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Sample records for chinese organizations

  1. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  2. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  3. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  4. On the impacts of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yu

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems. PMID:23449366

  5. Model Organisms and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model. PMID:24381636

  6. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-01-01

    The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

  7. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  8. [Effects of Chinese fir litter on soil organic carbon decomposition and microbial biomass carbon].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Si-Long; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2013-09-01

    By using 13C stable isotope tracer technique, this paper studied the effects of Chinese fir litter addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, microbial biomass carbon, and dissolved organic carbon in 0-5 cm and 40-45 cm layers. The decomposition rate of SOC in 40-45 cm layer was significantly lower than that in 0-5 cm layer, but the priming effect induced by the Chinese fir litter addition showed an opposite trend. The Chinese fir litter addition increased the soil total microbial biomass carbon and the microbial biomass carbon derived from native soil significantly, but had less effects on the soil dissolved organic carbon. Turning over the subsoil to the surface of the woodland could accelerate the soil carbon loss in Chinese fir plantation due to the priming effect induced by the litters. PMID:24417093

  9. Organ dose conversion coefficients for external photon irradiation using the Chinese voxel phantom (CVP).

    PubMed

    Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Bi, Lei; Li, Wenqian

    2009-07-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on a whole-body, Chinese adult male voxel phantom. This computational phantom, called the Chinese voxel phantom (CVP), including totally 23 organs, was developed from magnetic resonance imaging of a young healthy Chinese man at a resolution of 2 x 2 mm. Compared with the ICRP Reference Man, more than half of the organs or tissues in the CVP show mass differences of more than 20. Monte Carlo simulations with MCNP code were carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral, left-lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Organ dose conversion coefficients from this study are compared with the data from the Asian voxel phantoms Visible Chinese Human and KORMAN. These data sets agree with each other within 10% for photon energy >5 MeV. However, discrepancies of 34-63% were observed for organs of the alimentary tract, such as the oesophagus and stomach, those of the urinary system, such as the bladder wall and thyroid, especially at low photon energy range and PA geometry. These results suggest that the anatomical variation within the Chinese population, as represented by these adult male voxel phantoms, can lead to uncertainties when a standard phantom is used for the entire population. PMID:19457976

  10. Learning Organization in Mainland China: Empirical Research on Its Application to Chinese State-Owned Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, De; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Baiyin

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the applicability of the learning organization concept and its measurement in a Chinese context. Based on the theoretical framework proposed by Watkins and Marsick (1993, 1996, 1997), this paper identifies the differences in seven of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) between traditional state-owned…

  11. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  12. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  13. The Negative Impact of Death Anxiety on Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Donate Organs among Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…

  14. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. PMID:22381886

  15. Voluntary organ donation system adapted to Chinese cultural values and social reality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. PMID:25545626

  16. Current knowledge and attitudes about organ donation and transplantation among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Chen, J X; Zhang, T M; Lim, F L; Wu, H C; Lei, T F; Yeong, P K; Xia, S J

    2006-11-01

    Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square tests, and a logistic regression analysis. We found that blood donors showed significantly better awareness of heart, liver, lung, skin, and tendon donation among commonly transplanted organs/tissues. As to the willingness for cadaveric organ donation, 61.3% of respondents consented, 8.5% objected, and 30.3% answered "not sure." The percentage holding an organ donor card was 15.7% among students from Hong Kong; 3.0%, mainland China; 2.8%, Macau; 2.6%, Taiwan, and 4.0%, other regions of the world. In a logistic regression analysis, female students (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 3.72) and blood donors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.32) did, but age and study specialty (medical vs nonmedical) did not show significantly more positive attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. Compared with students from mainland China, overseas Chinese students from various regions did not show significantly different attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. In summary, blood donors among university students have a greater knowledge of transplantation and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Since university students are an important source of blood donors in China, they will be a potential pool of organ donors in the future. PMID:17112824

  17. Identification of Organic Binders in Ancient Chinese Paintings by Immunological Techniques.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Bingjian

    2015-10-01

    The identification and localization of organic binders in artworks are big challenges in archaeology and conservation science. Immunological techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) have the potential to become powerful tools for the analysis of organic materials in ancient samples. In this study, ELISA and IFM techniques were combined to identify chicken ovalbumin, glue from several mammalian species, bovine milk, and fish glue in ancient Chinese painting samples. As binders, egg ovalbumin was found in two painting samples and animal glue was found in three samples, which were dated from the 4th to 8th centuries. The results clearly demonstrate that ELISA and IFM can be used to validate results from ancient samples. PMID:26428439

  18. Effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapot.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Shiyin

    2008-01-15

    The morphology and elemental composition of the corrosion products of copper teapot's inner-surface were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray surface analysis (SEM/EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. It was revealed that Cu, Fe, Ca, P, Si and Al were the main elements of corrosion by-products, and the alpha-SiO(2), Cu(2)O and CaCO(3) as the main mineral components on the inner-surface of copper teapot. The effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapots in tap water were also investigated. The results showed that the doses of organic matter (as TOC), temperate and stagnation time have significant effects on the concentration of soluble copper released from copper teapots in tap water. PMID:17904199

  19. Chinese American Vendors of Los Angeles: A Case of Resistance, Political Organization and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Argues against Gunther Barth's assertion that the anti-Chinese movement in the United States resulted from Chinese Americans' rejection of liberal American ideals. Holds that it was the participation of Chinese farmer/vendors in Californian society during the late 1800s that made them objectionable to racially biased Whites. (Author/GC)

  20. Psychometric Validation and Normative Data of a Second Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng; Guo, Wei-Yuan; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2012-01-01

    The Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) is a measure of visuosynthetic ability. Previously, the psychometric properties of the HVOT have been evaluated for Chinese-speaking children aged 5-11 years. This study reports development and further evidence of reliability and validity for a second version involving an extended age range of healthy…

  1. Functional organization of intrinsic connectivity networks in Chinese-chess experts.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xujun; Long, Zhiliang; Chen, Huafu; Liang, Dongmei; Qiu, Lihua; Huang, Xiaoqi; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-04-16

    The functional architecture of the human brain has been extensively described in terms of functional connectivity networks, detected from the low-frequency coherent neuronal fluctuations during a resting state condition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the overall organization of functional connectivity networks is associated with individual differences in cognitive performance and prior experience. Such an association raises the question of how cognitive expertise exerts an influence on the topological properties of large-scale functional networks. To address this question, we examined the overall organization of brain functional networks in 20 grandmaster and master level Chinese-chess players (GM/M) and twenty novice players, by means of resting-state functional connectivity and graph theoretical analyses. We found that, relative to novices, functional connectivity was increased in GM/Ms between basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, and several parietal and temporal areas, suggesting the influence of cognitive expertise on intrinsic connectivity networks associated with learning and memory. Furthermore, we observed economical small-world topology in the whole-brain functional connectivity networks in both groups, but GM/Ms exhibited significantly increased values of normalized clustering coefficient which resulted in increased small-world topology. These findings suggest an association between the functional organization of brain networks and individual differences in cognitive expertise, which might provide further evidence of the mechanisms underlying expert behavior. PMID:24565926

  2. Laboratory measurements of emission factors of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from burning of Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Pan, Xiaole; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Miyakawa, Takuma; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-05-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted during the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency in laboratory experiments. NMVOCs, including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Rape plant was burned in dry conditions and wheat straw was burned in both wet and dry conditions to simulate the possible burning of damp crop residue in regions of high temperature and humidity. We compared the present data to field data reported by Kudo et al. (2014). Good agreement between field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics under relatively more smoldering combustion of dry samples, but laboratory data were slightly overestimated compared to field data for oxygenated VOC (OVOC). When EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the consistency between the field and laboratory data for OVOCs was stronger than for dry samples. This may be caused by residual moisture in crop residue that has been stockpiled in humid regions. Comparison of the wet laboratory data with field data suggests that Kudo et al. (2014) observed the biomass burning plumes under relatively more smoldering conditions in which approximately a few tens of percentages of burned fuel materials were wet.

  3. Laboratory measurements of emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from biomass burning in Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; PAN, X.; Taketani, F.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency by the laboratory experiments. The VOCs including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Two samples, wheat straw and rape plant, were burned in dry conditions and for some experiments wheat straw was burned under wet conditions. We compared the present data to the field data reported by Kudo et al. [2014]. The agreement between the field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics for relatively more smoldering data of dry samples but the field data were slightly underestimated compared with the laboratory data for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and acetonitrile. When the EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the underestimations for OVOCs and acetonitrile were improved compared with the data of dry samples. It may be a property of the burning of crop residue in the region of high temperature and high humidity that some inside parts of piled crop residue and/or the crop residue facing on the ground are still wet. But the ratios for acetic acid/glycolaldehyde was still lower than 1. This may suggest that strong loss processes of acetic acid/glycolaldehyde are present in the fresh plume.Kudo S., H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Saito, X. L. Pan, Y. Kanaya, F. Taketani, Z. F. Wang, H. Chen, H. Dong, M. Zhang, and K. Yamaji (2014), Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 7684-7698, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021044.

  4. Analysis of carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Hye Ran; Park, Sang Un

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes was investigated in the flowers, stems, young leaves, old leaves, and roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of BrPSY, BrPDS, BrZDS, BrLCYB, BrLCYE, BrCHXB, and BrZEP leading to the production of carotenoids were highest in the flowers or the leaves and lowest in the roots of Chinese cabbage. In contrast, the mRNA expression of BrNCED, a gene involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was highest in the roots. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that carotenoids, namely, lutein and β-carotene, were distributed predominantly in the flowers and leaves, with very little in the underground organ, the roots. Specifically, old leaves contained 120.3 μg/g lutein and 103.93 μg/g β-carotene, which is the most potent dietary precursor of vitamin A. Moreover, we found a relatively large amount of cis isomers of β-carotene, namely, 9-cis β-carotene and 13-cis β-carotene, in Chinese cabbage. These results provide insight into carotenoid biosynthetic mechanisms in Chinese cabbage and may be helpful in the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants.

  5. Elevated Levels of Volatile Organic Carcinogen and Toxicant Biomarkers in Chinese Women Who Regularly Cook at Home

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Seow, Adeline; Wang, Mingyao; Wang, Renwei; Meng, Lei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Han, Shaomei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies associate lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women with Chinese-style wok cooking. Our goal was to quantify carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers in Chinese women who reported regularly doing home cooking compared to women randomly selected from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as controls. Methods Biomarkers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), HPLC-with fluorescence detection, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Compared with controls, women who engaged in regular home cooking had significantly higher levels of mercapturic acids of acrolein [geometric mean 1959 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 1554–2467) vs.1370 (95% CI 1077–1742), P = 0.038], crotonaldehyde [geometric mean 232 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 193–277) vs. 142 (95% CI 118–171) P = 0.0004], and benzene [geometric mean 0.58 pmol/mg creatinine (95% CI 0.44–0.78) vs. 0.18 (95% CI 0.14–0.24) P < 0.0001]. No significant differences were found in levels of mercapturic acids of 1,3-butadiene, pyrene and phenanthrene metabolites, or acetaldehyde-leukocyte DNA adduct levels between the groups. Levels of the ethylene oxide mercapturic acid were significantly higher in the controls. Conclusions The higher levels of the mercapturic acid of benzene, a multi-organ carcinogen, in the women who cooked are particularly notable. Overall, the results showing increased exposure to the volatile toxicants and carcinogens acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and benzene in Chinese women who regularly cook provide a plausible lead for further investigating the role of volatile compounds generated during high temperature cooking with oils as causes of lung cancer. Impact A new direction for research on lung cancer etiology is suggested. PMID:20406956

  6. Organ dose conversion coefficients on an ICRP-based Chinese adult male voxel model from idealized external photons exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Binquan; Ma, Jizeng; Li, Ren; Li, Wenqian; Bi, Lei

    2009-11-01

    A high-resolution whole-body voxel model called CAM representing the Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper based on a previous individual voxel model. There are more than 80 tissues and organs in CAM, including almost all organs required in the ICRP new recommendation. The mass of individual organs has been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. Special considerations were given to representing the gross spatial distribution of various bone constituents as realistically as possible during the construction of the site-specific skeleton. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated for six idealized external photon exposures from 10 keV to 10 MeV by using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting dose coefficients were then compared with those from other models, e.g. CMP, ICRP 74, Rex, HDRK-man and VIP-man. Old and new effective male doses of CAM were calculated by using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP 60 and 103 Publications, respectively. Dosimetric differences between mathematical and voxel models, and the differences between Asian and Caucasian models are also discussed in this paper.

  7. Organ dose conversion coefficients on an ICRP-based Chinese adult male voxel model from idealized external photons exposures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Binquan; Ma, Jizeng; Li, Ren; Li, Wenqian; Bi, Lei

    2009-11-01

    A high-resolution whole-body voxel model called CAM representing the Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper based on a previous individual voxel model. There are more than 80 tissues and organs in CAM, including almost all organs required in the ICRP new recommendation. The mass of individual organs has been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. Special considerations were given to representing the gross spatial distribution of various bone constituents as realistically as possible during the construction of the site-specific skeleton. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated for six idealized external photon exposures from 10 keV to 10 MeV by using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting dose coefficients were then compared with those from other models, e.g. CMP, ICRP 74, Rex, HDRK-man and VIP-man. Old and new effective male doses of CAM were calculated by using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP 60 and 103 Publications, respectively. Dosimetric differences between mathematical and voxel models, and the differences between Asian and Caucasian models are also discussed in this paper. PMID:19841518

  8. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  9. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  10. Emerging HRD Issues: A Conceptual Framework for Corporate University in the Context of Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Alagaraja, Meera

    2007-01-01

    The authors suggest a conceptual framework for developing CU's in the Chinese organizational context. We reviewed literature on existing conceptual frameworks and chose the CU wheel as proposed by Prince and Stewart. Four core processes identified in the CU wheel were realigned and readjusted in developing our framework of Corporate University in…

  11. Influence of Sticky Rice and Anionic Polyacrylamide on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate in Chinese Organic Sanhetu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Peng, Changsheng; Dai, Min; Gu, Qingbao; Song, Shaoxian

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in soil controlled by natural organic material was considered a very important reason to enhance the property of ancient Chinese organic Sanhetu (COS), but how the organic material affected the crystallization of CaCO3 in COS is still unclear. In this paper, a natural organic material (sticky rice, SR) and a synthetic organic material (anionic polyacrylamide, APAM) were selected as additives to investigate their effect on the crystallization of CaCO3. The experimental results showed that the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of additives and reaction time, while only the size of CaCO3 crystals could be affected by the concentration of reactant. Although the morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals varied greatly with the variation of additive concentration, reactant concentration and reaction time, the polymorph of CaCO3 crystals were always calcite, according to SEM/EDX, XRD and FTIR analyses. This study may help us to better understand the mechanism of the influence of organic materials on CaCO3 crystallization and properties of COS.

  12. Classification of Mixtures of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on a Self-organizing Map (SOM).

    PubMed

    Wang, Maolin; Li, Li; Yu, Changyuan; Yan, Aixia; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Aiping; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs) are typically mixtures of compounds and are often categorized into cold and hot according to the theory of Chinese Medicine. This classification is essential for guiding the clinical application of CHMs. In this study, three types of molecular descriptors were used to build models for classification of 59 CHMs with typical cold/hot properties in the training set taken from the original records on properties in China Pharmacopeia as reference. The accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient of the models were validated by a test set containing other 56 CHMs. The best model produced the accuracies of 94.92 % and 83.93 % on training set and test set, respectively. The MACCS fingerprint model is robust in predicting hot/cold properties of the CHMs from their major constituting compounds. This work shows how a classification model for data consisting of multi-components can be developed. The derived model can be used for the application of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:27491920

  13. Seasonal and spatial variability of the organic matter-to-organic carbon mass ratios in Chinese urban organic aerosols and a first report of high correlations between aerosol oxalic acid and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 yr-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant, due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary OA production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matters constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We reported, for the first time, high correlations between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic property of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  14. Organic Contaminants in Chinese Sewage Sludge: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature of the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Ni, Yi-Lin; Steele, Joshua C; Wu, Ling-Ling; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-01

    The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27 900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12 000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches. PMID:27144960

  15. Effects of Manipulated Above- and Belowground Organic Matter Input on Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus v.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  16. Effects of manipulated above- and belowground organic matter input on soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Juan; Wang, Jinsong; Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus V

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  17. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and gene organization of Chinese indigenous chickens with phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F P; Fan, H Y; Li, G H; Zhang, B K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of Chinese indigenous Jinhu Black-bone and Rugao chickens. The two chicken mitochondrial genomes were deposited in GenBank under accession Nos. KP742951 and KR347464, respectively. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Jinhu Black-bone and Rugao chickens were sequenced and found to span 16,785 and 16,786 bp, respectively, and consisted of 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region (D-loop). The majority of genes were positioned on the H-strand, and the ND6 and eight tRNA genes were found to be encoded on the L-strand. The mitogenomes showed a similar gene order to that of the published Gallus gallus genome, as neither included a control region. The overall base composition of the genome of the two chickens was A = 30.22/30.28%, G = 13.57/13.49%, T = 23.74/23.76%, and C = 32.48/32.48%. Nucleotide skewness of the coding strands of the two chicken genomes (AT-skew = 0.12, GC-skew = -0.41) was biased towards T and G. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 29 subspecies, and the molecular genetic relationship among the 29 subspecies was identical to that of traditional taxonomy. PMID:27421002

  19. Motor Knowledge Is One Dimension for Concept Organization: Further Evidence from a Chinese Semantic Dementia Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Nan; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have indicated that motor knowledge is one potential dimension along which concepts are organized. Here we present further direct evidence for the effects of motor knowledge in accounting for categorical patterns across object domains (living vs. nonliving) and grammatical domains (nouns vs. verbs), as…

  20. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric characterization of organic aerosol from European and Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic aerosol constitutes a substantial fraction (20-90%) of submicrometer aerosol mass, playing an important role in air quality and human health. Over the past few years, ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) has been applied to elucidate the chemical composition of ambient aerosols. However, most of the UHRMS studies used direct infusion without prior separation by liquid chromatography, which may cause the loss of individual compound information and interference problems. In the present study, urban ambient aerosol with particle diameter < 2.5 μm was collected in Mainz, Germany and Beijing, China, respectively. Two pretreatment procedures were applied to extract the organic compounds from the filter samples: One method uses a mixture of acetonitrile and water, the other uses pure water and prepared for the extraction of humic-like substances. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an Orbitrap mass spectrometer in both negative and the positive modes. The effects of pretreatment procedures on the characterization of organic aerosol and the city-wise difference in chemical composition of organic aerosol will be discussed in detail.

  1. Organizing Learning Materials through Hierarchical Topic Maps: An Illustration through Chinese Herb Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, B.-J.; Shih, J.-L.; Chen, R.-L.

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to use hierarchical topic maps to compile digital learning material and to discuss its design and application possibilities. The system renders tremendous original assets and then embeds a self-organizing map (SOM) in the material database to produce topical learning materials, as in this case, an illustration through Chinese…

  2. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (p<0.0001) was found between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and the CDOM absorption coefficient a(350), indicating that algae degradation was likely the primary source of CDOM in black waters. This is supported by our field results that Chl-a, a(350) and the spectral slope ratio (SR) were significantly higher in the black water samples than in the regular samples (p<0.001). Our incubation experiment further substantiated the primary significance of biological CDOM source where a(350) increased with decreasing Chl-a concentrations. After seven days' incubation, a 72.2% decrease and a 74.9% increase were recorded for Chl-a and a(350), respectively, relative to the initial values. Parallel factor analysis identified five fluorescent components. The maximal fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of tryptophan-like C1 and microbial humic-like C3 of black water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (p<0.0005). This is consistent with incubation experiment results showing a rapid increase in Fmax of the two components, emphasizing the priority of the in situ biological CDOM source in black water spots. PMID:26125526

  3. /sup 31/P NMR analysis of membrane phospholipid organization in viable, reversibly electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Rols, M.P.; Teissie, J.

    1988-02-23

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 ..mu..s). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 4/sup 0/C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. The authors proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells.

  4. Organization of amplified metallothionein (MT) genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, C.; Grady, D.; Meincke, L.; Clark, L.; Qui, X.; Fehrenbach, S.; Brown, N.; Jones, M.; Longmire, J.; Moyzis, R.

    1987-05-01

    In the parental, cadmium-sensitive, CHO cells, two MT genes (MT-I and II) have been cloned and shown to encompass approx.9 Kb of DNA. Both genes demonstrate the canonical intron-exon organization observed for other mammalian MT genes. Chromosome walking has been employed to study the organization of the MT genes in amplified cell lines. Using DNA from a highly-amplified cell line, Cd/sup r/ 200 T1, a genomic library was constructed in lambda Ch35 by standard procedures. Recombinants containing sequences complementary to a MT-II cDNA probe were isolated and characterized. Restriction enzyme analyses of these recombinants have extended the map of the MT-I and II gene region to encompass approx.35 Kb of DNA and indicate stability of the amplified genome over this region. A single SacII restriction site has been identified at the extreme 3' end of the cloned region. Since SacII is an infrequently-cutting restriction enzyme, accelerated long-range restriction mapping of the amplified MT gene region will be possible by combining chromosome walking in the MT gene region with large fragment separation using field-in-version gel electrophoresis.

  5. Nano-structured calcite produced by micro-organisms in ancient and modern loess in Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Chen, T.; Lu, H.; Wang, X.

    2005-12-01

    The results from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission gun scanning microscopy (FEG-SEM) investigation show that there are calcite nano-fibers (CNFs) formed during pedogenic process. The CNFs are widely distributed in the loess and red clay samples of Caoxian, Luochuan, Lingtai, Lantian, and Xifeng profiles as well as the samples of modern surface loess soils in Chinese Loess Plateau. Diameters of all the NFCs are about 40 nm, the length of the CNFs ranges from tens nanometer to several micrometers. Elongation direction of NFCs is unusual near parallel (105)* or (115)*. Crystals of NFCs arrange as bird net like and lattice-like frameworks. X-ray EDS spectra show the weak peaks of magnesium, phosphorous, and sulfur. Our investigation indicates that CNFs are in pore space of loess and paleosol and made up most of carbonate except for caliche nodular layers. Concentration of NFCs in the loess layers are significantly higher than those of paleosol layers because of leaching of carbonate in the paleosol forming environment (warn and wet paleoclimate). The "nanobacteria-like CNFs are well crystalline calcite single crystals with smoothes surfaces. The morphologies of CNFs are very unusual and different from the calcite single crystals observed in most geological environments. The CNFs are directly related to microbial activities in both ancient and modern loess. It is proposed that the intervention of organic compounds derived from microbial activities control the formation of the calcite nano-fibers. Both morphology and bulk composition of CNFs indicate that the formation of the CNFs involves bio-organics derived from microorganisms in loess deposit environment. Formation conditions of the calcite nano-fibers may information about paleoclimate, paleo-environment and paleoecology. So, the discovery of CNFs in loess-paloesol sequences can provide a new route for reconstruct paleoclimate by oxygen and carbon isotope from the CNFs.

  6. A new ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration flavonoids and anthraquinones from traditional Chinese prescription.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Sha; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique, ionic liquid-water-organic solvent three phase microextraction (ILWOS-3p-ME) was developed and introduced for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in Chinese herbal formula and its preparations. This technique was performed in one step by using a syringe. High performance liquid chromatography with an UV-detector (HPLC/UV) was subsequently conducted. Two solvents with different densities (organic solvent and ionic liquid with densities less than and higher than water, respectively) were separately placed in a syringe, which was used as an extraction device. A cloudy emulsion was formed by manually shaking the syringe. The mixture was allowed to stand for several minutes; afterward, the emulsion readily separated into three phases: an upper organic solvent extraction phase; a middle aqueous sample phase; and a lower ionic liquid extraction phase. Both the upper and lower layers were transferred to a small Eppendorf (EP) tube. Conducting ILWOS-3P-ME with HPLC/UV, we simultaneously determined the bioactive components of flavonoids and anthraquinones in traditional Chinese medicine. ILWOS-3P-ME is a simple, rapid, practical, and effective method to extract and preconcentrate of different types of trace bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicine simultaneously. PMID:23969331

  7. Molecular, seasonal, and spatial distributions of organic aerosols from fourteen Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Shuncheng; Ho, Kinfai; Cao, Junji

    2006-08-01

    Organic aerosols were studied at the molecular level in 14 coastal and inland mega-cities in China during winter and summer 2003. They are characterized by the abundant presence of n-alkanes (annual average, 340 ng m(-3)), fatty acids (769 ng m(-3)), sugars (412 ng m(-3)), and phthalates (387 ng m(-3)). In contrast, fatty alcohols, polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hopanes were detected as relatively minor components. n-Alkanes show a weak odd/even carbon predominance (CPI = 1.1) and PAHs show a predominance of benzo(b)fluoranthene, suggesting a serious contribution from fossil fuel (mainly coal) combustion. Their concentrations (except for phthalates and polyols/polyacids) were 2-15 times higher in winter than summer due to a significant usage of coal burning and an enhancement of atmospheric inversion layers. Phthalates were found to be more abundant in summer than winter, probably due to enhanced vaporization from plastics followed by adsorptive deposition on the pre-existing particles. Concentrations of total quantified compounds are extremely high (approximately 10 microg m(-3)) in the midwest (Chongqing and Xi'an) where active industrialization/urbanization is going on. This study shows that concentrations of the compounds detected are 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported from developed countries. PMID:16913115

  8. Variation of dissolved organic carbon transported by two Chinese rivers: The Changjiang River and Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Difeng; Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-15

    Real-time monitoring of riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the associated controlling factors is essential to coastal ocean management. This study was the first to simulate the monthly DOC concentrations at the Datong Hydrometric Station for the Changjiang River and at the Lijin Hydrometric Station for the Yellow River from 2000 to 2013 using a multilayer back-propagation neural network (MBPNN), along with basin remote-sensing products and river in situ data. The average absolute error between the modeled values and in situ values was 9.98% for the Changjiang River and 10.84% for the Yellow River. As an effect of water dilution, the variations of DOC concentrations in the two rivers were significantly negatively affected by discharge, with lower values reported during the wet season. Moreover, vegetation growth status and agricultural activities, represented by the gross primary product (GPP) and cropland area percent (CropPer) in the river basin, respectively, also significantly affected the DOC concentration in the Changjiang River, but not the Yellow River. The monthly riverine DOC flux was calculated using modeled DOC concentrations. In particular, the riverine DOC fluxes were affected by discharge, with 71.06% being reported for the Changjiang River and 90.71% for the Yellow River. Over the past decade, both DOC concentration and flux in the two rivers have not shown significant changes. PMID:26404069

  9. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  10. Molecular, seasonal, and spatial distributions of organic aerosols from fourteen Chinese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Gehui Wang; Kimitaka Kawamura; Shuncheng Lee; Kinfai Ho; Junji Cao

    2006-08-01

    Organic aerosols were studied at the molecular level in 14 coastal and inland mega-cities in China during winter and summer 2003. They are characterized by the abundant presence of n-alkanes (annual average, 340 ng m{sup -3}), fatty acids (769 ng m{sup -3}), sugars (412 ng m{sup -3}), and phthalates (387 ng m{sup -3}). In contrast, fatty alcohols, polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hopanes were detected as relatively minor components. n-Alkanes show a weak odd/even carbon predominance (CPI = 1.1) and PAHs show a predominance of benzo(b)fluoranthene, suggesting a serious contribution from fossil fuel (mainly coal) combustion. Their concentrations (except for phthalates and polyols/polyacids) were 2-15 times higher in winter than summer due to a significant usage of coal burning and an enhancement of atmospheric inversion layers. Phthalates were found to be more abundant in summer than winter, probably due to enhanced vaporization from plastics followed by adsorptive deposition on the pre-existing particles. Concentrations of total quantified compounds are extremely high ({approximately} 10 {mu}g m{sup -3}) in the midwest (Chongqing and Xi'an) where active industrialization/urbanization is going on. This study shows that concentrations of the compounds detected are 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported from developed countries. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    organ-specific expression data, we identified nine R2R3-MYBs that were constitutively expressed in male reproductive tissue, which may provide an important key for studying male sterility in Chinese cabbage. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of MYB genes in stress resistance in addition to their growth regulatory functions, ultimately providing the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate MYB genes for genetic engineering of Chinese cabbage. PMID:27038155

  12. Seasonal and spatial variability of the OM/OC mass ratios and high regional correlation between oxalic acid and zinc in Chinese urban organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-04-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 year-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (OA) production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matter constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We report, for the first time, a high regional correlation between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic properties of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  13. Case-control study of risk factors of myelodysplastic syndromes according to World Health Organization classification in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ling; Lin, Guowei; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Cuie; Dai, Junmin; Yang, Yongchen; Zou, Hejian; Sun, Hengjuan; Gu, Minghua; Chen, Xi; Fu, Hua; Bao, Liming

    2011-02-01

    Risk factors of mydelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remain largely unknown. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 403 newly diagnosed MDS patients according to World Health Organization classification and 806 individually gender and age-matched patient controls from 27 major hospitals in Shanghai, China, to examine relation of lifestyle, environmental, and occupational factors to risk of MDS. The study showed that all MDS (all subtypes combined) risk factors included anti tuberculosis drugs [odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 3.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-8.12] as an independent risk factor, benzene (OR(adj) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.32-10.51), hair dye use (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.03-2.07), new building and renovations (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.11-2.00), pesticides (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.22-3.82), and herbicides (OR = 5.33; 95% CI = 1.41-20.10) as relative risk factors. Risk factors of MDS subtype refractory cytopenia with multiple dysplasia (RCMD) were benzene (OR(adj) = 5.99; 95% CI = 1.19-30.16) and gasoline (OR(adj) = 11.44; 95% CI = 1.31-100.03) as independent risk factors, and traditional Chinese medicines (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.15-4.07), pesticides (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.37-6.25), and herbicides (OR = 12.00; 95% CI = 1.44-99.67) as relative risk factors. Smoking tobacco was significantly associated with refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) (OR(adj) = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.02-5.77). Education is shown as an independent protective factor against all MDS (OR(adj) = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.83-0.99) and RCMD (OR(adj) = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.99). These findings suggest that multiple modifiable behavioral, environmental, and occupational factors play a role in MDS etiology, and various MDS subtypes may have different susceptibility. PMID:21264898

  14. Differences of English Mental Lexicon Organization: A Comparative Study between Advanced Chinese English Language Learners and English Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sibo

    2012-01-01

    Among various study topics of advanced second language (L2) learners, mental lexicon shares a unique significance. This paper will introduce a comparative experiment between advanced Chinese English as a Second Language (CESL) learners and English as first language (EL1) speakers. The research question of the study is whether advanced CESL…

  15. Seston and dissolved organic carbon dynamics during Microcystis bloom with special reference to the effects of three Chinese domestic fishes in experimental enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Jun; Xie, Ping

    1997-09-01

    The Microcystis bloom that once disappeared from Donghu Lake, a shallow, eutrophic Chinese lake, was successfully resumed with the use of the enclosure method. Seston and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics during the Microcystis bloom were investigated with particular emphasis on the effect of three Chinese domestic fishes (silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp). The results showed that the change of chlorophyll a obviously related to the fish species and its stocking density. Due to the release of extracellular ogranic carbon and increased bacterial activity, DOC increased apparently after silver and bighead carps were introduced. POC/DOC dropped considerably in the enclosures containing silver and bighead carps and in the surrounding lake water, which implied that the bacterial activity was more pronounced in such ecosystems. Statistical analysis indicated that the linear relationship between POC and chlorophyll a could reflect the state of algal growth and nutrient metabolism. It was expected that this study would provide some information on biomanipulation in the shallow, eutrophic lakes.

  16. Separation and determination of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese herbal medicines by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with organic modifier.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lijun; Xu, Yan; Feng, Huatao; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2005-09-01

    A simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the separation and determination of four toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline) in two traditional Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). Separation was performed in the running buffer consisting of 20 mM borate, 30 mM SDS, and 20% methanol at pH 9.1. With the optimized separation conditions, four PAs were separated in 17 min by a single run. The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation efficiencies (R(2)) between 0.9940 and 0.9988. RSDs in migration time and peak area were 0.31, 0.40, 0.39, 0.48% and 3.28, 3.48, 4.16, 3.42% for senkirkine, senecionine, retrorsine, and seneciphylline, respectively. Limits of detection (S/N = 3) varied from 1.19 to 2.70 microg/mL. The proposed method was applied to determine the PAs extracted from Chinese herbal medicines (Qian liguang and Kuan donghua). PA of senkirkine in Kuan donghua was detected and the amount was found to be 79.1 microg/g. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MEKC method could potentially become an effective alternative tool for qualification control and quantitative analysis of herbal medicines in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:16080213

  17. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  18. Things Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  19. Building Affective Commitment to Organization among Chinese University Teachers: The Roles of Organizational Justice and Job Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongzhan

    2014-01-01

    In view of the benefit of improving employees' organization commitment, it is important to study the major influencing factors of organization commitment. According to previous literature, organizational justice and job burnout have been considered two major influencing variables of affective commitment; however, little empirical research can…

  20. Chinese American Experience: San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit encourages students to explore the history and current situation of Chinese Americans. Organized around five lesson plans, the unit's first lesson begins with the students' own perceptions of Chinese Americans, followed by a quiz that provides relevant background information. The second lesson examines the general history of Chinese…

  1. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  2. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p < 0.05), PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p < 0.05), PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3). PMID:26788513

  3. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  4. Chinese Calligraphy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  5. Chinese Grain for Green Program led to highly increased soil organic carbon levels: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Zhou, Guomo; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    The Grain for Green Program (GGP), initiated in 1999, is the largest ecological restoration project in central and western China. Here, for the first time, we performed a meta-analysis and found that the GGP largely increased the soil organic carbon (SOC). The SOC was increased by 48.1%, 25.4%, and 25.5% at soil depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm, respectively. Moreover, this carbon accumulation has significantly increased over time since GGP implementation. The carbon accumulation showed a significantly more active response to the GGP in the top 20 cm of soil than in the deeper soil layers. Conversion of cropland to forest could lead to significantly greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion of cropland to grassland. Conversion from cropland to woodland could lead to greater SOC accumulation than would the conversion to either shrubland or orchard. Our results suggest that the GGP implementation caused SOC to accumulate and that there remains a large potential for further accumulation of carbon in the soil, which will help to mitigate climate change in the near future. PMID:24675818

  6. Influence of the organic loading rate on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an EGSB reactor used for treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguang; Su, Chengyuan; Liu, Xingzhe; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor used for treating real traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater were investigated. Over 90% of the COD removal by the EGSB reactor was observed at the OLRs of 4 to 13 kg COD/(m(3) day). However, increasing the OLR to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day) by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 h) reduced the COD removal efficiency to 78%. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 512.22 mg/L, resulting in an accumulation of VFAs, and propionic acid was the main acidification product, accounting for 66.51% of the total VFAs. When the OLR increased from 10 to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day), the average size of the granule sludge decreased from 469 to 258 μm. There was an obvious reduction in the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the granular sludge. The visible humic acid-like peak was identified in the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of the soluble microbial products (SMPs). The fatty acid bond, amide II bond, amide III bond, and C-H bond bending were also observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the SMPs. Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus, and Bacteria populations exhibited significant shifts, and these changes were accompanied by an increase in VFA production. The results indicated that a short HRT and high OLR in the EGSB reactor caused the accumulation of polysaccharides, protein, and VFAs, thereby inhibiting the activity of methanogenic bacteria and causing granular sludge corruption. PMID:24677060

  7. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  8. Chinese biobanking initiatives.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rongxing; Wang, Huiyuan; Song, Yutong; Fan, Jinli; Xiong, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Due to the requirement for comprehensive clinical research efforts in China, the importance of biobanking in modern clinical research is outlined in this overview. Hospitals, universities, and research institutes have been well organized as fundamental resources for Chinese biobanking initiatives and the resulting bio-sample collections. Here, a brief history and time line of development of biobanking in China will be introduced, as well as strategic designs for future biobanking development. PMID:25686040

  9. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  10. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Chinese Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, William C.

    2012-01-01

    When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

  12. Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior among Chinese, Thai and Korean College Students and Predictive Effects of the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…

  13. The Study of Chinese in a Provincial French Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrait, Noel

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of Chinese instruction in a Bordeaux lycee. Specific questions addressed are: enrollment; reasons for studying Chinese; the study of the written and spoken language; the need for an appropriate textbook; teaching culture; and the need to organize Chinese as a regular course in the curriculum. (AMH)

  14. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  15. Chinese Leadership in Arts Education Workshops: A Sino-American Cross-Cultural Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiamin

    2009-01-01

    This report compares important aspects of American and Chinese dance education through the lens of the "Chinese Leadership in Arts Education" workshops organized by Brigham Young University in response to requests from Chinese arts educators to observe American arts education in practice as a benchmark for assessing the direction of Chinese arts…

  16. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  17. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  18. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  19. Images of Chinese and Chinese Americans Mirrored in Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Mingshui

    1994-01-01

    Examines how 73 picture storybooks portrayed Chinese and Chinese Americans and how the books reflect the Chinese culture. Finds that most present positive images of Chinese and Chinese Americans, that cultural inauthenticity is the main flaw of many books, and that more picture books are needed that feature flesh and blood contemporary Chinese and…

  20. Medical insurance policy organized by Chinese government and the health inequity of the elderly: longitudinal comparison based on effect of New Cooperative Medical Scheme on health of rural elderly in 22 provinces and cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The alarming progression of the aging trend in China attracts much attention in the country and abroad. In 2003, the Chinese central government launched the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) to resolve the inequity problem of health in regions with inadequate infrastructure and relative poverty. The rural elderly are the main beneficiaries of this policy; the improvement of their health through the medical insurance policy require exploration. Methods This study used data obtained from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 2005 and 2008. Elderly people living in rural areas and aged 60 and above were screened for the investigation. A total of 8658 and 9904 elderly people were selected from 2005 and 2008, respectively. By establishing models and employing multi-logistic analysis, stereotype logistic analysis, we examined the effect of NCMS organized by Chinese government on three domains of the health of the rural elderly. Results A total of 948 and 6361 elderly people participated in NCMS in 2005 (n = 8658) and 2008 (n = 9904), respectively. With regard to the independent variables, the number of participants in NCMS increased, whereas province distribution, gender, and years of education only slightly changed. As for the dependent variables, the rural elderly in 2005 had poor general health but good psychological health. Differences were found between different moods. Old people who engage in much outdoor activity can take care of themselves. After three-year promotion of NCMS, the differences between 2005 and 2008 indicate that the physical function of the rural elderly worsen, whereas the general health and psychological health improves. Conclusions (1) In the 2005 data and 2008 data, result shows that NCMS participation can promote the self-rated quality and health change of the elderly. (2) After three years, the alleviation effect on anxiety and loneliness changed from insignificant to significant

  1. The validation of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) in pre-operative patients with brain tumor in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly emphasized on cancer patients. The psychometric properties of the standard Chinese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, version 3.0) in brain tumor patients wasn't proven, and there was no baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients prior to surgery. Methods The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) was administered at three time points: T1, the first or the second day that patients were hospitalized after the brain tumor suspected or diagnosed by MRI or CT; T2, 1 to 2 days after T1, (T1 and T2 were both before surgery); T3, the day before discharge. Clinical variables included disease histologic types, cognitive function, and Karnofsky Performance Status. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficients for multi-item scales were greater than .70 and multitrait scaling analysis showed that most of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the standards of convergent and discriminant validity, except for the cognitive functioning scale. All scales and items exhibited construct validity. Score changes over peri-operation were observed in physical and role functioning scales. Compared with mixed cancer patients assessed after surgery but before adjuvant treatment, brain tumor patients assessed pre-surgery presented better function and fewer symptoms. Conclusions The standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was overall a valid instrument to assess HRQOL in brain tumor patients in China. The baseline HRQOL in brain tumor patients pre-surgery was better than that in mixed cancer patients post-surgery. Future study should modify cognitive functioning scale and examine test-retest reliability and response validity. PMID:21513533

  2. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has ... Reports of serious reactions to Chinese food first appeared in ... thought to be the cause of these symptoms. There have been many ...

  3. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  4. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

  6. Chinese-Mandarin; Chinese Character Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This writing exercise book, designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course, consists of step-by-step illustrations for copying 825 characters in the Chinese writing system. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.] (AMM)

  7. Chinese Folktales for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Irene

    This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

  8. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  9. Computers and Chinese Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierman, Frank A.; Barber, Elizabeth

    This survey of the field of Chinese language computational linguistics was prepared as a background study for the Chinese Linguistics Project at Princeton. Since the authors' main purpose was "critical reconnaissance," quantitative emphasis is on systems with which they are most familiar. The complexity of the Chinese writing system has presented…

  10. The Psychological and Cultural Aspects of Ethnic Politics: The Case of the Japanese and Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Moon H.

    Chinese immigration to the United States, which began around 1850, sparked strong anti-Asian sentiment and legal and economic restrictions upon these immigrants. Although some Chinese organizations helped immigrants, the overall response of the Chinese to systematic oppression was one of meekness and compliance. The Japanese began to immigrate to…

  11. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  12. Screening of Cd-safe genotypes of Chinese cabbage in field condition and Cd accumulation in relation to organic acids in two typical genotypes under long-term Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Huang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    A 65-day field experiment was conducted to select cadmium (Cd)-safe genotypes (CSGs) among 21 Chinese cabbage genotypes in a low Cd-contaminated soil (0.66 mg kg(-1)). Seven CSGs were identified based on their Cd tolerance, shoot Cd concentrations, Cd enrichment factors (EFs), and translocation factors (TFs). Then, Beijingxin3, a typical CSG, together with Qiuxiang, a typical non-CSG for comparison, was selected for a subsequent 80-day field micro-plot experiment under four levels of Cd stress to evaluate the reliability of CSG screening and the role of organic acids in Cd accumulation and tolerance. Beijingxin3 was confirmed to be safe to grow in soil with Cd level up to 3.39 mg kg(-1), with Cd accumulation in its shoots well below the permitted level, and Qiuxiang was still poor in tolerating low Cd stress (1.31 mg kg(-1)). With increasing the Cd stress, Cd accumulation and citrate concentrations increased in shoots and roots of both genotypes, and oxalate concentrations increased significantly in Beijingxin3 roots. Both oxalate and citrate concentrations were significantly positively related to Cd accumulation for Beijingxin3 roots. High accumulation in oxalate and citrate induced by Cd stress in Beijingxin3 roots could benefit its internal tolerance to long-term Cd stress with more Cd accumulation in its roots and less Cd accumulation in its shoots. PMID:26081776

  13. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period.

  14. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  15. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  16. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.0001). Both the field campaigns and the laboratory contamination experiment revealed that CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources. PMID:26397467

  17. Shifting Patterns of Authority in Chinese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Brian; Paine, Lynn W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes changing authority relations between the Chinese state and educational organizations, and examines how four secondary schools have adapted. Discusses educational reforms since 1985, teacher and school resource shortages, increased principal responsibilities, and school administrators'"market economy" social exchange relationships to…

  18. Creating Political Space To Defend Chinese Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongfang, Han

    2002-01-01

    Presents comments spoken at a human rights conference by Han Dongfang, a Chinese activist who was jailed after an attempt to organize China's first independent union from a tent in Tiananmen Square during the democracy movement. Today, he is barred from the mainland but works from Hong Kong through Radio Free Asia. Comments focus on foreign…

  19. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field. PMID:27590882

  20. Chinese by Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  1. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  2. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  3. The Chinese negotiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark

    2003-10-01

    Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart. PMID:14521100

  4. Long-Term Experience with Chinese Language Shapes the Fusiform Asymmetry of English Reading

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049

  5. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  6. Chinese Language Guide. Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

    This comprehensive Chinese language development guide for bilingual Chinese-English educators contains fifteen objectives along with related learning activities to be taught in the Chinese bilingual program. The guide emphasizes audio-lingual skill development and involves Chinese games, songs, foods, and holidays. (Author/AM)

  7. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. The Chinese in Britain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y M; Chan, C

    1997-01-01

    "This research note offers a brief historical perspective on the relationship between Hong Kong and Britain and describes the demographic profile of the Chinese community in Britain...[using] information obtained from the 1991 [UK] Census.... The data analysis shows that the Chinese population is widely dispersed and increasing rapidly, and is characterised by a high child-bearing capacity and a low rate of unemployment." PMID:12179828

  10. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice. PMID:19144968

  11. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  12. Shuttle ban for Chinese journalists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2011-07-01

    A bill passed in April by the US Congress has banned representatives of the Chinese government's news agency Xinhua from the launch site at the Kennedy Space Center as well as preventing NASA from hosting "official Chinese visitors".

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... C, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Manheimer ... YC, eds. A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine . River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2003. Vickers ...

  14. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  15. Chinese Space Program for Heliophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Gan, Weiqun; Wang, Chi; Liu, Weining; Yan, Yihua; Liu, Yong; Sun, Lilin; Liu, Ying

    As one of the major field of space science, heliophysics research in China has not only long history but also strong research forces. Many space missions have been proposed by the community but with few got support. Since 2006, Chinese Academy of Science has organized a long term strategic study in space science. In 2011, the space science program has been kicked off with several new missions being selected for Phase A study. In this presentation, first a brief review on past programs, such as Double Star, Chang’e, and an introduction on the space science strategic study are given. Under the guidance of this strategic study or roadmap, a few missions have been proposed or re-proposed with new element, such as DSO, KUAFU, MIT, SPORT and ASO-S. Brief introductions of these programs and their current status will be given.

  16. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

  17. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  18. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  19. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  20. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  1. Distribution of Chinese names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  2. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  3. Being Chinese or Being Different: Chinese Undergraduates' Use of Discourses of Chineseness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Myths about "the Chinese learner" developed from an outsider perspective abound in the Western world. The focus of this article, however, is how discourses of Chineseness were used by the Chinese international students themselves who, as undergraduate students in a New Zealand university, were the subjects of my doctoral research. It…

  4. Mentoring and Research Supervision in Music Education: Perspectives of Chinese Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimated that the number of students studying outside their own country would be over 20 million by 2030. Chinese students have increasingly formed a large percentage of international students at universities across the English-speaking world, and the Chinese demand for…

  5. "Chink!" A Documentary History of Anti-Chinese Prejudice in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Cheng-Tsu, Ed.

    The contents of this compendium, which presents a bit of the history of the racial prejudice against the Chinese, are organized in four chapters. Chapter 1, "Institutionalization of Prejudice," reviews the body of legislation and State and Federal court decisions pertaining to the Chinese, beginning with the migration to California during the…

  6. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  7. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to semiconductor…

  8. Cataloging Pirated Chinese Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sze-Tseng

    1971-01-01

    Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  9. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  10. The Imperative in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  11. Survey of acrylamide levels in Chinese foods.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Yuan, Y; Liu, J; Zhao, G; Hu, X

    2008-01-01

    A survey of levels of acrylamide (AA) in 349 food products obtained from the Chinese market was conducted. AA was determined by an liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method in four different matrices ranged from 0.8 to 10 µg kg(-1) and from 4.0 to 25 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results from this survey indicated that AA was present in all samples except drinking water and tea. AA contents in different samples varied greatly according to the raw materials and processing conditions. The highest level of AA was found in potato products, with an average level of 1467 µg kg(-1). Preliminary estimates of AA exposure and risk assessment of AA from foods in the Chinese population were performed using a combination of data obtained in the present survey and 2002 dietary consumption survey carried out in 2002 for the Chinese population. The average dietary exposure of AA was estimated to be 0.38 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), which is relatively low compared with the result reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Furthermore, the margin of exposure for neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity of AA was calculated to be 1318, 5250, and 787, respectively. PMID:24784803

  12. Chinese Experiences on Orthokeratology.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137

  13. American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists: how are they doing?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peishan; Hu, Fengling

    2016-09-01

    More than 60 years have passed since 3 pioneer Chinese anesthesiologists were trained by American physicians. After returning to China, they applied their new knowledge and skills to develop a new anesthesia specialty in their own country. Over the past 2 decades, close to 600 Chinese medical graduates have been trained in the United States and have become part of the American anesthesia workforce. Unlike their elder generation, they did not go back to China after their training. People are always wondering how this new generation of American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists is doing in a different culture and different health care and political systems. This review indicates that these newly American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists not only provide high-quality patient care but also conduct outstanding anesthesia teaching and research. In addition, as their pioneer anesthesiologists did in China, they use professional organizations and publications as 2 major means to advance professional development and promote academic exchanges between Chinese and American anesthesiologists, through which American anesthesiology continues to have influence on modern Chinese anesthesiology. PMID:27555192

  14. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  16. LIST OF CHINESE DICTIONARIES IN ALL LANGUAGES. EXTERNAL RESEARCH PAPER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    A COMPILATION FROM LISTS OF DICTIONARIES USED BY SEVERAL U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS, THIS DOCUMENT INCLUDES THE TITLES OF AND INFORMATION CONCERNING DICTIONARIES COVERING OVER 25 TOPICS IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL FIELDS, AND NUMEROUS AREAS OF ECONOMICS, AND POLITICAL, AND SOCIOLOGICAL TOPICS. MANY CHINESE-FOREIGN LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES ARE…

  17. High School Chinese: First Year Student Work Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the first volume (FL 002 774) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, expansion, and translation drills, dialogues, and questions and answers for practice. For…

  18. High School Chinese: Second Year Student Work Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Isabella Y.

    This workbook accompanies the second volume (FL 002 776) of the Chinese text used in the Washington Foreign Language Program. It is organized according to the lessons in the companion textbook and provides vocabulary, substitution, pattern, transformation, translation, and expansion drills, and question and answer practice. For related documents…

  19. A Review of the Chinese Higher Education Evaluation Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Laura Pan; Dehai, Wang

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss the Higher Education Evaluation Center, the administrative body under the auspices of the Chinese Ministry of Education responsible for organizing and conducting evaluation of baccalaureate and associate degree programs offered at different universities and colleges in China. The Center also conducts research on regulations and…

  20. Leveraging Chinese Culture for Effective Organizational Leadership: The China Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2008-01-01

    This article examined organizational leadership in the context of China. Taking a cultural perspective, this literature review traced the cultural roots of Chinese leadership and analyzed the cultural impact on leadership practice in organizations. It further provided general guidelines for leadership development in China, followed by…

  1. Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

  2. Chinese Songs We Can Sing and Chinese Instrumental Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.

    This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)

  3. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  4. Contradictions in Chinese Language Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    The Draft of the Second Chinese Character Simplification Scheme proposed by the Chinese Committee on Language Reform, published in 1977, is discussed. The political history of the draft and current uncertainty about character simplification are examined, and a rigorous methodology for determining the success rate of a script reform is proposed.…

  5. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  6. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  7. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  8. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    PubMed

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216

  9. Migration Problems of Chinese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christina C.; Cochran, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    Used case study approach to focus on adjustment decisions of 15 female Chinese college students who emigrated from Hong Kong to Vancouver, British Columbia. Common themes of conflict involved Chinese and Western value opposition, the need for personal development, and the fear of social isolation. Six different patterns of client adjustment were…

  10. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  11. The Commoditization of Chinese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Hill

    1989-01-01

    Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

  12. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  13. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  14. A View from Within: A Case Study of Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueying, Ed.

    A collection of essays on Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States addresses these topics: the schools, their curricula, and organization (Theresa Hsu Chao); school administration and management (Chao, Lydia Chen, Edward Chang); academic curriculum (Pay-Fen Serena Wang); non-heritage Chinese learners: practices and…

  15. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  16. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  17. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  18. Chinese medicine and martial arts.

    PubMed

    Koh, T C

    1981-01-01

    Wushu (Martial Arts), mistakenly known in the West as Kung-Fu, is a system of Chinese boxing which is closely linked with the traditional practice of Chinese medicine. Many of the masters (Sifu) are Chinese physicians who often recommend health exercises and the soft form of martial arts to their patients, while the hard form is suitable for sport and self-defense. Martial arts is a great discipline for body and mind, suitable for all who treasure physical and mental health. PMID:6764088

  19. Changes in soil organic carbon induced by tillage and water erosion on a steep cultivated hillslope in the Chinese Loess Plateau from 1898-1954 and 1954-1998

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) transported and redistributed by erosion over the steep agricultural landscapes is uncertain. The effect of topography, slope and slope position on SOC redistribution must be considered. Our objectives were to (i) determine the spatial patterns of both tillage a...

  20. Biogas: the Chinese experience

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-10-01

    This article details the history of biogas in China and its development as a renewable energy source. There are 7.2 million biogas plants that benefit directly 35 million rural people. The average family digester costs $20 to $40 and can easily be made by unskilled technical workers. The design of a typical digester is described together with its maintenance and recovery of gas. The uses of biogas in China are numerous and solves most of the major energy problems of rural life such as village cooking, and fuel for irrigation pumps and farm tractors. The utilizing of human, animal and agricultural waste is in itself a large benefit and a list of other benefits to the Chinese is given.

  1. The Chinese healthcare challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    Investments in the extension of health insurance coverage, the strengthening of public health services, as well as primary care and better hospitals, highlights the emerging role of healthcare as part of China’s new growth regime, based on an expansion of services, and redistributive policies. Such investments, apart from their central role in terms of relief for low-income people, serve to rebalance the Chinese economy away from export-led growth toward the domestic market, particularly in megacity-regions as Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, which confront the challenge of integrating migrant workers. Based on the paper by Gusmano and colleagues, one would expect improvements in population health for permanent residents of China’s cities. The challenge ahead, however, is how to address the growth of inequalities in income, wealth and the social wage. PMID:25774379

  2. Chinese Swing Back to Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetz, Frank; Yu, Ying-king

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of science education in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s, and discusses the new Chinese emphasis on "theory" and "expertness" to produce the scientists necessary for China's development and modernization. (GA)

  3. Chinese Constellations and Star Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

  4. The Chinese Cult of Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Sylvia H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

  5. Bulimia nervosa in the Chinese.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U

    1993-12-01

    Typical DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa with self-induced vomiting was found in 2 women of Hong Kong Chinese origin and a Chinese man from Malaysia. All 3 cases had a family history of obesity. In 2 of the cases a period of weight gain and in the third case frank obesity preceded the onset of the eating disorder. Cultural transition seemed to play an important part in the onset and maintenance of the eating disorder. PMID:8293034

  6. [Cataplasma of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2003-01-01

    The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of

  7. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print. PMID:25711130

  8. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publication, the development of publishing bibliometric data from Chinese databases, the prospect of an Open Access publication model in China, the issue of language bias in literature reviews and the quality of Chinese journals are discussed. Epidemiologists are encouraged to search the Chinese bibliographic databases for Chinese journal articles. PMID:18826604

  9. The Chinese student space shuttle get-way-special program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen

    1989-01-01

    The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.

  10. The first Chinese student space shuttle getaway special program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Jin, Xun-Shu; Ke, Shou-Quan; Fu, Bing-Chen

    1988-01-01

    The first Chinese Getaway Special program is described. Program organization, the student proposal evaluation procedure, and the objectives of some of the finalist's experiments are covered. The two experiments selected for eventual flight on the space shuttle are described in detail. These include: (1) the control of debris in the cabin of the space shuttle; and (2) the solidification of two immiscible liquids in space.

  11. Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

  12. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional

  13. The Chinese-American Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Toxicological risks of Chinese herbs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Debbie

    2010-12-01

    As traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more popular there have been increasing concerns about safety and potential toxicity of the Chinese materia medica (CMM) comprising plants, animal parts and minerals. The potential toxicity of many CMM is well recognised in TCM and to reduce risks use of some herbs is restricted whilst specific processing methods have been developed to modify the activities/toxicity of others. However adverse reactions have been reported, many of these are due misuse or abuse of Chinese medicine. The main problem remains products adulterated with pharmaceuticals for weight loss or erectile dysfunction. But some herbs have narrow therapeutic ranges (e.g., Aconitum species) so toxic effects are frequently reported. Toxic effects from chronic or cumulative dosing are difficult to detect in the traditional setting and recent reports have demonstrated the health problems from Aristolochia species. Despite safety concerns, Chinese medicine appears to be relatively safe with comparatively few reports of adverse reactions compared with overall drug reports. The wealth of information in the Chinese literature needs to be more widely available. As TCM is widely used by patients, improved pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology can contribute valuable safety information, relevant to clinical use. PMID:21077025

  15. Assessment of Chinese Students' Experience with Foreign Faculty: A Case Study from a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…

  16. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  17. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  18. Writing Chinese and Mathematics Achievement: A Study with Chinese-American Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…

  19. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  20. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133

  1. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133

  2. Young Chinese ESL Children's Home Literacy Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong

    1999-01-01

    Describes home literacy experiences of six Chinese English-as-a-second-language kindergartners. Includes the parents' provision of literate home environments as well as children's functional use of Chinese and English and engagement in Chinese and English literacy activities. Indicates the diverse and cultural nature of the home literacy…

  3. Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

  4. Bilingual Vocational Training Program for Chinese Chefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    China Inst. in America, New York, NY.

    This document contains materials that can be used by instructors in an English-as-a-second-language course for Chinese kitchen workers or chefs. The materials consist of lessons on various topics that occur in the everyday life of Chinese chefs. Topics include: English names for Chinese dishes; phrases to employ when meeting people and when using…

  5. Problems and Prospect of Chinese Communication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    Chinese have systematically practiced communication for over two thousand years, but from the Western perspective communication education and research in Chinese societies only began to burgeon in recent decades. In addition to summarizing the Western and traditional Chinese communication study and practice, this paper identified four problems…

  6. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  7. Problems of Textbook in Teaching Chinese Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ta-hsia

    It is proposed that teachers of Chinese expose their students to traditional critical views of Chinese poetics and criticism through careful selection of poems. This approach to language study is based on the assumption that the student may gain insight and appreciation of Chinese poetry as well as a feeling for the culture. Arguments favoring…

  8. Chinese American Students Fight for Their Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuxiang; Phillion, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Parental and community involvement play a key role in the Chinese American students' fight for their rights. In order to understand the reasons behind the parental and community support of Chinese students, a survey was conducted among Chinese parents to assess what they know about language loss, power, knowledge, and democracy. The results…

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GLOSSARY FOR CHINESE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIU, LILLIAN; WANG, W. S-Y

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 937 TITLES IN THE FIELD OF CHINESE GRAMMAR FROM AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND JOURNALS. THE AUTHORS AND TITLES ARE LISTED IN PINYIN SYSTEM TRANSCRIPTION WITH A TRANSLATION OF THE TITLE IN ENGLISH AND WITH CHINESE LOGOGRAPHS AFTER THE SOURCE CITATION FOR THOSE ENTRIES ORGINALLY WRITTEN IN CHINESE. ENTRIES ARE…

  10. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  11. Animals of the Chinese Zodiac. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Chinese lunar calendar dates back to the second millennium BC. Unlike the western calendar, which numbers the years progressively from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Chinese calendar is cyclical. Each cycle is made up of 12 years--after the 12th year, the cycle is repeated. The Chinese associate each year of a 12-year cycle with an animal, and…

  12. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  13. Chinese-English Machine Translation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, William S-Y; And Others

    The report documents results of a two-year R&D effort directed at the completion of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation of S&T literature. The system, designated QUINCE, accepts Chinese input exactly as printed, with no pre-editing of any kind, and produces English output on experimental basis. Coding of Chinese text via…

  14. Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    "Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

  15. Flash Cards: Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This set of flash cards is designed to accompany the Defense Language Institute's instructional programs in Cantonese Chinese. Each card displays six Chinese characters, for a total of 1500 characters. Each character is printed two inches tall. Above each character are transcriptions of the Chinese words represented by the character (marked for…

  16. Chinese Number Words, Culture, and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…

  17. The Chinese American: Inscrutable to Some.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carole

    Chinese Americans have been called inscrutable--not open to being understood. More casual, spontaneous, and expressive people find it hard to understand the strict discipline of feelings and highly selective and controlled expressions such as the Chinese American may practice. This paper serves as a social introduction to the Chinese American. For…

  18. Adaptation Processes in Chinese: Word Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasierbsky, Fritz

    The typical pattern of Chinese word formation is to have native material adapt to changed circumstances. The Chinese language neither borrows nor lends words, but it does occasionally borrow concepts. The larger cultural pattern in which this occurs is that the Chinese culture borrows, if necessary, but ensures that the act of borrowing does not…

  19. International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimgeour, Andrew; Wilson, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education (ICCLE) represents a significant initiative by the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) to organise and describe objectives and content for a standardised Chinese language curriculum around the world. It aims to provide a reference curriculum for planning, a framework…

  20. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  1. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  2. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  3. Managerial Success Factors: A Chinese Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…

  4. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  5. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  6. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  7. Seward Park High School. Washington Irving High School. Chinese Bilingual Education Program, 1981-1982. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Judith A.; And Others

    The Chinese Bilingual Education Program operates at Seward Park and Washington Irving high schools in New York City. The program offers instructional and supportive services to native Chinese speakers of limited English proficiency. This report describes the program's history, philosophy, organization and staffing, funding, and goals and…

  8. Aspects of the Chinese Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. Charles

    1968-01-01

    It has long been realized that tense is not a feature of the Chinese verb system, which is controlled by a set of particles attached to the verb or to the sentence as a whole. The various usages involving these particles have been listed and described, the author points out, but the system as a whole has not been clearly defined. He suggests the…

  9. Organizational Management in Chinese Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Julia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents translations of 13 articles on topics of higher education reform in China. Reforms began in 1976 with the purging of supporters of the Gang of Four and continues today with fundamental changes in funding, administration, curriculum, and faculty policies. Notes that many proposed reforms run counter to existing Chinese views and may…

  10. Chinese-Cantonese Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This nine-volume basic course in Cantonese Chinese is designed for 47 weeks of intense audiolingual instruction. The first book of the series introduces the pronunciation, with emphasis on the tone system, and the basic aspects of the grammar. Also introduced in this volume is the romanization system used in this series (the U.S. Army Language…

  11. Play Chinese Games. 1987, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caryn

    This document, designed to introduce all ages to a selection of popular Chinese games, describes these games and provides instructions and materials for making the items needed to play most of them. Section 1 suggests class activities that can be related to some of the games. Section 2 presents instructions for the physical or outdoor games of:…

  12. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  13. Instructional Technology: The Chinese Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the current state of instructional technology in Chinese universities. Topics discussed include organizational patterns in audiovisual centers; the use of various media, including film, videotapes, overhead projectors, and television; the use of technology in language instruction; audiovisual equipment and appropriate technology; and…

  14. School Choice with Chinese Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these resources…

  15. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  16. Quantifying Affinity among Chinese Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A study of the relationships between Chinese dialects based on a quantitative measure of dialect affinity is summarized. First, tone values in all the dialect localities available in the early 1970s were used to calculate the dialectal differences in terms of tone height with respect to the "yin and yang" split. In the late 1970s, calculations of…

  17. American Drama through Chinese Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joanne

    An American instructor taught a 5-week course on the family in American drama to a group of graduate English majors on the campus of Hebei Teachers' University in the People's Republic of China. The instructor learned as much about Chinese culture as the students learned about American culture. Lecture is the standard pedagogy even in graduate…

  18. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  19. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  20. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China. PMID:25134668

  1. The complete mitogenome of Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes. PMID:24708118

  2. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed. PMID:21323139

  3. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    PubMed

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time. PMID:27197409

  4. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  5. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  6. [Advance in studies on effect of traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines in prevention and treatment of acute altitude sickness].

    PubMed

    Feng, Bo; Liu, Zhen; Xing, Yan-Wei; Gao, Ao; Zhu, Huo-Ming; Wang, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Acute altitude reaction is a stress response of organism to special altitude environmental factors such as hypoxia, low pressure, cold, dry and strong ultraviolet. As it is the most incident disease in high altitude areas, its prevention remains a problem to be solved. In China, the traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines have been recognized as an effective means of preventing and treating acute altitude sicknesses. Some single-recipe or compound traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines have been proved to be effective for acute altitude sicknesses. In this article, we will describe traditional Chinese (Tibetan) medicines of different types with efficacy in prevention and treatment of altitude sicknesses. PMID:24066576

  7. Capital sought for Chinese development

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, L.

    1984-03-01

    Foreign investment will be needed to develop China's untapped coal fields. China is the world's third largest coal producer, ranking behind only the USA and the Soviet Union. Bituminous coal predominates, but anthracite and brown coal are also found in considerable quantities. China's raw coal output increased from 32.4 million t in 1949 to 650 million t in 1982. About 96% of Chinese coal comes from underground operations, and 4% from open-pit mines. Mechanized operations contribute about 40% of the national output. To reach the annual production goal of 700 million t by the end of 1985 and 1.2 billion t by the year 2000, the Chinese government is promoting a concentrated development plan for selected major fields, and is calling on foreign investors to join in their exploitation. The investment program for the development of China's coal resources is described.

  8. Chinese herbs for dementia diseases.

    PubMed

    Hügel, H M; Jackson, N; May, B H; Xue, C C I

    2012-05-01

    In the last twenty years a considerable body of information has accumulated on the chemical constituents of Chinese herbs and their therapeutic potential. Our evaluation/systematic review [1, 2] of well-designed, randomized double blind controlled trials on Chinese herbal medicines beneficial for the improvement of cognitive function revealed a range of either single herbs or herbal mixtures that provided neuroprotective benefits. Oxidative stress may directly initiate neurodegeneration and herbal antioxidant neuroprotection is considered as a preventative and therapeutic approach. We encountered Acoris gramineus rhizome (AGR), Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia and Poria cocos as the four most frequently used herbs as single/herbal mixtures that were associated with positive cognitive enhancing outcomes. This review focuses on the evidence of their medicinal effects attributed to those constituents present in relatively high concentration. PMID:22303969

  9. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-22

    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  10. Taiwanese, Chinese treatment facilities installed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-19

    This article reports on water treatment facilities from a U.S. company installed in a major Taiwanese refinery and in two mainland Chinese oil fields. Chinese Petroleum Corp. recently installed a wastewater treatment plant at its Kaohsiung, Taiwan, refinery. The treatment plant was needed because of expansion of the refinery's naphtha-cracking facilities at the 446,500-b/d refinery, the largest refinery, in terms of crude charging capacity, in the Asia/Pacific region. The same system has also gone into two oil field applications in the People's Republic of China: the Zhongyuan and Shengli oil fields. The system is designed for a total wastewater flow rate of 10,000 cu m/hr. The system and its treatment requirements are summarized.

  11. Chinese translation of English textbooks on internal medicine from the 1850s to the 1940s.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Fu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    During the 100 years from 1850 to 1949, six English textbooks on internal medicine were translated into Chinese and published. Publication of these books was a response to the increased demand for Chinese textbooks after the opening of several Western-style hospitals and medical schools in China where the instruction was in Chinese. Throughout this period, textbooks translated from English were regarded as symbols of mainstream and authority within medical communities in China. There was a shift of translators from British and American medical missionaries to Chinese medical elites. Publishers also changed from missionary hospitals or missionary organizations to the Chinese Medical Association, which was led by ethnic Chinese. After the 1950s, translation activity continued in Taiwan, but it was halted in China until after the Cultural Revolution. This paper provides bibliographic information about these books. The transition of medical authority in China during this 100-year period is also reviewed through the successive publication of translated textbooks on internal medicine. PMID:24820159

  12. [On Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao

    2015-09-01

    According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved. PMID:26978969

  13. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  14. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  15. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21248427

  16. Parents' Attitudes Toward Chinese-English Bilingual Education and Chinese-Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao, Christy

    2004-01-01

    This study surveyed 86 parents who enrolled their children in a Chinese-English bilingual preschool in San Francisco. The participants were asked their opinions on bilingual education, the reasons for sending their children to a Chinese-English bilingual school, their attitudes toward bilingual education, their use of Chinese and English, and…

  17. A Comparison of English and Chinese Reading Proficiency of Primary School Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee Elizabeth; Lam, Yu Hong Raymond; Lam, Wai Ip Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong children's comprehension of Chinese and English text is of concern to parents and teachers since school leavers need to be proficient readers both of Chinese and English. Although Chinese has been officially designated the medium of instruction in most secondary schools, many parents want their children to be taught in English-medium…

  18. Chinese Americans Past and Present; A Collection of Chinese American Readings and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Don; Collier, Irene Dea

    This work consists of twenty reading selections, fiction and non-fiction. It is intended for use in grades 4 through 6 (9-12 year olds), and covers topics dealing with the history of the Chinese in America and contemporary Chinese American experience. These selections emphasize particularly the role the Chinese played in the development of the…

  19. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  20. Corpora and Collocations in Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    The paper identifies the major problems of the Chinese-English dictionary in representing collocational information after an extensive survey of nine dictionaries popular among Chinese users. It is found that the Chinese-English dictionary only provides the collocation types of "v+n" and "v+n," but completely ignores those of…

  1. Influence of Demographic Factors and Ownership Type upon Organizational Learning Culture in Chinese Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Baiyin; McLean, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study, using Western concepts incorporated into the Dimension of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) instrument and data collected from 919 employees in nine companies located in Guangdong Province, China, explored organizational learning culture in Chinese business settings. Findings suggest that the DLOQ is applicable to…

  2. Job Insecurity and Remuneration in Chinese Family-Owned Business Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of job insecurity (past job downsizing and anticipated job downsizing) and current remuneration--via wellbeing (burnout and work engagement)--on organizational outcomes (organization commitment and low turnover intention) of Chinese family-owned business. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  3. The Social Welfare Practice and Research Center at the Chinese University of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2009-01-01

    The organization and research programs of the Social Welfare Practice and Research Centre (SWPRC) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong are outlined. There are five regular research programs (Family and Group Practice Research Centre, Human Behavior and the Social Environment Research Program, Mutual Aid and Social Capital Research Program,…

  4. Analysis of the Problems of the Chinese College Students' EFL Classroom Writings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Aiju

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the problems of EFL classroom writings in the Chinese college teaching context from the perspective of textual organization and pragmatic strategy. Influence of their native cultural thought pattern causes the problem of discourse pattern and cohesion; lack of sufficient pragmatic strategy renders students' unawareness in…

  5. [The apprentice education system of Chinese medicinal industry in modern Kunming].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuqing

    2015-07-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, following the appearance of the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming, the "master agreement" as a professional regulation, also implemented, marking the beginning of the contractualization and institutionalization of apprentice education in Yunnan. The contents and implementation of the "master agreement" was organized by the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming and its craft union. The apprentice education in Kunming traditional Chinese medicinal industry has the following characteristics: expanding the source of talent; adepting at agricultural production of the accorded apprentice; conforming to the conditions of human manipulation of Chinese traditional medicine; being in line with the characteristics and rules of Chinese medicine skills taught by oral narration and tacit understanding; unity of the medical and pharmaceutical professionals; and non-governmental organization. Apprentice training had trained a number of medical talents, and promoted the transformation of manual workshop to industrialization in Kunming. Apprentice education had catalyzed the establishment of specialized shops selling patent medicines exclusively to separated from those running both crude drugs and patent medicines, to form a set of effective teaching system, thus exerting profound influence on later generations. PMID:26815024

  6. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. PMID:25609922

  7. Potential role of metabolomics apporoaches in the area of traditional Chinese medicine: as pillars of the bridge between Chinese and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Zhigang

    2011-07-15

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a holistic approach to health that attempts to bring the body, mind and spirit into harmony. Entering 21st century, TCM is getting more and more popular in the whole world for improving health condition of human beings and preventing or healing diseases, especially shows great advantages in early intervention, combination therapies and personalized medicine, etc. However, like almost all other ethnopharmacology, TCM also faces severe challenges and suffers from insufficient modern research owing to lack of scientific and technologic approaches, restricts the development of TCM in the world. Fortunately, a novel analytical technique, metabolomics (or metabonomics), adopts a 'top-down' strategy to reflect the function of organisms from terminal symptoms of metabolic network and understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in holistic context. Its property consists with the holistic thinking of TCM, may beneficially provide an opportunity to scientifically express the meaning of evidence-based Chinese medicine, such as Chinese medicine syndromes (CMS), preventive treatment, action of Chinese medicine, Chinese medical formulae (CMF) and acupuncture efficacy. This review summarizes potential applications of robust metabolomics apporoaches in the area of traditional oriental medicine, and highlights the key role of metabolomics to resolve special TCM issues. PMID:21353755

  8. Barriers and countermeasures in developing traditional Chinese medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming

    2016-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines. PMID:27465827

  9. The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1952-1975: Political Collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Chinese Educationists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yao Sua; Teoh, Hooi See

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Chinese education in Malaysia from 1952 to 1975, focusing on the political collaboration between the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Chinese educationists to advance the cause of Chinese education instead of the usual macro policy analysis. This collaboration was compounded by the different stand…

  10. Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ewan G.

    2010-01-01

    This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE collaborative…