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Sample records for chinese organizations

  1. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  2. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  3. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  4. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems. PMID:23449366

  5. Model Organisms and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model. PMID:24381636

  6. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-01-01

    The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

  7. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  8. [Effects of Chinese fir litter on soil organic carbon decomposition and microbial biomass carbon].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Si-Long; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2013-09-01

    By using 13C stable isotope tracer technique, this paper studied the effects of Chinese fir litter addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, microbial biomass carbon, and dissolved organic carbon in 0-5 cm and 40-45 cm layers. The decomposition rate of SOC in 40-45 cm layer was significantly lower than that in 0-5 cm layer, but the priming effect induced by the Chinese fir litter addition showed an opposite trend. The Chinese fir litter addition increased the soil total microbial biomass carbon and the microbial biomass carbon derived from native soil significantly, but had less effects on the soil dissolved organic carbon. Turning over the subsoil to the surface of the woodland could accelerate the soil carbon loss in Chinese fir plantation due to the priming effect induced by the litters. PMID:24417093

  9. Organ dose conversion coefficients for external photon irradiation using the Chinese voxel phantom (CVP).

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Bi, Lei; Li, Wenqian

    2009-07-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on a whole-body, Chinese adult male voxel phantom. This computational phantom, called the Chinese voxel phantom (CVP), including totally 23 organs, was developed from magnetic resonance imaging of a young healthy Chinese man at a resolution of 2 x 2 mm. Compared with the ICRP Reference Man, more than half of the organs or tissues in the CVP show mass differences of more than 20. Monte Carlo simulations with MCNP code were carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral, left-lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Organ dose conversion coefficients from this study are compared with the data from the Asian voxel phantoms Visible Chinese Human and KORMAN. These data sets agree with each other within 10% for photon energy >5 MeV. However, discrepancies of 34-63% were observed for organs of the alimentary tract, such as the oesophagus and stomach, those of the urinary system, such as the bladder wall and thyroid, especially at low photon energy range and PA geometry. These results suggest that the anatomical variation within the Chinese population, as represented by these adult male voxel phantoms, can lead to uncertainties when a standard phantom is used for the entire population. PMID:19457976

  10. Learning Organization in Mainland China: Empirical Research on Its Application to Chinese State-Owned Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, De; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Baiyin

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the applicability of the learning organization concept and its measurement in a Chinese context. Based on the theoretical framework proposed by Watkins and Marsick (1993, 1996, 1997), this paper identifies the differences in seven of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) between traditional state-owned…

  11. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  12. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  13. The Negative Impact of Death Anxiety on Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Donate Organs among Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…

  14. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. PMID:22381886

  15. Voluntary organ donation system adapted to Chinese cultural values and social reality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. PMID:25545626

  16. Current knowledge and attitudes about organ donation and transplantation among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Chen, J X; Zhang, T M; Lim, F L; Wu, H C; Lei, T F; Yeong, P K; Xia, S J

    2006-11-01

    Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square tests, and a logistic regression analysis. We found that blood donors showed significantly better awareness of heart, liver, lung, skin, and tendon donation among commonly transplanted organs/tissues. As to the willingness for cadaveric organ donation, 61.3% of respondents consented, 8.5% objected, and 30.3% answered "not sure." The percentage holding an organ donor card was 15.7% among students from Hong Kong; 3.0%, mainland China; 2.8%, Macau; 2.6%, Taiwan, and 4.0%, other regions of the world. In a logistic regression analysis, female students (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 3.72) and blood donors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.32) did, but age and study specialty (medical vs nonmedical) did not show significantly more positive attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. Compared with students from mainland China, overseas Chinese students from various regions did not show significantly different attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. In summary, blood donors among university students have a greater knowledge of transplantation and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Since university students are an important source of blood donors in China, they will be a potential pool of organ donors in the future. PMID:17112824

  17. Effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapot.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Shiyin

    2008-01-15

    The morphology and elemental composition of the corrosion products of copper teapot's inner-surface were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray surface analysis (SEM/EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. It was revealed that Cu, Fe, Ca, P, Si and Al were the main elements of corrosion by-products, and the alpha-SiO(2), Cu(2)O and CaCO(3) as the main mineral components on the inner-surface of copper teapot. The effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapots in tap water were also investigated. The results showed that the doses of organic matter (as TOC), temperate and stagnation time have significant effects on the concentration of soluble copper released from copper teapots in tap water. PMID:17904199

  18. Identification of Organic Binders in Ancient Chinese Paintings by Immunological Techniques.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Bingjian

    2015-10-01

    The identification and localization of organic binders in artworks are big challenges in archaeology and conservation science. Immunological techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) have the potential to become powerful tools for the analysis of organic materials in ancient samples. In this study, ELISA and IFM techniques were combined to identify chicken ovalbumin, glue from several mammalian species, bovine milk, and fish glue in ancient Chinese painting samples. As binders, egg ovalbumin was found in two painting samples and animal glue was found in three samples, which were dated from the 4th to 8th centuries. The results clearly demonstrate that ELISA and IFM can be used to validate results from ancient samples. PMID:26428439

  19. Chinese American Vendors of Los Angeles: A Case of Resistance, Political Organization and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Argues against Gunther Barth's assertion that the anti-Chinese movement in the United States resulted from Chinese Americans' rejection of liberal American ideals. Holds that it was the participation of Chinese farmer/vendors in Californian society during the late 1800s that made them objectionable to racially biased Whites. (Author/GC)

  20. Psychometric Validation and Normative Data of a Second Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng; Guo, Wei-Yuan; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2012-01-01

    The Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) is a measure of visuosynthetic ability. Previously, the psychometric properties of the HVOT have been evaluated for Chinese-speaking children aged 5-11 years. This study reports development and further evidence of reliability and validity for a second version involving an extended age range of healthy…

  1. Functional organization of intrinsic connectivity networks in Chinese-chess experts.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xujun; Long, Zhiliang; Chen, Huafu; Liang, Dongmei; Qiu, Lihua; Huang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-04-16

    The functional architecture of the human brain has been extensively described in terms of functional connectivity networks, detected from the low-frequency coherent neuronal fluctuations during a resting state condition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the overall organization of functional connectivity networks is associated with individual differences in cognitive performance and prior experience. Such an association raises the question of how cognitive expertise exerts an influence on the topological properties of large-scale functional networks. To address this question, we examined the overall organization of brain functional networks in 20 grandmaster and master level Chinese-chess players (GM/M) and twenty novice players, by means of resting-state functional connectivity and graph theoretical analyses. We found that, relative to novices, functional connectivity was increased in GM/Ms between basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, and several parietal and temporal areas, suggesting the influence of cognitive expertise on intrinsic connectivity networks associated with learning and memory. Furthermore, we observed economical small-world topology in the whole-brain functional connectivity networks in both groups, but GM/Ms exhibited significantly increased values of normalized clustering coefficient which resulted in increased small-world topology. These findings suggest an association between the functional organization of brain networks and individual differences in cognitive expertise, which might provide further evidence of the mechanisms underlying expert behavior. PMID:24565926

  2. Laboratory measurements of emission factors of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from burning of Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Pan, Xiaole; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Miyakawa, Takuma; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-05-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted during the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency in laboratory experiments. NMVOCs, including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Rape plant was burned in dry conditions and wheat straw was burned in both wet and dry conditions to simulate the possible burning of damp crop residue in regions of high temperature and humidity. We compared the present data to field data reported by Kudo et al. (2014). Good agreement between field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics under relatively more smoldering combustion of dry samples, but laboratory data were slightly overestimated compared to field data for oxygenated VOC (OVOC). When EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the consistency between the field and laboratory data for OVOCs was stronger than for dry samples. This may be caused by residual moisture in crop residue that has been stockpiled in humid regions. Comparison of the wet laboratory data with field data suggests that Kudo et al. (2014) observed the biomass burning plumes under relatively more smoldering conditions in which approximately a few tens of percentages of burned fuel materials were wet.

  3. Laboratory measurements of emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from biomass burning in Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; PAN, X.; Taketani, F.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency by the laboratory experiments. The VOCs including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Two samples, wheat straw and rape plant, were burned in dry conditions and for some experiments wheat straw was burned under wet conditions. We compared the present data to the field data reported by Kudo et al. [2014]. The agreement between the field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics for relatively more smoldering data of dry samples but the field data were slightly underestimated compared with the laboratory data for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and acetonitrile. When the EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the underestimations for OVOCs and acetonitrile were improved compared with the data of dry samples. It may be a property of the burning of crop residue in the region of high temperature and high humidity that some inside parts of piled crop residue and/or the crop residue facing on the ground are still wet. But the ratios for acetic acid/glycolaldehyde was still lower than 1. This may suggest that strong loss processes of acetic acid/glycolaldehyde are present in the fresh plume.Kudo S., H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Saito, X. L. Pan, Y. Kanaya, F. Taketani, Z. F. Wang, H. Chen, H. Dong, M. Zhang, and K. Yamaji (2014), Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 7684-7698, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021044.

  4. Analysis of carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Hye Ran; Park, Sang Un

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes was investigated in the flowers, stems, young leaves, old leaves, and roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of BrPSY, BrPDS, BrZDS, BrLCYB, BrLCYE, BrCHXB, and BrZEP leading to the production of carotenoids were highest in the flowers or the leaves and lowest in the roots of Chinese cabbage. In contrast, the mRNA expression of BrNCED, a gene involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was highest in the roots. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that carotenoids, namely, lutein and β-carotene, were distributed predominantly in the flowers and leaves, with very little in the underground organ, the roots. Specifically, old leaves contained 120.3 μg/g lutein and 103.93 μg/g β-carotene, which is the most potent dietary precursor of vitamin A. Moreover, we found a relatively large amount of cis isomers of β-carotene, namely, 9-cis β-carotene and 13-cis β-carotene, in Chinese cabbage. These results provide insight into carotenoid biosynthetic mechanisms in Chinese cabbage and may be helpful in the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants.

  5. Elevated Levels of Volatile Organic Carcinogen and Toxicant Biomarkers in Chinese Women Who Regularly Cook at Home

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Seow, Adeline; Wang, Mingyao; Wang, Renwei; Meng, Lei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Han, Shaomei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies associate lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women with Chinese-style wok cooking. Our goal was to quantify carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers in Chinese women who reported regularly doing home cooking compared to women randomly selected from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as controls. Methods Biomarkers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), HPLC-with fluorescence detection, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Compared with controls, women who engaged in regular home cooking had significantly higher levels of mercapturic acids of acrolein [geometric mean 1959 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 1554–2467) vs.1370 (95% CI 1077–1742), P = 0.038], crotonaldehyde [geometric mean 232 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 193–277) vs. 142 (95% CI 118–171) P = 0.0004], and benzene [geometric mean 0.58 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 0.44–0.78) vs. 0.18 (95% CI 0.14–0.24) P < 0.0001]. No significant differences were found in levels of mercapturic acids of 1,3-butadiene, pyrene and phenanthrene metabolites, or acetaldehyde-leukocyte DNA adduct levels between the groups. Levels of the ethylene oxide mercapturic acid were significantly higher in the controls. Conclusions The higher levels of the mercapturic acid of benzene, a multi-organ carcinogen, in the women who cooked are particularly notable. Overall, the results showing increased exposure to the volatile toxicants and carcinogens acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and benzene in Chinese women who regularly cook provide a plausible lead for further investigating the role of volatile compounds generated during high temperature cooking with oils as causes of lung cancer. Impact A new direction for research on lung cancer etiology is suggested. PMID:20406956

  6. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  7. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  8. Organ dose conversion coefficients on an ICRP-based Chinese adult male voxel model from idealized external photons exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Binquan; Ma, Jizeng; Li, Ren; Li, Wenqian; Bi, Lei

    2009-11-01

    A high-resolution whole-body voxel model called CAM representing the Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper based on a previous individual voxel model. There are more than 80 tissues and organs in CAM, including almost all organs required in the ICRP new recommendation. The mass of individual organs has been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. Special considerations were given to representing the gross spatial distribution of various bone constituents as realistically as possible during the construction of the site-specific skeleton. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated for six idealized external photon exposures from 10 keV to 10 MeV by using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting dose coefficients were then compared with those from other models, e.g. CMP, ICRP 74, Rex, HDRK-man and VIP-man. Old and new effective male doses of CAM were calculated by using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP 60 and 103 Publications, respectively. Dosimetric differences between mathematical and voxel models, and the differences between Asian and Caucasian models are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Organ dose conversion coefficients on an ICRP-based Chinese adult male voxel model from idealized external photons exposures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Binquan; Ma, Jizeng; Li, Ren; Li, Wenqian; Bi, Lei

    2009-11-01

    A high-resolution whole-body voxel model called CAM representing the Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper based on a previous individual voxel model. There are more than 80 tissues and organs in CAM, including almost all organs required in the ICRP new recommendation. The mass of individual organs has been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. Special considerations were given to representing the gross spatial distribution of various bone constituents as realistically as possible during the construction of the site-specific skeleton. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated for six idealized external photon exposures from 10 keV to 10 MeV by using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting dose coefficients were then compared with those from other models, e.g. CMP, ICRP 74, Rex, HDRK-man and VIP-man. Old and new effective male doses of CAM were calculated by using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP 60 and 103 Publications, respectively. Dosimetric differences between mathematical and voxel models, and the differences between Asian and Caucasian models are also discussed in this paper. PMID:19841518

  10. Emerging HRD Issues: A Conceptual Framework for Corporate University in the Context of Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Alagaraja, Meera

    2007-01-01

    The authors suggest a conceptual framework for developing CU's in the Chinese organizational context. We reviewed literature on existing conceptual frameworks and chose the CU wheel as proposed by Prince and Stewart. Four core processes identified in the CU wheel were realigned and readjusted in developing our framework of Corporate University in…

  11. Influence of Sticky Rice and Anionic Polyacrylamide on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate in Chinese Organic Sanhetu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Peng, Changsheng; Dai, Min; Gu, Qingbao; Song, Shaoxian

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil controlled by natural organic material was considered a very important reason to enhance the property of ancient Chinese organic Sanhetu (COS), but how the organic material affected the crystallization of CaCO3 in COS is still unclear. In this paper, a natural organic material (sticky rice, SR) and a synthetic organic material (anionic polyacrylamide, APAM) were selected as additives to investigate their effect on the crystallization of CaCO3. The experimental results showed that the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of additives and reaction time, while only the size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of reactant. Although the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals varied greatly with the variation of additive concentration, reactant concentration and reaction time, the polymorph of CaCO3 crystals were always calcite, according to SEM/EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses. This study may help us to better understand the mechanism of the influence of organic materials on CaCO3 crystallization and properties of COS.

  12. Classification of Mixtures of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on a Self-organizing Map (SOM).

    PubMed

    Wang, Maolin; Li, Li; Yu, Changyuan; Yan, Aixia; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) are typically mixtures of compounds and are often categorized into cold and hot according to the theory of Chinese Medicine. This classification is essential for guiding the clinical application of CHMs. In this study, three types of molecular descriptors were used to build models for classification of 59 CHMs with typical cold/hot properties in the training set taken from the original records on properties in China Pharmacopeia as reference. The accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient of the models were validated by a test set containing other 56 CHMs. The best model produced the accuracies of 94.92 % and 83.93 % on training set and test set, respectively. The MACCS fingerprint model is robust in predicting hot/cold properties of the CHMs from their major constituting compounds. This work shows how a classification model for data consisting of multi-components can be developed. The derived model can be used for the application of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:27491920

  13. Seasonal and spatial variability of the organic matter-to-organic carbon mass ratios in Chinese urban organic aerosols and a first report of high correlations between aerosol oxalic acid and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 yr-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant, due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matters constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We reported, for the first time, high correlations between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic property of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  14. Organic Contaminants in Chinese Sewage Sludge: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature of the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Ni, Yi-Lin; Steele, Joshua C; Wu, Ling-Ling; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-01

    The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27 900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12 000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches. PMID:27144960

  15. Effects of manipulated above- and belowground organic matter input on soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Juan; Wang, Jinsong; Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus V

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  16. Effects of Manipulated Above- and Belowground Organic Matter Input on Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus v.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  17. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and gene organization of Chinese indigenous chickens with phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F P; Fan, H Y; Li, G H; Zhang, B K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Chinese indigenous Jinhu Black-bone and Rugao chickens. The two chicken mitochondrial genomes were deposited in GenBank under accession Nos. KP742951 and KR347464, respectively. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Jinhu Black-bone and Rugao chickens were sequenced and found to span 16,785 and 16,786 bp, respectively, and consisted of 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region (D-loop). The majority of genes were positioned on the H-strand, and the ND6 and eight tRNA genes were found to be encoded on the L-strand. The mitogenomes showed a similar gene order to that of the published Gallus gallus genome, as neither included a control region. The overall base composition of the genome of the two chickens was A = 30.22/30.28%, G = 13.57/13.49%, T = 23.74/23.76%, and C = 32.48/32.48%. Nucleotide skewness of the coding strands of the two chicken genomes (AT-skew = 0.12, GC-skew = -0.41) was biased towards T and G. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 29 subspecies, and the molecular genetic relationship among the 29 subspecies was identical to that of traditional taxonomy. PMID:27421002

  19. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric characterization of organic aerosol from European and Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic aerosol constitutes a substantial fraction (20-90%) of submicrometer aerosol mass, playing an important role in air quality and human health. Over the past few years, ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) has been applied to elucidate the chemical composition of ambient aerosols. However, most of the UHRMS studies used direct infusion without prior separation by liquid chromatography, which may cause the loss of individual compound information and interference problems. In the present study, urban ambient aerosol with particle diameter < 2.5 μm was collected in Mainz, Germany and Beijing, China, respectively. Two pretreatment procedures were applied to extract the organic compounds from the filter samples: One method uses a mixture of acetonitrile and water, the other uses pure water and prepared for the extraction of humic-like substances. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer in both negative and the positive modes. The effects of pretreatment procedures on the characterization of organic aerosol and the city-wise difference in chemical composition of organic aerosol will be discussed in detail.

  20. Motor Knowledge Is One Dimension for Concept Organization: Further Evidence from a Chinese Semantic Dementia Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…

  1. Organizing Learning Materials through Hierarchical Topic Maps: An Illustration through Chinese Herb Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, B.-J.; Shih, J.-L.; Chen, R.-L.

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to use hierarchical topic maps to compile digital learning material and to discuss its design and application possibilities. The system renders tremendous original assets and then embeds a self-organizing map (SOM) in the material database to produce topical learning materials, as in this case, an illustration through Chinese…

  2. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (p<0.0001) was found between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and the CDOM absorption coefficient a(350), indicating that algae degradation was likely the primary source of CDOM in black waters. This is supported by our field results that Chl-a, a(350) and the spectral slope ratio (SR) were significantly higher in the black water samples than in the regular samples (p<0.001). Our incubation experiment further substantiated the primary significance of biological CDOM source where a(350) increased with decreasing Chl-a concentrations. After seven days' incubation, a 72.2% decrease and a 74.9% increase were recorded for Chl-a and a(350), respectively, relative to the initial values. Parallel factor analysis identified five fluorescent components. The maximal fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of tryptophan-like C1 and microbial humic-like C3 of black water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (p<0.0005). This is consistent with incubation experiment results showing a rapid increase in Fmax of the two components, emphasizing the priority of the in situ biological CDOM source in black water spots. PMID:26125526

  3. /sup 31/P NMR analysis of membrane phospholipid organization in viable, reversibly electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Rols, M.P.; Teissie, J.

    1988-02-23

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 ..mu..s). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 4/sup 0/C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. The authors proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells.

  4. Organization of amplified metallothionein (MT) genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, C.; Grady, D.; Meincke, L.; Clark, L.; Qui, X.; Fehrenbach, S.; Brown, N.; Jones, M.; Longmire, J.; Moyzis, R.

    1987-05-01

    In the parental, cadmium-sensitive, CHO cells, two MT genes (MT-I and II) have been cloned and shown to encompass approx.9 Kb of DNA. Both genes demonstrate the canonical intron-exon organization observed for other mammalian MT genes. Chromosome walking has been employed to study the organization of the MT genes in amplified cell lines. Using DNA from a highly-amplified cell line, Cd/sup r/ 200 T1, a genomic library was constructed in lambda Ch35 by standard procedures. Recombinants containing sequences complementary to a MT-II cDNA probe were isolated and characterized. Restriction enzyme analyses of these recombinants have extended the map of the MT-I and II gene region to encompass approx.35 Kb of DNA and indicate stability of the amplified genome over this region. A single SacII restriction site has been identified at the extreme 3' end of the cloned region. Since SacII is an infrequently-cutting restriction enzyme, accelerated long-range restriction mapping of the amplified MT gene region will be possible by combining chromosome walking in the MT gene region with large fragment separation using field-in-version gel electrophoresis.

  5. Nano-structured calcite produced by micro-organisms in ancient and modern loess in Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Chen, T.; Lu, H.; Wang, X.

    2005-12-01

    The results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission gun scanning microscopy (FEG-SEM) investigation show that there are calcite nano-fibers (CNFs) formed during pedogenic process. The CNFs are widely distributed in the loess and red clay samples of Caoxian, Luochuan, Lingtai, Lantian, and Xifeng profiles as well as the samples of modern surface loess soils in Chinese Loess Plateau. Diameters of all the NFCs are about 40 nm, the length of the CNFs ranges from tens nanometer to several micrometers. Elongation direction of NFCs is unusual near parallel (105)* or (115)*. Crystals of NFCs arrange as bird net like and lattice-like frameworks. X-ray EDS spectra show the weak peaks of magnesium, phosphorous, and sulfur. Our investigation indicates that CNFs are in pore space of loess and paleosol and made up most of carbonate except for caliche nodular layers. Concentration of NFCs in the loess layers are significantly higher than those of paleosol layers because of leaching of carbonate in the paleosol forming environment (warn and wet paleoclimate). The "nanobacteria-like CNFs are well crystalline calcite single crystals with smoothes surfaces. The morphologies of CNFs are very unusual and different from the calcite single crystals observed in most geological environments. The CNFs are directly related to microbial activities in both ancient and modern loess. It is proposed that the intervention of organic compounds derived from microbial activities control the formation of the calcite nano-fibers. Both morphology and bulk composition of CNFs indicate that the formation of the CNFs involves bio-organics derived from microorganisms in loess deposit environment. Formation conditions of the calcite nano-fibers may information about paleoclimate, paleo-environment and paleoecology. So, the discovery of CNFs in loess-paloesol sequences can provide a new route for reconstruct paleoclimate by oxygen and carbon isotope from the CNFs.

  6. A new ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration flavonoids and anthraquinones from traditional Chinese prescription.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously. PMID:23969331

  7. Variation of dissolved organic carbon transported by two Chinese rivers: The Changjiang River and Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Difeng; Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-15

    Real-time monitoring of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the associated controlling factors is essential to coastal ocean management. This study was the first to simulate the monthly DOC concentrations at the Datong Hydrometric Station for the Changjiang River and at the Lijin Hydrometric Station for the Yellow River from 2000 to 2013 using a multilayer back-propagation neural network (MBPNN), along with basin remote-sensing products and river in situ data. The average absolute error between the modeled values and in situ values was 9.98% for the Changjiang River and 10.84% for the Yellow River. As an effect of water dilution, the variations of DOC concentrations in the two rivers were significantly negatively affected by discharge, with lower values reported during the wet season. Moreover, vegetation growth status and agricultural activities, represented by the gross primary product (GPP) and cropland area percent (CropPer) in the river basin, respectively, also significantly affected the DOC concentration in the Changjiang River, but not the Yellow River. The monthly riverine DOC flux was calculated using modeled DOC concentrations. In particular, the riverine DOC fluxes were affected by discharge, with 71.06% being reported for the Changjiang River and 90.71% for the Yellow River. Over the past decade, both DOC concentration and flux in the two rivers have not shown significant changes. PMID:26404069

  8. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  9. Molecular, seasonal, and spatial distributions of organic aerosols from fourteen Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Shuncheng; Ho, Kinfai; Cao, Junji

    2006-08-01

    Organic aerosols were studied at the molecular level in 14 coastal and inland mega-cities in China during winter and summer 2003. They are characterized by the abundant presence of n-alkanes (annual average, 340 ng m(-3)), fatty acids (769 ng m(-3)), sugars (412 ng m(-3)), and phthalates (387 ng m(-3)). In contrast, fatty alcohols, polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hopanes were detected as relatively minor components. n-Alkanes show a weak odd/even carbon predominance (CPI = 1.1) and PAHs show a predominance of benzo(b)fluoranthene, suggesting a serious contribution from fossil fuel (mainly coal) combustion. Their concentrations (except for phthalates and polyols/polyacids) were 2-15 times higher in winter than summer due to a significant usage of coal burning and an enhancement of atmospheric inversion layers. Phthalates were found to be more abundant in summer than winter, probably due to enhanced vaporization from plastics followed by adsorptive deposition on the pre-existing particles. Concentrations of total quantified compounds are extremely high (approximately 10 microg m(-3)) in the midwest (Chongqing and Xi'an) where active industrialization/urbanization is going on. This study shows that concentrations of the compounds detected are 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported from developed countries. PMID:16913115

  10. Molecular, seasonal, and spatial distributions of organic aerosols from fourteen Chinese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Gehui Wang; Kimitaka Kawamura; Shuncheng Lee; Kinfai Ho; Junji Cao

    2006-08-01

    Organic aerosols were studied at the molecular level in 14 coastal and inland mega-cities in China during winter and summer 2003. They are characterized by the abundant presence of n-alkanes (annual average, 340 ng m{sup -3}), fatty acids (769 ng m{sup -3}), sugars (412 ng m{sup -3}), and phthalates (387 ng m{sup -3}). In contrast, fatty alcohols, polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hopanes were detected as relatively minor components. n-Alkanes show a weak odd/even carbon predominance (CPI = 1.1) and PAHs show a predominance of benzo(b)fluoranthene, suggesting a serious contribution from fossil fuel (mainly coal) combustion. Their concentrations (except for phthalates and polyols/polyacids) were 2-15 times higher in winter than summer due to a significant usage of coal burning and an enhancement of atmospheric inversion layers. Phthalates were found to be more abundant in summer than winter, probably due to enhanced vaporization from plastics followed by adsorptive deposition on the pre-existing particles. Concentrations of total quantified compounds are extremely high ({approximately} 10 {mu}g m{sup -3}) in the midwest (Chongqing and Xi'an) where active industrialization/urbanization is going on. This study shows that concentrations of the compounds detected are 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported from developed countries. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    organ-specific expression data, we identified nine R2R3-MYBs that were constitutively expressed in male reproductive tissue, which may provide an important key for studying male sterility in Chinese cabbage. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of MYB genes in stress resistance in addition to their growth regulatory functions, ultimately providing the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate MYB genes for genetic engineering of Chinese cabbage. PMID:27038155

  12. Seasonal and spatial variability of the OM/OC mass ratios and high regional correlation between oxalic acid and zinc in Chinese urban organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-04-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 year-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (OA) production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matter constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We report, for the first time, a high regional correlation between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic properties of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  13. Case-control study of risk factors of myelodysplastic syndromes according to World Health Organization classification in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ling; Lin, Guowei; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Cuie; Dai, Junmin; Yang, Yongchen; Zou, Hejian; Sun, Hengjuan; Gu, Minghua; Chen, Xi; Fu, Hua; Bao, Liming

    2011-02-01

    Risk factors of mydelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remain largely unknown. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 403 newly diagnosed MDS patients according to World Health Organization classification and 806 individually gender and age-matched patient controls from 27 major hospitals in Shanghai, China, to examine relation of lifestyle, environmental, and occupational factors to risk of MDS. The study showed that all MDS (all subtypes combined) risk factors included anti tuberculosis drugs [odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 3.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-8.12] as an independent risk factor, benzene (OR(adj) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.32-10.51), hair dye use (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.03-2.07), new building and renovations (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.11-2.00), pesticides (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.22-3.82), and herbicides (OR = 5.33; 95% CI = 1.41-20.10) as relative risk factors. Risk factors of MDS subtype refractory cytopenia with multiple dysplasia (RCMD) were benzene (OR(adj) = 5.99; 95% CI = 1.19-30.16) and gasoline (OR(adj) = 11.44; 95% CI = 1.31-100.03) as independent risk factors, and traditional Chinese medicines (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.15-4.07), pesticides (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.37-6.25), and herbicides (OR = 12.00; 95% CI = 1.44-99.67) as relative risk factors. Smoking tobacco was significantly associated with refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) (OR(adj) = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.02-5.77). Education is shown as an independent protective factor against all MDS (OR(adj) = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.83-0.99) and RCMD (OR(adj) = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.99). These findings suggest that multiple modifiable behavioral, environmental, and occupational factors play a role in MDS etiology, and various MDS subtypes may have different susceptibility. PMID:21264898

  14. Differences of English Mental Lexicon Organization: A Comparative Study between Advanced Chinese English Language Learners and English Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sibo

    2012-01-01

    Among various study topics of advanced second language (L2) learners, mental lexicon shares a unique significance. This paper will introduce a comparative experiment between advanced Chinese English as a Second Language (CESL) learners and English as first language (EL1) speakers. The research question of the study is whether advanced CESL…

  15. Seston and dissolved organic carbon dynamics during Microcystis bloom with special reference to the effects of three Chinese domestic fishes in experimental enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Jun; Xie, Ping

    1997-09-01

    The Microcystis bloom that once disappeared from Donghu Lake, a shallow, eutrophic Chinese lake, was successfully resumed with the use of the enclosure method. Seston and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics during the Microcystis bloom were investigated with particular emphasis on the effect of three Chinese domestic fishes (silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp). The results showed that the change of chlorophyll a obviously related to the fish species and its stocking density. Due to the release of extracellular ogranic carbon and increased bacterial activity, DOC increased apparently after silver and bighead carps were introduced. POC/DOC dropped considerably in the enclosures containing silver and bighead carps and in the surrounding lake water, which implied that the bacterial activity was more pronounced in such ecosystems. Statistical analysis indicated that the linear relationship between POC and chlorophyll a could reflect the state of algal growth and nutrient metabolism. It was expected that this study would provide some information on biomanipulation in the shallow, eutrophic lakes.

  16. Separation and determination of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicines by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with organic modifier.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lijun; Xu, Yan; Feng, Huatao; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2005-09-01

    A simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the separation and determination of four toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline) in two traditional Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). Separation was performed in the running buffer consisting of 20 mM borate, 30 mM SDS, and 20% methanol at pH 9.1. With the optimized separation conditions, four PAs were separated in 17 min by a single run. The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation efficiencies (R(2)) between 0.9940 and 0.9988. RSDs in migration time and peak area were 0.31, 0.40, 0.39, 0.48% and 3.28, 3.48, 4.16, 3.42% for senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline, respectively. Limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 1.19 to 2.70 microg/mL. The proposed method was applied to determine the PAs extracted from Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). PA of senkirkine in Kuan donghua was detected and the amount was found to be 79.1 microg/g. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MEKC method could potentially become an effective alternative tool for qualification control and quantitative analysis of herbal medicines in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:16080213

  17. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  18. Things Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  19. Building Affective Commitment to Organization among Chinese University Teachers: The Roles of Organizational Justice and Job Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongzhan

    2014-01-01

    In view of the benefit of improving employees' organization commitment, it is important to study the major influencing factors of organization commitment. According to previous literature, organizational justice and job burnout have been considered two major influencing variables of affective commitment; however, little empirical research can…

  20. Chinese American Experience: San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit encourages students to explore the history and current situation of Chinese Americans. Organized around five lesson plans, the unit's first lesson begins with the students' own perceptions of Chinese Americans, followed by a quiz that provides relevant background information. The second lesson examines the general history of Chinese…

  1. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  2. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p < 0.05), PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p < 0.05), PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3). PMID:26788513

  3. Chinese Calligraphy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  4. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  5. Chinese Grain for Green Program led to highly increased soil organic carbon levels: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Zhou, Guomo; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    The Grain for Green Program (GGP), initiated in 1999, is the largest ecological restoration project in central and western China. Here, for the first time, we performed a meta-analysis and found that the GGP largely increased the soil organic carbon (SOC). The SOC was increased by 48.1%, 25.4%, and 25.5% at soil depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm, respectively. Moreover, this carbon accumulation has significantly increased over time since GGP implementation. The carbon accumulation showed a significantly more active response to the GGP in the top 20 cm of soil than in the deeper soil layers. Conversion of cropland to forest could lead to significantly greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion of cropland to grassland. Conversion from cropland to woodland could lead to greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion to either shrubland or orchard. Our results suggest that the GGP implementation caused SOC to accumulate and that there remains a large potential for further accumulation of carbon in the soil, which will help to mitigate climate change in the near future. PMID:24675818

  6. Influence of the organic loading rate on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an EGSB reactor used for treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguang; Su, Chengyuan; Liu, Xingzhe; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor used for treating real traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater were investigated. Over 90% of the COD removal by the EGSB reactor was observed at the OLRs of 4 to 13 kg COD/(m(3) day). However, increasing the OLR to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day) by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 h) reduced the COD removal efficiency to 78%. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 512.22 mg/L, resulting in an accumulation of VFAs, and propionic acid was the main acidification product, accounting for 66.51% of the total VFAs. When the OLR increased from 10 to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day), the average size of the granule sludge decreased from 469 to 258 μm. There was an obvious reduction in the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the granular sludge. The visible humic acid-like peak was identified in the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of the soluble microbial products (SMPs). The fatty acid bond, amide II bond, amide III bond, and C-H bond bending were also observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the SMPs. Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus, and Bacteria populations exhibited significant shifts, and these changes were accompanied by an increase in VFA production. The results indicated that a short HRT and high OLR in the EGSB reactor caused the accumulation of polysaccharides, protein, and VFAs, thereby inhibiting the activity of methanogenic bacteria and causing granular sludge corruption. PMID:24677060

  7. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  8. Chinese biobanking initiatives.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rongxing; Wang, Huiyuan; Song, Yutong; Fan, Jinli; Xiong, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Due to the requirement for comprehensive clinical research efforts in China, the importance of biobanking in modern clinical research is outlined in this overview. Hospitals, universities, and research institutes have been well organized as fundamental resources for Chinese biobanking initiatives and the resulting bio-sample collections. Here, a brief history and time line of development of biobanking in China will be introduced, as well as strategic designs for future biobanking development. PMID:25686040

  9. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  11. Chinese Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, William C.

    2012-01-01

    When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

  12. Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior among Chinese, Thai and Korean College Students and Predictive Effects of the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…

  13. The Study of Chinese in a Provincial French Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrait, Noel

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of Chinese instruction in a Bordeaux lycee. Specific questions addressed are: enrollment; reasons for studying Chinese; the study of the written and spoken language; the need for an appropriate textbook; teaching culture; and the need to organize Chinese as a regular course in the curriculum. (AMH)

  14. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  15. Chinese Leadership in Arts Education Workshops: A Sino-American Cross-Cultural Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiamin

    2009-01-01

    This report compares important aspects of American and Chinese dance education through the lens of the "Chinese Leadership in Arts Education" workshops organized by Brigham Young University in response to requests from Chinese arts educators to observe American arts education in practice as a benchmark for assessing the direction of Chinese arts…

  16. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  17. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  18. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  19. Images of Chinese and Chinese Americans Mirrored in Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Mingshui

    1994-01-01

    Examines how 73 picture storybooks portrayed Chinese and Chinese Americans and how the books reflect the Chinese culture. Finds that most present positive images of Chinese and Chinese Americans, that cultural inauthenticity is the main flaw of many books, and that more picture books are needed that feature flesh and blood contemporary Chinese and…

  20. Medical insurance policy organized by Chinese government and the health inequity of the elderly: longitudinal comparison based on effect of New Cooperative Medical Scheme on health of rural elderly in 22 provinces and cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The alarming progression of the aging trend in China attracts much attention in the country and abroad. In 2003, the Chinese central government launched the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) to resolve the inequity problem of health in regions with inadequate infrastructure and relative poverty. The rural elderly are the main beneficiaries of this policy; the improvement of their health through the medical insurance policy require exploration. Methods This study used data obtained from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 2005 and 2008. Elderly people living in rural areas and aged 60 and above were screened for the investigation. A total of 8658 and 9904 elderly people were selected from 2005 and 2008, respectively. By establishing models and employing multi-logistic analysis, stereotype logistic analysis, we examined the effect of NCMS organized by Chinese government on three domains of the health of the rural elderly. Results A total of 948 and 6361 elderly people participated in NCMS in 2005 (n = 8658) and 2008 (n = 9904), respectively. With regard to the independent variables, the number of participants in NCMS increased, whereas province distribution, gender, and years of education only slightly changed. As for the dependent variables, the rural elderly in 2005 had poor general health but good psychological health. Differences were found between different moods. Old people who engage in much outdoor activity can take care of themselves. After three-year promotion of NCMS, the differences between 2005 and 2008 indicate that the physical function of the rural elderly worsen, whereas the general health and psychological health improves. Conclusions (1) In the 2005 data and 2008 data, result shows that NCMS participation can promote the self-rated quality and health change of the elderly. (2) After three years, the alleviation effect on anxiety and loneliness changed from insignificant to significant

  1. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery); T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms. Conclusions The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity. PMID:21513533

  2. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has ... Reports of serious reactions to Chinese food first appeared in ... thought to be the cause of these symptoms. There have been many ...

  3. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  4. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

  6. Chinese-Mandarin; Chinese Character Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This writing exercise book, designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course, consists of step-by-step illustrations for copying 825 characters in the Chinese writing system. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.] (AMM)

  7. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

  8. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  9. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  10. The Psychological and Cultural Aspects of Ethnic Politics: The Case of the Japanese and Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Moon H.

    Chinese immigration to the United States, which began around 1850, sparked strong anti-Asian sentiment and legal and economic restrictions upon these immigrants. Although some Chinese organizations helped immigrants, the overall response of the Chinese to systematic oppression was one of meekness and compliance. The Japanese began to immigrate to…

  11. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  12. Screening of Cd-safe genotypes of Chinese cabbage in field condition and Cd accumulation in relation to organic acids in two typical genotypes under long-term Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Huang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    A 65-day field experiment was conducted to select cadmium (Cd)-safe genotypes (CSGs) among 21 Chinese cabbage genotypes in a low Cd-contaminated soil (0.66 mg kg(-1)). Seven CSGs were identified based on their Cd tolerance, shoot Cd concentrations, Cd enrichment factors (EFs), and translocation factors (TFs). Then, Beijingxin3, a typical CSG, together with Qiuxiang, a typical non-CSG for comparison, was selected for a subsequent 80-day field micro-plot experiment under four levels of Cd stress to evaluate the reliability of CSG screening and the role of organic acids in Cd accumulation and tolerance. Beijingxin3 was confirmed to be safe to grow in soil with Cd level up to 3.39 mg kg(-1), with Cd accumulation in its shoots well below the permitted level, and Qiuxiang was still poor in tolerating low Cd stress (1.31 mg kg(-1)). With increasing the Cd stress, Cd accumulation and citrate concentrations increased in shoots and roots of both genotypes, and oxalate concentrations increased significantly in Beijingxin3 roots. Both oxalate and citrate concentrations were significantly positively related to Cd accumulation for Beijingxin3 roots. High accumulation in oxalate and citrate induced by Cd stress in Beijingxin3 roots could benefit its internal tolerance to long-term Cd stress with more Cd accumulation in its roots and less Cd accumulation in its shoots. PMID:26081776

  13. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period.

  14. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  15. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  16. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.0001). Both the field campaigns and the laboratory contamination experiment revealed that CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources. PMID:26397467

  17. Creating Political Space To Defend Chinese Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongfang, Han

    2002-01-01

    Presents comments spoken at a human rights conference by Han Dongfang, a Chinese activist who was jailed after an attempt to organize China's first independent union from a tent in Tiananmen Square during the democracy movement. Today, he is barred from the mainland but works from Hong Kong through Radio Free Asia. Comments focus on foreign…

  18. Shifting Patterns of Authority in Chinese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Brian; Paine, Lynn W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes changing authority relations between the Chinese state and educational organizations, and examines how four secondary schools have adapted. Discusses educational reforms since 1985, teacher and school resource shortages, increased principal responsibilities, and school administrators'"market economy" social exchange relationships to…

  19. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field. PMID:27590882

  20. Chinese by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  1. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  2. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  3. The Chinese negotiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark

    2003-10-01

    Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart. PMID:14521100

  4. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  5. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  6. Chinese Language Guide. Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

    This comprehensive Chinese language development guide for bilingual Chinese-English educators contains fifteen objectives along with related learning activities to be taught in the Chinese bilingual program. The guide emphasizes audio-lingual skill development and involves Chinese games, songs, foods, and holidays. (Author/AM)

  7. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. The Chinese in Britain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y M; Chan, C

    1997-01-01

    "This research note offers a brief historical perspective on the relationship between Hong Kong and Britain and describes the demographic profile of the Chinese community in Britain...[using] information obtained from the 1991 [UK] Census.... The data analysis shows that the Chinese population is widely dispersed and increasing rapidly, and is characterised by a high child-bearing capacity and a low rate of unemployment." PMID:12179828

  10. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice. PMID:19144968

  11. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  12. Shuttle ban for Chinese journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-07-01

    A bill passed in April by the US Congress has banned representatives of the Chinese government's news agency Xinhua from the launch site at the Kennedy Space Center as well as preventing NASA from hosting "official Chinese visitors".

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... C, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Manheimer ... YC, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Vickers ...

  14. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  15. Chinese Space Program for Heliophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Gan, Weiqun; Wang, Chi; Liu, Weining; Yan, Yihua; Liu, Yong; Sun, Lilin; Liu, Ying

    As one of the major field of space science, heliophysics research in China has not only long history but also strong research forces. Many space missions have been proposed by the community but with few got support. Since 2006, Chinese Academy of Science has organized a long term strategic study in space science. In 2011, the space science program has been kicked off with several new missions being selected for Phase A study. In this presentation, first a brief review on past programs, such as Double Star, Chang’e, and an introduction on the space science strategic study are given. Under the guidance of this strategic study or roadmap, a few missions have been proposed or re-proposed with new element, such as DSO, KUAFU, MIT, SPORT and ASO-S. Brief introductions of these programs and their current status will be given.

  16. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  17. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

  18. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  19. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  20. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  1. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  2. Distribution of Chinese names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  3. Being Chinese or Being Different: Chinese Undergraduates' Use of Discourses of Chineseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Myths about "the Chinese learner" developed from an outsider perspective abound in the Western world. The focus of this article, however, is how discourses of Chineseness were used by the Chinese international students themselves who, as undergraduate students in a New Zealand university, were the subjects of my doctoral research. It…

  4. Mentoring and Research Supervision in Music Education: Perspectives of Chinese Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimated that the number of students studying outside their own country would be over 20 million by 2030. Chinese students have increasingly formed a large percentage of international students at universities across the English-speaking world, and the Chinese demand for…

  5. "Chink!" A Documentary History of Anti-Chinese Prejudice in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Cheng-Tsu, Ed.

    The contents of this compendium, which presents a bit of the history of the racial prejudice against the Chinese, are organized in four chapters. Chapter 1, "Institutionalization of Prejudice," reviews the body of legislation and State and Federal court decisions pertaining to the Chinese, beginning with the migration to California during the…

  6. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

  7. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  8. The Imperative in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  9. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  10. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  11. Survey of acrylamide levels in Chinese foods.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Yuan, Y; Liu, J; Zhao, G; Hu, X

    2008-01-01

    A survey of levels of acrylamide (AA) in 349 food products obtained from the Chinese market was conducted. AA was determined by an liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method in four different matrices ranged from 0.8 to 10 µg kg(-1) and from 4.0 to 25 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results from this survey indicated that AA was present in all samples except drinking water and tea. AA contents in different samples varied greatly according to the raw materials and processing conditions. The highest level of AA was found in potato products, with an average level of 1467 µg kg(-1). Preliminary estimates of AA exposure and risk assessment of AA from foods in the Chinese population were performed using a combination of data obtained in the present survey and 2002 dietary consumption survey carried out in 2002 for the Chinese population. The average dietary exposure of AA was estimated to be 0.38 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), which is relatively low compared with the result reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Furthermore, the margin of exposure for neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity of AA was calculated to be 1318, 5250, and 787, respectively. PMID:24784803

  12. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  13. American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists: how are they doing?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peishan; Hu, Fengling

    2016-09-01

    More than 60 years have passed since 3 pioneer Chinese anesthesiologists were trained by American physicians. After returning to China, they applied their new knowledge and skills to develop a new anesthesia specialty in their own country. Over the past 2 decades, close to 600 Chinese medical graduates have been trained in the United States and have become part of the American anesthesia workforce. Unlike their elder generation, they did not go back to China after their training. People are always wondering how this new generation of American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists is doing in a different culture and different health care and political systems. This review indicates that these newly American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists not only provide high-quality patient care but also conduct outstanding anesthesia teaching and research. In addition, as their pioneer anesthesiologists did in China, they use professional organizations and publications as 2 major means to advance professional development and promote academic exchanges between Chinese and American anesthesiologists, through which American anesthesiology continues to have influence on modern Chinese anesthesiology. PMID:27555192

  14. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  15. High School Chinese: First Year Student Work Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the first volume (FL 002 774) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, expansion, and translation drills, dialogues, and questions and answers for practice. For…

  16. High School Chinese: Second Year Student Work Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the second volume (FL 002 776) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, translation, and expansion drills, and question and answer practice. For related documents…

  17. A Review of the Chinese Higher Education Evaluation Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Laura Pan; Dehai, Wang

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss the Higher Education Evaluation Center, the administrative body under the auspices of the Chinese Ministry of Education responsible for organizing and conducting evaluation of baccalaureate and associate degree programs offered at different universities and colleges in China. The Center also conducts research on regulations and…

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  19. LIST OF CHINESE DICTIONARIES IN ALL LANGUAGES. EXTERNAL RESEARCH PAPER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    A COMPILATION FROM LISTS OF DICTIONARIES USED BY SEVERAL U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS, THIS DOCUMENT INCLUDES THE TITLES OF AND INFORMATION CONCERNING DICTIONARIES COVERING OVER 25 TOPICS IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL FIELDS, AND NUMEROUS AREAS OF ECONOMICS, AND POLITICAL, AND SOCIOLOGICAL TOPICS. MANY CHINESE-FOREIGN LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES ARE…

  20. Leveraging Chinese Culture for Effective Organizational Leadership: The China Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2008-01-01

    This article examined organizational leadership in the context of China. Taking a cultural perspective, this literature review traced the cultural roots of Chinese leadership and analyzed the cultural impact on leadership practice in organizations. It further provided general guidelines for leadership development in China, followed by…

  1. Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

  2. Chinese Songs We Can Sing and Chinese Instrumental Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.

    This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)

  3. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  4. Contradictions in Chinese Language Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    The Draft of the Second Chinese Character Simplification Scheme proposed by the Chinese Committee on Language Reform, published in 1977, is discussed. The political history of the draft and current uncertainty about character simplification are examined, and a rigorous methodology for determining the success rate of a script reform is proposed.…

  5. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  6. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  7. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  8. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  9. Migration Problems of Chinese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christina C.; Cochran, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    Used case study approach to focus on adjustment decisions of 15 female Chinese college students who emigrated from Hong Kong to Vancouver, British Columbia. Common themes of conflict involved Chinese and Western value opposition, the need for personal development, and the fear of social isolation. Six different patterns of client adjustment were…

  10. The Commoditization of Chinese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Hill

    1989-01-01

    Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

  11. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  12. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  13. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  14. A View from Within: A Case Study of Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueying, Ed.

    A collection of essays on Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States addresses these topics: the schools, their curricula, and organization (Theresa Hsu Chao); school administration and management (Chao, Lydia Chen, Edward Chang); academic curriculum (Pay-Fen Serena Wang); non-heritage Chinese learners: practices and…

  15. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  16. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  17. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  18. Chinese medicine and martial arts.

    PubMed

    Koh, T C

    1981-01-01

    Wushu (Martial Arts), mistakenly known in the West as Kung-Fu, is a system of Chinese boxing which is closely linked with the traditional practice of Chinese medicine. Many of the masters (Sifu) are Chinese physicians who often recommend health exercises and the soft form of martial arts to their patients, while the hard form is suitable for sport and self-defense. Martial arts is a great discipline for body and mind, suitable for all who treasure physical and mental health. PMID:6764088

  19. Changes in soil organic carbon induced by tillage and water erosion on a steep cultivated hillslope in the Chinese Loess Plateau from 1898-1954 and 1954-1998

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) transported and redistributed by erosion over the steep agricultural landscapes is uncertain. The effect of topography, slope and slope position on SOC redistribution must be considered. Our objectives were to (i) determine the spatial patterns of both tillage a...

  20. Biogas: the Chinese experience

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-10-01

    This article details the history of biogas in China and its development as a renewable energy source. There are 7.2 million biogas plants that benefit directly 35 million rural people. The average family digester costs $20 to $40 and can easily be made by unskilled technical workers. The design of a typical digester is described together with its maintenance and recovery of gas. The uses of biogas in China are numerous and solves most of the major energy problems of rural life such as village cooking, and fuel for irrigation pumps and farm tractors. The utilizing of human, animal and agricultural waste is in itself a large benefit and a list of other benefits to the Chinese is given.

  1. The Chinese healthcare challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379

  2. Chinese Constellations and Star Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

  3. Chinese Swing Back to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetz, Frank; Yu, Ying-king

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of science education in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s, and discusses the new Chinese emphasis on "theory" and "expertness" to produce the scientists necessary for China's development and modernization. (GA)

  4. The Chinese Cult of Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Sylvia H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

  5. Bulimia nervosa in the Chinese.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U

    1993-12-01

    Typical DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa with self-induced vomiting was found in 2 women of Hong Kong Chinese origin and a Chinese man from Malaysia. All 3 cases had a family history of obesity. In 2 of the cases a period of weight gain and in the third case frank obesity preceded the onset of the eating disorder. Cultural transition seemed to play an important part in the onset and maintenance of the eating disorder. PMID:8293034

  6. [Cataplasma of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2003-01-01

    The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of

  7. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  8. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print. PMID:25711130

  9. The Chinese student space shuttle get-way-special program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen

    1989-01-01

    The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.

  10. The first Chinese student space shuttle getaway special program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen

    1988-01-01

    The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.

  11. Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

  12. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional

  13. The Chinese-American Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Toxicological risks of Chinese herbs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Debbie

    2010-12-01

    As traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more popular there have been increasing concerns about safety and potential toxicity of the Chinese materia medica (CMM) comprising plants, animal parts and minerals. The potential toxicity of many CMM is well recognised in TCM and to reduce risks use of some herbs is restricted whilst specific processing methods have been developed to modify the activities/toxicity of others. However adverse reactions have been reported, many of these are due misuse or abuse of Chinese medicine. The main problem remains products adulterated with pharmaceuticals for weight loss or erectile dysfunction. But some herbs have narrow therapeutic ranges (e.g., Aconitum species) so toxic effects are frequently reported. Toxic effects from chronic or cumulative dosing are difficult to detect in the traditional setting and recent reports have demonstrated the health problems from Aristolochia species. Despite safety concerns, Chinese medicine appears to be relatively safe with comparatively few reports of adverse reactions compared with overall drug reports. The wealth of information in the Chinese literature needs to be more widely available. As TCM is widely used by patients, improved pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology can contribute valuable safety information, relevant to clinical use. PMID:21077025

  15. Assessment of Chinese Students' Experience with Foreign Faculty: A Case Study from a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…

  16. Writing Chinese and Mathematics Achievement: A Study with Chinese-American Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…

  17. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  18. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  19. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  20. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133

  1. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133

  2. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  3. Problems of Textbook in Teaching Chinese Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ta-hsia

    It is proposed that teachers of Chinese expose their students to traditional critical views of Chinese poetics and criticism through careful selection of poems. This approach to language study is based on the assumption that the student may gain insight and appreciation of Chinese poetry as well as a feeling for the culture. Arguments favoring…

  4. Chinese American Students Fight for Their Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Parental and community involvement play a key role in the Chinese American students' fight for their rights. In order to understand the reasons behind the parental and community support of Chinese students, a survey was conducted among Chinese parents to assess what they know about language loss, power, knowledge, and democracy. The results…

  5. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GLOSSARY FOR CHINESE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIU, LILLIAN; WANG, W. S-Y

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 937 TITLES IN THE FIELD OF CHINESE GRAMMAR FROM AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND JOURNALS. THE AUTHORS AND TITLES ARE LISTED IN PINYIN SYSTEM TRANSCRIPTION WITH A TRANSLATION OF THE TITLE IN ENGLISH AND WITH CHINESE LOGOGRAPHS AFTER THE SOURCE CITATION FOR THOSE ENTRIES ORGINALLY WRITTEN IN CHINESE. ENTRIES ARE…

  6. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  7. Animals of the Chinese Zodiac. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Chinese lunar calendar dates back to the second millennium BC. Unlike the western calendar, which numbers the years progressively from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Chinese calendar is cyclical. Each cycle is made up of 12 years--after the 12th year, the cycle is repeated. The Chinese associate each year of a 12-year cycle with an animal, and…

  8. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  9. Chinese-English Machine Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, William S-Y; And Others

    The report documents results of a two-year R&D effort directed at the completion of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation of S&T literature. The system, designated QUINCE, accepts Chinese input exactly as printed, with no pre-editing of any kind, and produces English output on experimental basis. Coding of Chinese text via…

  10. Young Chinese ESL Children's Home Literacy Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong

    1999-01-01

    Describes home literacy experiences of six Chinese English-as-a-second-language kindergartners. Includes the parents' provision of literate home environments as well as children's functional use of Chinese and English and engagement in Chinese and English literacy activities. Indicates the diverse and cultural nature of the home literacy…

  11. Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

  12. Bilingual Vocational Training Program for Chinese Chefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    China Inst. in America, New York, NY.

    This document contains materials that can be used by instructors in an English-as-a-second-language course for Chinese kitchen workers or chefs. The materials consist of lessons on various topics that occur in the everyday life of Chinese chefs. Topics include: English names for Chinese dishes; phrases to employ when meeting people and when using…

  13. International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Andrew; Wilson, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education (ICCLE) represents a significant initiative by the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) to organise and describe objectives and content for a standardised Chinese language curriculum around the world. It aims to provide a reference curriculum for planning, a framework…

  14. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  15. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  16. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  17. The Chinese American: Inscrutable to Some.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carole

    Chinese Americans have been called inscrutable--not open to being understood. More casual, spontaneous, and expressive people find it hard to understand the strict discipline of feelings and highly selective and controlled expressions such as the Chinese American may practice. This paper serves as a social introduction to the Chinese American. For…

  18. Adaptation Processes in Chinese: Word Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasierbsky, Fritz

    The typical pattern of Chinese word formation is to have native material adapt to changed circumstances. The Chinese language neither borrows nor lends words, but it does occasionally borrow concepts. The larger cultural pattern in which this occurs is that the Chinese culture borrows, if necessary, but ensures that the act of borrowing does not…

  19. Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    "Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

  20. Problems and Prospect of Chinese Communication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    Chinese have systematically practiced communication for over two thousand years, but from the Western perspective communication education and research in Chinese societies only began to burgeon in recent decades. In addition to summarizing the Western and traditional Chinese communication study and practice, this paper identified four problems…

  1. Flash Cards: Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…

  2. Chinese Number Words, Culture, and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…

  3. Managerial Success Factors: A Chinese Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…

  4. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  5. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  6. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  7. Seward Park High School. Washington Irving High School. Chinese Bilingual Education Program, 1981-1982. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Judith A.; And Others

    The Chinese Bilingual Education Program operates at Seward Park and Washington Irving high schools in New York City. The program offers instructional and supportive services to native Chinese speakers of limited English proficiency. This report describes the program's history, philosophy, organization and staffing, funding, and goals and…

  8. Play Chinese Games. 1987, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caryn

    This document, designed to introduce all ages to a selection of popular Chinese games, describes these games and provides instructions and materials for making the items needed to play most of them. Section 1 suggests class activities that can be related to some of the games. Section 2 presents instructions for the physical or outdoor games of:…

  9. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  10. Instructional Technology: The Chinese Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the current state of instructional technology in Chinese universities. Topics discussed include organizational patterns in audiovisual centers; the use of various media, including film, videotapes, overhead projectors, and television; the use of technology in language instruction; audiovisual equipment and appropriate technology; and…

  11. School Choice with Chinese Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these resources…

  12. Organizational Management in Chinese Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Julia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents translations of 13 articles on topics of higher education reform in China. Reforms began in 1976 with the purging of supporters of the Gang of Four and continues today with fundamental changes in funding, administration, curriculum, and faculty policies. Notes that many proposed reforms run counter to existing Chinese views and may…

  13. Chinese-Cantonese Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This nine-volume basic course in Cantonese Chinese is designed for 47 weeks of intense audiolingual instruction. The first book of the series introduces the pronunciation, with emphasis on the tone system, and the basic aspects of the grammar. Also introduced in this volume is the romanization system used in this series (the U.S. Army Language…

  14. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China. PMID:25134668

  15. American Drama through Chinese Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joanne

    An American instructor taught a 5-week course on the family in American drama to a group of graduate English majors on the campus of Hebei Teachers' University in the People's Republic of China. The instructor learned as much about Chinese culture as the students learned about American culture. Lecture is the standard pedagogy even in graduate…

  16. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  17. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  18. Quantifying Affinity among Chinese Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A study of the relationships between Chinese dialects based on a quantitative measure of dialect affinity is summarized. First, tone values in all the dialect localities available in the early 1970s were used to calculate the dialectal differences in terms of tone height with respect to the "yin and yang" split. In the late 1970s, calculations of…

  19. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  20. Aspects of the Chinese Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. Charles

    1968-01-01

    It has long been realized that tense is not a feature of the Chinese verb system, which is controlled by a set of particles attached to the verb or to the sentence as a whole. The various usages involving these particles have been listed and described, the author points out, but the system as a whole has not been clearly defined. He suggests the…

  1. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed. PMID:21323139

  2. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    PubMed

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time. PMID:27197409

  3. The complete mitogenome of Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes. PMID:24708118

  4. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  5. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  6. [Advance in studies on effect of traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines in prevention and treatment of acute altitude sickness].

    PubMed

    Feng, Bo; Liu, Zhen; Xing, Yan-Wei; Gao, Ao; Zhu, Huo-Ming; Wang, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Acute altitude reaction is a stress response of organism to special altitude environmental factors such as hypoxia, low pressure, cold, dry and strong ultraviolet. As it is the most incident disease in high altitude areas, its prevention remains a problem to be solved. In China, the traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines have been recognized as an effective means of preventing and treating acute altitude sicknesses. Some single-recipe or compound traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines have been proved to be effective for acute altitude sicknesses. In this article, we will describe traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines of different types with efficacy in prevention and treatment of altitude sicknesses. PMID:24066576

  7. Chinese herbs for dementia diseases.

    PubMed

    Hügel, H M; Jackson, N; May, B H; Xue, C C I

    2012-05-01

    In the last twenty years a considerable body of information has accumulated on the chemical constituents of Chinese herbs and their therapeutic potential. Our evaluation/systematic review [1, 2] of well-designed, randomized double blind controlled trials on Chinese herbal medicines beneficial for the improvement of cognitive function revealed a range of either single herbs or herbal mixtures that provided neuroprotective benefits. Oxidative stress may directly initiate neurodegeneration and herbal antioxidant neuroprotection is considered as a preventative and therapeutic approach. We encountered Acoris gramineus rhizome (AGR), Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia and Poria cocos as the four most frequently used herbs as single/herbal mixtures that were associated with positive cognitive enhancing outcomes. This review focuses on the evidence of their medicinal effects attributed to those constituents present in relatively high concentration. PMID:22303969

  8. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  9. Capital sought for Chinese development

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, L.

    1984-03-01

    Foreign investment will be needed to develop China's untapped coal fields. China is the world's third largest coal producer, ranking behind only the USA and the Soviet Union. Bituminous coal predominates, but anthracite and brown coal are also found in considerable quantities. China's raw coal output increased from 32.4 million t in 1949 to 650 million t in 1982. About 96% of Chinese coal comes from underground operations, and 4% from open-pit mines. Mechanized operations contribute about 40% of the national output. To reach the annual production goal of 700 million t by the end of 1985 and 1.2 billion t by the year 2000, the Chinese government is promoting a concentrated development plan for selected major fields, and is calling on foreign investors to join in their exploitation. The investment program for the development of China's coal resources is described.

  10. Taiwanese, Chinese treatment facilities installed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-19

    This article reports on water treatment facilities from a U.S. company installed in a major Taiwanese refinery and in two mainland Chinese oil fields. Chinese Petroleum Corp. recently installed a wastewater treatment plant at its Kaohsiung, Taiwan, refinery. The treatment plant was needed because of expansion of the refinery's naphtha-cracking facilities at the 446,500-b/d refinery, the largest refinery, in terms of crude charging capacity, in the Asia/Pacific region. The same system has also gone into two oil field applications in the People's Republic of China: the Zhongyuan and Shengli oil fields. The system is designed for a total wastewater flow rate of 10,000 cu m/hr. The system and its treatment requirements are summarized.

  11. Chinese translation of English textbooks on internal medicine from the 1850s to the 1940s.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Fu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    During the 100 years from 1850 to 1949, six English textbooks on internal medicine were translated into Chinese and published. Publication of these books was a response to the increased demand for Chinese textbooks after the opening of several Western-style hospitals and medical schools in China where the instruction was in Chinese. Throughout this period, textbooks translated from English were regarded as symbols of mainstream and authority within medical communities in China. There was a shift of translators from British and American medical missionaries to Chinese medical elites. Publishers also changed from missionary hospitals or missionary organizations to the Chinese Medical Association, which was led by ethnic Chinese. After the 1950s, translation activity continued in Taiwan, but it was halted in China until after the Cultural Revolution. This paper provides bibliographic information about these books. The transition of medical authority in China during this 100-year period is also reviewed through the successive publication of translated textbooks on internal medicine. PMID:24820159

  12. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved. PMID:26978969

  13. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  14. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  15. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21248427

  16. Parents' Attitudes Toward Chinese-English Bilingual Education and Chinese-Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao, Christy

    2004-01-01

    This study surveyed 86 parents who enrolled their children in a Chinese-English bilingual preschool in San Francisco. The participants were asked their opinions on bilingual education, the reasons for sending their children to a Chinese-English bilingual school, their attitudes toward bilingual education, their use of Chinese and English, and…

  17. A Comparison of English and Chinese Reading Proficiency of Primary School Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee Elizabeth; Lam, Yu Hong Raymond; Lam, Wai Ip Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong children's comprehension of Chinese and English text is of concern to parents and teachers since school leavers need to be proficient readers both of Chinese and English. Although Chinese has been officially designated the medium of instruction in most secondary schools, many parents want their children to be taught in English-medium…

  18. Chinese Americans Past and Present; A Collection of Chinese American Readings and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea

    This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…

  19. Corpora and Collocations in Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…

  20. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  1. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  2. The Social Welfare Practice and Research Center at the Chinese University of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2009-01-01

    The organization and research programs of the Social Welfare Practice and Research Centre (SWPRC) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong are outlined. There are five regular research programs (Family and Group Practice Research Centre, Human Behavior and the Social Environment Research Program, Mutual Aid and Social Capital Research Program,…

  3. Analysis of the Problems of the Chinese College Students' EFL Classroom Writings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Aiju

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the problems of EFL classroom writings in the Chinese college teaching context from the perspective of textual organization and pragmatic strategy. Influence of their native cultural thought pattern causes the problem of discourse pattern and cohesion; lack of sufficient pragmatic strategy renders students' unawareness in…

  4. Job Insecurity and Remuneration in Chinese Family-Owned Business Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of job insecurity (past job downsizing and anticipated job downsizing) and current remuneration--via wellbeing (burnout and work engagement)--on organizational outcomes (organization commitment and low turnover intention) of Chinese family-owned business. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  5. [The apprentice education system of Chinese medicinal industry in modern Kunming].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuqing

    2015-07-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, following the appearance of the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming, the "master agreement" as a professional regulation, also implemented, marking the beginning of the contractualization and institutionalization of apprentice education in Yunnan. The contents and implementation of the "master agreement" was organized by the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming and its craft union. The apprentice education in Kunming traditional Chinese medicinal industry has the following characteristics: expanding the source of talent; adepting at agricultural production of the accorded apprentice; conforming to the conditions of human manipulation of Chinese traditional medicine; being in line with the characteristics and rules of Chinese medicine skills taught by oral narration and tacit understanding; unity of the medical and pharmaceutical professionals; and non-governmental organization. Apprentice training had trained a number of medical talents, and promoted the transformation of manual workshop to industrialization in Kunming. Apprentice education had catalyzed the establishment of specialized shops selling patent medicines exclusively to separated from those running both crude drugs and patent medicines, to form a set of effective teaching system, thus exerting profound influence on later generations. PMID:26815024

  6. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. PMID:25609922

  7. Potential role of metabolomics apporoaches in the area of traditional Chinese medicine: as pillars of the bridge between Chinese and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Zhigang

    2011-07-15

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a holistic approach to health that attempts to bring the body, mind and spirit into harmony. Entering 21st century, TCM is getting more and more popular in the whole world for improving health condition of human beings and preventing or healing diseases, especially shows great advantages in early intervention, combination therapies and personalized medicine, etc. However, like almost all other ethnopharmacology, TCM also faces severe challenges and suffers from insufficient modern research owing to lack of scientific and technologic approaches, restricts the development of TCM in the world. Fortunately, a novel analytical technique, metabolomics (or metabonomics), adopts a 'top-down' strategy to reflect the function of organisms from terminal symptoms of metabolic network and understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in holistic context. Its property consists with the holistic thinking of TCM, may beneficially provide an opportunity to scientifically express the meaning of evidence-based Chinese medicine, such as Chinese medicine syndromes (CMS), preventive treatment, action of Chinese medicine, Chinese medical formulae (CMF) and acupuncture efficacy. This review summarizes potential applications of robust metabolomics apporoaches in the area of traditional oriental medicine, and highlights the key role of metabolomics to resolve special TCM issues. PMID:21353755

  8. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines. PMID:27465827

  9. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE collaborative…

  10. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  11. Organ Donation

    MedlinePlus

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  12. Matching Organs

    MedlinePlus

    ... UNet electronically links all transplant hospitals and organ procurement organizations in a secure, real-time environment. Because ... is identified, a transplant coordinator from an organ procurement organization accesses the UNet system and enters necessary ...

  13. Understanding Distress: The Role of Face Concern among Chinese Americans, European Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Amy G.; Yiu, Venus F. L.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the cultural mechanisms underlying the distress experience among Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese, Chinese Americans, and European Americans, this investigation examined the role of face concern in psychological distress through a series of studies in both college students and community samples. Face concern refers to one's concern over…

  14. Telocytes in ileum of the Chinese giant salamander: ultrastructural evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhou, Zuohong; Guo, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Telocytes (TCs) and their telopodes (Tps) have been found in various organs of many mammals, including in lower animals. However, knowledge of TCs in lower animals is still very limited. This study identified TCs and their Tps in the ileum of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus (Amphibia: Caudata), by transmission electron microscopy. The TCs/Tps were found near epithelial cells, glandular cells and unmyelinated nerve fibres. Moreover, exosomes were also found to be present in between TCs/Tps and these cells. PMID:26805522

  15. An Automatic Chinese Character Maltifont Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Bor-Shenn; Chang, Kuang-Yao; Liu, Tsann-Shyong; Lin, Jang-Keng; Wu, Tieh-Min; Wu, Yung-Lai; Chang, Gan-How; Yang, Chih-Yen; Tzou, Kou-Hu

    1986-12-01

    In computerized Chinese character printing, it is infeasible to use the fully-formed character approach since there are about 8,000 Chinese characters in common use. Therefore, dot-matrix printing with a large dictionary of binary images of Chinese characters stored in memory is commonly used. To generate these Chinese character patterns in the dot-matrix form by manual operation is tedious. A better approach is to apply image processing techniques to automatically convert the image of a character into its corresponding dot-matrix pattern. We developed a system that can automatically generate a Chinese character multifont. This system includes image processing and CAD subsystems. Each input picture, consisting of about 100 Chinese characters, is scanned by a scanner. The digitized line-scanned image is processed by the image processing subsystem to form the Chinese characters by a dot matrix. The modules of the image processing subsystem include noise reducer, text detector, adaptive threshold, slicer, and size corrector. Due to the effect of quantization error, there are some defects in these digitized Chinese characters. The CAD subsystem is used to trim these characters. The modules of the CAD subsystem include radical extractor, radical classifier , radical generator, radical copier, stroke extractor, and stroke trimmer. This system can automatically generate Chinese characters in a wide range of resolutions ( 24x24 to 240x240 ) and in any specified font, such as Sung style, Ming style, Formal style, Running style, and Script style of Chinese characters. Using the proposed system, we have generated about 160,000 Chinese characters, which consist of five styles in four dif-ferent resolutions. The advantages of this system are time saving, cost saving and high quality.

  16. Differences in the origin of philosophy between Chinese medicine and Western medicine: Exploration of the holistic advantages of Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da-zhi; Li, Shao-dan; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yin; Mei, Rong; Yang, Ming-hui

    2013-09-01

    To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body. PMID:23975136

  17. Writing Chinese and mathematics achievement: A study with Chinese-American undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-04-01

    Two recent studies indicated that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills. The current study investigated whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. The Scholastic Assessment Test—Mathematics (SAT-Math) scores were analysed for 150 CA undergraduates: 42 writers of Chinese and 108 non-writers of Chinese. The results suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. An underlying mechanism may be the common cognitive components that encompass writing Chinese, spatial tasks, and SAT-Math. Contrary to previous findings with other populations in the USA, CA females scored slightly higher on SAT-Math than males. The finding supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.

  18. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

  19. Understanding Chinese TEFL Academics' Capacity for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to benchmark Chinese TEFL academics' research productivities to identify and address research productivity issues. Using a literature-based survey, this study examined 182 Chinese TEFL academics' research output, perceptions about research, personal dispositions for conducting research and workplace context for conducting research…

  20. Chinese TV: Better Broadcasting for the Billion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    Chinese television started in 1958 but variety in programming and production of sets priced within reach of individuals were slowed by the Cultural Revolution. Since the economic and political reform movement began in 1979, Chinese television has been maturing as an important cultural and political force. The People's Republic of China is a Third…

  1. Revitalizing Liberal Learning. The Chinese Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two practices of the centuries-old Chinese Confucian academies that might benefit the American college teacher today: how Chinese academies have fostered student-teacher rapport and how they developed student motivation to learn. The origins and loss of these traditions are also examined. (MSE)

  2. Case Study of Chinese Exclusion Act Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Joanne, Comp.

    2012-01-01

    While nearly 85 percent of the U.S. population is currently made up of immigrants and their descendants, some groups were specifically targeted for exclusion and deliberately expelled. The Chinese were the first to experience this. In the 1850s, many Chinese who came to this land to search for gold or to help build the transcontinental railroad,…

  3. An Implicit Test of Chinese Orthographic Satiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lan, Ying-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    In this research, an implicit test using a lexical-decision task, in which words were discriminated from homophonic pseudo-words, was developed to detect the phenomenon of "Chinese orthographic satiation." The phenomenon is defined as a sense of uncertainty of the composition of a well-learned Chinese character through a prolonged visual…

  4. Teaching Chinese at an Urban University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Chinese-language program at Portland State University. Elements of this program include newspaper and classical courses; textbooks from China, Taiwan, and English-speaking countries; the use of characters on the first day; and a diverse student body. The university's goal is to make a solid Chinese education available to anyone in…

  5. Communicative Language Teaching in the Chinese Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…

  6. Information Literacy in Chinese Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Ping

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the new informational and educational environment in China and considers the increasing needs for information and knowledge in Chinese higher education, focusing on information literacy. Highlights include the new learning environment; information skills education in Chinese universities; teaching materials; computer labs; courseware;…

  7. The Story of the Chinese in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jue, Mel

    This curriculum guide for teachers of elementary school children provides information on Chinese people in America from the 1800's to the present. The purpose is to increase the Chinese American student's awareness and appreciation of his own heritage. Moreover, the guide attempts to develop among all people an understanding and appreciation of…

  8. Automatic Thesaurus Generation for Chinese Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2002-01-01

    Reports an approach to automatic thesaurus construction for Chinese documents. Presents an effective Chinese keyword extraction algorithm. Compared to previous studies, this method speeds up the thesaurus generation process drastically. It also achieves a similar percentage level of term relatedness. Includes three tables and four figures.…

  9. Chinese Summer Schools Sell Quick Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth; Farrar, Lara

    2013-01-01

    American-style summer programs in China, catering to Chinese-born students, have taken American universities by surprise. They are yet one more player in the complex and often opaque Chinese education industry, an industry in which American colleges are finding themselves increasingly entwined. These programs have become a booming enterprise,…

  10. Exploring Parallel Concordancing in English and Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lixun, Wang

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the value of computer technology as a medium for the delivery of parallel texts in English and Chinese for language learning. A English-Chinese parallel corpus was created for use in parallel concordancing--a technique that has been developed to respond to the desire to study language in its natural contexts of use. (Author/VWL)

  11. Learning Chinese Idioms through iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunsheng; Xie, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research study using iPads during the teaching of Chinese idioms to heritage learners. A class of 12 second-year Chinese learners were engaged in a self-generated learning process focused on learning abstract and concrete idioms using iPads. Students' short-term and long-term learning was measured; feedback…

  12. Studying Overseas: Mainland Chinese Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Leong, Jason Ong Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at developing a substantive theory on the perspectives of Mainland Chinese studying in Singaporean universities. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) Why do university students from Mainland China choose to study in Singapore? and (2) How do Mainland Chinese university students manage the experience…

  13. Factor Structure of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Yu, Bai; Tang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Tingting; Yuen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the factorial invariance and functional equivalence of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) among the Chinese. Methods: A total of 839 undergraduate students completed the 240-item Simplified Chinese version of the VIA-IS online. Another 40 students participated in qualitative interviews to…

  14. Eyewitness report on Chinese satellite work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B.; Haas, S.; Harford, J.; Jaffe, L.; Nansen, R.; Schnapf, A.; Yarymovych, M.

    1980-01-01

    The article describes the current status of satellite and related technology in the People's Republic of China. Attention is given to areas of potential cooperation and scientific and technical 'exchanges'. It is reported that the Chinese technology is 'advanced, but simple' and that the Chinese showed great interest in receiving U.S. technical know-how.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  16. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  17. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  18. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  19. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  20. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  1. Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…

  2. How Efficient Is the Chinese Writing System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrancis, John

    1996-01-01

    Takes a look at some of the specific applications of the Chinese system of writing in an attempt to resolve disagreements about the language's relative efficiency. Examines (1) the arrangement of characters in dictionaries and the look-up procedures; and (2) the process of composing and reproducing Chinese texts, including typesetting,…

  3. Depression and Culture--A Chinese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the current cross-cultural studies on depression among Chinese people. Discusses three factors relating to the low diagnosis rate of depression in China. Counseling implications, such as the use of symbols, relabeling, and the way of approaching Chinese clients, are addressed in the light of cultural sensitivity. (JBJ)

  4. Chinese-Cantonese (Toishan) Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This seven-volume series constitutes the Defense Language Institute (Army Language School) 47-week course in the Toishan dialect of Cantonese. Beginning lessons present the tone and sound system in romanized script. Chinese characters are introduced in the fourth lesson. (See related document AL 001 479, "Chinese Cantonese Basic Course," for a…

  5. Teaching Chinese Children. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuffield Foundation, London (England).

    A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…

  6. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    PubMed

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. PMID:26160600

  7. Intensifying Modifiers for Chinese Modal Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaozhao

    While English modal verbs have been studied extensively, Chinese modal verbs have only been analyzed in a general way. A discussion of the six properties of Chinese modal verbs by Li and Thompson (1981, 1997) examined this area, though some of the properties that they proposed appear to be inaccurate or flawed. This paper concentrates on one of…

  8. Excavated Documents Dealing with Chinese Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yuzhen

    The materials ancient Chinese scholars used to write on changed from bamboo strips, wooden tablets, and silk in early China to paper in the later dynasties. This chapter will focus on excavated documents dealing with ancient Chinese astronomy and explore some of the ways that scholars have made use of these archaeological resources.

  9. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  10. The Chinese brain drain and policy options.

    PubMed

    Chang, P; Deng, Z

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing problem caused by the increasing reluctance of Chinese receiving higher education overseas to return to China following completion of their studies. They note that the Tiananmen incident of June 1989 exacerbated this problem. The policy options open to the Chinese government are reviewed. PMID:12285393

  11. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  12. The Complexity of Chinese Pedagogic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liang; Xu, Nan

    2011-01-01

    This is one of the commentaries on Wu's "Interpretation, autonomy, and transformation: Chinese pedagogic discourse in a cross-cultural perspective" ("JCS", 43(5), 569-590). It highlights the paper's demystification of Western pedagogic discourse and recovery of the meaning of Chinese traditional pedagogic discourse as a response to the…

  13. Morphological Awareness and Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of morphological awareness and its relation to learning to read Chinese characters among 46 Chinese-speaking preschool children. The children took a morphological awareness task, which varied in semantic transparency and morpheme position. Children's vocabulary knowledge and extant character reading ability were…

  14. Moral Reasoning in a Communist Chinese Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lawrence J.; Moran, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the cross-cultural universality of Kohlberg's theory of moral development in Communist Chinese society. Presents results of a study that supports the structure criterion of the moral model. Confirms the collectivistic and utilitarian themes in Chinese morality. Concludes further research is necessary to determine compatibility with…

  15. Understanding Managerial Effectiveness: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine the managerial behavior of Chinese managers, as observed by their superiors, subordinates, and peers in a state-owned enterprise in China. Specifically, this study aims to explore two questions. First, what managerial behaviors are perceived as being effective in the Chinese state-owned enterprise? Second, what…

  16. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  17. Classroom Practice to Translate Classical Chinese Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Huifang

    2013-01-01

    English-Chinese (E-C) translation is part of tertiary curriculum and is generally text- or reading-based, and any course in relation to it is meant to develop the competence of reading, on a higher level, from a language comparative perspective. Chinese-English (C-E) translation is deemed by many as a productive skill, possible when the overall…

  18. Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia and examined the cognitive profile of dyslexic adolescents in order to better understand this important problem. The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27…

  19. Word Learning Deficit among Chinese Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined word learning difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children, readers of a nonalphabetic script. A total of 105 Hong Kong Chinese children were recruited and divided into three groups: Dyslexic (mean age 8;8), CA control (mean age 8;9), and RL control (mean age 6;11). They were given a word learning task and a familiar word…

  20. Thesaurus Dataset of Educational Technology in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…

  1. Chinese-Americans: School and Community Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Integrated Education Associates, Evanston, IL.

    Contents include the following articles: (1) "'Don't Mistake the Finger Pointing at the Moon for the Moon:' Zen Buddhist Saying / On Understanding Minority Group Experiences: The Asian American Example;" (2) "Schooling and Employment of Asian Americans;" (3) "The Chinese Community in San Francisco;" (4) "The Chinese in New York City;" (5)…

  2. Chinese Calendar and Mathematical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The Chinese calendar (li 历) was a system of mathematical astronomy that included mathematical techniques for the computation of celestial movements. It was the basis for producing astronomical ephemerides and annual almanacs. Calendar making started early in China. Since the Great Inception calendar reform in 104 BC, China has produced about 100 calendars (astronomical systems). The focus of calendar making was the prediction of solar, lunar, and planetary motions. As astronomy developed, new observational discoveries were incorporated into the calendar to make the system more precise. The history of astronomy in ancient China was largely a history of calendar making.

  3. Ancient Chinese Astronomy - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    Documentary and archaeological evidence testifies the early origin and continuous development of ancient Chinese astronomy to meet both the ideological and practical needs of a society largely based on agriculture. There was a long period when the beginning of the year, month, and season was determined by direct observation of celestial phenomena, including their alignments with respect to the local skyline. As the need for more exact study arose, new instruments for more exact observation were invented and the system of calendrical astronomy became entirely mathematized.

  4. Architecture of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-06-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is brought forward under the background of progresses of astronomical technologies and information technologies. VO architecture design embodies the combination of above two technologies. As an introduction of VO, principle and workflow of Virtual Observatory are given firstly. Then the latest progress on VO architecture is introduced. Based on the Grid technology, layered architecture model and service-oriented architecture model are given for Chinese Virtual Observatory. In the last part of the paper, some problems on architecture design are discussed in detail.

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  6. Genome-wide identification, classification, and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, X Y; Tao, P; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, particularly in acquired thermotolerance. We analyzed heat tolerance mechanisms in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 30 Hsfs were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database. The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, expression analysis, and interaction networks of the Hsfs were predicted and analyzed. Thirty BrHsfs were classified into 3 major classes (class A, B, and C) according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 8 subclasses. Distribution mapping results showed that Hsf genes were located on 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The expression profile indicated that Hsfs play differential roles in 5 organs in Chinese cabbage, and likely participate in the development of underground parts and regulation of reproductive growth. An orthologous gene interaction network was constructed, and included MBF1C, ROF1, TBP2, CDC2, and HSP70 5 genes, which are closely related to heat stress. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of Hsfs in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further functional gene research. PMID:25867366

  7. Stroop interference in Chinese and English.

    PubMed

    Lee, T M; Chan, C C

    2000-08-01

    This study examined whether Chinese and English orthographies would bring about a different Stroop effect. Eighty-five right-handed participants belonging to Chinese-English bilingual and English monolingual groups were invited to participate. The Stroop Color-Word Test - Victoria version (VST) and the Chinese version of the VST (CST) were the outcome measures. The bilinguals completed both the VST and CST, whereas the monolinguals performed only the VST. The results in both between- and within-group comparisons revealed no significant difference in Stroop effect no matter whether Chinese or English orthographies were used. This does not support the orthographic variation hypothesis and suggests that Chinese orthography does not generate a greater Stroop effect than English orthography. PMID:10923056

  8. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory). PMID:16024405

  9. [Effects of conversion of natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation on soil respiration in subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Bai, Yang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Wu, Jia-sen; Tong, Zhi-peng; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-10-01

    Soil CO2 effluxes in natural broad-leaved forest and the conversed Chinese fir plantation in Linglong Mountains Scenic of Zhejiang Province were evaluated by using static closed chamber and gas chromatography method. The results showed that soil CO2 efflux showed consistent seasonal dynamics in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, with the maximums observed in summer and autumn, the minimums in winter and spring. Soil CO2 effluxes were 20.0-111.3 and 4.1-118.6 mg C . m-2 . h-1 in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The cumulative soil CO2 emission of natural broad-leaved forest (16.46 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1) was significantly higher than that of Chinese fir plantation (11.99 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1). Soil moisture did not affect soil CO2 efflux. There was a significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature at 5 cm depth. There was no significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux of natural broad-leaved forest and water soluble organic carbon content, while water soluble organic carbon content affected significantly soil CO2 efflux in Chinese fir plantation. Converting the natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation reduced soil CO2 efflux significantly but improved the sensitivity of soil respiration to environmental factors. PMID:26995901

  10. U.S. and Chinese experts perspectives on IGCC technology for Chinese electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B.C.B.; Wang Yingshi

    1997-11-01

    Although China is a very large and populous nation, and has one of the longest known histories in the world, it has only lately begun to seek its place among modern industrial nations. This move, precipitated by the government`s relatively recently adopted strategic goals of economic development, societal reform and promotion of engagement with other industrial nations, has brought to the fore the serious situation in which the Chinese electric power industry finds itself. Owing to the advanced average age of generation facilities and the technology used in them, serious expansion and modernization of this industry needs to take place, and soon, if it is to support the rapid industrial development already taking place in China. While China does have some oil and gas, coal constitutes its largest indigenous energy supply, by far. Coal has been mined and utilized for years in China. It is used directly to provide heat for homes, businesses and in industrial applications, and used to raise steam for the generation of electricity. The presently dominant coal utilization methods are characterized by low or marginal efficiencies and an almost universal lack of pollution control equipment. Because there is so much of it, coal is destined to be China`s predominant source of thermal energy for decades to come. Realizing these things--the rapidly increasing demand for more electric power than China presently can produce, the need to raise coal utilization efficiencies, and the corresponding need to preserve the environment--the Chinese government moved to commission several official working organizations to tackle these problems.

  11. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  13. Four children and one toy: Chinese and Canadian children faced with potential conflict over a limited resource.

    PubMed

    French, Doran C; Chen, Xinyin; Chung, Janet; Li, Miao; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Quartets of Chinese (n=125) and Canadian (n=133) 7-year-old children were observed as they played with a single attractive toy. Chinese children exhibited more assertive and general rule bids, engaged in more spontaneous giving, and reacted more positively to assertions of others whereas Canadian children more frequently referred to norms of sharing. Evidence of cultural scripts for dealing with potential conflict, that is, sharing for Canadian children and hierarchical organization for Chinese children, emerged. Passive and reticent behaviors in Chinese children and assertion and object control by Canadian children were associated with group acceptance, results suggesting the meaning of these patterns of social behavior may differ in these two countries. PMID:21418056

  14. CNMAN: a Chinese adult male voxel phantom constructed from color photographs of a visible anatomical data set.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binquan; Ma, Jizeng; Liu, Liye; Cheng, Jianping

    2007-01-01

    A voxel phantom of Chinese adult male called CNMAN was constructed from color photographs of the first Chinese visible human data set, for radiation protection purpose. This data set was obtained from a 35-y-old Chinese male cadaver by a medical university in China. The man, 170 cm in height and 65 kg in weight, was dead without any pathological changes. The image size for transversal anatomical photographs of the whole body was 3072 x 2048. After the photographs were semi-automatically segmented, the voxel phantom (CNMAN) with a voxel size of 0.16 mm x 0.16 mm x 1 mm, consisting of 29 tissues or organs was constructed. Combined with the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code, preliminary results for radiation protection dosimetry were obtained based on this Chinese voxel phantom. PMID:17526909

  15. A Single Case Study: Treating Migraine Headache With Acupuncture, Chinese Herbs, and Diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is an often sought-out treatment modality for migraine. The World Health Organization lists headache as one of the several conditions treated effectively by acupuncture. Case Description: This single case reports on a 32-year-old woman who presented with a 10-year history of migraine. Methods: The patient was treated with acupuncture, dietary modifications, and Chinese herbal medicine enemas over a course of 2 months. Results: The patient experienced pain relief that resulted in several months without any migraine. Conclusion: This article may aid in expanding practitioners’ treatment options to include a more diverse set of modalities such as Chinese herbal enemas. More research is needed to investigate the role of Oriental medicine and Chinese herbal enemas in the treatment of pain conditions. PMID:24753996

  16. The Effectiveness of Chinese NNESTs in Teaching English Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chun-Hui; Bartz, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of Chinese non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) on Chinese ESL students' struggles with English syntax. The paper first classifies Chinese learners' syntactic errors into 10 common types. It demonstrates how each type of error results from an internal attempt to translate a common Chinese construction into…

  17. Sentence Interpretation in Bilingual Speakers of English and Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hua; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines patterns of transfer in the sentence processing strategies displayed by Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals. Results indicate that late bilinguals display strong evidence for forward transfer: late Chinese-English bilinguals transfer animacy-based strategies to English sentences; late Chinese-English bilinguals transfer…

  18. Chinese-American Identity and Children's Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jean H.

    A survey was made of all children's books about Chinese, Chinese Americans, or China for pre-kindergarten through third-grade reading level to determine how the books represent the Chinese or Chinese American to the young child. Books included in the study were identified by one or more of the following factors: (1) book title and bibliographic…

  19. Chinese in the United States: A Century of Occupational Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Haitung; Locke, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the changing occupational patterns of Chinese Americans in the past 100 years. Considers the historic background of legal and socioeconomic restrictions, occupation accommodation, differences between native and foreign-born Chinese, Chinese entrepreneurship, the Chinatown sub-economy, and the health status of Chinese with work experience.…

  20. School Adjustment of First-Generation Chinese-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Peverly, Stephen T.; Xin, Tao; Huang, Annie S.; Wang, Weidong

    2003-01-01

    First-generation Chinese-American adolescents' school adjustment was compared with that of Mainland Chinese and European American adolescents. Results indicated that Chinese-American adolescents reported more negative attitudes toward teachers than European American and Mainland Chinese students, had more negative perceptions of the school…

  1. The Learning of Chinese Idioms through Multimedia Storytelling Prototype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ee Hui; Hew, Soon Hin; Choo, Siew Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of China has successfully boosted the Chinese language to be studied by people from different language-speaking societies. The Chinese language has become the most preferred second or third language among non-Chinese native novices due to the great development of China and global economic change. The Chinese idiom is…

  2. Technical Aspects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…

  3. FCC Oral Arguments of the Chinese Media Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Katheryn M.

    Monitoring of television programs has revealed that few programs present Chinese characters. The Chinese which are represented in television shows perpetuate stereotypes: either pig-tailed hatchet-killers or the clever, intelligent Charlie Chan. The networks have ignored both the large body of Chinese myths and the contribution of Chinese in…

  4. Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…

  5. "Heart" and Self in Old Age: A Chinese Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiang, Julia

    The relationship between Chinese-Americans and their elderly parents is examined in the context of the Chinese concept of "heart." The Chinese word "heart" expresses a concept central to the dynamics of family transactions and especially to the relationship of elderly parents to adult children. Chinese culture is not a physically or verbally…

  6. Management and Organizational Technologies of Chinese Rural Youth Programs. A Scientific Exchange of Rural Youth Programs between the U.S.A. and the People's Republic of China (April 8-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    An official delegation of Americans representing the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant colleges visited the People's Republic of China (PRC) to study the management and organization of the Chinese agricultural extension systems and to identify areas for the Chinese authorities to…

  7. Past, Present and Future of Chinese Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Through out the ancient history, Chinese astronomers had made tremendous achievements. Since the main purpose of the ancient Chinese astronomy was to study the correlation between man and the universe, all the Emperors made ancient Chinese astronomy the highly regarded science throughout the history. After a brief introduction of the achievement of ancient Chinese astronomy, I describe the beginnings of modern astronomy research in China in the 20th century. Benefiting from the fast development of Chinese economy, the research in astronomy in China has made remarkable progress in recent years. The number of astronomers has doubled in the past ten years, and the number of graduate students has grown over 1300. The current budget for astronomy research is ten times larger than that ten years ago. The research covers all fields in astronomy, from galaxies to the Sun. The recent progress in both the instruments, such as the Guo Shoujing's telescope, a Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), and the theoretical research will be briefly presented. The ongoing and future projects on the space- and ground-based facilities will be described, including the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), ``Chang E'' (Lunar mission) project, Hard X-ray Modulate Telescope (HXMT), DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), Deep Space Solar Observatory (DSO), Chinese Antarctic Observatory (CAO), 65m steerable radio telescope, Chinese Spectral Radioheliogaph (CSRH) etc.

  8. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weibing; Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2014-02-01

    We show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. For long Chinese texts (or for mixtures of short Chinese texts), rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters display a two-layer, hierarchic structure that combines a Zipfian power-law regime for frequent characters (first layer) with an exponential-like regime for less frequent characters (second layer). For these two layers we provide different (though related) theoretical descriptions that include the range of low-frequency characters (hapax legomena). We suggest that this hierarchic structure of the rank-frequency relation connects to semantic features of Chinese characters (number of different meanings and homographies). The comparative analysis of rank-frequency relations for Chinese characters versus English words illustrates the extent to which the characters play for Chinese writers the same role as the words for those writing within alphabetical systems.

  9. ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic pollutants may constitute the most widespread waste loadings into the waters of Lake Superior. There are essentially three categories of organic contaminants. The first grouping consists of those organic compounds that readily degrade biologically or chemically. The secon...

  10. The Influence of Chinese Character Handwriting Diagnosis and Remedial Instruction System on Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Chiao-Jia; Wu, Chia-Hou; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study designed and developed a Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction (CHDRI) system to improve Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners' ability to write Chinese characters. The CFL learners were given two tests based on the CHDRI system. One test focused on Chinese character handwriting to diagnose the CFL…

  11. Different Locks Must Be Opened with Different Keys: Using Chinese Proverbs for Teaching Finance to Chinese-Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biktimirov, Ernest N.; Feng, Jingtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests the use of Chinese proverbs in the teaching of finance to Chinese-speaking students. Familiar proverbs facilitate teaching to Chinese students by appealing to students' prior knowledge, improving retention of new material, and creating a friendlier classroom environment. Using Chinese proverbs in finance instruction also…

  12. Function Labeling for Unparsed Chinese Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Caixia; Ren, Fuji; Wang, Xiaojie; Zhong, Yixin

    This paper presents a work of function labeling for unparsed Chinese text. Unlike other attempts that utilize the full parse trees, we propose an effective way to recognize function labels directly based on lexical information, which is easily scalable for languages that lack sufficient parsing resources. Furthermore, we investigate a general method to iteratively simplify a sentence, thus transferring complicated sentence into structurally simple pieces. By means of a sequence learning model with hidden Markov support vector machine, we achieve the best F-measure of 87.40 on the text from Penn Chinese Treebank resources - a statistically significant improvement over the existing Chinese function labeling systems.

  13. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products. PMID:26561737

  14. Chinese-U.S. Scientific Exchange Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC) is inviting applications for its 1989-1990 research exchange programs. Support is available for 1-3-month visits between American and Chinese scientists from September 1989 to August 1990. Nearly all scholarly and scientific disciplines are eligible for support. American scholars may nominate Chinese scholars of any discipline for a visit to the United States. Preference will be given to those Chinese scholars who have not been in the United States recently.

  15. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions. PMID:19708408

  16. Modesty, sexuality, and breast health in Chinese-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Mo, B

    1992-01-01

    Although breast cancer rates among Chinese women are lower than among white women, breast cancers and other breast diseases often go undetected and untreated in Chinese women. Cultural values with respect to modesty and sexuality, especially in unmarried women, partly account for a Chinese lack of attention to breast health. In addition, institutional barriers, such as an unavailability of information in Chinese languages, few female physicians, and an absence of educational campaigns, contribute to Chinese women's neglect of breast health. PMID:1413766

  17. Evolution of Chinese airport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo; Cai, Kai-Quan

    2010-09-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and the accelerated globalization process, the aviation industry plays a more and more critical role in today’s world, in both developed and developing countries. As the infrastructure of aviation industry, the airport network is one of the most important indicators of economic growth. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the Chinese airport network (CAN) via complex network theory. It is found that although the topology of CAN has remained steady during the past few years, there are many dynamic switchings inside the network, which have changed the relative importance of airports and airlines. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of traffic flow (passengers and cargoes) on CAN. It is found that the traffic continues to grow in an exponential form and has evident seasonal fluctuations. We also found that cargo traffic and passenger traffic are positively related but the correlations are quite different for different kinds of cities.

  18. Elastic cone for Chinese calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fenglei; Li, Haisheng

    2014-01-01

    The brush plays an important role in creating Chinese calligraphy. We regard a single bristle of a writing brush as an elastic rod and the brush tuft absorbing ink as an elastic cone, which naturally deforms according to the force exerted on it when painting on a paper, and the brush footprint is formed by the intersection region between the deformed tuft and the paper plane. To efficiently generate brush strokes, this paper introduces interpolation and texture mapping approach between two adjacent footprints, and automatically applies bristle-splitting texture to the stroke after long-time painting. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective and reliable. Users can create realistic calligraphy in real time.

  19. The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Ji, Haisheng

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope is the next generation ground-based solar telescope. The main science task of this telescope is to observe the ultra fine structures of the solar magnetic field and dynamic field. Due to the advantages in polarization detection and thermal controlling with a symmetrical circular system, the current design of CGST is a 6~8 meter circular symmetrical telescope. The results of simulations and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demands of most science cases not only in infrared bands but also in near infrared bands and even in visible bands. The prominences and the filaments are very important science cases of CGST. The special technologies for prominence observation will be developed, including the day time laser guide star and MCAO. CGST is proposed by all solar observatories and several institutes and universities in China. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  20. Organ Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Facts Here you can find valuable information about organs ...

  1. Organ Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs from one donor can save or help as many as 50 people. Organs you can donate include Internal organs: Kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs Skin Bone and bone marrow ...

  2. Matching Organs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Organs With Transplant Candidates When a deceased organ donor is identified, a transplant coordinator from an organ ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

  3. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course: References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is a collection of reference materials to be used with the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course textbooks. This collection consists of information on romanization systems, indexes for reading and writing characters, and other tables for quick reference. (NCR)

  4. A Criminal Case in the Chinese Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinerman, James V.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a criminal case decided in the People's Republic of China in March 1991. Discusses the development of the modern Chinese legal system. Compares criminal law in China and the United States. (CFR)

  5. Informed consent practices of Chinese nurse researchers.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Douglas P; Honghong Wang; Pang, Samantha

    2010-03-01

    Nursing research in China is at an early stage of development and little is known about the practices of Chinese nurse researchers. This interview study carried out at a university in central China explores the informed consent practices of Chinese nurse researchers and the cultural considerations of using a western technique. Nine semistructured interviews were conducted in English with assistance and simultaneous translation from a Chinese nurse with research experience. The interviews were analyzed by one western and two Chinese researchers and major themes were identified. All participants endorsed informed consent as ethically required. Differences were noted between some of the informed consent practices typically recommended in the USA and those identified in this study, such as: recruitment using local and government officials, recruiting directly from medical records without special permission, family consultation in consent and consent control, and not revealing randomization to intervention groups receiving different treatments. PMID:20185442

  6. Suicide Among Chinese in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Peter G.

    1973-01-01

    Reports on a study which investigated suicide among Chinese in San Francisco, its relationship to age and sex distribution, place of birth, marital status, occupation, and methods and causes of suicide. (SF)

  7. Palaeontology: Chinese amber insects bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-07-21

    n the study of fossil insects, Chinese amber from Fushun has been largely overlooked. A new study now reveals a highly diverse biota and provides a wealth of new information on the past Asian insect fauna. PMID:25050958

  8. Cultural expectations of thinness in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Leung, F; Lam, S; Sze, S

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the ideal woman's figure among Chinese people in Hong Kong over the past three decades by analyzing the data from the Miss Hong Kong Beauty Pageant from 1975-2000. Results indicate that Miss Hong Kong Pageant winners and Miss Photogenic winners have always been taller and thinner than average women in Hong Kong. The data also suggest that a curvaceous body shape with a narrow waist set against full hips appears to be an important component of feminine beauty among the Chinese. This ideal matches closely to what has been depicted in classical Chinese literature and challenges the commonly held belief that Chinese feminine beauty standards value plumpness. PMID:16864394

  9. Chinese Entrepreneurship: A Study in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jean; Chan, Javihn

    1998-01-01

    Content analysis of interviews with second-generation Chinese entrepreneurs in Singapore revealed the majority were male and had high school education. Their motivational orientations for business ownership were classified as follows: achievers, networkers, and hard workers. (SK)

  10. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-01-01

    Brassica crops infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae can produce root galls (clubroots) and be prevented from growing normally. To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible lines were used for infection observation. Hydroponic technology system was used for plants growing, and the infection process of P. brassicae in the roots of resistant and susceptible Chinese cabbage was examined based on morphology and microscopic characteristics using micoscope. In susceptible Chinese cabbage, the root hair infection stage occurred over approximately 7 days after inoculation, the cortical infection happened over approximatly 14 days after inoculation, and clubroots formed in approximately 30 days after inoculation. However, in resistant Chinese cabbage, the pathogen could be prevented and maintained in the root hair infection stage. This research provides a foundation for the subsequent studies of cabbage resistance of P. brassicae. PMID:25526218

  11. Chinese Herbs Interfering with Cancer Reprogramming Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhangfeng; Qiang, William W.; Tan, Wen; Zhang, Haotian; Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Chunming; Qiang, Wenan; Wang, Yitao

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence promotes a reassessment of metabolic reprogramming regulation in cancer research. Although there exists a long history of Chinese herbs applied in cancer treatment, few reports have addressed the effects of Chinese herbal components on metabolic reprogramming, which is a central cancer hallmark involved in the slowing or prevention of chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this review, we have focused on four core elements altered by metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. These include glucose transport, glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid synthesis. With this focus, we have summarized recent advances in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in response to specific Chinese herbal components. We propose that exploring Chinese herbal interference in cancer metabolic reprogramming might identify new therapeutic targets for cancer and more ways in which to approach metabolism-related diseases. PMID:27242914

  12. Arbitrage and Volatility in Chinese Stock's Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo

    From the point of view of no-arbitrage pricing, what matters is how much volatility the stock has, for volatility measures the amount of profit that can be made from shorting stocks and purchasing options. With the short-sales constraints or in the absence of options, however, high volatility is likely to mean arbitrage from stock market. As emerging stock markets for China, investors are increasingly concerned about volatilities of Chinese two stock markets. We estimate volatility's models for Chinese stock markets' indexes using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and GARCH. We find that estimated values of volatility parameters are very high for all data frequencies. It suggests that stock returns are extremely volatile even at long term intervals in Chinese markets. Furthermore, this result could be considered that there seems to be arbitrage opportunities in Chinese stock markets.

  13. A View of the Chinese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, Patsy

    1985-01-01

    Describes the current state of and the effect of new policies on Chinese families, in terms of marriage, family planning, housing, income, lifestyle, food practices, clothing, health care, education, religion, status of women, and retirement. (SK)

  14. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    PubMed

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. PMID:25059474

  15. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  16. On Chinese Loan Words from English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Yun; Deng, Tianbai

    2009-01-01

    In the recent twenty years, with China's reform and opening policy to the outside world, there is a sharp increase in English loan words in Chinese. On the one hand, it demonstrates that China's soft power has been booming up. But on the other hand, some language pollution in the meanwhile is caused by non-standard use of loan words in Chinese.…

  17. Lead in Chinese villager house dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan

    2016-04-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to children's blood Pb. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with geometric mean and median concentration of 54 mg/kg and 42 mg/kg, respectively. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decorative materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decorative materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Pb bearing particles appeared as cylindrical, flaky and irregular aggregates with the particle size ranging from about 10 to 800 μm. The energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) suggested that Pb in the dust particles may be associated with calcium compounds. But the major fraction of Pb in the household dust samples was found to be strongly bound to Fe-Mn oxide phases (37%) while Pb present in minor fractions individually making up between 14 and 18% was characterized in falling order as residual, carbonate, organic/sulphide and exchangeable fractions by the sequential extraction method applied. Bioaccessible Pb making up an average proportion of 53% in the household dusts was significantly correlated to the Fe-Mn oxide phases of Pb.

  18. How does Chinese loess become magnetized?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2010-03-01

    Despite nearly three decades of paleomagnetic research on the extensive Chinese loess deposits, a convincing explanation has yet to be developed for how Chinese loess becomes magnetized. To address this problem, we conducted re-deposition experiments using weakly consolidated Holocene Chinese loess that was disaggregated in the laboratory, and compare our results with published paleomagnetic data. We simulated a depositional remanent magnetization (DRM) associated with dry deposition of eolian sediments, and a post-depositional remanent magnetization (PDRM) in which the sediment was water-saturated after deposition. The simulated DRM faithfully records the declination of the applied field, but with systematic inclination flattening. Addition of minor water slightly improves recording of the applied field, but inclination flattening persists. Reliable recording of the applied field occurs for PDRM simulation in water-saturated sediment. Our synthesis of paleomagnetic data from Chinese loess indicates that time-averaged paleomagnetic directions are often indistinguishable from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) field, but in many cases inclinations are shallower than for a GAD field. We conclude that the Chinese loess is magnetized by a combination of DRM and PDRM mechanisms, with water content providing the dominant control on which mechanism aligns the detrital mineral fraction. Where pedogenesis causes neoformation of magnetic minerals, an additional chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) will occur. The magnetization of Chinese loess therefore appears to be controlled by a complex time-varying combination of DRM, PDRM and CRM mechanisms.

  19. Chinese culture and dental behaviour: some observations from Wellington.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    2009-03-01

    Chinese migrants bring their Chinese culture and Chinese beliefs to New Zealand. The acculturation process can be long and may affect their access to dental services. Analysis of recent research suggests a pattern whereby the greater the acculturation, the greater the use of dental services. Four aspects of Chinese culture are highlighted: wrong perception of the cause of caries as 'Qi'; intention to seek self-treatment; a preference for keeping teeth against dentists' advice; and complex attitudes towards New Zealand dentists. These issues require dentists to be culturally aware when dealing with Chinese patients. Because existing models fail to capture the complexities of Chinese culture, a dynamic model is proposed to help dental practitioners to understand Chinese migrants' dental behaviours. Chinese culture also has implications for researchers who want to carry out research with the Chinese community. PMID:19418680

  20. [Traditional Chinese medicine: theoretical background and its use in China].

    PubMed

    Oravecz, Márk; Mészáros, Judit

    2012-05-13

    This paper aims to define the concept of traditional Chinese medicine. Chinese medicine has its own unique system of knowledge, which fundamentally defines all of its therapeutic procedures (acupuncture, manual therapy, and Chinese herbal medicine). The authors offer a detailed description of the theoretical basics of Chinese medicine: classification of the normal and pathological processes of the human body based on functional models and a high degree of therapeutic individualization. The authors describe the current practice of Chinese medicine based on the Chinese model, without which modern Chinese medicine cannot exist. This concept pervades the education, clinical practice and research of Chinese medicine. If we hope to adequately satisfy scientific inquiry about Chinese medicine, we must first define its theoretical background and get acquainted with its scope of usage in modern China. The clarification of these basic issues will be beneficial to scientific research and legislative procedures. PMID:22564283

  1. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  2. Evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration for Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations

  3. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26113454

  4. An automatic indexing and neural network approach to concept retrieval and classification of multilingual (Chinese-English) documents.

    PubMed

    Lin, C H; Chen, H

    1996-01-01

    An automatic indexing and concept classification approach to a multilingual (Chinese and English) bibliographic database is presented. We introduced a multi-linear term-phrasing technique to extract concept descriptors (terms or keywords) from a Chinese-English bibliographic database. A concept space of related descriptors was then generated using a co-occurrence analysis technique. Like a man-made thesaurus, the system-generated concept space can be used to generate additional semantically-relevant terms for search. For concept classification and clustering, a variant of a Hopfield neural network was developed to cluster similar concept descriptors and to generate a small number of concept groups to represent (summarize) the subject matter of the database. The concept space approach to information classification and retrieval has been adopted by the authors in other scientific databases and business applications, but multilingual information retrieval presents a unique challenge. This research reports our experiment on multilingual databases. Our system was initially developed in the MS-DOS environment, running ETEN Chinese operating system. For performance reasons, it was then tested on a UNIX-based system. Due to the unique ideographic nature of the Chinese language, a Chinese term-phrase indexing paradigm considering the ideographic characteristics of Chinese was developed as a multilingual information classification model. By applying the neural network based concept classification technique, the model presents a novel way of organizing unstructured multilingual information. PMID:18263007

  5. Which Chinese Creators Are Famous and Why: Views from Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Yue, Xiao Dong

    2007-01-01

    The list of recognized creators is constantly changing with the passage of time. An up-to-date list of recognized Chinese creators emerges from a survey of a large sample of Chinese students in various places in China. To understand the sustainability of the creators' fame, this study examines how the creators' personal characteristics affect…

  6. Enhancing Overseas Chinese Graduate Employability: The Case of Chinese Graduates with Finnish Academic Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers.…

  7. Anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese Adolescents in Comparison with the American Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Ang, Rebecca P.; Lee, Jiyoon

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing literature base on child and adolescent anxiety. Cross-cultural research on child and adolescent anxiety, however, has been relatively limited. This study examined whether there were similarities and differences in the self reported anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese adolescents (12-17 years of age), and whether…

  8. Chinese-English and English-Chinese Dictionaries in the Library of Congress. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Robert, Comp.

    An annotated bibliography of the Library of Congress' Chinese-English holdings on all subjects, as well as certain polyglot and multilingual dictionaries with English and Chinese entries. Included are general, encyclopaedic and comprehensive dictionaries; vocabularies; word lists; syllabaries; lists of place names, personal names, nomenclature,…

  9. An Analysis of the Impact of Traditional Chinese Culture on Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2006-01-01

    The educational tradition of China has developed from traditional Chinese culture. Without an understanding of the cultural impact on traditional education, it is impossible to comprehend the educational tradition of China and to change its traditional educational ideas. There are fine traditions and feudal remains in Chinese culture which ought…

  10. Variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners' Development of the Chinese Numeral Classifier System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xiaofei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners' development of the Chinese numeral classifier system from a dynamic systems approach. Our data consisted of a longitudinal corpus of 657 essays written by CFL learners at lower and higher intermediate levels and a corpus of 100 essays written by native speakers (NSs)…

  11. The Development of School Psychological Services in the Chinese Mainland: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Yi-Duo; Fang, Bi-Ji

    2010-01-01

    Influenced by governmental policy, school psychological services in the Chinese mainland are a recent phenomenon with a history of only about 20 years, which can be divided into two stages: "exploration" and "development." To give a comprehensive account of the development of school psychological services in the Chinese mainland, this article…

  12. Understanding Informal and Formal Mathematical Abilities in Mainland Chinese and Chinese-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Cheng, Christine; Mottram, Lisa; Rosenblum, Stacey

    Informal and formal mathematical abilities were studied in the preschool, kindergarten, and first grade children in Beijing, China and Chinese-American children in New York City. Test of Early Mathematical Abilities-2nd Edition (TEMA-2) was administered to the three groups of children (children from Beijing, Chinese-American from lower-class, and…

  13. The ABC's of Chinese: Maternal Mediation of Pinyin for Chinese Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan; Liu, Phil D.; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, maternal Pinyin mediation and its relations with young Chinese children's word reading and word writing development were explored. At time 1, 43 Mainland Chinese children and their mothers were videotaped on a task in which children were asked to write 12 words in Pinyin (a phonological coding system used in Mainland China as…

  14. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  15. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  16. Korea's Attempts to Eliminate Chinese Characters and the Implications for Romanizing Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannas, William C.

    1995-01-01

    Examines Korea's experience with abandoning Chinese characters for an all-phonetic script. Despite efforts to replace characters with "all-hangul" in South Korea, reform opponents reinstated Chinese characters. In North Korea, a similar reform was also rescinded. Certain "linguistic" problems need to be solved for the reform to be successful. (35…

  17. Traditional Chinese Values and Attitudes of Chinese University Students toward People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang; Xiao, Fei

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between traditional Chinese values and attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities. A total of 534 college students in China participated in the study. Two instruments that measure Chinese values and attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities were used. Results indicated…

  18. Educating Teachers of "Chinese as a Local/Global Language": Teaching "Chinese with Australian Characteristics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe

    2014-01-01

    How can the education of teacher-researchers from China be framed in ways so that they might make Chinese learnable for primary and secondary school learners for whom English is their everyday language of instruction and communication. The concept "making Chinese learnable" and the characters of the language learners are explained in the…

  19. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of Chinese Leishmania isolates based on multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Ying; Lu, Xiao-Jun; Du, Xiao-Qing; Jian, Jun; Shu, Ling; Ma, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a debilitating infectious disease that has a variety of clinical forms. In China, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most common symptom, and L. donovani and/or L. infantum are the likely pathogens. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of five enzyme-coding genes (fh, g6pdh, icd, mpi, pgd) and two conserved genes (hsp70, lack) was used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Chinese Leishmania strains. Concatenated alignment of the nucleotide sequences of the seven genes was analyzed and phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony models. A set of additional sequences from 25 strains (24 strains belong to the L. donovani complex and one strain belongs to L. gerbilli) were retrieved from GenBank to infer the molecular evolutionary history of Leishmania from China and other endemic areas worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses consolidated Chinese Leishmania into four groups: (i) one clade A population comprised 13 isolates from different foci in China, which were pathogenic to humans and canines. This population was subdivided into two subclades, clade A1 and clade A2, which comprised sister organisms to the remaining members of the worldwide L. donovani complex; (ii) a population in clade B consisted of one reference strain of L. turanica and five Chinese strains from Xinjiang; (iii) clade C (SELF-7 and EJNI-154) formed a population that was closely related to clade B, and both isolates were identified as L. gerbilli; and (iv) the final group, clade D, included Sauroleishmania (LIZRD and KXG-E) and was distinct from the other strains. We hypothesize that the phylogeny of Chinese Leishmania is associated with the geographical origins rather than with the clinical forms (VL or CL) of leishmaniasis. To conclude, this study provides further molecular information on Chinese Leishmania isolates and the Chinese isolates appear to have a more complex evolutionary history than previously thought. PMID

  20. Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels. PMID:25102607

  1. [Status and future of natural resource for Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-jing; Guo, Juan; Tang, Jin-fu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying; Dai, Zhu-bo; Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    For thousands of years, the natural resource for Chinese materiamedica has been the foundation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry, which provides abundant medicine for human. In recent years, increasing demands and irrational exploitation led to a lot of problems such as rapid decrease of traditional Chinese herbs reserves, low quality of medicine and dismishing traditional cultures. These restricted the development of the traditional Chinese medicine. To solve these problems, scientists have done much work on investigating traditional Chinese medicine resources, exploring the metabolic pathway of bioactive ingredients, cultivating new varieties, and carrying out synthetic biology. These studies provided a theoretical basis for sustainable utilizationand future developmentof traditional Chinese medicine resources. PMID:26390642

  2. The social meanings of traditional Chinese medicine: elderly Chinese immigrants' health practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kong, Haiying; Hsieh, Elaine

    2012-10-01

    We situate elderly Chinese immigrants' utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in social contexts (e.g., family and social networks), exploring how TCM is used as a tool, a resource, and a product of meaning-construction in their everyday life. We conducted in in-depth interviews with 20 elderly Chinese immigrants in the United State, exploring the complexity of their understanding and practice of TCM. We used grounded theory to identify the set of meanings that are particular to elderly Chinese immigrants' use of TCM as a part of their health practice. For our participants, TCM is not just a resource for illness management. Instead, incorporating TCM in their health practice allows them to: (a) perform and reaffirm their cultural identity as Chinese, (b) maintain their moral status and fulfill their social roles, and (c) pass down health knowledge and cultural heritage. Clinical implications were discussed. PMID:22160808

  3. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. PMID:26371449

  4. Meeting the Special Needs of the Gifted through the Summer Gifted Programme at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.; Cheung, Ping Chung; Yeung, Patricia P. W.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the 1997 Summer Gifted Program at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, a program designed to provide 102 gifted junior secondary schools students with enrichment courses and activities. The program's identification and selection procedures, organization of classes, curriculum, teacher selection and training, and evaluation…

  5. Vertical or Horizontal? Impact of Text Orientations on Performance and Preference for Young Readers of Chinese in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese writing system has traditionally organized the typographic text vertically, with one square-shaped character placed on top of another. With the influence of globalization, an increasing number of reading materials have been presented in the Western horizontal format, including school textbooks for children in Taiwan. This study looked…

  6. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  7. Chinese Helicobacter pylori vaccine: Solution for an old challenge?

    PubMed

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world's population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide. Each year, many of people die from gastric cancer; thus application of effective vaccine can reduce this relatively high mortality worldwide. H. pylori can be eliminated by antibiotics but efficacy is sharply decreasing. Moreover, current therapy is also expensive and with side effects. Vaccine may be the best solution to the above problem but there are many challenges in producing such an effective therapeutic vaccine. Recently, the Chinese group published in Lancet, a single-center, randomized, phase III study of an oral recombinant vaccine (Urease B subunit fused with heat-labile enterotoxin B derived from Escherichia coli) prescribed in the Chinese children (6-15 years) without a history of H. pylori infection. This review provides an insight into this new solution for an old challenge. PMID:27602242

  8. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  9. A Chinese fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Han, B Z; Rombouts, F M; Nout, M J

    2001-04-11

    Sufu or furu is a fermented soybean product originating in China. It is a cheese-like product with a spreadable creamy consistency and a pronounced flavour. Sufu is a popular side dish consumed mainly with breakfast rice or steamed bread. It has a long history and written records date back to the Wei Dynasty (220-265 AD). Sufu is made by fungal solid state fermentation of tofu (soybean curd) followed by aging in brine containing salt and alcohol. The present review is based on scientific data published in Chinese and international sources. Several types of sufu can be distinguished, according to processing method or according to colour and flavour. Choice of processing can result in mould fermented sufu, naturally fermented sufu, bacterial fermented sufu, or enzymatically ripened sufu. Depending on the choice of dressing mixture, red, white or grey sufu may be obtained. The stages of the process are discussed and include the preparation of tofu, the preparation of pehtze, salting and ripening. Fungal starters include Actinomucor spp., Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. The chemical composition is discussed with particular reference to the proximate composition, the amino acid content and profile, as well as the volatile flavour components of various types of sufu. PMID:11322691

  10. Genomic Characteristics of Chinese Borrelia burgdorferi Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuexia; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Wei; Chen, Chen; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    In China, B. burgdorferi, B.garinii, B. afzelii and B. yangtze sp. nov have been reported; B.garinii and B. afzelii are the main pathogenic genotypes. But until now only one Chinese strain was reported with whole genome sequence. In order to further understand the genomic characteristics and diversity of Chinese Borrelia strains, 5 isolates from China were sequenced and compared with the whole genome sequences of strains in other areas. The results showed a high degree of conservation within the linear chromosome of Chinese strains, whereas plasmid showed a much larger diversity according to the majority genomic information of plasmids. The genome sequences of the five Chinese strains were compared with the corresponding reference strains, respectively, according to the genospecies. Pairwise analysis demonstrates that there are only 70 SNPs between the genomes of CS4 and B31. However, there are many more SNPs between the genomes of QX-S13 and VS116, PD91 and PBi, FP1 and PKo, R9 and Pko, respectively. Gene comparison showed some important different genes. OspA was one of the important different genes. Comparative genomic studies have found that OspA gene sequences of PD91 and R9 had great differences compared with the sequence of B31. OspA gene sequence of R9 had a 96bp deletion; OspA gene of PD91 had two deletions: 9bp and 10 bp. To conclude, we showed the genomic characteristics of four genotype Chinese B. burgdorferi strains. The genomic sequence of B. yangtze sp. nov and differences from B. valaisiana were first reported. Comparative analysis of Chinese strains with the different Borrelia species from other areas will help us to understand evolution and pathogenesis of Chinese Borrelia burgdorferi strains. PMID:27093540

  11. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  12. Hapmnioides A-C, Rearranged Labdane-Type Diterpenoids from the Chinese Liverwort Haplomitrium mnioides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinchuan; Zhang, Jiaozhen; Li, Ruijuan; Liu, Jun; Fan, Peihong; Li, Yi; Ji, Mei; Dong, Yiwen; Yuan, Huiqing; Lou, Hongxiang

    2016-09-01

    Many exceptional labdane-type diterpenoids have been exclusively found in liverworts, which serve as taxonomic molecules or play important ecological roles in interactions among organisms. Three unprecedented labdane-type diterpenoids hapmnioides A (1), B (2), and C (3) formed through cascade rearrangement from the Chinese liverwort Haplomitrium mnioides are reported. Their structures were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis coupled with single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their anti-inflammatory activities were also preliminarily tested. PMID:27513610

  13. Dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese mathematical phantom and MCNP code for external photon irradiation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rui; Li, Junli; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Liye; Bi, Lei; Ren, Li

    2009-02-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ-absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on the Chinese mathematical phantom, a whole-body mathematical phantom model. The model was developed based on the methods of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory mathematical phantom series and data from the Chinese Reference Man and the Reference Asian Man. This work is carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients based on this model, which represents the characteristics of the Chinese population, as the anatomical parameters of the Chinese are different from those of Caucasians. Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP code is carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Before the calculation, the effects from the physics model and tally type are investigated, considering both the calculation efficiency and precision. In the calculation irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Conversion coefficients from this study are compared with those recommended in the Publication 74 of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP74) since both the sets of data are calculated with mathematical phantoms. Overall, consistency between the two sets of data is observed and the difference for more than 60% of the data is below 10%. However, significant deviations are also found, mainly for the superficial organs (up to 65.9%) and bone surface (up to 66%). The big difference of the dose conversion coefficients for the superficial organs at high photon energy could be ascribed to kerma approximation for the data in ICRP74. Both anatomical variations between races and the calculation method contribute to the difference of the data for bone surface. PMID:19376886

  14. Organic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bechgaard, K.; Jerome, D.

    1982-07-01

    Recently, a series of organic materials have been created with a rare and extraordinary property: superconductivity. Previously, superconductivity had been observed only in metals and metallic alloys. Establishing superconductivity in an organic solid seems remarkable because the great majority of synthetic organic materials are electrical insulators. The conditions under which the superconducting state was observed in the organic compound were extreme. The temperature was .9/sup 0/K and the pressure was 12,000 atmospheres. In less than a year, five other synthetic organic compounds were found to be superconducting, one of them is superconducting at normal atmospheric pressure, although a low temperature is still required for all materials. (SC)

  15. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  16. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries? PMID:25694813

  17. [Health Station, a product of combining the ideas of public health with the modern Chinese national conditions].

    PubMed

    Li, Y C

    2016-05-01

    The Health Station was a local health organization founded by the pioneers of the public health in modern China under the national conditions of "poverty, ignorance, illness and selfishness" , being the result of combining the ideas of public health with the Chinese national conditions of modern times. Though this organization appeared in backward modern China, it was advanced all over the world. John Grant was the planner of the Peiping First Health Station, whereas Li Ting'an, its builder. PMID:27485870

  18. [Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. PMID:25039195

  19. Standardized noise annoyance scales in Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takashi; Ma, Hui

    2004-10-01

    Internationally standardized annoyance scales are required in order to compare community responses to environmental noises measured in various linguistic regions. ICBEN Team 6 organized an international joint study to establish standardized noise annoyance scales and has developed scales and questions in nine linguistic regions. With the exception of Japan, all of these regions were Euro-American. Thus, it has been necessary to augment the original ICBEN study by utilizing the ICBEN method to construct noise annoyance scales for use in other Asian countries, because noise pollution is becoming an increasingly important environmental issue in these countries. Also, Asian data should be compared internationally with Euro-American data. The present study reports on the use of the ICBEN method to construct annoyance scales in Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese.

  20. Family burdens, Chinese health beliefs, and the mental health of Chinese caregivers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Tsui, Helen Kam Pui; Pearson, Veronica; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Chiu, Siu Ning

    2004-12-01

    This study explored the types of family burdens, mental health and Chinese health beliefs of Chinese caregivers with relatives suffering from a serious mental illness. It also examined the impacts of these beliefs on caregivers' burdens and mental health. A structured questionnaire was administered to 125 Chinese caregivers in out-patient clinics in Hong Kong. Measures included distress (General Health Questionnaire), family burdens and belief in traditional Chinese medicine. Family burdens exerted a significant impact on the mental health of caregivers. Significant differences were found between believers and non-believers of traditional Chinese medical beliefs in terms of financial burdens, disruptions to family interactions and decline in physical health. No [corrected] moderating effect of Chinese health beliefs on family burdens and mental health was found. The lack of a moderating effect of health belief on family burdens may be related to caregivers' changes in perspectives from a traditional Chinese cultural perspective to a psychosocial and personality perspective. Implications for research and service development are discussed. PMID:15709648

  1. Fluoroquinolone-resistant uncomplicated urinary tract infections, Chinese herbal medicine may provide help.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yanqing; Jing, Yue; Zhao, Dongkai; Zhang, Liping; Zeng, Shiming

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effects of Chinese herbs on the uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. A total of 56 pre-menopausal women with uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were included. Urine cultures were carried out. All organisms were proved to be fluoroquinolone-resistant at baseline. The patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Chinese herbal concoction eradicated the primary pathogen in 71.4% of the patients at the 1-week follow-up. Among the 20 patients who had bacteriologic failures in the Day 5 of treatment, 2 developed superinfection. Of the failures in the group, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Providencia rettgeri were implicated in 50.0%, 50.0% and 100.0% of the failures, respectively. The clinical outcomes were also good, with cure or improvement for more than 80% of all subjects. About 14% of the study subjects reported at least one potential adverse event. The adverse events most frequently reported were nausea and diarrhea. All patients tolerated the symptoms. The adverse reactions did not prevail after discontinuation of the medication. Chinese herbal therapy may be an acceptable alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant uropathogens. PMID:22754063

  2. Agreement between the WHOQOL-BREF Chinese and Taiwanese versions in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chi-Wen; Wang, Jung-Der; Yao, Grace; Hsueh, I-Ping; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2009-02-01

    The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), including four domains, has been culturally adapted into Taiwan Chinese and Taiwanese versions for different targeted populations of elderly people. However, there is no evidence to suggest whether the results obtained from these two language versions can be directly compared or combined. This prevents the use of both versions together, which leads to missing data and a gap in the interpretation of results. The present study therefore examined agreement between the Taiwan Chinese and Taiwanese version of the WHOQOLBREF in a group of 53 Taiwanese-speaking elderly people who can read Chinese. Each participant was evaluated using both versions in a random order within a 2-week period. There was acceptable agreement in 17 of the 28 items between both versions. Three of the four domain scores demonstrated moderate to high levels of agreement (0.65Chinese and Taiwanese versions of the WHOQOL-BREF appear to be substantially equivalent, which allows direct comparison/combination of the results. PMID:19251552

  3. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  4. Spontaneous endomyometrial neoplasms in aging Chinese hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Brownstein, D.G.; Brooks, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one endomyometrial neoplasms among 93 nulliparous noninbred Chinese hamsters were evaluated. The median survival time of the 93 females was 1040 days. The median age of hamsters with endomyometrial neoplasms was 1200 days. Neoplasms were classified as carcinomas or malignant mixed muellerian tumors of the endometrium and benign or malignant myometrial neoplasms. There were 13 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Three tumors were mixed adenosquamous carcinomas, which occurred in significantly older Chinese hamsters than did adenocarcinomas. Three malignant mixed muellerian tumors consisted of 2 carcinosarcomas and 1 mixed mesodermal tumor. The 2 myometrial neoplasms were a lelomyoma and a lelomyosarcoma. The classification and relative frequency of these neoplasms were similar to endomyometrial neoplasms of women, which makes Chinese hamsters useful subjects for studies of spontaneous endomyometrial cancers.

  5. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2016-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:27182075

  6. Phonological awareness in young Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was at better than chance levels from second year kindergarten (age 4), but increased strongly and significantly in first grade to 74% accuracy. In contrast, syllable and rime awareness increased gradually and steadily across ages 3-6 years. Patterns suggest different influences of age and literacy instruction for different PA levels. In Study 2, involving 202 preschoolers, variance in Chinese character recognition was best explained by tasks of syllable awareness, tone awareness, and speeded naming. Findings underscore the unique importance of both tone and syllable for early character acquisition in Chinese children. PMID:18171377

  7. Developmental and Individual Differences in Chinese Writing

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the generalizability of a model of the underlying dimensions of written composition across writing systems (Chinese Mandarin vs. English) and level of writing skill. A five-factor model of writing originally developed from analyses of 1st and 4th grade English writing samples was applied to Chinese writing samples obtained from 4th and 7th grade students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fits of alternative models of written composition. The results suggest that the five-factor model of written composition generalizes to Chinese writing samples and applies to both less skilled (Grade 4) and more skilled (Grade 7) writing, with differences in factor means between grades that vary in magnitude across factors. PMID:26038631

  8. Artificial life and the Chinese room argument.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David; Copeland, B Jack

    2002-01-01

    "Strong artificial life" refers to the thesis that a sufficiently sophisticated computer simulation of a life form is a life form in its own right. Can John Searle's Chinese room argument [12]-originally intended by him to show that the thesis he dubs "strong AI" is false-be deployed against strong ALife? We have often encountered the suggestion that it can be (even in print; see Harnad [8]). We do our best to transfer the argument from the domain of AI to that of ALife. We do so in order to show once and for all that the Chinese room argument proves nothing about ALife. There may indeed be powerful philosophical objections to the thesis of strong ALife, but the Chinese room argument is not among them. PMID:12650646

  9. The Chinese restaurant syndrome: an anecdote revisited.

    PubMed

    Kenney, R A

    1986-04-01

    The Chinese Restaurant Syndrome arose from an anecdote of discomfort experienced after eating Chinese cuisine. Monosodium glutamate has been implicated as the causative agent. Work over the past 17 years has consistently failed to reveal any objective sign accompanying the transient sensations that some individuals experience after the experimental ingestion of monosodium glutamate and it is questionable whether the term 'Chinese Restaurant Syndrome' has any validity. When some common food materials are used in the same experimental setting, similar symptoms can be produced in a limited number of people. Double-blind testing of individuals who identify themselves as suffering the 'syndrome' has failed to confirm the role of monosodium glutamate as the provocative agent. PMID:3525357

  10. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  11. The characteristics of Chinese healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Wood, David; Zhang, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese healthcare system has been the focus of a great deal of attention from international companies who are interested in entering the world's largest healthcare marketplace. It is generally acknowledged that Chinese healthcare facilities, on the whole, do not conform to international standards; however, the specific areas in which there are differences are not well known or appreciated. An understanding of these differences is a critical aspect of the investment analysis and market assessment associated with a healthcare-based business in China. This article will delineate the major differences between the international model for the provision of healthcare and that found in mainland China. These differences include the physical characteristics, organizational structure issues, operational issues and financial management issues of Chinese hospitals, clinics and medical care providers. PMID:16512057

  12. Responses of Chinese Higher Education to the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Guo, Wenge

    2006-01-01

    Compared to the advanced industrial countries, the use of information technology in Chinese higher education came relatively late. Nevertheless, recent Chinese practices have achieved significant progress in the country's efforts to bridge the digital divide. This article focuses special attention on the responses of Chinese higher education to…

  13. Does Second Life Improve Mandarin Learning by Overseas Chinese Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Second Life (SL) for improving the oral output of overseas Chinese students learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin). More than 1000 overseas Chinese students attend a university in northern Taiwan every year to learn Mandarin as a heritage language after graduating…

  14. The Measurement of Stressful Events in Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Lin, Chong-De; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The "Chinese College Stress Scale" was developed to ascertain stress in university students. Results suggested that the psychometric properties of the "Chinese College Stress Scale" were satisfactory. Overall, student stress was primarily related to academic, personal, and negative life events. Approximately 8% of Chinese students exhibited high…

  15. Chinese Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Physical Activity and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron; Xiang, Ping

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined Chinese physical educators' attitudes toward teaching physical activity and fitness. We then compared the Chinese teacher attitudes to their American counterparts. Participants were 330 Chinese elementary, middle and high school physical educators. The Teachers' Attitudes Toward Curriculum in Physical Education (TATCPE)…

  16. Ethnicity and Accommodation: Malay-Chinese Relations in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybeck, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that despite antipathy toward the Chinese manifested at state and urban levels, the Malay-Chinese relations at the village level in Kelantan, Malaysia, are better than corresponding relationships in the country's more developed states. Suggests both cultural and political reasons for the success of the Chinese group. (Author/GC)

  17. Chinese Teachers' Attributions and Coping Strategies for Student Classroom Misbehaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Meixia; Li, Yeping; Li, Xiaobao; Kulm, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated Chinese teachers' attributions and coping strategies for classroom misbehaviour across grade levels. A total of 244 teachers (Grades 1-12) from the Chinese mainland participated in this survey. Results indicated that Chinese teachers first attributed misbehaviour to student characteristics, such as being "lazy, not…

  18. Modular Curriculum: English/Social Studies, Chinese Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demeritt, Robert W.

    This university independent course of study of Chinese civilization uses a non-disciplinary approach for the purpose of catching a glimpse of what the preponderant body of Chinese have thought and valued throughout the ages. The literature is approached from a Chinese point of view. The course consists of nine lessons: (1) Mencius, (2)Confucius,…

  19. Longitudinal Predictors of Very Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Reitsma, Pieter; Rispens, Judith

    2011-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined both concurrent and longitudinal relations of a variety of reading-related cognitive tasks and Chinese word reading and word dictation among 187 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners aged 4-6. Homophone awareness, visual skills and syllable awareness were all uniquely associated with Chinese word reading across…

  20. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  1. The "Beijing Consensus" and the Chinese Model of University Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zha, Qiang; Hayhoe, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to address connections between the Chinese model for development or the "Beijing Consensus" and Chinese universities. Chinese universities seem to be caught between serving governmental agendas and pursuing their own goals as an academic community. Up until recently, they had become used to following the lead of the…

  2. Validation of the Zarit Burden Interview for Chinese Canadian Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.

    2007-01-01

    The factor structure of a Chinese version of the Zarit Burden Interview was assessed with a random sample of Chinese caregivers in Canada. The results indicated that the latent constructs identified in earlier studies on caregivers did not fit well when tested with Chinese caregivers. Exploratory factor analysis reported a five-factor solution,…

  3. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  4. Explorations on the Teaching of Chinese Business Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed college students with a background of three semesters in Chinese who were enrolled in business Chinese to determine their knowledge and perceptions of Chinese business culture and expectations from the course. Results indicated that the students lacked cultural knowledge in business settings, suggesting the importance of addressing…

  5. e-VLBI Applications of Chinese VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimin, Z.; Zhong, C.; Li, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) adopts the strategy of "one network, two purposes" for deep-space exploration and scientific applications. To achieve the new e-VLBI capabilities, we have upgraded the stations and the data processing center of the Chinese VLBI Network (CVN). The Chinese Next Generation Internet (CNGI) project also will give support to e-VLBI applications.

  6. Chinese Character Modernisation in the Digital Era: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Shouhui

    2005-01-01

    After a century of effort, directed at modernising Chinese script, it is still the case that Chinese characters (henceforth "hanzi") remain a deficient communication system both for human use and for mechanical application. In some respects, the reform of Chinese "hanzi" has been a very political process, driven ultimately by politicians, yet at…

  7. A Comparison of Chinese and American Indian (Chumash) Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cecilia; Lien, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Chinese and Chumash traditional medical approaches are similar in terms of disease causation, use of acupuncture or healing touch, plants, spiritual and philosophical approaches. This article provides a brief comparison and discussion of Chinese and Chumash traditional medical practices. A table of 66 plants is presented along with Chinese and Chumash uses of each plant. These uses are compared and contrasted. PMID:18955312

  8. Chinese Students' Satisfaction of the Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qinggang; Taplin, Ross; Brown, Alistair M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Building upon McLeod and Wainwright's paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, this paper aims to use social learning theory to assess mainland Chinese students' satisfaction of the Chinese Curtin Student Accounting Academic Programme. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of mainland Chinese students enrolled…

  9. Attitudes toward Suicide among Chinese People in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Li, Xian-yun; Phillips, Michael Robert; Kleinman, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Since suicide in Chinese people exhibits certain distinctive characteristics, it is important to develop indigenous measures to assess Chinese attitudes toward suicide that may be used to inform suicide reduction programs. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed a Hong Kong version of the Chinese Attitude toward Suicide…

  10. MODERN CHINESE FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, FIRST YEAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, LUCY Y.L.

    THIS BEGINNING CHINESE TEXT IS THE OUTGROWTH OF THE AUTHOR'S EXPERIENCE IN TEACHING CHINESE TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO HAVE NOT HAD A CHINESE LINGUISTIC OR CULTURAL BACKGROUND. THE FORMAT AND ILLUSTRATIONS ARE SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO BE ATTRACTIVE TO CHILDREN. BASED ON THE AUDIO-LINGUAL APPROACH, THIS VOLUME PRESENTS A PROGRESSIVELY GRADED…

  11. Who Adapts? Beyond Cultural Models of "the" Chinese Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Qing; Schweisfurth, Michele

    2006-01-01

    From a comparative perspective, this paper analyses Chinese learners' intercultural experiences in Chinese and British educational contexts. In the Chinese context, interview and questionnaire research was carried out in 24 universities that hosted the British Council's English teaching development programmes. The research uncovered perspectives…

  12. Career Counseling of Chinese American Women: Are They in Limbo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Julia

    1991-01-01

    Sees counselors as playing vital role in exploring cultural values and specific career needs of Chinese-American women and in promoting healthier environment in which Chinese-American women can be empowered to fulfill their optimum occupational potential. Explores cultural values and vocational barriers of Chinese-American women and provides…

  13. Impact of Stereotypes on Intercultural Communication: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Shi-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Using Kuhn and McPartland's approach, 116 Chinese college students were recruited and asked to write as many sentences as possible beginning with "Chinese...," "Americans...," and "Japanese...." The population of sentences consisted of 258 adjectives, of which 96 described Chinese, 53 described Americans, and 109 described Japanese. Next, the…

  14. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  15. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  16. Bilingual Creativity in Chinese English: Ha Jin's "In the Pond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Addresses issues related to bilingual creativity in Chinese English and their implications for world Englishes in the Chinese context. The language examined is drawn from Ha Jin's novella, "In the Pond, in which the author's use of English is nativized in the Chinese context in order to recast the cultural meanings of the language. (Author/VWL)

  17. Growth rates of Chinese and American alligators.

    PubMed

    Herbert, J D; Coulson, T D; Coulson, R A

    2002-04-01

    Growth rates in two closely related species, Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator) and Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator), were compared under identical conditions for at least 1 year after hatching. When hatched, Chinese alligators were approximately 2/3 the length and approximately 1/2 the weight of American alligator hatchlings. At the end of 1 year of growth in captivity in heated chambers, the Chinese alligators were approximately 1/2 as long and weighed approximately 1/10 as much as American alligator yearlings. When the animals were maintained at 31 degrees C, Chinese alligator food consumption and length gain rates dropped to near zero during autumn and winter and body weights decreased slightly, apparently in response to the change in day length. At constant temperature (31 degrees C), food consumption by American alligators remained high throughout the year. Length gain rates in American alligators decreased slowly as size increased, but were not affected by photoperiod. Daily weight gains in American alligators increased steadily throughout the year. In autumn, provision of artificial light for 18 h a day initially stimulated both length and weight gain in Chinese alligators, but did not affect growth in American alligators. Continuation of the artificial light regimen seemed to cause deleterious effects in the Chinese alligators after several months, however, so that animals exposed to the normal light cycle caught up to and then surpassed the extra-light group in size. Even after removal of the artificial light, it was several months before these extra-light animals reverted to a normal growth pattern. These findings may be of interest to those institutions engaged in captive growth programs intended to provide animals for reintroduction to the wild or to protected habitat. PMID:11897202

  18. The Impact of Historical Chinese Astronomical Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Ru

    2006-12-01

    The impact of Chinese historical astronomical records is important in the study of astronomy today. In particular, the impact of the Chinese records related to historical supernovae have made important contributions to modern astronomy, contributing to the rapid progress of space sciences and high-energy astrophysics made in the recent two decades. These historical records could also be of assistance in the future. In this connection, the main topics discussed in this paper are the great new star which occurred in the 14th century Before Christ (BC), the historical supernovae Anno Domini (AD) 185 and AD 393, and the new concept of the “Po star” and its application.

  19. The development and perspectives of Chinese bioethics.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali

    2008-12-01

    Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent. PMID:19492719

  20. Introduction to Chinese Meridian Observation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi

    Chinese Meridian Chain Meridian Project is a ground-based network program to monitor Solar-Terrestrial space environment, which consists of a chain of ground-based observatories with multiple instruments including magnetometers, ionosondes, HF and VHF radar, Lidar, IPS monitors, sounding rockets etc. The chain is mainly located in the neighborhood of 120o E meridian, and is thus named the Meridian Project. Meridian Project has officially been ap-proved by the Chinese government. The project started construction in 2008, and will be finished by the end of 2010. This talk will give an overview, the recent progress and prelimi-nary observational results of the Meridian Project.

  1. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  2. Guideline for postmarketing Chinese medicine pharmacoeconomic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Xing; Chang, Yan-Peng

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacoeconomics is an important part of the postmarketing Chinese medicine (CM) evaluation, and postmarketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation can reveal the clinical and market value of CM. The purpose of establishing the guideline for pharmacoeconomic evaluation is to make the evaluation process and results regarding Chinese patent medicines both scientific and fair. Every country's guidelines for pharmacoeconomic evaluation act as reference guidelines, we have already drawn up the guideline that takes into account the special characteristics of CM; and these are in preparation for the postmarketing CM pharmacoeconomic evaluation. PMID:24671571

  3. Effects of Discourse Structure Graphic Organizers on EFL Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 16-week reading instruction program with discourse structure graphic organizers (DSGOs) on the development of English reading comprehension among college-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. A total of 340 first and third semester students of non-English majors at a Chinese university…

  4. [Diagnosis and integrative evaluation on soil fertility of three Chinese medicinal materials in GAP plots].

    PubMed

    Pan, Chaomei; Huang, Haibo; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Honghua; Liao, Guanrong

    2002-03-01

    The fertility of soil was diagnosed and integratively evaluated by modified Nemoro Index with eight indexes, i.e. pH, organic matter, total N, P, K and available N, P, K on three national Chinese medicinal materials GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) experimental plots of Pogostemon cablin, Citrus medica and Morinda officinalis in Guangdong. The results showed that the pH, organic matter and other major nutrient contents were low and imbalance. There are lots of nutritive disturbance factors. The level of soil integrative fertility in any of the plots was poor. PMID:12583155

  5. [Exploration of the Essence of "Endogenous Turbidity" in Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin-rong; Tang, Nong; Ji, Yun-xi; Zhang, Yao-zhong; Jiang, Li; Huang, Gui-hua; Xie, Sheng; Li, Liu-mei; Song, Chun-hui; Ling, Jiang-hong

    2015-08-01

    The essence of endogenous turbidity in Chinese medicine (CM) is different from cream, fat, phlegm, retention, damp, toxicity, and stasis. Along with the development of modern scientific technologies and biology, researches on the essence of endogenous turbidity should keep pace with the time. Its material bases should be defined and new connotation endowed at the microscopic level. The essence of turbidity lies in abnormal functions of zang-fu organs. Sugar, fat, protein, and other nutrient substances cannot be properly decomposed, but into semi-finished products or intermediate metabolites. They are inactive and cannot participate in normal material syntheses and decomposition. They cannot be transformed to energy metabolism, but also cannot be synthesized as executive functioning of active proteins. If they cannot be degraded by autophagy-lysosome or ubiquitin-prosome into glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and other basic nutrients to be used again, they will accumulate inside the human body and become endogenous turbidity. Therefore, endogenous turbidity is different from final metabolites such as urea, carbon dioxide, etc., which can transform vital qi. How to improve the function of zang-fu organs, enhance its degradation by autophagy-lysosome or ubiquitin-prosome is of great significance in normal operating of zang-fu organs and preventing the emergence and progress of related diseases. PMID:26485920

  6. Chinese Cultural Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong: Primary School Chinese Language Teachers' Belief and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ming Kai Marko

    2010-01-01

    Before 1997, no formal curriculum on Chinese cultural education for primary schools was developed in Hong Kong although the education authority had started to introduce some items of Chinese cultural learning into the Chinese language syllabus when the Target Oriented Curriculum was implemented in 1996. However, such items were incorporated into…

  7. Workplace Influences on Chinese TEFL Academics' Development as Researchers: A Study of Two Chinese Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Workplace influences on Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) academics' development as researchers were examined in two Chinese higher education institutions in this qualitative collective case study. Data sources included research documentation and interviews with 12 Chinese TEFL academics. Both institutions were keen on…

  8. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  9. Teachers' Schools and the Making of the Modern Chinese Nation-State, 1897-1937. Contemporary Chinese Studies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cong, Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    "Teachers' Schools and the Making of the Modern Chinese Nation-State" is an innovative account of educational and social transformations in politically tumultuous early twentieth-century China. It focuses on the unique nature of Chinese teachers' schools, which bridged Chinese and Western ideals, and the critical role that these schools played in…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II for Chinese College Students and Elite Chinese Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chun-Qing; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Si, Gangyan; Liu, Jing Dong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) across two samples of Chinese college students (n = 183 and n = 366) and a sample of elite Chinese athletes (n = 330). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of a…

  11. The Outcomes of Chinese Visiting Scholars' Experiences at Canadian Universities: Implications for Faculty Development at Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qin; Jiang, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of the overseas experiences of Chinese visiting scholars and the implications of visiting scholar programs for faculty development at Chinese universities. On the basis of semi-structured interviews with 17 returned Chinese visiting scholars who spent six to 12 months in a faculty of education at one of five…

  12. Physical characteristics of Chinese Hakka.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianbin; Li, Yonglan; Lu, Shunhua; Bao, Jinping; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaorui; Xue, Hong; Rong, Wenguo

    2013-06-01

    Using standard and internationally validated methods, 86 anthropologic characteristics were determined in 650 male (305 from urban areas and 345 from rural areas) and 704 female (331 from urban areas, 373 from rural areas) Chinese Hakka adults living in Guangdong and Jiangxi. The data were used to calculate 24 anthropologic indices, which were analyzed statistically. The physical characteristics of Hakka subjects were analyzed and compared with reference ethnic data. There were four main findings of this study. First, a small proportion of Hakka adults had an eye fold on the upper eyelid, but a large proportion had a mongoloid fold. The eye slits were narrow in most adults, had a medium nasal root height and straight bridges, and most of the external angles were prominent. The nasal base was upturned in most men. The distributions of the three types of nasal base in women were similar. The proportions of subjects with middle and high alae nasi heights were high and similar. Males with a maximum nostril diameter were mostly classified as transverse and oblique, while many women were classified as transverse and had relatively wide alae nasi. The round lobe type was the most common. Upper lip skin height was mostly classified as medium. Lips were classified as thin. The hair was black, eyes were brown, and the skin was yellowish. Second, the head length was long in male Hakka. The minimum frontal breadth, face breadth, lip height, and interocular breadth were similar to those of North-Asian populations. Meanwhile, head breadth, morphological facial height, nose breadth, mouth breadth, and nose height were similar to those of South-Asian populations. Head length was long in female Hakka. The minimum frontal breadth, face breadth, lip height, and interocular breadth were similar to those of North-Asian populations. Head breadth, nose breadth, and mouth breadth were similar to those of South-Asian populations. Third, the stature of male and female Hakka in urban and

  13. An ERP study of Chinese speakers’ rhyme judgments to Chinese and English words

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchun; Lee, Jun Ren; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Hung, Daisy L.; Cheng, Shih-kuen

    2010-01-01

    ERP studies of rhyme judgments in alphabetic languages show that non-rhyming word pairs elicit a larger negative-going wave peaking 450 ms post stimulus onset than rhyming word pairs. We use Chinese characters to explore the extent to which this N450 rhyming effect reflects phonological processing. Using Chinese provides an advantage over alphabetic scripts because rhyming characters can have non-overlapping orthographic forms, something not possible in alphabetic scripts. We recorded ERPs while Chinese speakers made rhyme judgments to Chinese and English words. An N450 effect was observed in both languages. Moreover, the N450 effects exhibited in the two languages were correlated. The results support the phonological account of the N450 effect and indicate that similar phonological operations are involved in different languages. PMID:20461022

  14. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  15. Understandings of death and dying for people of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying. PMID:19143109

  16. [Study on determination of Chinese medicine flavor and its regularity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Five flavors are basic nature of Chinese medicine. But the labeling of Chinese medicine flavors was in a chaos. Song Jin and Yuan dynasty is a transconformation stage of labeling Chinese medicine flavors. In this article the author put forward that the determination of Chinese medicine flavor shifted from tasting of early and middle age of Northern Song dynasty to categorical analogizing and functional analogizing in the late age of Northern Song dynasty. The latter method had a flourished development in Southern Song, Jin and Yuan dynasty. This regularity conclusion has provided a reference for the standardizing Chinese medicine flavors. PMID:24946566

  17. [Construction of traditional Chinese medicine resources information spatial database].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-yang; Sun, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Ze-dong

    2015-03-01

    The informatization of traditional Chinese medicine resources is the basis of modern medicine. With a spatial attribute traditional Chinese medicine resources could be carried out for in-depth spatial analysis, data mining and traditional Chinese medicine resources regional industrial layout. In this paper, we took the data of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in the third national Chinese medicine resources survey as the experimental data, described the principles and structure of traditional Chinese medicine resources spatial information database. We also described the establishment of analysis model with the help of this spatial database. PMID:26226774

  18. Organ Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  19. Organ Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... have to wait a long time for an organ transplant. Doctors must match donors to recipients to reduce the risk of transplant rejection. Rejection happens when your immune system attacks the new organ. If you have a transplant, you must take ...

  20. [A preliminary study of two Chinese herbs protective tablets on some Chinese traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Liu, R; Han, Q; Xia, C; Luo, J; Han, J; Mei, Y; Jian, W; Ou, S

    1999-11-01

    The protective action of 2 tablets of Chinese herb to 5 Chinese traditional medicines against harm of insects and mildews was tested. It was found that 2 tablets have a obvious effects of insect-repellency and mouthproof in the test with Homalomena occulta and Prunus armeniaca, the bore in the medicinal materials was decreased 94.95% and 95.55% respectively than that of check. The tablets have some effects of mildewproof in the test with Tussilago farfara. PMID:12571894

  1. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels. PMID:336290

  2. Organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN.

  3. Meaning Inhibition and Sentence Processing in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the inhibitory processes of spoken word recognition of Chinese homophones during sentence processing, using a standard cross-modal naming experiment with an innovative design and materials construction. Results confirmed that (1) preceding sentence context has exerted an early effect on disambiguating among different…

  4. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  5. Aspects of Distributivity in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yaping

    2009-01-01

    One important task of any semantic theory of plurals is to account for the collective/distributive ambiguity. The goal of this dissertation is to achieve greater understanding of plurality and the collectivity/distributivity distinction from a cross-linguistic perspective by examining the phenomenon of distributivity in Mandarin Chinese. I show…

  6. Various Documents Related to Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents various documents related to Chinese education. These include: (1) Qinghua University Professor Chen Danqing's Letter of Resignation; (2) Declaration by Beijing University Professor He Weifang Suspending Acceptance of Master's-Level Students; (3) An Open Letter by Five Veteran Educators Appealing for Fairness in Education;…

  7. Chinese Communicating in the Culture Performance 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Galal

    2005-01-01

    This is the second text in a series of Mandarin Chinese learning texts. It continues with the theme of learning to communicate in various forms, especially with time and location, and the hanzi writing system is introduced. An MP3 file accompanies this book. Contents include: (1) Acknowledgments; (2) Introduction; (3) Unit Three, Time When:…

  8. Chinese Communicating in the Culture Performance 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Galal; Lang, Yong

    2006-01-01

    This is the third text in a series of Mandarin Chinese learning texts. It continues with the theme of learning to communicate in various forms, emphasizing in this text on going to and coming from places. Contents include: (1) Acknowledgments; (2) Introduction; (3) Unit Four, Going Places and Doing Things; (4) Appendices; and (5) Introduction to…

  9. The carbon emissions of Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

    2012-07-01

    As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

  10. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  11. Chinese Science Policy: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Maurice N., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Lists the assumptions inherent in a liberal model of science and explains how the Chinese model combines a contemporary challenge to this liberal model with a strong positive valuation of science. Explains the problems and patterns related to scientific development in China and the Soviet Union. (GS)

  12. The Mississippi Chinese: Between Black and White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    Society in the Delta region of Mississippi is still rigidly segregated. A vast social and economic gulf yawns between the dominant white and subordinate black. Yet one group in Mississippi, a "third race," the Chinese, has managed to leap that chasm. This book focuses on the causes of their changes in status, the processes by which it came about,…

  13. Chinese Popular Literature and the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dorothea Hayward

    This book surveys the essential elements of both the written and the oral traditions that have contributed to the literary background of China's children. Chapter topics include (1) Chinese literature and its transmission from early times; (2) myths, legends, and symbolism; (3) traditional education and the classics; (4) storytellers, puppets, and…

  14. Breastfeeding and Chinese mothers living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Diong, S; Johnson, M; Langdon, R

    2000-07-01

    This study sought information on the breastfeeding rates, knowledge and beliefs of 101 migrant Chinese mothers living in south-west Sydney. Differences in beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding practices between migrant and indigenous groups of mothers were also examined. Sixty-five percent of Chinese mothers were fully breastfeeding their infants on discharge, with a further 6.9% partially breastfeeding. However, only 34% were still breastfeeding at three months. The most important factor to influence mothers' choice to breastfeed was the belief that it was 'good for the baby', whilst mothers choosing to bottle-feed were influenced by low milk supply and the belief that it was easier. Similar beliefs about breastfeeding and bottle-feeding were held by indigenous and migrant Chinese mothers, although concerns about the baby becoming too attached were markedly higher in the migrant group and may be related to sudden drops in breastfeeding rates at three months. Focusing ethno-specific services upon continuation of breastfeeding throughout the first six months of the infant's life is recommended, with a Chinese mothers' breastfeeding support network being posed as a possible approach. PMID:10941319

  15. Borrowed Words in English and Chinese Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yingying

    2009-01-01

    Borrowed words are the products of language development and cultural contact. This paper probes into the brief study of borrowed words in both English and Chinese vocabulary. At the very beginning it generally introduces issues being covered, and the following two parts center on the study of borrowed words on the basis of dictionary research.…

  16. Chinese Pragmatism and the Learning Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkin, Graham; Cone, Malcolm H.; Liao, Jianqiao

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For 40 years, it has been widely believed in the West that learning organisations would be healthier, flexible and more competitive than other organisations. By now, one might expect them to be widespread. However, fully developed learning organisations are rare in the West. In contrast, Chinese organisations seem naturally to be learning…

  17. Semantic Support and Parallel Parsing in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Yufen; Boland, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted using written Chinese sentences that contained a multi-word ambiguous region. The goal was to determine whether readers maintained multiple interpretations throughout the ambiguous region or selected a single interpretation at the point of ambiguity. Within the ambiguous region, we manipulated the…

  18. Tonal Flip-Flop in Chinese Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue-Hashimoto, Anne O.

    1986-01-01

    Tonal "flip-flop" (reversal of pitch value in which a direct exchange of value between two items is necessarily involved) can be found in a significant number of modern Chinese dialects, where an opposite pitch pattern is observed for the traditional Yin/Yang dichotomy of tones. (Author/CB)

  19. Helping Chinese Children Become More Creative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pingting; Szente, Judit

    2014-01-01

    This article provides information about children's creativity in the People's Republic of China. More specifically, it introduces the Chinese cultural and social background along with the school and family environments as they relate to young children's creativity. The article also provides some suggestions for schools and families…

  20. Phonological Representations and Early Literacy in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2015-01-01

    Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…

  1. Asia Society's Ongoing Chinese Language Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris; Wang, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Asia Society remains committed to promoting the teaching and learning of Chinese in American schools as an integral part of the broader agenda of building students' global competency, the key goal of its Partnership for Global Learning. Under the leadership of Asia Society's new Vice President for Education Tony Jackson and with continuing…

  2. Chinese/American Physicists: A Transnational History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2011-03-01

    As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.

  3. A Chinese Perspective of Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    To avoid the Anglo-Saxon culture mode, which dominates the current study of human communication in all contexts, the concept of communication competence can be examined from the perspective of Chinese culture. The conceptualization and empirical indicators used for the measurement of communication competence strongly reflect a Western cultural…

  4. Bibliography of Chinese Materials on Tai Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, William G.

    This bibliography is an effort to establish a convenient listing of works in Chinese which deal with any of the various aspects of Tai linguistics. There are 50 entries including cross-references. Some of the sources covered are: Academia Sinica, Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Institute of History and Philology, Yu-yen…

  5. The Transition Experiences of Successful Chinese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.; Yeung, Thomas; Sun, Iris; Chan, Keith; Cheng, Johnny

    2011-01-01

    This article focused on the transition experiences of 20 successful Chinese immigrants, in particular their transition stories and how they accounted for their success (what facilitated and hindered their transition). An enhanced critical incident method was used for data analysis. Four major success categories emerged: having a positive attitude…

  6. Chinese-English Nuclear and Physics Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. Foreign Technology Div.

    The Nuclear and Physics Dictionary is one of a series of Chinese-English technical dictionaries prepared by the Foreign Technology Division, United States Air Force Systems Command. The purpose of this dictionary is to provide rapid reference tools for translators, abstractors, and research analysts concerned with scientific and technical…

  7. Discrimination Distress among Chinese American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Liang, Belle

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses contradictions between common perceptions of Asian Americans as a "model minority" and growing evidence of discrimination and its negative psychological implications for this group. The current study examined Chinese American early adolescents' distress from experiences of discrimination, its relationship with mental health…

  8. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. PMID:24860075

  9. The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

  10. Popular Culture in Mainland Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2006-01-01

    The policy and practice of school education in mainland China have changed in response to the political and economic reformations and opening-up of the late 1970s. This paper argues that, despite the introduction and emphasis on popular culture in some areas of school education, traditional Chinese culture and values continue to consolidate the…

  11. How Greatly Do Chinese Students Eclipse Ours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of China and the United States at the high-school-level International Mathematical Olympiad, focusing specifically on the United States' short training period and lack of women team members. Ways in which the United States benefits from Chinese mathematical talent are described. (JDD)

  12. Chinese Children's Constructive Activity and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how constructive activities are involved when Chinese students are performing reading tasks that require deeper levels of understanding. Forty students from Grade 5 (19 boys and 21 girls), and 42 students from Grade 6 (20 boys and 22 girls) participated in this study. To reveal the children's constructive processes in…

  13. Developmental and Individual Differences in Chinese Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the generalizability of a model of the underlying dimensions of written composition across writing systems (Chinese Mandarin vs. English) and level of writing skill. A five-factor model of writing originally developed from analyses of 1st and 4th grade English writing samples was applied to Chinese…

  14. The Chinese calendar and its operational rules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1998-06-01

    The Chinese calendar is a form of luni-solar calendar. The rules in operation today have remained unchanged since almost the very beginning of the last (Qing) dynasty - i. e. as far back as A.D.1645. It is the purpose of this article to explain these rules, particularly with regard to the determination of month numbers and intercalation.

  15. Chinese-English Aviation and Space Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. Foreign Technology Div.

    The Aviation and Space Dictionary is the second of a series of Chinese-English technical dictionaries under preparation by the Foreign Technology Division, United States Air Force Systems Command. The purpose of the series is to provide rapid reference tools for translators, abstracters, and research analysts concerned with scientific and…

  16. Interword spacing in Chinese text layout.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S H; Huang, K C

    2000-10-01

    Three experiments using Chinese text were conducted to investigate word spacing and its effect on reading performance. In Exp. 1, a sonogram detector was used to analyze interword and intercharacter (within a word) time intervals from text read aloud by professional TV broadcasters versus college graduates. The results showed interword intervals were significantly longer than intercharacter intervals, indicating that interword spacing has psychological reality in speech. Exp. 2 examined the effect on reading performance due to separating the characters that compose a word. Separating the characters of a word did not decrease reading accuracy but did result in significantly longer reading times. Exp. 3 explored the effect of word spacing in Chinese sentences on reading performance. Analysis showed that word spacing did not affect reading accuracy, but half character and whole-character spacing significantly reduced reading time. The results of the present study suggest that word spacing in Chinese text layout enhances reading performance. Word spacing may help the reader to segment more quickly a string of characters into words and reduce the likelihood of misinterpretation. Also, ambiguity of sentence structure severely degraded reading accuracy. The implications of the results for word spacing design in Chinese text are discussed. PMID:11065294

  17. Progress of Younger Children Learning Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhihong; Sisson, Keith; Kung, Hsiang-te

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out how young children can learn, understand, and progress in the Chinese language. This study focuses on 13 students between two and three years old. The data collection methods used classroom observation, benchmarks, and parent questionnaires about at home behavior. The data analysis used is qualitative…

  18. Adolescent Abuse in Hong Kong Chinese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    1996-01-01

    A survey of approximately 375 Chinese college students in Hong Kong examined parental abuse toward adolescents. Of the sample, 62.2% had been verbally abused by the parents, 13.2% experienced minor physical violence, and 8.5% reported severe physical violence during the past year. (CR)

  19. Communication Apprehension of Chinese ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Barley Shuk-Yin; White, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    Looks at Chinese learners in New Zealand to investigate the negative effects of anxiety on linguistic performance. Particular focus is on a kind of anxiety that has come to be known as communication apprehension. Discusses an action research project conducted in a high school that shows sources of communication anxiety. (Author/VWL)

  20. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…