with productive life in dairy cattle. Differential allelic expression of UTMP was observed in reproductive tissues obtained from 9 heterozygous individuals. The differential allelic expression observed in this study is consistent with other studies showing a correlation between allelic variation in gene expression and phenotypic variability. PMID:17430947

Khatib, H; Schutzkus, V; Chang, Y M; Rosa, G J M



Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing-impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture\\u000a and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transformation method of Chinese-Chinese\\u000a sign language machine translation is proposed. Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is\\u000a implemented. The input of the system

Xu Lin; Wen Gao



Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using intratumoral injection of the 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for the treatment of eye cancer in cattle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-year old Holstein cow with an eye cancer (ocular squamous cell carcinoma) involving the third eyelid and conjunctiva was submitted to photodynamic therapy using intratumoral 20% aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA - Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, USA) and a light emitting diode (LED - VET LED - MMOptics (R)) with wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, power of 150 mW, light dose of 50 J/cm2 as a source of irradiation. Fifteen days after the experimental procedure we observed about 50% tumor reduction and complete remission after 3 months. Relapse was not observed up to 12 months after the treatment. Although the study only includes one animal not allowing definite conclusions, it indicates that PDT represents a safe and technically feasible approach in the treatment of eye cancer in cattle.

Hage, Raduan; Mancilha, Geraldo; Zângaro, Renato A.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio



The Chinese healthcare challenge  

PubMed Central

Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379

Fabre, Guilhem



Chinese Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archaeological digs can tell us much about ancient civilizations, but what about more recent periods of human habitation? This fine collection from the USC Digital Library presents over 1,100 images of artifacts excavated from two sites in Southern California. The Chinatown section features 1,040 color images of artifacts from the original Los Angeles Chinatown. These items were recovered during the construction of the Metro Rail Red Line by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The online collection includes photos of wine bowls, ink stone boxes, and other fragments of items from daily household life. The second segment includes items excavated in 1992 from an old adobe structure in Santa Barbara that housed a Chinese laundry from the mid 1880s to 1905. The collection can be searched via keyword, and it is quite a resource for historians, archaeologists, and others.



Chinese Military Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource from the Commonwealth Institute's Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA) (reviewed in the January 12, 1999 Scout Report for Social Sciences) offers a gateway to "online analysis and research tools essential to understanding China's military policy, capabilities, and potential." The full-text offerings are accessed through links to a variety of English-language sources, and are grouped by topic, such as Commentary, Military Analyses, Political and Economic Conditions, Regional Context, and US Policy Toward China, among others. In addition, online resources on several special topics (China and the RMA, Arms Trade and Proliferation, Taiwan Confrontation, Cox Report and Aftermath, and China Arsenal) are also provided. Other resources include a bibliography, links to selected research sites, and contact information for a number of specialists in the field. If the site remains regularly updated as promised, it should become a useful current awareness tool for researchers and students studying Chinese military policy and US-China military relations.


Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.



Evolution of the genetic variability of eight French dairy cattle breeds assessed by pedigree analysis.  


A pedigree analysis was performed on eight French dairy cattle breeds to assess their change in genetic variability since a first analysis completed in 1996. The Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde breeds are selected internationally with over hundreds of thousands cows registered in the performance recording system. Three breeds are internationally selected but with limited numbers of cows in France (Brown Swiss, French Simmental and French Red Pied). The last two remaining breeds (Abondance and Tarentaise) are raised at regional level. The effective numbers of ancestors of cows born between 2004 and 2007 varied between 15 (Abondance and Tarentaise) and 51 (French Red Pied). The effective population sizes (classical approach) varied between 53 (Abondance) and 197 (French Red Pied). This article also compares the genetic variability of the ex situ (collections of the French National Cryobank) and in situ populations. The results were commented in regard to the recent history of gene flows in the different breeds as well as the existence of more or less stringent bottlenecks. Our results showed that whatever the size of the breeds, their genetic diversity impoverished quite rapidly since 1996 and they all could be considered as quite poor from a genetic diversity point of view. It shows the need for setting up cryobanks as gene reservoirs as well as sustainable breeding programmes that include loss of genetic diversity as an integrated control parameter. PMID:22583325

Danchin-Burge, C; Leroy, G; Brochard, M; Moureaux, S; Verrier, E



Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.

Galey, F.D.; Terra, R.; Walker, R.; Adaska, J.; Etchebarne, M.A.; Puschener, B.; Whitlock, R.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Willoughby, D.; Tor, E.



Effects of tail docking on health and performance of beef cattle in confined, slatted-floor feedlots.  


Tail docking of feedlot cattle is a management practice used in some confined, slatted-floor feedlots of the midwestern United States. Justification for tail docking in these management systems is to reduce tail injuries and their sequelae and improve performance, but limited evidence exists to support these claims. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on performance, carcass traits, and health parameters after tail docking in feedlot cattle raised in slatted-floor feedlots. Three separate trials were performed. Trial 1 consisted of 140 Angus-cross (370-kg) yearling steers that spent 144 to 160 days on feed (DOF). Trial 2 consisted of 137 Angus-cross (255-kg) weaned steers that spent 232 DOF. Trial 3 consisted of 102 Holstein steers (370 kg) that spent 185 to 232 DOF. Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All steers received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. Approximately two-thirds of the tail of DK calves was removed and an elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis. Performance parameters collected included daily gain, final weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Carcass data included HCW, subcutaneous fat thickness, LM area, KPH percent, marbling, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. Morbidity, mortality, incidence of lameness, and incidence of tail lesions were recorded. Across all 3 trials, there was no significant effect (P < 0.05) of treatment on performance parameters, carcass traits, or health parameters. In all 3 trials, tail tip injuries occurred in 60 to 76% of undocked (CN) calves, developed while living in the slatted-floor environment, compared to 100% of DK calves, whose injuries were a result of the tail docking procedure. We were unable to identify a performance or significant health advantage to tail docking. However, tail tip injuries still occur in cattle raised in slatted-floor facilities. Because of the animal welfare issues associated with tail docking and tail injuries, we recommend pursuing alternative solutions to reducing the incidence of tail tip injury in feedlot cattle housed in confined slatted-floor facilities. PMID:24987071

Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Metz, K; Rust, S R