Science.gov

Sample records for chinon annee 2002-2003

  1. Institutional Outcomes Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Rainey Harper Coll., Palatine, IL. Office of Planning and Research.

    This document presents the institutional outcomes for 2002-2003 for William Rainey Harper College. The document begins with the Presidents Introduction, which includes a list of accomplishments of the college. Some of these success are: (1) 90% retention rates for students involved in retention services and programs; (2) achieving a hiring…

  2. Texas Almanac Teacher's Guide, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, Betty; Ferguson, Sharon; Haynes, Beverly; Jacobs, Margaret; Jameson, Eugenia E.; Massey, Linda; Moran, Rebecca; Wilson, Ann

    This interdisciplinary guide utilizes the subject matter in the 2002-2003 "Texas Almanac" to help classroom educators teach students in grades three to eight about the social, economic, cultural, and historical background of Texas. The guide has questions, puzzles, and activities that teachers can use to inform their students about the Lone Star…

  3. AGU 2002-2003 Congressional Science Fellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illa Amerson, a Ph.D. candidate at the Oregon Health & Science University in Beaverton, was selected as AGU's 26th Congressional Science Fellow for 2002-2003. Starting in September, Amerson will serve a one-year assignment in the office of a senator or representative, or on a committee's staff as one of only a handful of scientists on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. Once in an office, Amerson can expect to work as a regular member of the staff, serving as a legislative assistant. Her duties could include advising her boss how to vote on specific bills, writing speeches or press releases, crafting legislation, meeting with lobbyists and special interest groups, and even answering constituent mail.Amerson expects to receive her Ph.D. in environmental science and engineering this summer. Her dissertation focuses on the environmental impact of the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). She completed a M.S. in civil and environmental engineering at Arizona State University and a S.B. in chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Amerson has also spent three years working in environmental regulation and consulting, dealing primarily with air and water quality issues.

  4. The State of Our Nation's Youth, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    This report details findings of the seventh annual (2002-2003) national survey of the attitudes and plans of American adolescents. Participating in the telephone survey was a nationally representative sample of 1,003 students aged 13 to 18, in ninth through twelfth grade. The report summarizes findings "at a glance" and discusses findings under…

  5. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M., Ed.; Schaefer, William D., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the first 10 articles of volume 8 of the electronic journal "Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation" published in 2002-2003: (1) "Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals" (David M. Shannon, Todd E. Johnson, Shelby Searcy, and Alan Lott); (2) "Four Assumptions of Multiple Regression That Researchers…

  6. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  7. The Junior Science and Humanities Symposium: Management and Operation, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document provides the administrative, management, and supervisory guidance necessary to successfully conduct and support grades 7-12 science symposia. It was developed as the operations manual for the Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (PJSHS) program for 2002-2003 which is an 10-month, precollege student research program…

  8. Global and App Express Updates, 2002-2003. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This manual identifies the major changes for 2002-2003 in EDExpress, the electronic data exchange aspect of the Title IV student financial aid application process. It describes the major changes in the global EDExpress module and the App Express module and discusses locations for other resources describing changes in EDExpress. The Global Module…

  9. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Neuvieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 9.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  10. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Deuxieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 2.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  11. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Troisieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 3.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  12. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Sixieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 6.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  13. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Cinquieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 5.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  14. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Huitieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 8.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  15. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Quatrieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 4.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  16. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Septieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 7.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  17. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Premier annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 1.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2002-2003 NASA CONNECT(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry-, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2002 2003 NASA CONNECT series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA SCIence Files (tm) is a research-, inquiry-, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 60-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 3-5. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files (tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  20. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation[s]; Stock Status of Burbot, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Hoyle, Genevieve

    2005-09-01

    The Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation Project planned to monitor burbot Lota lota movement in the winter of 2002-2003 and test a hypothesis regarding the relationship of winter flow to upstream spawning migration success. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration were unable to provide the consistent low winter flows needed to meet the experimental design criteria in that monitoring and evaluation plan (approximately 170 m{sup 3}/s from Libby Dam). Although conditions consistent with management for sustained minimum flows persisted throughout the winter, and stable low flows were maintained below Libby Dam from September 1 through November 24, 2002 (158 m{sup 3}/s average) and from January 1, 2003 until May 1 (144 m{sup 3}/s average), flows in the intervening 37 d period from November 25 to December 31 were increased significantly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. During that important December spawning migration period for burbot, flows were well above those proposed in the monitoring and evaluation plan and peaked at 741 m{sup 3}/s on December 21, 2002. Furthermore, despite the low flow conditions for much of the winter, our capture of 10 burbot was the lowest since this investigation began in 1993, evidence that the stock is extremely depressed and the numbers of burbot are declining. We captured a single burbot in 2002-2003 that provided circumstantial evidence reproduction occurred during the winter of 2000-2001. This burbot of 352 mm TL was among the smallest captured since sampling began in 1993. Seven burbot were monitored with sonic telemetry; two of those were tagged the previous winter. The capture of a female burbot at Ambush Rock during the spawning period supports results of previous findings that low flows during winter enhances burbot migration and spawning. Sampling for larval burbot was conducted, but no larval burbot were captured.

  1. Academic Performance and Substance Use among Students Aged 12 to 17: 2002, 2003, and 2004. The NSDUH Report. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the differences in self-reported academic performance (i.e., average grades in the last semester or grading period) among students aged 12 to 17 by gender, age, and substance use. All findings are annual averages based on combined 2002, 2003, and 2004 NSDUH data. Researchers found that the frequency of the use of alcohol and…

  2. The Impact of Participation in Project Family Read and Kinder Camp on Children's Readiness for School, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, David J.

    This evaluation study examined changes in school readiness among 35 children who participated during the 2002-2003 fiscal year in two programs: (1) Project Family Read, an educational and parent education program operating during the school year for families of children not enrolled in regulated child care in Granville County, North Carolina; and…

  3. Florida Community College System Long-Range Program Plan (LRPP) for Fiscal Years 2002-2003 through 2006-2007.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This document discusses the Florida Community College System's Long Range Program Plan (LRPP) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 through 2006-2007. The document begins by addressing the mission statement of the college, which strives for "high student achievement, seamless articulation and increased access, workforce skills and economic development,…

  4. Volcanic and seismic activity at Stromboli preceding the 2002-2003 flank eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M.; Calvari, S.; Spampinato, L.; Lodato, L.; Pino, N. A.; Marchetti, E.; Murè, F.

    Regular surveys with a thermal camera from both ground- and helicopter-based surveys have been carried out on Stromboli since October 2001. This data set allowed us to detect morphological changes in Stromboli's summit craters produced by major explosions and to track an increase in volcanic activity associated with a heightened magma level within the main conduit that preceded the 2002-2003 effusive eruption. Together with thermal measurements, geophysical surveys performed in May and September/October 2002 highlighted clear increases in the amplitude of very long period (VLP) events, consistent with the ascent of the magma column above the VLP source region. The increased magma level was probably induced by elevated pressure in the deep feeding system, controlled by regional tectonic stress. This, in turn, pressurized the uppermost part of the crater terrace, producing greater soil permeability and soil degassing. Eventually, the magma loading caused the NW flank of the summit craters to fracture, allowing lava to flood out at high effusion rates on 28 December 2002, starting an approximately 6-month-long effusive eruption.

  5. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-03-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2002-2003 project year, there were 545 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 29 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 1 adult and 1 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway adult trap between January 1 and June 23, 2003. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap for trap and haul purposes was not necessary this year. The project transported 21 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery and 281 from Threemile Dam to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility. Of these, 290 were outplanted in August for natural spawning in the basin.

  6. Volcanomagnetic changes accompanying the onset of the 2002 2003 eruption of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, Ciro; Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Vicari, Annamaria

    2004-12-01

    Remarkable changes in the local magnetic field were associated with the onset of the 2002-2003 flank eruption at Mt. Etna. After differential magnetic field measurements were filtered from the external noise by using adaptive filters, we recognized two stages in the total intensity changes, which are closely related to different volcanic events: (a) rapid variations of about 4-5 nT associated with October 26 seismic swarm recorded beneath the summit craters; (b) step-like variations of 9-10 nT coincident with October 27 eruptive fissures opening up in the north flank. These observations are generally consistent with those calculated from simple magnetic models of these volcanic processes, in which the magnetic changes are generated by stress redistribution due to magmatic intrusions at different depth. The magnetic data not only allow the timing of the intrusive event to be described in greater detail but also, together with other volcanological and geophysical evidences, permit some constraints to be set on the characteristics of propagation of a shallow dike. Firstly, at around midnight on 26 October magma was rapidly injected to a depth of 3-4 km just below the summit craters. Secondly, after 1:00 on 27 October, continued intrusion magma occurred upward and culminated a few hundred meters below the free surface fractured along a N-E direction. Thirdly, at about 2:28, magma gave rise to an explosive fissural vent at the northern base of the NE crater near 3000 m a.s.l. Finally, at about 5:00, the first eruptive fissure became active along the eastern border of the NE rift at 2500 m a.s.l. The rate of growth of the magnetic anomalies, moreover, leads to the interpretation that the magmatic intrusion travelled northward from base of the NE crater to the NE rift at approximately 14 m/min.

  7. [Adult vaccination coverage: surveys in four populations - Isère (France), 2002-2003].

    PubMed

    Goirand, Laurence; Charrel, Martine; Dell'accio, Pierre; Stahl, Jean-Paul; Da Silva, Eric; Billette de Villemeur, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess their vaccination policy, the public health authorities in Isère (France) conducted several surveys to determine the vaccination coverage rate among adults. In France, the current state of knowledge in this area is limited. Four separate surveys were conducted in 2002-2003: (1) a telephone survey of 976 adults, 18% of whom had vaccination certificates; (2) a survey of 44 general practitioners (805 patients); (3) a survey of occupational health centers (82 practitioners and 1,119 employees); and (4) a survey of 1,214 patients vaccinated at the international vaccination center in Grenoble (France). The same data were recorded in all four surveys (last vaccination date, either declared by the patient or proven by a vaccination certificate). Based on certified evidence, vaccination coverage for tetanus, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis ranged from 31.6% to 83.9%, from 24.1% to 44.0%, and from 25.9% to 71.9%, respectively. Compared to general practitioners, vaccination coverage was higher among staff working at the occupational health center and lower in the general population. The four surveys covered only part of the adult population and provided only an estimate of vaccination coverage. The study found that tetanus vaccination coverage was the highest, but was still below expected levels. For the other vaccines, vaccination coverage among adults appears to be inadequate. The findings suggest that all health professionals involved in adult vaccination (occupational health doctors, general practitioners, hospital doctors, etc.) should be invited to participate in working groups on vaccination. PMID:23043739

  8. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted. PMID:27344291

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  10. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an ''H

  11. 2002-2003 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor Country Consulting conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2002-2003 wet season to complete requirements of the Guidelines (USFWS 1996) used to determine the distribution of federally-listed branchiopods within the study area. The first survey was performed during the previous wet season (2001-2002). The 2002-2003 wet season survey, combined with the previous season's survey, is intended to provide LLNL with information that will assist them in determining the effects of the proposed action on federally listed branchiopods and provide information useful in the preparation of the associated environmental documentation. It is also expected to satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS. For the purpose of this report, the term branchiopod refers specifically to phyllopodous branchiopods and not cladocerans. Fairy shrimp, tadpole shrimp, and clam shrimp are all categorized as phyllopodous branchiopods and are currently the only members of the Class Branchiopoda that contain species that are listed under the federal Endangered Species Act. Although cladocerans are branchiopods and were found on the site, they are only referred to by the Order in this report because they are not the target species of this study.

  12. Meridional overturning transports at 30°S in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in 2002-2003 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-08-01

    The meridional circulation and transports at 30°S in the Pacific and Indian Oceans for the years 2002-2003 and 2009 are compared, using GO-SHIP hydrographic section data with an inverse box model and several choices of constraints. Southward heat transport across the combined Indian-Pacific sections, reflecting net heating north of these sections, doubled from -0.7 ± 0.2 PW in 2002-2003 to -1.4 ± 0.1 PW in 2009 (negative sign is southward), with the increase concentrated in the Indian Ocean (∼0.6 PW compared with ∼0.2 PW in the Pacific), and was insensitive to model choices for the Indonesian Throughflow. Diagnosed net evaporation also more than doubled in the Indian Ocean, from 0.21-0.27 Sv in 2002-2003 to 0.51-0.58 in 2009, with a smaller but significant increase in net evaporation in the Pacific, from 0.06-0.08 Sv to 0.16-0.32 Sv. These increased heat and freshwater exports coincided with Indian Ocean warming, a shift in the Indian's shallow gyre overturning transport to lower densities, and an increase in southward Agulhas Current transport from 75 Sv in 2002 to 92 Sv in 2009. The Indian's deep overturn weakened from about 11 Sv in 2002 to 7 Sv in 2009. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean overturning circulation was nearly unchanged from 2003 to 2009, independent of model within the uncertainties. The East Australian Current transport decreased only slightly, from -52 Sv to -46 Sv. The southward Pacific Deep Water transport was at a higher density than the southward Indian Deep Water transport in both years and all models, similar to prior results. Estimated diapycnal diffusivity and velocity are strongly enhanced near the ocean bottom and are higher farther up in the water column in the Indian than in the Pacific, likely extending the reach of Indian Ocean overturning up to shallower depths than in the Pacific. The horizontal distribution of transports in the Pacific at all depths changed notably from 2003 to 2009, despite the stability of its meridional

  13. The Socioeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Outcomes in Uganda: School Enrolment and the Schooling Gap in 2002/2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirye, Ibrahim; Hisali, Eria

    2010-01-01

    Due to high prime-age mortality--a result of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the number of orphans in Uganda continues to rise. Using the 2002/2003 Uganda National Household Survey, this paper investigates how HIV/AIDS orphan status affects schooling enrolment and grade progression. Our results show that HIV/AIDS orphans are not significantly less likely to…

  14. Close temporal correspondence between geomagnetic anomalies and earthquakes during the 2002-2003 eruption of Etna volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Currenti, G.; Del, Negro C.; Johnston, M.; Sasai, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of the 2002-2003 lateral eruption at Mount Etna were accompanied by slow changes (over some hours) and some rapid step offsets in the local magnetic field. At five monitoring locations, the total magnetic field intensity has been measured using continuously operating Overhauser magnetometers at a sampling rate of 10 s. The very unique aspect of these observations is the close temporal correspondence between magnetic field offsets and earthquakes that occurred in the upper northern flank of the volcano on 27 October 2002 prior to a primary eruption. Rapid coseismic changes of the magnetic field were clearly identified for three of the most energetic earthquakes, which were concentrated along the Northeast Rift at a depth of about 1 km below sea level. Coseismic magnetic signals, with amplitudes from 0.5 to 2.5 nT, have been detected for three of the largest seismic events located roughly midway between the magnetic stations. We quantitatively examine possible geophysical mechanisms, which could cause the magnetic anomalies. The comparison between magnetic data, seismicity and surface phenomena implies that piezomagnetic effects are the primary physical mechanism responsible for the observed magnetic anomalies although the detailed cause of the rapid high stress change required is not clear. The modeling of the observed coseismic magnetic changes in terms of piezomagnetic mechanism provides further evidence of the complex interaction between volcanic and tectonic processes during dike propagation along the Northeast Rift. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. HIV risks and testing behavior among Asians and Pacific Islanders: results of the HIV Testing Survey, 2002-2003.

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Erin M.; Freedman, Mark S.; Buskin, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The HIV Testing Survey (HITS) was developed to examine HIV testing and risk behavior in individuals at risk for HIV infection. The first Seattle HITS was conducted in 2000 (HITS-2000); HITS was conducted in Seattle again in 2002-2003 among Asians and Pacific Islanders (HITS-API). METHODS: Both HITS projects, HITS-API and HITS-2000, included anonymously targeted participants from at-risk populations. Data from the surveys were compared to see whether there were differences in HIV testing behavior between API and a general at-risk population in the Seattle area. Data were analyzed for 165 participants in HITS-API and 270 in HITS-2000. RESULTS: More API (90%) perceived themselves at some HIV risk relative to HITS-2000 participants (71%, chi2 p<0.05). In HITS-API and HITS-2000, participants reported significant HIV risks--no or inconsistent condom use with nonprimary partners or sharing injection equipment. Only 47% of HITS-API participants tested in the past year compared with 64% of HITS-2000. There was no association between HIV testing and risks in HITS-API. CONCLUSIONS: Based on self-report from HITS-API, the overall perceived risk for HIV infection was high, many engaged in high-risk behaviors, and HIV testing was suboptimal. PMID:16080452

  16. NCLENotes, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These two volumes of a newsletter on English as A Second Language (ESL) literacy education provide articles on: "Health Literacy: Recognizing its Importance in ESL Instruction" (Kate Singleton) and "English That Works" (Brigitte Marshall). Both volumes offer interviews (one with an ESL teacher and one with an author who write about ESL issues).…

  17. Understanding the Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Mexico City Airshed in 2002, 2003 and 2006 using Positive Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, I. M.; Dzepina, K.; Canagaratna, M.; Zhang, Q.; Decarlo, P.; Salcedo, D.; Aiken, A. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Allan, J.; Russell, L. M.; Grivicke, R.; Lamb, B.; Alexander, M. L.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    Aerosol mass spectrometric measurements yield spectra of ambient aerosols that are a mix of various primary and secondary sources. Organic aerosol (OA) datasets acquired using Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, C-ToF-AMS, and HR-ToF-AMS) deployed in 2002, 2003, and 2006 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at multiple ground locations and from aircraft flights are analyzed with Positive Matrix Factorization to deconvolve information about important sources and processes for organic aerosols. Several components are identified in each dataset. Most datasets resolve contributions from: reduced (oxidative state) hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), which correlates well with primary combustion tracers such as CO, NOx, and BC; biomass burning OA (BBOA), which correlates with regional fire counts, potassium, levoglucosan, acetonitrile, and HCN; highly-oxidized OA (OOA-I) which shows more regional behavior; and less oxidized OA (OOA-II) which correlates with semivolatile inorganic species such as ammonium nitrate and gas-phase secondary species such as Ox (NO2 + O3) and glyoxal. These correlations are consistent across most datasets when run separately in PMF. Factor spectra are also compared to reference spectra, and ratios of factor concentrations to relevant tracers (e.g., HOA/CO, OOA/Ox) are presented. Factor spectra, time series, diurnal cycles, and ratios are compared at sampling locations across the MCMA and in different years in order to understand the evolution of OA across the airshed. The effect of running multiple datasets within a single PMF model (e.g., simultaneous measurements made at two locations in Mexico City), and the stability of PMF solutions will be described.

  18. Redistribution of static stress, induced by the 2002-2003 Etna eruption, triggers seismic activity: a viscoelastic numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulvirenti, Fabio; Aloisi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The principal aim of this study is the investigation of the relationship between the push of the dike-forming magmatic intrusions and the faulting process in terms of earthquakes generation. A complete time-dependent 3D finite element model for the 2002-2003 eruption at Mount Etna is presented. The model, which takes into account the topography, medium heterogeneities and principal fault systems, is developed in a viscoelastic environment by a generalized Maxwell rheological description. To investigate where fault slips were encouraged or not and consequently how earthquakes may have been triggered, we look at the Coulomb stress changes induced by the magma uprising, during the co-intrusive and post-intrusive periods, focusing on the area of Pernicana Fault and S. Venerina Fault, which have been reactivated during the studied eruption. The temporal variation of the Coulomb stress changes allows to know the time of maximum stress transfer and then to infer the areas where there is an higher probability of earthquake occurrence. Results show positive stress changes for Pernicana Fault in accordance to the time, location and depth of the 27th October 2002 Pernicana earthquakes (Mmax = 3.8). Moreover, the amount of Coulomb stress changes on S. Venerina Fault, as induced by dike-forming intrusions, is not enough to trigger the 29th October Santa Venerina earthquakes (Mmax = 4.4), two days after the start of the eruption. The necessary Coulomb stress changes value to trigger the 29th S. Venerina Fault earthquakes is instead reached if we consider them as aftershocks of the 27th October Pernicana biggest earthquake. Acknowledgments This work was supported by MED-SUV Project.

  19. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2004-04-01

    different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. This report provides information on PIT tagging of wild chinook salmon parr in 2002 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish. Fish were monitored as they migrated through two in-stream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek and at juvenile migrant traps in 2002 and 2003 as well as through interrogation systems at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during 2003. Fish were also monitored by the PIT-tag trawl in the mouth of the Columbia River in 2003. In 2002-2003, we also continued to collect environmental data for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program, which was developed from 1993 to 1997. The project was designed to collect data for use in conjunction with data on parr and smolt movements to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between these movements and environmental factors. Water quality data collected consist of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH measured at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho.

  1. Personal standards and evaluative concerns dimensions of "clinical" perfectionism: a reply to Shafran et al. (2002, 2003) and Hewitt et al. (2003).

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Blankstein, Kirk R; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2006-01-01

    Shafran, Cooper, and Fairburn (2002, 2003) provided a cognitive-behavioral analysis of "clinical" perfectionism, a construct they considered to involve both the determined pursuit of self-imposed standards and extremely vulnerable self-evaluation. They argued against a multidimensional perspective to studying perfectionism. We respond to Shafran et al. (2002, 2003) and Hewitt, Flett, Besser, Sherry, and McGee's (2003) reply to Shafran et al. (2002) by considering the theoretical, empirical, and clinical implications of findings identifying two higher-order dimensions of perfectionism reflecting personal standards (PS) and self-critical evaluative concerns. Analyses of data from two diverse study groups, a college student sample (N = 527) and a clinical sample of patients with binge eating disorder (N = 236), revealed that self-criticism accounts for the relation between perfectionism measures and depressive, anxious, and eating disorder symptoms. We conclude that possessing high PS is not by itself maladaptive. Rather, self-critical evaluative tendencies are more relevant than PS to the critical processes Shafran et al. (2002) suggested contribute to the maintenance of clinical perfectionism. PMID:16301015

  2. [Spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families: a descriptive study with data from the Family Budget Surveys 2002-2003 and 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; de Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia; Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia; de Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana

    2015-05-01

    Spending on health insurance represents an important share of private expenditure on health in Brazil. The study aimed to describe the evolution of spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families, according to their income. Data from the Family Budget Surveys (POF) 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 were used. To compare the spending figures among the surveys, the Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was applied. The proportion of families with private health insurance expenses remained stable in both surveys (2002-2003 and 2008-2009), around 24%. However, the household spending on health insurance plans increased. Among those families who spent money oh health insurance plans, the average spending increased from R$154.35 to R$183.97. The average spending on health insurance plans was greater with increasing household income, as well as portions of the family income and total expenditure committed to these expenses. Spending on health insurance is concentrated among higher-income families, for which it was the main component of total health expenditure. PMID:26017945

  3. Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates obtained through population-based surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Govender, Nelesh P; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2011-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥ 16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  4. Trends in Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates Obtained through Population-Based Surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Nelesh P.; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  5. Out-of-phase decadal changes in boreal summer rainfall between Yellow-Huaihe River Valley and southern China around 2002/2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Chen, Haishan; Hu, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the decadal variability of rainfall over China in boreal summer (June-August) since the early 1990s. Results show that the rainfall experiences an abrupt decadal change at around 2002/2003. The decadal change is statistically significant and characterized by an out-of-phase pattern between southern China (SC) and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV). The rainfall over SC decreases during the decade 2003-2012 compared to that in the preceding decade 1993-2002. A simultaneous decadal increase in rainfall has occurred over the YHRV. Meanwhile, a significant sea surface temperature warming appears over the western Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean after 2002 on the decadal time scale. Further analysis reveals that enhanced convections are activated over the tropical regions between 130°E and 160°E and west of 80°E due to the SST anomalies, which induce the dry air in an area of anomalous subsidence located over SC and the northern South China Sea (SCS) via zonal circulation. Accompanied by the anomalous descending flow over the northern SCS, tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the SCS also experience a concurrent decadal reduction. The decrease in landfall TCs contributes to the decadal decrease in SC rainfall since 2003. Corresponding to the anomalous descending motion that is dominant south of 30°N, an anomalous moist ascending flow develops over the YHRV at around 35°N. Meanwhile, the western Pacific subtropical high becomes stronger and extends further westward during 2003-2012, leading to enhanced moisture transport by the southwesterly in the northwestern flank of subtropical high. As a result, more precipitation occurs over the YHRV. The above analysis has revealed the physical-dynamical processes involved in the decadal changes in rainfall over China. The mechanisms behind the out-of-phase pattern of rainfall changes between SC and the YHRV that occurred at 2002/2003 are explored.

  6. [Tobacco control policy and variation in Brazilian family spending on cigarettes: results of the Brazilian Household Budget Surveys in 2002/2003 and 2008/2009].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Sant'Anna, Ana Cláudia; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia de

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to describe trends in family spending on cigarettes and its share of family budget, comparing 2002 and 2009, using the Brazilian Household Budget Surveys from 2002/2003 and 2008/2009. The Expanded Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was used. The proportion of families that purchased cigarettes decreased from 23.5% to 18.2%, however their spending increased from BRL 55.36 to BRL 59.45. Spending on cigarettes was proportional to family income and head-of-family's schooling. Higher-income families still accounted for most of the expenditure, although the share of family income spent on cigarettes declined. The share of income for purchasing cigarettes was 5.2% in the lowest income quintile and 1.2% in the highest. Tobacco control policy has succeeded in reducing smoking prevalence in Brazil. However, economic measures are still important in the country, since the family's share of income and spending on cigarettes have decreased. PMID:26578014

  7. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  8. Spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the exotic Newcastle outbreak in 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Soberano, Gustavo; Carpenter, A Tim E; Cardona, Carol; Charlton, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    After the 1971-1973 outbreak of exotic Newcastle disease (END) in California, a free-of-charge diagnostic submission program was created for backyard poultry flocks. This program was implemented to improve disease surveillance in small poultry flocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of free-of-charge pathology submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories during the END outbreak in 2002-2003. Cases and controls were selected from within a 100-mile (161-km) radius of each of three laboratories, and their geographic distributions were evaluated. Global clustering of cases was significant around all three laboratories, with mixed results at the local clustering level and the only significant clustering at the focal level around the Davis laboratory with an observed to expected ratio of approximately 5. The area of influence for all three laboratories was about 20 miles (32 km). The significant clustering of cases around the laboratories indicates that more public information about the free-of-charge program could result in coverage of a larger portion of the population; however, the value of the information resulting from increased sampling should be considered relative to the additional cost of obtaining it. PMID:19431996

  9. Texas Almanac, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary G., Ed.

    The 61st edition of the "Texas Almanac" has a reputation as the definitive source for Texas information since 1857. It contains details of the Census 2000 official population count, including statewide, county and town counts, plus an analysis of the numbers by experts at Texas's State Data Center. It includes information about politics,…

  10. Long Term Geochemical Monitoring of Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Clues On 2002-2003 Eruption From Gas Chemistry, Helium And Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capasso, G.; Carapezza, M. L.; Federico, C.; Inguaggiato, S.; Rizzo, A.

    2003-12-01

    Since 1999, a geochemical monitoring has been carried out on both the hydrothermal system and the crater fumaroles of Stromboli volcano. A few (3) thermal waters as well as a low temperature (98° C) fumarole, located on the "Pizzo sopra La Fossa" area, are monthly sampled and analysed for their chemical and isotope (He and C) composition until the onset of 2002-2003 eruption. CO2 is the main gas species dissolved in thermal waters, with concentrations ranging from 30 to 160 cc/l STP. The sampled fumarole showed a CO2 dominant composition (about 100% vol.). Measured 3He/4He ratios are in the range of 3.6-4.3 Ra (corrected for air contamination), which represents the higher magmatic marker recently recognised at Stromboli (Inguaggiato & Rizzo, 2003). Since June 2002, synchronous variations in the dissolved CO2 and 3He/4He ratios were observed among the sites. Such variations occurred before and during the main periods of volcanic unrest, displaying similar trends with those observed at the crater fumarole. Such findings suggest that episodes of magma degassing and ascent occurred in the plumbing system some months before the onset of the 2002-2003 eruption (28th December), inducing a pressure increase in the shallow levels of the volcano. Similar variations, although with a different range, were recognized before and during the 5th April 2003 explosive event, suggesting again a new input of gas-rich magma batches which induced a pressure increase in the shallow feeding system. Gaseous CO2 of the fumarole showed a δ 13C average value of -2, which represents the typical magmatic marker for this volcano, falls in the range of Mediterranean volcanoes area (0 to -2 ‰ , Inguaggiato et al., 2000). The CO2 gas isotope data of thermal waters, recalculated from TDIC values, highlighted a wide range of variation, from -9 to 0 ‰ versus PDB linked to a mixing between magmatic and atmospheric end-members(-2 ‰ -7 ‰ respectively). Since June 2002, temporal variations of

  11. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  12. Geology, tectonics, and the 2002-2003 eruption of the Semeru volcano, Indonesia: Interpreted from high-spatial resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solikhin, Akhmad; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Harris, Andy J. L.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2012-02-01

    The paper illustrates the application of high-spatial resolution satellite images in interpreting volcanic structures and eruption impacts in the Tengger-Semeru massif in east Java, Indonesia. We use high-spatial resolution images (IKONOS and SPOT 5) and aerial photos in order to analyze the structures of Semeru volcano and map the deposits. Geological and tectonic mapping is based on two DEMs and on the interpretation of aerial photos and four SPOT and IKONOS optical satellite images acquired between 1996 and 2002. We also compared two thermal Surface Kinetic Temperature ASTER images before and after the 2002-2003 eruption in order to delineate and evaluate the impacts of the pyroclastic density currents. Semeru's principal structural features are probably due to the tectonic setting of the volcano. A structural map of the Tengger-Semeru massif shows four groups of faults orientated N40, N160, N75, and N105 to N140. Conspicuous structures, such as the SE-trending horseshoe-shaped scar on Semeru's summit cone, coincide with the N160-trending faults. The direction of minor scars on the east flank parallels the first and second groups of faults. The Semeru composite cone hosts the currently active Jonggring-Seloko vent. This is located on, and buttressed against, the Mahameru edifice at the head of a large scar that may reflect a failure plane at shallow depth. Dipping 35° towards the SE, this failure plane may correspond to a weak basal layer of weathered volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. We suggest that the deformation pattern of Semeru and its large scar may be induced by flank spreading over the weak basal layer of the volcano. It is therefore necessary to consider the potential for flank and summit collapse in the future. The last major eruption took place in December 2002-January 2003, and involved emplacement of block-and-ash flows. We have used the 2003 ASTER Surface Kinetic Temperature image to map the 2002-2003 pyroclastic density current deposits. We

  13. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  14. Circumpolar polynya characteristics in the Arctic between 2002/2003 and 2014/2015 as derived from MODIS thermal infrared imagery and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preußer, Andreas; Willmes, Sascha; Heinemann, Günther; Paul, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In this pan-Arctic study, high-resolution MODIS thermal infrared satellite data are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 16 prominent coastal polynya regions and leads over the entire Arctic basin. Thin-ice thickness distributions (≤ 20cm) are calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures swath-data (MOD/MYD29), combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy balance model for the last 13 winter-seasons (2002/2003 to 2014/2015; November to March). From all available swath-data, (quasi-) daily thin-ice thickness composites are computed in order to derive valuable quantities such as polynya area and total thermodynamic ice production. Two different cloud-cover correction schemes are applied to account for cloud and data gaps in the MODIS composites. During the investigated period, the average total wintertime accumulated ice production in all 16 polynya regions is estimated with about 1481 ± 262 km³, plus an additional 65 ± 59 km³ if leads in the central Arctic Ocean are taken into consideration. The largest contributions originate from the Kara Sea region and the North Water polynya (both ~19%) as well as scattered smaller polynyas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (all combined ~15%), while other well-known sites of polynya formation (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea) show smaller contributions with around 2-7%. Compared to another recently published pan-Arctic polynya study using coarser resolution passive microwave remote sensing data, our estimates are considerably larger due to distinct differences regarding the observed winter-period and applied polynya masks/reference areas. In addition, the use of high-resolution MODIS data increases the capability to resolve small scale (> 2km) thin-ice features such as leads, which therefore contribute to our ice production estimates. Despite the short record of 13 winter-seasons, positive trends in ice production can be detected for some regions of the eastern Arctic (most

  15. English Teaching & Learning, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teaching & Learning, 2003

    2003-01-01

    These four issues contain the following articles: "A Case Documentation of English Instruction at the Elementary School Level: The Cross-Cultural Impact of Native Speaker Teachers" (Hsien-Chin Liou) [written in Chinese]; "A Collaborative Tale with Two Taiwanese EFL College Groups" (Feng-Ming Chi); "A Developmental Study on Phonological Awareness…

  16. English Leadership Quarterly, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Bonita L., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This 25th volume of "English Leadership Quarterly" contains articles on topics of interest to those in positions of leadership in departments (elementary, secondary, or college) where English is taught. Each issue focuses on a different theme. Articles in Volume 25 Number 1 focus on leadership and literacy and are: "Research Summary of a Best…

  17. CCSF Management Plan, 2002/2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    This is the 2001-2002 management plan for the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), California. The plan contains the following sections: (1) Overview of Planning and Budgeting; (2) Vision, Values, and Mission; (3) College Goals and Strategic Priorities; (4) Annual Institutional Plan CCSF 2002-03; (5) College Core Performance Indicators; and (6)…

  18. Comprehensive College Plan for 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio Coll., TX.

    This plan for San Antonio College (SAC) (Texas), a college of the Alamo Community College District (ACCD), offers vision and mission statements for both ACCD and SAC. In addition, it details the Institutional Effectiveness process and philosophy for SAC. The document also includes SAC strategic goals and initiatives, and unit strategic objectives,…

  19. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica, 2002-2003 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This Spanish-language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and what types of student aid are available. The introductory section, "Student Aid at a Glance," presents information about what student aid is, who gets it, and how to get it. The second section discusses "Finding out about Student Aid." The next section provides…

  20. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Adalyn, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of all 25 issues of Volume 13 of "The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education," a biweekly journal that addresses issues in higher education for Hispanic Americans. Each issue contains several feature articles, a "First Impressions" or "Periodically" brief report, "Targeting Higher Education" section on higher education…

  1. District Composite Report: West Baton Rouge Parish. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. This report is specific to West Baton Rouge Parish. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year's data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating…

  2. District Composite Report: East Baton Rouge Parish. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The passage of the Children First Act in 1988 ushered in a new era of data collection, analysis, and reporting about the overall quality and condition of education in Louisiana. Implemented in 1990, this major piece of legislation resulted in the publication of the Progress Profiles (School Report Cards, District Composite Report, and the…

  3. Mutual phenomena involving J5 Amalthea in 2002-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachier, F.; Arlot, J. E.; Thuillot, W.

    2002-10-01

    Every six years mutual eclipses and occultations occur among the Jovian system of satellites. Very accurate astrometric measurements and several physical characteristics of the surfaces can be infered from their observation. This paper is provide predictions of this type of events involving the fifth satellite J5 Amalthea, spanning from November 2002 to June 2003 and to urge astronomers to observe them. Only the predictions of the eclipses of Amalthea by Io are presented, when the distance between Amalthea-Io and Amalthea-Jutpiter is large enough for photometric purposes. A full list of phenomena is available on the server http://www.imcce.fr/Phemu03/phemu03_eng.html

  4. Keck observations of the 2002 2003 jovian ring plane crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Showalter, Mark R.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    We present new observations of Jupiter's ring system at a wavelength of 2.2 μm obtained with the 10-m W.M. Keck telescopes on three nights during a ring plane crossing: UT 19 December 2002, and 22 and 26 January 2003. We used conventional imaging, plus adaptive optics on the last night. Here we present detailed radial profiles of the main ring, halo and gossamer rings, and interpret the data together with information extracted from radio observations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. The main ring is confined to a 800-km-wide annulus between 128,200 and 129,000 km, with a ˜5000 km extension on the inside. The normal optical depth is 8×10, 15% of which is provided by bodies with radii a≳5 cm. These bodies are as red as Metis. Half the optical depth, τ≈4×10, is attributed to micron-sized dust, and the remaining τ≈3×10 to grains tens to hundreds of μm in size. The inward extension consists of micron-sized ( a≲10 μm) dust, which probably migrates inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The inner limit of this extension falls near the 3:2 Lorentz resonance (at orbital radius r=122,400 km), and coincides with the outer limit of the halo. The gossamer rings appear to be radially confined, rather than broad sheets of material. The Amalthea ring is triangularly shaped, with a steep outer dropoff over ˜5000 km, extending a few 1000 km beyond the orbit of Amalthea, and a more gradual inner dropoff over 15,000-20,000 km. The inner edge is near the location of the synchronous orbit. The optical depth in the Amalthea ring is ˜5×10, up to 20% of which is comprised of macroscopic material. The optical depth in the Thebe ring is a factor of 3 smaller.

  5. The Bill of Rights in Action, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2003-01-01

    This document includes the following issues of this journal: volume 18, number 3, Summer 2002; volume 18, number 4, Fall 2002; volume 19, number 2, Spring 2003; and volume 19, number 3, Summer 2003. The summer 2002 issue of "The Bill of Rights in Action" views problems related to victims of war. It focuses on the internment of Japanese Americans…

  6. Hangman Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Coeur d'Alene Tribe

    2003-10-01

    Progress has been made in defining the level of work that needs to be accomplished in the Hangman Watershed in order to restore a viable riparian system and hydrology. The end goal is to use wildlife habitat to protect streams and provide water for instream fish habitats. In order to define the most expedient means of attaining that goal an Instream Flow/Watershed Hydrology Study was initiated. The study is intended to be comprehensive in order to determine the potential of increasing base flow with Hangman Watershed Streams and predict available fish habitats for the range of flow level possibilities. The Study Plan and work for the first field season was contracted and the Plan and end of field season reports are included with this Annual Report. The initial draft of the wildlife portion of the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan was completed and presented to the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Wildlife Committee. The Committee felt that the Basin Hydrology Study needed to be closer to completion before the bulk of wildlife monitoring should be implemented. The extent of the landscape that must be restored in order to facilitate the needed stream flows may not be large enough to affect the population levels of the Plan's target species. The main result of the Committee review of the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan however, was that since the Hangman Restoration Project is not a HU driven wildlife mitigation project than the Wildlife Committee does not have a role to play since their focus is wildlife HU crediting projects. Further work on the wildlife portion of the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan is suspended until the crediting issues surrounding the Hangman Restoration Project are settled. Certain aspects of the Plan, such as the land bird, amphibian, reptile and beaver monitoring can be implemented in the spring of the coming year because monitoring these species and groups needs to be accomplished regardless of crediting status and baseline data is needed for these. Data from the Hangman Creek Watershed from portions upstream and east of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation were included in the Second Iteration of the Habitat Prioritization Plan. These data were gathered both by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and Idaho's Department of Environmental Quality. The addition of this portion of the Watershed in the Prioritization Plan fills a gap that the lack of data left in the first draft of the Plan. The streams in these upper headwaters support remnant salmonid populations and are close enough to be integrated with the streams and trout populations on the Reservation. The addition of this area strengthens the base from which the Hangman Restoration Project can work to secure and expand resident fish populations. An extensive 2-year search for historic photos of the upper portion of the Hangman Watershed was completed during this annual funding cycle. The disappointing result is that few photographs were acquired. One excellent panoramic view of the Upper Hangman Watershed from Tekoa Mountain was recovered and photos of this view were taken for comparison. The task of finding historic photos has been removed from future Scopes of Work, however search for photos will continue as part of the Project's public outreach. The notable exception to the lack of historic photos is the purchase, digitizing and GIS registry of 1947 aerial photo coverage of the entire Hangman Creek Watershed east of the Washington/Idaho State Boarder. In addition, 1933 aerial photo coverage of most of this same area is being registered to our GIS system. These 1933 photos were available to the Tribe prior to the initiation of this Project; however these photos are being registered partly as a result of requests made from this Project. The process of developing a map of potential vegetation types for the Hangman Watershed has benefited from establishment of an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Geologic Survey to hire a Scientific Advisor. The Scientific Advisor has assisted with the design of a scheme to sample remnant native vegetation within an

  7. Direct Loan Update, 2002-2003. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This participant guide is an update to basic training in the Direct Loan (DL) portion of the EDExpress system designed for financial aid professionals who have already participated in the basic training. The first session considers new aspects of DL processing, focusing on DL process changes and EDExpress DL changes. Session 2 contains three…

  8. Annual Performance Report. 2002-2003. Wyoming Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Wyoming's Department of Education (WDE?s) Special Programs Unit conducts compliance monitoring for all IDEA procedural requirements on a five-year cycle. The current process began for Wyoming?s school districts in 1999-2000 and will be completed in 2004-05. The special education monitoring process is a comprehensive program review. The process…

  9. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  10. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2002/2003/2004

    SciTech Connect

    A.Keith Dunker

    2004-10-26

    Brief introduction to Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing The Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing is an international, multidisciplinary conference covering current research in the theory and the application of computational methods in problems of biological significance. Researchers from the United States, the Asian Pacific nations and around the world gather each year at PSB to exchange research results and discuss open issues in all aspects of computational biology. PSB provides a forum for work on databases, algorithms, interfaces, visualization, modeling and other computational methods, as applied to biological problems. The data-rich areas of molecular biology are emphasized. PSB is the only meeting in the bioinformatics field with sessions defined dynamically each year in response to specific proposals from the participants. Sessions are organized by leaders in emerging areas to provide forums for publication and for discussion of research in biocomputing ''hot topics''. PSB therefore enables discussion of emerging methods and approaches in this rapidly changing field. PSB has been designated as one of the major meetings in this field by the recently established International Society for Computational Biology (see www.iscb.org). Papers and presentations are peer reviewed typically with 3 reviews per paper plus editorial oversight from the conference organizers. The accepted papers are published in an archival proceedings volume, which is indexed by PubMed, and electronically (see http://psb.stanford.edu/). Finally, given the tight schedule from submission of papers to their publication, typically 5 to 5 1/2 months, the PSB proceedings each year represents one of the most up-to-date surveys of current trends in bioinformatics.

  11. Gilliam County Riparian Buffers; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Coiner, Josh

    2003-05-01

    There are only two problems that have been encountered during the contract year. The first problem has to do with eligibility. To be eligible for CREP you must own land adjacent to stream that has been delineated an anadromous fish stream. The problem is there are areas in Gilliam County that are designated anadromous fish streams that probably don't deserve that delineation and then there are streams that are not listed that probably do deserve that delineation. This has affected a few proposed projects. For instance, there is a project area on a stream that is delineated on the eligibility map, but the particular reach we are working with does not show up on the map. ODFW then receives an eligibility sheet from FSA or the SWCD technician. On this particular area it says steelhead distribution is downstream .5 miles. FSA won't consider this area eligible for CREP, thus the landowner must enroll in CCRP, which doesn't quite have the incentives as CREP. We are working to improve the maps. A meeting has been scheduled to discuss some particular areas and possibly re-draw the eligibility map. The other problem has to do with the amount of cost share for off-stream watering facilities. Many landowners who wish to install spring developments and other off-stream watering facilities run into a problem with cost-share limits within the CREP guidelines. When a landowner wants to enroll all of his/her stream and exclude livestock from the creek entirely they are having to pay some out of pocket expenses to get enough water to sufficiently support their livestock without using the creek. There has been one landowner who decided not to enroll because of this technicality. The problems encountered are problems that occur within the parameters of the program. These problems may or may not be changed. Otherwise, interest in the programs has been excellent and will only get better. The number of contracts that were estimated to be negotiated in the three-year term may be a bit excessive. In counties such as Gilliam, most tracts of land are large parcels. If multiple project areas occur in the same tract then you have one contract per tract. This reduces your total number in a lot of cases. In year 1 there were 6 contracts negotiated and approved in the CREP program. Prior to the contract there were a total of 9. The program started in 1998. The numbers will only increase in year 2. Year two should be a drastic improvement over year one. There has already been several projects proposed that may or may not be approved during year 2. There are 367.4 acres of land that has been proposed in either CREP or CCRP, which would include 30.94 miles of stream buffered on both sides.

  12. Potlatch River Watershed Restoration, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Kenneth

    2003-09-01

    The project's goal is to improve instream fish habitat in the Potlatch River and the lower Clearwater River through comprehensive watershed planning, implementation of best management practices and expanded water quality and fish habitat monitoring. This proposal has two primary objectives: (1) complete the Potlatch River watershed implementation plan; and, (2) augment existing monitoring efforts in the Potlatch River to broaden the water quality and fish resource data baseline.

  13. District Composite Report: Jackson Parish. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in the District Composite Report. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year?s data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating longitudinal data in the District Composite Report enables policy…

  14. District Composite Report: Cameron Parish. 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the District Composite Report, up to six years of data is presented. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year?s data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating longitudinal data in the District Composite Report enables policy makers to anticipate changes in educational outcomes, not just…

  15. Fifteenmile Creek Riparian Buffers Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Ron

    2004-02-01

    This project implements riparian buffer systems in the Mid-Columbia, addressing limiting factors identified in the Fifteenmile Subbasin Summary, June 30, 2000. The project is providing the technical planning support needed to implement at least 36 riparian buffer system contracts on approximately 872 acres covering an estimated 40 miles of anadromous fish streams over a three year period. During this second year of the project, 11 buffer contracts were implemented on 10.9 miles of stream. Buffer widths averaged 132 ft. on each side of the stream. Implementation included prescribed plantings, fencing, and related practices. Actual implementation costs, lease payments, and maintenance costs are borne by existing USDA programs: Conservation Reserve and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Programs. The lease period of each contract may vary between 10 to 15 years. During this year the average was 14.6 years. The total value of contracts established this year is $666,121 compared with $71,115 in Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract costs to provide the technical support needed to get the contracts implemented. This project provides technical staffing to conduct assessments and develop plans to help keep pace with the growing backlog of potential riparian buffer projects. Word of mouth from satisfied customers has brought in many new sign-ups during the year. In addition, specific outreach efforts targeting the orchard areas of the county began to bear fruit with orchardists sign-ups as the project year ended. Progress this second year of project includes only work accomplished in the Fifteenmile subbasin. A similar but separate effort to implement buffers in the Columbia Plateau Province was initiated during the year under project number 2002-019-00. This project supports RPA 150 and 153 as required under the Federal Hydropower System biological opinion.

  16. Utah System of Higher Education Data Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah System of Higher Education, Salt Lake City.

    This report provides detailed statistical data on the Utah System of Higher Education (USHE), which includes 2 major research universities, 2 metropolitan/regional universities, 2 state colleges offering 4-year degrees, and 5 community colleges. Preliminary information includes a description of the USHE, a list of organization names, a list of…

  17. District Composite Report: Iberia Parish. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The passage of the Children First Act in 1988 ushered in a new era of data collection, analysis, and reporting about the overall quality and condition of education in Louisiana. Implemented in 1990, this major piece of legislation resulted in the publication of the Progress Profiles (School Report Cards, District Composite Report, and the…

  18. Forrest Ranch Management and Implementation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The contract period was the first year of the program with December 2001 through July 2nd 2002 being previous to acquisition of the property. The majority of the activities conducted under the contract period were spent on O&M and pre acquisition activities.

  19. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a result, restoration work is in the planning stages for Canadian tributaries that flow into the Moyie River in northern Idaho and the Yaak River in northwest Montana.

  20. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Judy; Homer, Will

    2004-02-01

    Problems Encountered During Contract Year--Wheeler County residents are mostly non participants when it comes to Farm Services programs. Results of the counties non participation is the rental rates are the lowest in the state. There is a government fear factor as well as an obvious distance limitation. The FSA office is nearly 150 mile roundtrip from two of the counties urban areas. I find myself not only selling the CREP-Riparian Buffer but also selling Farm Services in general. Training has been very limited. NRCS is obviously not designed around training and certification. They are an on-the-job training organization. It has caused a hesitation in my outreach program and a great deal of frustration. I feel my confidence will strengthen with the follow through of the current projects. The most evident problem has come to light as of late. The program is too expensive to implement. The planting is too intensive for a 12''-18'' rainfall area. I provide the potential landowner a spread sheet with the bonuses, the costs, and the final outcome. No matter the situation, CREP or CCRP, the landowner always balks at the cost. The program assumes the landowner has the capital to make the initial investment. For example, project No.2 is going to be a minimum width buffer. It is approximately 3,000 ft long and 5.5 acres. The buffer for tree planting and fencing alone will result in a cost of nearly $13,000. With the water developments it nears $23,000. That is nearly 10% of a 250 mother-cow operating budget. Project No.1, the tree planting estimate is $45,000. This alone is nearly 25% of the same type of budget. I would greatly appreciate any help in finding a third party willing to put money to work covering the initial costs of the program, expecting reimbursement from Farm Services Agency. I believe this could create a powerful tool in buffering streams in Wheeler County. Outlook for Contract Year 2--I have been in this position now for 6 months. I am beginning to feel a much more confident in the buffer program. As my confidence improves I will move forward rapidly in contacting. With increased contacting I will find participating landowners. I am positive the landowner involved in my first project will be doing another after the first is complete.

  1. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  2. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2002-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2003-11-01

    Research in earth and atmospheric sciences is becoming increasingly important in light of the energy, climate change, and environmental issues facing the United States and the world. The development of new energy resources other than hydrocarbons and the safe disposal of nuclear waste and greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane) are critical to the future energy needs and environmental safety of this planet. In addition, the cleanup of many contaminated sites in the U.S., along with the preservation and management of our water supply, remain key challenges for us as well as future generations. Addressing these energy, climate change, and environmental issues requires the timely integration of earth sciences' disciplines (such as geology, hydrology, oceanography, climatology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics, ecology, and environmental sciences). This integration will involve focusing on fundamental crosscutting concerns that are common to many of these issues. A primary focus will be the characterization, imaging, and manipulation of fluids in the earth. Such capabilities are critical to many DOE applications, from environmental restoration to energy extraction and optimization. The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is currently addressing many of the key technical issues described above. In this document, we present summaries of many of our current research projects. While it is not a complete accounting, it is representative of the nature and breadth of our research effort. We are proud of our scientific efforts, and we hope that you will find our research useful and exciting. Any comments on our research are appreciated and can be sent to me personally. This report is divided into five sections that correspond to the major research programs in the Earth Sciences Division: (1) Fundamental and Exploratory Research; (2) Nuclear Waste; (3) Energy Resources; (4) Environmental Remediation Technology; and (5) Climate Variability and Carbon Management. These programs draw from each of ESD's disciplinary departments: Microbial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Geophysics and Geomechanics, Geochemistry, and Hydrogeology and Reservoir Dynamics. Short descriptions of these departments are provided as introductory material. A list of publications for the period from January 2002 to June 2003, along with a listing of our personnel, are appended to the end of this report.

  3. District Composite Report, 2002-2003: Caldwell Parish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The passage of the Children First Act in 1988 ushered in a new era of data collection, analysis, and reporting about the overall quality and condition of education in Louisiana. Implemented in 1990, this major piece of legislation resulted in the publication of the Progress Profiles (School Report Cards, District Composite Report, and the…

  4. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. FY 2002 was used to continue seasonal fish and lakewide creel surveys and adjust methods and protocols as needed. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 meters deep, with 16-17 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until August when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-meters deep. Secchi depths ranged from 2.5-8 meters and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in October 2002 and May and July 2003 using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens (32 %) and cottid spp. (22 %) dominated the nearshore species composition in October; however, by May yellow perch (12 %) were the third most common species followed by smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (34 %) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (14 %). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during October (78 %) and May (81 %). Fish diet analysis indicated that juvenile fishes consumed primarily insects and zooplankton, while adult piscivores consumed cottids spp. and yellow perch most frequently. For FY 2002, the following creel statistics are comprehensive through August 31, 2003. The highest angling pressure occurred in June 2003, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 76 % of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. An estimated total of 11,915 ({+-}140 SD) smallmouth bass, 6,412 ({+-}59 SD) walleye, 5,470 ({+-}260 SD) rainbow trout, and 1,949 ({+-}118 SD) yellow perch were harvested from Banks Lake in FY 2002. Only 3 kokanee were reported in the catch during the FY 2002 creel survey. In the future, data from the seasonal surveys and creel will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  5. Report of the Council and Accounts, 2002-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, G. M.; Tucker, D.

    2003-10-01

    The Council of the British Astronomical Association presents its annual Report and Accounts for the session ended 2003 July 31. The excess of income over expenditure for the financial year ended 2003 June 30 was £ 275,068. This amount has been transferred to reserve.

  6. Pell Grants, 2002-2003. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This training manual describes new features the U.S. Department of Education has developed to improve the administration of the Pell Grant program. It explains how to set up the electronic data transfer system EDExpress for processing Pell Grant information. Six online resources are described to help the institution's financial aid office use…

  7. Lake Pend Oreille Predation Research, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Bassista, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    During August 2002 we conducted a hydroacoustic survey to enumerate pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho. The purpose of this survey was to determine a collective lakewide biomass estimate of pelagic bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and lake trout S. namaycush and compare it to pelagic prey (kokanee salmon O. nerka) biomass. By developing hydroacoustic techniques to determine the pelagic predator to prey ratio, we can annually monitor their balance. Hydroacoustic surveys were also performed during December 2002 and February 2003 to investigate the effectiveness of autumn and winter surveys for pelagic predators. The inherent problem associated with hydroacoustic sampling is the inability to directly identify fish species. Therefore, we utilized sonic tracking techniques to describe rainbow trout and lake trout habitat use during our winter hydroacoustic survey to help identify fish targets from the hydroacoustic echograms. During August 2002 we estimated there were 39,044 pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille (1.84 f/ha). Based on temperature and depth utilization, two distinct groups of pelagic fish >406 mm were located during August; one group was located between 10 and 35 m and the other between 40 and 70 m. The biomass for pelagic fish >406 mm during August 2002 was 73 t (metric ton). This would account for a ratio of 1 kg of pelagic predator for every 2.63 kg of kokanee prey, assuming all pelagic fish >406 mm are predators. During our late fall and winter hydroacoustic surveys, pelagic fish >406 mm were observed at lake depths between 20 and 90 m. During late fall and winter, we tracked three rainbow trout (168 habitat observations) and found that they mostly occupied pelagic areas and predominantly stayed within the top 10 m of the water column. During late fall (one lake trout) and winter (four lake trout), we found that lake trout (184 habitat observations) utilized benthic-nearshore areas 65% of the time and were found in the pelagic area only 35% of the time. Lake trout were found at depths between 10 and 90 m (average was approximately 30 m). Based on hydroacoustic surveys of pelagic fish >406 mm and habitat use of sonic tagged rainbow trout and lake trout during late fall and winter, we conclude that hydroacoustic sampling during those times would be ineffective at acquiring an accurate pelagic predator population estimate and recommend conducting abundance estimates for pelagic predators when Lake Pend Oreille is thermally stratified (i.e. August).

  8. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  9. Epidemiology of Extraarticular Tibia Fractures, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital-Bandar Abbass-Iran 2002, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saied, A. R.; Karimi Mobarake, M.

    Tibia fractures are among the most common long bone fractures and recognition of their epidemiology helps their better management and prevention. In this cross sectional prospective study, 250 patients with extraarticular tibia fracture, of all age groups, referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbass were studied. Information about age and sex and the fracture side, localization, open or closed fracture, comminution, associated injuries and the mechanism of the injury were registered. Tibia fractures constituted about 65% of all diaphyseal long bone fractures (the most common) and 70% of all open diaphyseal fractures (the most common). Most of the fractures occurred in young men (90%) and in the middle third of the bone (55%). In more than 75% of the cases injury was limited to the leg, more than 55% the fractures were closed and in more than 65% there was little comminution. About half of fractures occurred on either side and no statistically significant difference was found between the left and right limb with regard to open fracture occurrence and the severity of comminution (p = 0.291 and 0.713, respectively). The most common involved factor in occurrence of the fracture was motorcycle (65%), in contrast to findings of others where it constituted about 30% of the causes. Noting the results and that 58% of tibia fractures are caused by motorcycle accident with the reason being direct trauma to the shin of the driver in the majority of them, it is suggested that the use of a guard or shield get mandatory for protection of the shin of the motorcyclists.

  10. Profiles of Missouri Public Schools: Financial, Pupil and Staff Data for Fiscal Year 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Annually the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education collects from school districts a variety of data which are used for program approval, allocation of state and federal funds, and classification purposes. Many of these data are summarized in various state-level reports such as those found in the annual ''Report of the Public Schools.''…

  11. Undergraduate Transfers: Maryland Public Institutions of Higher Education, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report is composed of a set of tables showing, by campus, the undergraduate students who were enrolled in Maryland public colleges in 2002 and the Maryland public college to which they transferred in 2003. This analysis is possible because the Commission collects enrollment data on all students using an encrypted social security number as a…

  12. Insights on Student Aid Technology from NASFAA's 2002-2003 Technology Initiatives Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Craig; Evans, Mark A.; Hallenbeck, Theodore R.; Clemente, Stephen J.; Redwine, Elaine; Croft, Devin; Lowdermilk, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    This special section contains four articles on using technology to improve student financial aid services: (1) "The Technology Pyramid" (advice on the transition from paper to paperless systems); (2) "Strengthening Our Security"; (3) "COD: Moving toward a Universal Delivery System" (about the government's new Common Origin and Disbursement…

  13. Salaries of Deans in Baccalaureate and Graduate Programs in Nursing, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Linda E.; Stennett, Janis; Bednash, Geraldine D.

    A survey was conducted to gather information on the salaries of nursing school deans and related information such as title, rank, degree level, tenure status, gender, and race/ethnicity. Findings, presented in several data tables, provide a benchmarking resource for comparing salary data on a calendar year basis by numerous characteristics of…

  14. High Resolution Doppler Imager FY 2001,2002,2003 Operations and Algorithm Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    During the performance period of this grant HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager) operations remained nominal. The instrument has suffered no loss of scientific capability and operates whenever sufficient power is available. Generally, there are approximately 5-7 days per month when the power level is too low to permit observations. The daily latitude coverage for HRDI measurements in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere (MLT) region are shown.It shows that during the time of this grant, HRDI operations collected data at a rate comparable to that achieved during the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) prime mission (1991 -1995). Data collection emphasized MLT wind to support the validation efforts of the TIDI instrument on TIMED, therefore fulfilling one of the primary objectives of this phase of the UARS mission. Skinner et al., (2003) present a summary of the instrument performance during this period.

  15. Report on Local Investments of Partnership Funds: Investments for 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Debra

    This report was created with the goal of showing how California Community College districts have been using their funds from the Partnership For Excellence during the 2002-03 fiscal year. The report is based upon the individual findings of 108 colleges which was gathered through an online survey that asked each district to report data on the…

  16. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz. PMID:25420654

  17. Iowa Community Colleges Tuition and Fees Report, Academic Year 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.

    Each year, the Iowa Department of Education prepares a tuition and fees report, which traditionally shows a comparison of fall-to-fall tuition rates. During fiscal year 2002, community colleges received a beginning state appropriation below the previous year's appropriation. Later, there were additional cuts that forced tuition increases at five…

  18. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  19. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. During the years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas of headwater streams to Lolo Creek. Inventory of culverts is an on-going practice, being completed by sub-drainage, and are being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage and 100-year flow events throughout the watershed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  20. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  1. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have decreased in 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. These results indicate that the surface waters in Arrow Lakes Reservoir were approaching nitrogen limitation. Results from the 2003 discrete profile series indicate nitrate concentrations decreased significantly below 25 {micro}g/L (which is the concentration where nitrate is considered limiting to phytoplankton) between June and July at stations in Upper Arrow and Lower Arrow. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (weight:weight) were also low during these months indicating that the surface waters were nitrogen deficient. These results indicated that the nitrogen to phosphorus blends of fertilizer added to the reservoir need to be fine tuned and closely monitored on a weekly basis in future years of nutrient addition. Phytoplankton results shifted during 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. During 2002, there was a co-dominance of potentially 'inedible' diatoms (Fragilaria spp. and Diatoma) and 'greens' (Ulothrix). Large diatom populations occurred in 2003 and these results indicate it may be necessary to alter the frequency and amounts of weekly loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in future years to prevent the growth of inedible diatoms. Zooplankton density in 2002 and 2003, as in previous years, indicated higher densities in Lower Arrow than in Upper Arrow. Copepods and other Cladocera (mainly tiny specimens such as Bosmina sp.) had distinct peaks, higher than in previous years, while Daphnia was not present in higher numbers particularly in Upper Arrow. This density shift in favor to smaller cladocerans was mirrored in a weak biomass increase. In Upper Arrow, total zooplankton biomass decreased from 1999 to 2002, and in 2003 increased slightly, while in Lower Arrow the biomass decreased from 2000-2002. In Lower Arrow the majority of biomass was comprised of Daphnia throughout the study period except in 2002, while in Upper Arrow the total biomass was comprised of copepods from 2000-2003.

  2. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. Its goal is also to re-establish normal patters of production, dispersal, and exchange of genetic information within the 1855 Treaty Area. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination includes: within department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, and treaty area coordination.

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions favorable for a fish parasite, Heteropolaria lwoffi. Educational activities further the likelihood that future generations will continue to understand and enjoy the presence of native fish stocks in the Wind River basin.

  4. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment; Years 11 and 12, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report examines the results from the eleventh and twelfth years (2002 and 2003) of the Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. Experimental fertilization has occurred with an adaptive management approach since 1992 in order to restore productivity lost as a result of upstream dams. One of the main objectives of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are a main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kootenay Lake is located between the Selkirk and Purcell mountains in southeastern British Columbia. It has an area of 395 km2, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to Kootenay Lake in 2002 and 2003 was similar to that added from 1992 to 1996. After four years of decreased fertilizer loading (1997 to 2000), results indicated that kokanee populations had declined, and the decision was made to increase the loads again in 2001. The total load of fertilizer in 2002 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 206.7 tonnes of nitrogen. The total fertilizer load in 2003 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 240.8 tonnes of nitrogen. Additional nitrogen was added in 2003 to compensate for nitrogen depletion in the epilimnion. The fertilizer was applied to a 10 km stretch in the North Arm from 3 km south of Lardeau to 3 km south of Schroeder Creek. The maximum surface water temperature in 2002, measured on July 22, was 22 C in the North Arm and 21.3 C in the South Arm. In 2003, the maxima were recorded on August 5 at 20.6 C in the North Arm and on September 2 at 19.7 C in the South Arm. The maximum water temperature in the West Arm was 18.7 C on September 2, 2003. Kootenay Lake had oxygen-saturated water throughout the sampling season with values ranging from about 11-16 mg/L in 2002 and 2003. In both years, Secchi depth followed the expected pattern for an oligo-mesotrophic lake of decreasing in May, June, and early July, concurrent with the spring phytoplankton bloom, and clearing again as the summer progressed. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-11 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 2-21 {micro}g/L in 2003. With average TP values generally in the range of 3-10 {micro}g/L, Kootenay Lake is considered to be an oligotrophic to oligo-mesotrophic lake. Total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) followed the same seasonal trends as TP in 2002 and 2003 and ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 2-10 {micro}g/L in 2003. Total nitrogen (TN) ranged from 90-380 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 100-210 {micro}g/L in 2003. During both the 2002 and 2003 sampling seasons, TN showed an overall decline in concentration with mid-summer and fall increases at some stations, which is consistent with previous years results. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations showed a more pronounced declining trend over the sampling season compared with TN, corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being used by phytoplankton during summer stratification. DIN ranged from 7-176 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 8-147 {micro}g/L in 2003. During 2003, discrete depth sampling occurred, and a more detailed look at the nitrate concentrations in the epilimnion was undertaken. There was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, which supports the principle of increasing the nitrogen loading and the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio during the fertilizer application period. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in Kootenay Lake were in the range of 1.4-5.1 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 0.5-4.9 {micro}g/L in 2003. Over the sampling season, Chl a at North Arm stations generally increased in spring corresponding with the phytoplankton bloom, decreased during the summer, and increased again in the fall with mixing of the water column. The trend was similar, but less pronounced, at South Arm stations in these years, and spring Chl a concentrations were lower. During 2002, total algal biomass averaged during June, July and August was lower in the North Arm than the South Arm. This was the first time this occurred since the commencement of the North Arm fertilization experiment. Results in 2002 indicated Kootenay lake continues to be a diatom dominated lake (80 to 89% of the total average biomass). The overall trend observed throughout the 2003 sampling season was one of a slight decline in algal biomass from the North Arm stations towards those in the South Arm. Kootenay Lake continued to be a diatom-dominated lake (76-83% of total average biomass). Synedra spp. and some Asterionella, as in the previous three years, dominated the early biomass increase in 2003, but the peak biomass in July was largely due to Tabellaria.

  5. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In fulfillment of the NWPPC's 3-Step Process for the implementation of new hatcheries in the Columbia Basin, this Step 1 submission package to the Council includes four items: (1) Cover letter from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Interdisciplinary Team Chair, and the USFWS; (2) References to key information (Attachments 1-4); (3) The updated Master Plan for the Tribe's native cutthroat restoration project; and (4) Appendices. In support of the Master Plan submitted by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe the reference chart (Item 2) was developed to allow reviewers to quickly access information necessary for accurate peer review. The Northwest Power Planning Council identified pertinent issues to be addressed in the master planning process for new artificial production facilities. References to this key information are provided in three attachments: (1) NWPPC Program language regarding the Master Planning Process, (2) Questions Identified in the September 1997 Council Policy, and (3) Program language identified by the Council's Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). To meet the need for off-site mitigation for fish losses on the mainstem Columbia River, in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a trout production facility located adjacent to Coeur d'Alene Lake on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The updated Master Plan (Item 3) represents the needs associated with the re-evaluation of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Trout Production Facility (No.199004402). This plan addresses issues and concerns expressed by the NWPPC as part of the issue summary for the Mountain Columbia provincial review, and the 3-step hatchery review process. Finally, item 4 (Appendices) documents the 3-Step process correspondence to date between the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and additional relevant entities. Item 4 provides a chronological account of previous ISRP reviews, official Coeur d'Alene fisheries program responses to a series of ISRP reviews, master planning documentation, and annual reports dating back to 1990. Collectively, the materials provided by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe in this Step-1 submission package comprehensively assesses key research, habitat improvement activities, and hatchery production issues to best protect and enhance native cutthroat trout populations and the historically and culturally important tribal fisheries they support.

  6. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Klickitat Only Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin; Evenson, Rolf

    2003-12-01

    The monitoring and evaluation activities described in this report were determined by consensus of the scientists from the Yakama Nation (YN). Klickitat Subbasin Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) activities have been subjected to scientific and technical review by members of YKFP's Science/Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) as part of the YKFP's overall M&E proposal. Yakama Nation YKFP project biologists have transformed the conceptual design into the tasks described. This report summarizes progress and results for the following major categories of YN-managed tasks under this contract: (1) Monitoring and Evaluation - Accurately characterize baseline available habitat and salmonid populations pre-habitat restoration and pre-supplementation. (2) EDT Modeling - Identify and evaluate habitat and artificial production enhancement options. (3) Genetics - Characterize the genetic profile of wild steelhead in the Klickitat Basin. (4) Ecological Interactions - Determine the presence of pathogens in wild and naturally produced salmonids in the Klickitat Basin and develop supplementation strategies using this information.

  7. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Companies. Fifth Annual Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Wilson, Glen; Allen, Daniel

    This document, prepared by an Arizona State University education research unit, provides profiles of 47 educational-management organizations (EMOs) for 2002-03. The report begins with a description of the structure of the educational management industry and a discussion of the pros and cons of EMOs. This edition (fifth annual report) divides EMOs…

  8. The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning and Teaching, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coreil, Clyde, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of papers includes: "Martians Invade the Classroom: A Workshop in Language Learning" (Carmine Tabone and Robert Albrecht); "Autonomous Learning through Cinema: One Learner's Memories" (Connie Haham); "Learning a Second Language Through Culture" (Barbara Le Blanc and Joseph Dicks); "Shakespeare for ESL? 'Hamlet' through Imaginative…

  9. Epidemiology, transmission dynamics and control of SARS: the 2002-2003 epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Roy M; Fraser, Christophe; Ghani, Azra C; Donnelly, Christl A; Riley, Steven; Ferguson, Neil M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, T H; Hedley, Anthony J

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews current understanding of the epidemiology, transmission dynamics and control of the aetiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We present analyses of data on key parameters and distributions and discuss the processes of data capture, analysis and public health policy formulation during the SARS epidemic are discussed. The low transmissibility of the virus, combined with the onset of peak infectiousness following the onset of clinical symptoms of disease, transpired to make simple public health measures, such as isolating patients and quarantining their contacts, very effective in the control of the SARS epidemic. We conclude that we were lucky this time round, but may not be so with the next epidemic outbreak of a novel aetiological agent. We present analyses that help to further understanding of what intervention measures are likely to work best with infectious agents of defined biological and epidemiological properties. These lessons learnt from the SARS experience are presented in an epidemiological and public health context. PMID:15306395

  10. Federal Student aid Handbook, 2002-2003. Volume 6: Federal Work-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Work-Study (FWS) Program allows undergraduate and graduate students to work part-time to help pay for the cost of their education. Schools must use 75% of their FSW Program funds to compensate students employed in community service jobs. This volume describes the ways schools are required to use money from FSW program funds to…

  11. Federal Student Aid Handbook, 2002-2003. Volume 4: Campus-Based Common Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG), and Federal Work-Study (FWS) programs are called "campus-based" programs because each school is responsible for administering them on its own campus. A school applies for and receives funds from the U.S. Department of Education, and the school's financial aid…

  12. A Tale of Two Connecticuts: 2002-2003 Kids Count Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuch, Donna S.; Horan, James P.

    This Kids Count Data book details trends in the well-being of Connecticut's children. The statistical portrait is based on 23 indicators in the areas of demographics, security, health, education, and safety. This year's new format presents the data at the county and town levels, covering 169 municipalities and 8 counties. The data book begins with…

  13. Serving Independent Colleges and Universities: Council of Independent Colleges Annual Report 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Independent Colleges, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Founded in 1956, the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC) is an association of independent colleges and universities working together to: (1) support college leadership; (2) advance institutional excellence; and (3) enhance private higher education's contributions to society. CIC is the only national organization that focuses solely on providing…

  14. Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, D.; Ready, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program (YTAHP) was organized to restore salmonid passage to Yakima tributaries that historically supported salmonids and to improve habitat in areas where access is restored. This program intends to (a) screen unscreened diversion structures to prevent fish entrainment into artificial waterways; (b) provide for fish passage at man-made barriers, such as diversion dams, culverts, siphons and bridges; and (c) provide information and assistance to landowners interested in to contributing to the improvement of water quality, water reliability and stream habitat. The YTAHP developed from a number of groups actively engaged in watershed management, and/or habitat restoration within the Yakima River Basin. These groups include the Washington State Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Kittitas County Conservation District (KCCD), North Yakima Conservation District (NYCD), Kittitas County Water Purveyors (KCWP), and Ahtanum Irrigation District (AID). The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Yakama Nation (YN) both participated in the development of the objectives of YTAHP. Other entities that will be involved during permitting or project review may include the YN, the federal Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The objectives of YTAHP are listed below and also include subtasks detailed in the report: (1) Conduct Early Action Projects; (2) Review Strategic Plan; (3) Restore Access, including stream inventory, prioritization, implementation; and (4) Provide opportunities to improve habitat and conserve resources. The BPA YTAHP funding supported activities of the program which are described in this report. These activities are primarily related to objective 1 (conduct early action projects) and parts of objectives 2-4. The work supported by YTAHP funding will support a series of scheduled projects and be made larger by complementary funding through NRSC EQIP, Irrigation Efficiencies, WA State Salmon Recovery Funding Board and other local, state and federal programs. Projects completed FY-03: The Cooke Creek siphon and screen/bypass was completed on time and within budget. The Rosbach Farms project was completed in cooperation with the NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program and the KCCD's Irrigation Efficiencies Program. Tributary survey teams were trained and surveys of tributaries in Yakima and Kittitas counties commenced in December of 2002. By the end of September 2003 Cowiche Creek in Yakima County was completed as well as Coleman, Reecer, Currier, Dry, Cabin, Indian, and Jack Creeks in Kittitas County. A screen was installed on the Hernandez/Ringer diversion in cooperation with the NRCS office in Kittitas County. YTAHP submitted six applications to the Salmon Recovery Funding Board and three were selected and funded. Another Salmon Recovery Funding Board project awarded in 2000 to the Yakama Nation was transferred to the KCCD. Two miles of fencing of riparian zones on the north fork Ahtanum was completed by the North Yakima Conservation District in cooperation with the Department of Natural Resources and the Ahtanum Irrigation District and funded by US fish and Wildlife as part of YTAHP's outreach partnering. Completion of this year's effort has provided significant inroads to working on the private lands in two counties which will be vital to future efforts by YTAHP and others to protect and enhance Yakima River Basin habitat. 2003 saw the migration of the WEB site from MWH to the Kittitas County Conservation District and can be accessed at www.kccd.net.

  15. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a total of 364 adult fall chinook and 472 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 290 fall chinook and 403 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 214. The peak redd count for chum was 776. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 15 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 6 December. There were estimated to be a total of 1,881 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2002. The study area's 2002 chum population was estimated to be 4,232 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2002 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on February 3 2003 and ended 7 May 2003, with peak emergence occurring 20 April. 2002 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 27 January and continued through 6 April 2003. Peak chum emergence took place 1 March. A total of 10,925 juvenile chinook and 1,577 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 24 January and 21 July 2003 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2003 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2002 and 2003 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration suggests chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville dam are similar to stocks of chum found in Hamilton and Hardy creek and are part of the Lower Columbia River Chum ESU.

  16. Maintaining the Momentum. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    Alberta's apprenticeship system offers training in 50 designated trades and 4 designated occupations and includes 40,398 registered apprentices and 11,1984 employers. The main components of Alberta's apprenticeship and training system are as follows: (1) a network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees in the designated occupations; (2)…

  17. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Holmes, Chris; Muongchanh, Christine; Anderson, James J.

    2003-11-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 00004124) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Realtime (DART) integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application. DART also provides analysis tools and performance measures helpful in evaluating the condition of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  18. Federal Student Aid Handbook, 2002-2003. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This volume of the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Handbook discusses the eligibility requirements for students and parent borrowers and the responsibilities of institutions in checking to be sure that recipients qualify for their aid awards. The guide also describes recent changes to FSA requirements and procedures. The biggest change for this year is…

  19. MODIS Validation, Data Merger and Other Activities Accomplished by the SIMBIOS Project: 2002-2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; McClain, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide current documentation of the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities, satellite data processing, and data product validation. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information is related to the scientific community and NASA management. This critical information includes the technical difficulties and challenges of validating and combining ocean color data from an array of independent satellite systems to form consistent and accurate global bio-optical time series products. This technical report focuses on the SIMBIOS Project s efforts in support of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra platform (similar evaluations of MODIS/Aqua are underway). This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational project.

  20. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume III of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1993-94 annual report; (2) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Supplementation Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1998 technical report; and (3) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1998 annual report.

  1. John Day River Subbasin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Russ M.; Delano, Kenneth H.

    2004-04-01

    Work undertaken in 2003 included: (1) Seven new fence projects were completed thereby protecting 7.6 miles of stream (2) Completion of 0.7 miles of dredge tail leveling on Granite Creek. (3) Maintenance of all active project fences (66.14 miles), watergaps (66), spring developments (33) and plantings were checked and repairs performed. (4) Since the initiation of the Fish Habitat Project in 1984 we have 72.94 miles of stream protected using 131.1 miles of fence. With the addition of the Restoration and Enhancement Projects we have 205.96 miles of fence protecting 130.3 miles of stream.

  2. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-12-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations, supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. A primary goal of the Council's program is to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. The MWC will always have a baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. This watershed program is strengthened by the completion of the BPA funded Sub-basin Assessment, Conservation Strategy and the establishment of a Benchmarks system, thus, providing the MWC a prioritized framework for restoration efforts. Objectives for FY03 included: (1) Continued coordination of McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups that restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though a strategic and comprehensive outreach and education program, utilizing Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and council operations.

  3. Solar Particle Events at Mars Seen by MARIE, 2002-2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T.; Zeitlin, C.; Cucinotta, F.; Saganti, P.; Anderson, V.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L. S.; Turner, R.; Atwell, W.

    2004-01-01

    The MARIE detector aboard the 200 1 Mars Odyssey operated continuously between March 13, 2002, and October 28, 2003. During these twenty months, approximately 12 periods of enhanced solar particle activity were observed. The last of these, on October 26-28, 2003, caused the instrument to lose communication with the spacecraft. In addition to that very large event, several other major Solar Particle Events (SPEs) were observed. Those prior to March 2003 have been discussed elsewhere [I] and will be reviewed here. Many of the solar events seen at Mars correspond well to observations by GOES and ACE satellites near Earth. Some SPEs were observed by MARIE when Mars was on, or near, the opposite side of the sun as seen from Earth; and while a few of them - most notably the large full-halo Coronal Mass Ejections of July 2002 - coincided with events seen by the near-Earth satellites, others were not seen at Earth. Conversely, in this same time period, some SPEs were seen at Earth but not at Mars. Subsequent to February 2003, three SPEs were observed by MARIE, on March 18- 20, May 28 - June 3, and Oct. 26-28. Observations of solar energetic particles at Mars can be combined with data from other points in the heliosphere from, e.g., the Solar Heliospheric Observatory, ACE/CRIS, and GOES satellites near Earth, and Ulysses. Having several different observation points is useful for testing models of CME initiation and propagation.

  4. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume II of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Previous ISRP Reviews (Project 199004400) Implement Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities-Coeur d'Alene Reservation; (2) Step 1 review of the hatchery master plan (Memorandum from Mark Fritsch, Fish Production Coordinator, Draft version March 10, 2000); (3) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response to ISRP comments on Project No. 199004402; includes attachment A Water Quantity Report. This is an incomplete document Analysis of Well Yield Potential for a Portion of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation near Worley, Idaho, February 2001; (4) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program, Rainbow Trout Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation prepared by Ronald L. Peters, February 2001; (5) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response letter pursuant to the questions raised in the Step 1 review of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility from Ronald L. Peters, March 27, 2001 ; includes attachments Water quantity report (this is the complete report), Appendix A Logs for Test Wells and 1999 Worley West Park Well, letters from Ralston, Appendix B Cost of Rainbow Purchase Alternative; (6) NPPC response (memorandum from Mark Fritsch, March 28, 2001); (7) Response to NPPC (letter to Frank Cassidy, Jr., Chair, from Ernest L. Stensgar, April 18, 2001); (8) Final ISRP review (ISRP 2001-4: Mountain Columbia Final Report); (9) Response to ISRP comment (letter to Mark Walker, Director of Public Affairs, from Ronald Peters, May 7, 2001); (10) Final comments to the Fish 4 committee; (11) Scope of Work/Budget FY 2001-2004; (12) Letter from City of Worley concerning water service; (13) Letter to BPA regarding status of Step 1 package; (14) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1990 annual report; (15) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1991 annual report; and (16) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1992 annual report.

  5. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project : Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring and Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  6. Keck Observations of the 2002-2003 Jovian Ring Plane Crossing

    SciTech Connect

    de Pater, I; Showalter, M R; Macintosh, B A

    2007-11-29

    We present new observations of Jupiter's ring system at a wavelength of 2.2 {micro}m obtained with the 10-m W. M. Keck telescopes on three nights during a ring plane crossing: UT 19 December 2002, and 22 and 26 January 2003. We used conventional imaging, plus adaptive optics on the last night. Here we present detailed radial profiles of the main ring, halo and gossamer rings, and interpret the data together with information extracted from radio observations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. The main ring is confined to a 800-km-wide annulus between 128,200 and 129,000 km, with a {approx} 5000 km extension on the inside. The normal optical depth is 8 x 10{sup -6}, 15% of which is provided by bodies with radii a {approx}> 5 cm. These bodies are as red as Metis. Half the optical depth, {tau} {approx} 4 x 10{sup -6}, is attributed to micron-sized dust, and the remaining {tau} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} to grains tens to hundreds of {micro}m in size. The inward extension consists of micron-sized (a {approx}< 10 {micro}m) dust, which probably migrates inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The inner limit of this extension falls near the 3:2 Lorentz resonance (at orbital radius r = 122,400 km), and coincides with the outer limit of the halo. The gossamer rings appear to be radially confined, rather than broad sheets of material. The Amalthea ring is triangularly shaped, with a steep outer dropoff over {approx} 5000 km, extending a few 1000 km beyond the orbit of Amalthea, and a more gradual inner dropoff over 15,000-20,000 km. The inner edge is near the location of the synchronous orbit. The optical depth in the Amalthea ring is {approx} 5 x 10{sup -7}, up to 20% of which is comprised of macroscopic material. The optical depth in the Thebe ring is a factor of 3 smaller.

  7. Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hank

    2003-03-01

    ''Safe Access'' work has concentrated on the lower portions of five drainages in the Upper Yakima Basin. Streams in the Kittitas Valley include Wilson Creek, Naneum and Little Naneum Creeks, Reecer and Currier Creeks, and Manastash Creek. Tucker Creek is tributary to the Yakima River near Easton, Washington to the northwest. For numerous reasons delays in project implementation have occurred. Unclear water rights have resulted in long delays; however, permitting delays, general landowner reluctance to commit to any deviation from past practices, and lengthy legal review have all been factors. Realistic work windows are short and do not coincide well with fiscal year planning and contract renewals. The following is a summary of the projects anticipated under ''Safe Access'' that the Yakama Nation thought would be funded by BPA via carry-forward/over monies. Preparatory work toward construction in '03 was done for projects in the Wilson, Naneum and Tucker Creek systems; feasibility studies were done in the Manastash and Reecer systems by Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH) relative to screening and passage options and associated costs.

  8. Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, Progress Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hank

    2003-03-01

    Safe Access work has concentrated on the lower portions of five drainages in the Upper Yakima Basin. Streams in the Kittitas Valley include Wilson Creek, Naneum and Little Naneum Creeks, Reecer and Currier Creeks, and Manastash Creek. Tucker Creek is tributary to the Yakima River near Easton, Washington to the northwest. For numerous reasons delays in project implementation have occurred. Unclear water rights have resulted in long delays; however, permitting delays, general landowner reluctance to commit to any deviation from past practices, and lengthy legal review have all been factors. Realistic work windows are short and do not coincide well with fiscal year planning and contract renewals. The following is a summary of the projects anticipated under Safe Access that the Yakama Nation thought would be funded by BPA via carry-forward/over monies. Preparatory work toward construction in 03 was done for projects in the Wilson, Naneum and Tucker Creek systems; feasibility studies were done in the Manastash and Reecer systems by Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH) relative to screening and passage options and associated costs.

  9. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence. School Year. 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Code of Virginia requires school divisions statewide to submit data annually to the Department of Education (DOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence. These incidents shall include: (1) those that occurred on school property, on a school bus, or at a school-sponsored activity; and (2) offenses, wherever committed, by students…

  10. The health sector gap in the southern Africa crisis in 2002/2003.

    PubMed

    Griekspoor, Andre; Spiegel, Paul; Aldis, William; Harvey, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The southern Africa crisis represents the first widespread emergency in a region with a mature HIV/AIDS epidemic. It provides a steep learning curve for the international humanitarian system in understanding and responding to the complex interactions between the epidemic and the causes and the effects of this crisis. It also provoked much debate about the severity and causes of this emergency, and the appropriateness of the response by the humanitarian community. The authors argue that the over-emphasis on food aid delivery occurred at the expense of other public health interventions, particularly preventative and curative health services. Health service needs were not sufficiently addressed despite the early recognition that ill-health related to HIV/AIDS was a major vulnerability factor. This neglect occurred because analytical frameworks were too narrowly focused on food security, and large-scale support to health service delivery was seen as a long-term developmental issue that could not easily be dealt with by short-term humanitarian action. Furthermore, there were insufficient countrywide data on acute malnutrition, mortality rates and performance of the public health system to make better-balanced evidence-based decisions. In this crisis, humanitarian organisations providing health services could not assume their traditional roles of short-term assistance in a limited geographical area until the governing authorities resume their responsibilities. However, relegating health service delivery as a long-term developmental issue is not acceptable. Improved multisectoral analytical frameworks that include a multidisciplinary team are needed to ensure all aspects of public health are dealt with in similar future emergencies. Humanitarian organisations must advocate for improved delivery and access to health services in this region. They can target limited geographical areas with high mortality and acute malnutrition rates to deliver their services. Finally, to address the underlying problem of the health sector gap, a long-term strategy to ensure improved and sustainable health sector performance can only be accomplished with truly adequate resources. This will require renewed efforts on part of governments, donors and the international community. Public health interventions, complementing those addressing food insecurity, were and are still needed to reduce the impact of the crisis, and to allow people to re-establish their livelihoods. These will increase the population's resilience to prevent or mitigate future disasters. PMID:15569380

  11. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  12. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance

    2003-08-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2002 included: (1) Implementing 1 new fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that will protect an additional 0.95 miles of stream and 22.9 acres of habitat; (2) Conducting instream work activities in 3 streams to enhance habitat and/or restore natural channel dimensions, patterns or profiles; (3) Planting 31,733 plants along 3.7 stream miles, (4) Establishing 71 new photopoints and retaking 254 existing photopoint pictures; (5) Monitoring stream temperatures at 12 locations on 6 streams; (6) Completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 100.5 miles of project fences. Since initiation of the project in 1984 over 68.7 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams and 1,933 acres of habitat have been protected, enhanced and maintained.

  13. Atmospheric Stability & Turbulence from Temperature Profiles over Sicily During Summer 2002 & 2003 HASI Balloon Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Angrilli, F.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results and interpretation of the temperature measurements data retrieved during the balloon campaigns (in 2002 and in 2003) for testing HASI (Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument), launched from the Italian Space Agency Base in Trapani (Sicily), are presented. Both ascending and descending phases are analysed; data reveal interesting features near the tropopause (present in the region between 11km-14km), where temperature cooling can be related to layers with strong winds (2002 flight); in the troposphere a multistratified structure of the temperature field is observed and discussed (particularly in the 2003 flight) Finally, stability and turbulence of the atmosphere are analysed; the buoyancy N2 parameters for both the flights show lowers value respect to standard tropospheric values corresponding to a lower stability of the atmosphere; still there is a higher stability above the tropopause. The energy spectrum of temperature data is consistent with the Kolmogorov theory: the characteristic k(sup -5/3) behaviour is reproduced.

  14. Program Unit Funding: A Handbook for ECS Operators in the 2002/2003 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Special Education Branch.

    This handbook is written specifically for Early Childhood Services (ECS) operators in Alberta, Canada, applying for Program Unit Funding for students with severe disabilities. It is also designed to enhance the understanding of how assistance is provided to ECS children with severe disabilities by teachers, special needs assistants, parents, and…

  15. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  16. Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Johnson, June; Bunn, Paul

    2006-06-01

    This report covers the following 3 parts of the project: Part 1--Improve wild steelhead trout smolt-to-adult survival rate information by PIT tagging additional wild steelhead trout juveniles. Part 2--Estimating the stock-recruitment relationship for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon and forecasting wild/natural smolt production. Part 3--Monitoring age composition of wild adult spring and summer chinook salmon returning to the Snake River basin.

  17. Tuberculosis transmission in multiple correctional facilities--Kansas, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    2004-08-20

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a substantial health concern in correctional facilities; inmates and employees are at high risk, and TB outbreaks can lead to transmission in surrounding communities. The Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) recommends that all correctional facilities have a written TB infection-control plan (TBICP). In September 2002, after diagnosis of smear-positive pulmonary TB in a prison inmate, the Kansas TB Control Program, with assistance from CDC, initiated a 6-month contact investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that, while symptomatic for TB, the inmate had resided in three different jails and a state prison, placing hundreds of employees and other inmates at risk for TB infection. The circumstances of this case underscore the need for effective TBICPs to be implemented by trained employees in jails and prisons and for establishment of mechanisms to facilitate information-sharing between correctional facilities and local and state health departments. PMID:15318157

  18. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management efforts to increase rainbow trout recruitment. North and South Callahan creeks support the largest spawning population of bull trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Idaho, so management of the watershed should consider bull trout as high priority.

  19. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate

    2004-02-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of June 2002-September 2003. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2002 and 2003 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. In 2002, 27 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored until they nested. Four more females carrying old transmitters were also monitored; only one of these transmitters lasted through the nesting season. In 2003, 30 females were monitored. Twenty-three of the females monitored in 2002 nested and produced 84 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in fall 2002 and reared in captivity at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in the head-start program. Twenty-seven of the turtles monitored in 2003 nested. Six of the turtles nested twice, producing a total of 33 nests. The nests will be checked in September and October 2003 for hatchlings. Of 121 head-started juvenile western pond turtles collected in the Columbia Gorge during the 2001 nesting season, 119 were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2002, and 2 held over for additional growth. Of 86 turtles reared in the head-start program at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos fall 2002 through summer 2003, 67 were released at sites in the Columbia Gorge in summer of 2003, and 15 held over for more growth. Fifty-nine juveniles were released at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge in July 2002, and 51 released there in July 2003. Sixteen of those released in 2002 and 16 released in 2003 were instrumented with radio transmitters and monitored for varying amounts of time for survival and habitat use between the time of release and August 2003, together with juveniles from the 2001 release which were monitored from June 2001 through August 2003, and juveniles from the 2000 release which were monitored from August 2000 through August 2003. The number of functioning transmitters varied due to transmitter failures and detachments, and availability of replacement transmitters, as well as opportunities to recapture turtles. By August 15, 2003, a total of 39 turtles were being monitored: 6 from the 2000 release, 8 from the 2001 release, 10 from the 2002 release, and 15 from the 2003 release. During the 2002 field season trapping effort, 280 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 236 previously head-started turtles. During the 2003 trapping season, 349 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge; 304 of these had been head-started. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual re-sightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 160 individual painted turtles captured in 2002 and 189 painted turtles captured in 2003 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population. Eight female painted turtles were monitored by telemetry during the 2002 nesting season; 4 nests were recorded for these animals, plus 35 nests located incidentally. Preferred habitat for nesting was identified based on the telemetry results, to be considered in anticipating future turtle habitat needs and in management planning at Pierce NWR. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding supported activities in the Columbia River Gorge from June 2002 through September 2003.

  20. NHEERL'S PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES, 2002-2003, TOTAL = 277 (LIST D)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains an attachment in Field 14 listing the citations for all of NHEERL's journal articles for the period June 2002 through the first of May 2003. The report includes manuscripts that have undergone clearance (but have not yet been published) during this reporting...

  1. State of Utopia v. Jamie Davidson. 2002-2003 Oklahoma High School Mock Trial Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benischek, Sandra; Davis, Courtney; Horton, Johnathan; Longwell, Nicole; Williams, Keri

    In the spring of 2001, illegal drug use had risen by 40% among teens in the town of Springdale, Utopia. School administrators and the Springdale Police Department decided to implement a crackdown on teen drug use in all high schools in Springdale. A high school principal received a tip on a hotline that Jamie Davidson, a senior, had been seen…

  2. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation Project.

  3. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  4. Lake Roosevelt Volunteer Net Pens, Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Net Pens, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gene

    2003-11-01

    The completion of Grand Coulee Dam for power production, flood control, and irrigation resulted in the creation of a blocked area above the dam and in the loss of anadromous fish. Because of lake level fluctuations required to meet the demands for water release or storage, native or indigenous fish were often threatened. For many years very little effort was given to stocking the waters above the dam. However, studies by fish biologists showed that there was a good food base capable of supporting rainbow and kokanee (Gangmark and Fulton 1949, Jagielo 1984, Scholz etal 1986, Peone etal 1990). Further studies indicated that artificial production might be a way of restoring or enhancing the fishery. In the 1980's volunteers experimented with net pens. The method involved putting fingerlings in net pens in the fall and rearing them into early summer before release. The result was an excellent harvest of healthy fish. The use of net pens to hold the fingerlings for approximately nine months appears to reduce predation and the possibility of entrainment during draw down and to relieve the hatcheries to open up available raceways for future production. The volunteer net pen program grew for a few years but raising funds to maintain the pens and purchase food became more and more difficult. In 1995 the volunteer net pen project (LRDA) was awarded a grant through the Northwest Power Planning Council's artificial production provisions.

  5. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to develop and propose a comprehensive fishery management plan for Lake Roosevelt. The Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project (LRHIP) was designed with goals directed towards increasing natural production while maintaining genetic integrity among current tributary stocks. The initial phase of the Lake Roosevelt Habitat Improvement Project (Phase I, baseline data collection: 1990-91) was focused on the assessment of limiting factors, including the quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other constraints. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, five streams meeting specific criteria were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation -1992-1995). Four of these projects were on the Colville Indian Reservation South Nanamkin, North Nanamkin, Louie and Iron Creeks and one Blue Creek was on the Spokane Indian Reservation. At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring-1996-2000) began. This phase assessed the changes and determined the success achieved through the improvements. Data analysis showed that passage improvements are successful for increasing habitat availability and use. The results of in-stream habitat improvements were inconclusive. Project streams, to the last monitoring date, have shown increases in fish density following implementation of the improvements. In 2000 Bridge Creek, on the Colville Reservation was selected for the next phase of improvements. Data collection, including baseline stream survey and population data collection, was carried out during 2001 in preparation for the design and implementation of stream habitat/passage improvements. Agencies cooperating on the project include the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, Ferry County District), Ferry County Conservation District, and Ferry County. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided project funding support and program integration assistance. A stock of redband rainbow trout, were discovered in 2001 in an isolated section of Bridge Creek above a set of waterfalls. DNA microsatellite analysis was conducted at the University of Idaho and indicated that very little if any hybridization. The targeted species in the genetic analysis was red band/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss spp.). The sub-contract is with Madison Powell and Joyce Faler at the Center for Salmonid and Freshwater Species at Risk at the University of Idaho/HFCES. DNA analysis used mitochondrial and nuclear RFLP markers along with two microsatellite loci. Sample populations were screened for detectable levels of introgressive hybridization arising from possible admixtures of hatchery coastal rainbow trout with native red band trout.

  6. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  7. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2003-06-23

    This project was designed to provide project coordination and technical assistance to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality enhancement and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Enhancement Reserve Program (CREP) and other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Three of those four streams and one other major Sherman County stream are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Temperature in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has resulted in providing technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including over 50 WASCBs, several thousand feet of terraces, two implemented CREP contracts, and the development of 3 additional CREP projects slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY '04. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in reducing the backlog of conservation projects within Sherman County, while adhering to the objectives set forth for this grant.

  8. Fabricate and Install Yakima Basin Phase II Fish Screens; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schille, Patrick C.

    2004-03-01

    The goal of this project is to prevent mortality and/or injury to all life stages of anadromous and resident fish at irrigation diversions. Obsolete Yakima basin fish screens constructed in the 1930's, 40's, 50's, 60's, and 70's must be replaced or updated to comply with current regional fish screen biological protection criteria adopted by Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA), Fish Screening Oversight Committee (FSOC) in 1995. This goal is being accomplished through an on-going effort by the Yakima Basin Phase II Technical Work Group (TWG), which is comprised of local, state, federal, tribal and private groups who prioritizes and assign screening projects. Prioritized screening projects are completed through coordination between the Bureau of Reclamations (BOR), who design and permit, and the WDFW who fabricate the screens for these projects. The following is the 2004 fish screening facility construction schedule as proposed by the Bureau of Reclamation Design Group (USBR) and Fish Passage Technical Work Group (TWG).

  9. Sharp-tailed Grouse Restoration; Colville Tribes Restore Habitat for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) (CSTG) are an important traditional and cultural species to the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI), and other Tribes in the Region. They were once the most abundant upland bird in the Region. Currently, the largest remaining population in Washington State occurs on the CCT Reservation in Okanogan County. Increasing agricultural practices and other land uses has contributed to the decline of sharp-tail habitat and populations putting this species at risk. The decline of this species is not new (Yokum, 1952, Buss and Dziedzic, 1955, Zeigler, 1979, Meints 1991, and Crawford and Snyder 1994). The Tribes (CCT and STOI) are determined to protect, enhance and restore habitat for this species continued existence. When Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Hydro-projects were constructed, inundated habitat used by this species was lost forever adding to overall decline. To compensate and prevent further habitat loss, the CCT proposed a project with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding to address this species and their habitat requirements. The projects main focus is to address habitat utilized by the current CSTG population and determine ways to protect, restore, and enhance habitats for the conservation of this species over time. The project went through the NPPC Review Process and was funded through FY03 by BPA. This report addresses part of the current CCT effort to address the conservation of this species on the Colville Reservation.

  10. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

  11. Anomalous snow accumulation over the southeast region of the Greenland ice sheet during 2002-2003 snow season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Steffen, K.; Huff, R.; Neumann, G.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective is to determine seasonal snow accumulation in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet on the daily-weekly basis over the large scale. Our approach utilizes data from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) and from the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite (QSCAT) to measure snow accumulation (SA) in the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. GC-Net measurements provide crucial in-situ data to facilitate the interpretation of QSCAT backscatter signature for the development of an algorithm to map SA.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Echoviruses 11 and 13, Based on an Environmental Surveillance Conducted in Toyama Prefecture, 2002-2003

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Masae; Yoshida, Hiromu; Matsuura, Kumiko; Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Takizawa, Takenori; Nagai, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    Nineteen echovirus 11 (E11) and 12 E13 isolates were isolated from three rivers in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, during an environmental surveillance conducted from April 2002 to March 2003. The nucleotide sequences of E13 isolates were closely related to those from patients with aseptic meningitis, with less than 1.3% divergence in the VP1 region of the viral capsid gene, and belonged to the same clade responsible for a worldwide outbreak that started in 2000. In contrast, E11 isolates were clustered into three genomic groups and were not closely related to echovirus strains isolated from patients. These results suggest that the combination of both virus isolation from environmental sources and phylogenetic analysis could be complementary assessment approaches to trace prevalent and minor circulating enteroviruses in the human population. PMID:16957267

  13. Hood River Fish Habitat Project; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the project implementation and monitoring of all habitat activities in the Hood River basin that occurred over the October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003 period (FY 03). Some of the objectives in the corresponding statement of work for this contract were not completed within FY 03. A description of the progress during FY 03 and reasoning for deviation from the original tasks and timeline are provided. OBJECTIVE 1 - Provide coordination of all activities, administrative oversight and assist in project implementation and monitoring activities. Administrative oversight and coordination of the habitat statement of work, budget, subcontracts, personnel, implementation, and monitoring was provided. OBJECTIVE 2 - Continue to coordinate, implement, and revise, as needed, the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan. The Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was completed in 2000 (Coccoli et al., 2000). This document was utilized for many purposes including: drafting the Watershed Action Plan (Coccoli, 2002), ranking projects for funding, and prioritizing projects to target in the future. This document has been reviewed by many, including stakeholders, agencies, and interested parties. The Hood River Watershed Group Coordinator and author of the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan, Holly Coccoli, has updated and revised the plan. Changes will be reflected in the Hood River Subbasin Plan, and after submission of the Subbasin Plan, a formally revised version of the Monitoring Plan will be put out for review. This will more specifically address changes in the Hood River subbasin since 2000, and reflect changes to fish habitat and needs in the Hood River subbasin regarding monitoring. OBJECTIVE 3 - Evaluate and monitor the habitat, accessibility, and presence of winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout upstream of the Middle Fork Irrigation District water sources on Evans Creek. Through this project, BPA funded the Middle Fork Irrigation District (MFID) a total of $194,000 in FY 03 for the Glacier Ditch- Evans Creek project. BPA funds accounted for approximately 30% of the project while the remaining 70% was cost-shared by the MFID, the US Forest Service, and the Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board. The MFID operated irrigation diversions on Evans Creek (Hutson pond RM 4.0 and the Evans Creek diversion RM 5.5), a tributary to the East Fork Hood River. Both diversions had inadequate upstream fish passage, and utilized Evans Creek to transport Eliot Branch water to distribute irrigation water lower in the basin. This project consisted of: piping a portion of the Glacier ditch to create a pressurized irrigation pipeline system, piping the Hutson extension, removing the culvert on Evans Creek near the Glacier ditch, removing the culvert above the Hutson pond, revegetating the disturbed areas, and providing adequate and approved fish passage on Evans Creek. Prior to any work, Brian Connors with MFID completed a NEPA checklist. Some of the key regulatory points of this project included wetland delineations, a cultural resources survey, and consultations with NOAA Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This project will eliminate the overflow of silty water into Evans Creek and West Fork Evans Creek. Upon completion of this project, access to 2.5 miles of winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout habitat will be restored. Elimination of the interbasin transfer of water will discontinue the conveyance of silty Eliot Branch water into clear East Fork tributaries. Additionally, less water taken from Coe Branch, Eliot Branch, and Laurance Lake which will benefit listed steelhead and bull trout. The Glacier Ditch provided irrigation water from the Eliot Branch to upper valley orchards and agriculture for more than 100 years. The Glacier Ditch served approximately 1,438 acres with 18 cfs of water. The Glacier Ditch portion of this project

  14. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project; Factors Affecting the Recreational Fishery in Moses Lake Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-11-01

    This annual report is a precursor to the final technical report we will be writing the next contract period. Consequently, this report, covering the period between September 27, 2002, and September 26, 2003, represents a progress report towards the final technical report we anticipate completing by September 26, 2004. Sample analysis and field work have progressed well and we anticipate no further delays. There are 4 objectives: (1) To quantify secondary production Moses Lake; (2) To quantify the influence of predation on target fishes in Moses Lake; (3) To quantify mortality of selected fished in Moses Lake; and (4) To assess effects of habitat changes from shoreline development and carp on the fish community in Moses Lake.

  15. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maroney, Joseph R.; Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F.

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  16. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Notice Requesting Comments, 70 FR 46193 (Aug. 9, 2005), Docket 2005-2 CRB SD 2001-2003; Notice Requesting Comments, 73 FR 5597 (Jan. 30, 2008), Docket 2008-5 CRB SD 1999-2000; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 4423 (Jan. 27, 2010) Docket 2010-2 CRB SD 2004-2007; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 66799 (Oct....

  17. The Class "C" Survey, 2002-2003: Comparisons of Budgets, Levies and Enrollments of Class "C" Montana School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Montana Coll., Dillon. Montana Rural Education Center.

    This report presents data on enrollments, budgets, levies, costs per pupil, and teacher and staff salaries in Montana's smallest (Class "C") school districts for 2002-03. Class C indicates high school enrollment of 130 students or less. Surveys were received from 69 of 93 public schools and 1 of 5 nonpublic schools in the category. The range of…

  18. Simulations and Observations of Circulation in the Oregon Coastal Transition Zone during the 2002-2003 Downwelling Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, S. R.; Allen, J. S.; Samelson, R. M.; Kurapov, A. L.; Egbert, G. D.; Miller, R. N.; de Rada, S.

    2008-12-01

    In comparison with summertime, relatively little is known about the circulation off Oregon during wintertime. We conducted a hindcast simulation of the period from October 1, 2002 to May 1, 2003, which coincided with a major observational field program. A non-assimilating, one-way nested model obtained initial conditions and boundary conditions from a larger scale, assimilating California Current model, and it was forced by wind stress from a regional mesoscale model, rainfall and heat fluxes calculated from a coarse resolution atmospheric model, and observed coastal river flows. At the beginning of the period, an upwelling circulation established by predominantly southward winds during the previous summer is in place. Vigorous storms in December deepen, freshen, and cool the mixed layer in the simulation, consistent with measurements along the Newport hydrographic line (44.65° N). Sensitivity studies demonstrate the importance of both rainfall and coastal river freshwater input to upper ocean stratification. Predominantly northward wind stress near the coast establishes a downwelling circulation with onshore Ekman transport, which holds freshwater input by rivers near the coast. When the wind reverses to southward for several days in early February, offshore Ekman transport spreads this freshwater feature seaward in both model simulations and high resolution hydrographic observations. During the mid to late winter, wind stress switches between strongly downwelling-favorable and weakly upwelling-favorable intervals of approximately 10-14 day duration. Comparison with moored current meters on the outer and midshelf shows that the model reproduces the corresponding reversals of the depth-averaged alongshore currents. Coastal trapped wave energy originating to the south passes into the domain and contributes to the strength of the upwelling response on the central Oregon coast.

  19. Seismic Activity Related to the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Volcano Eruption (Italy): Fault Plane Solutions and Stress Tensor Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, G.; Cammarata, L.; Cocina, O.; Maiolino, V.; Musumeci, C.; Privitera, E.

    2003-04-01

    Late on the night of October 26, 2002, a bi-lateral eruption started on both the eastern and the southeastern flanks of Mt. Etna. The opening of the eruptive fracture system on the NE sector and the reactivation of the 2001 fracture system, on the S sector, were accompanied by a strong seismic swarm recorded between October 26 and 28 and by sharp increase of volcanic tremor amplitude. After this initial phase, on October 29 another seismogenetic zone became active in the SE sector of the volcano. At present (January 2003) the eruption is still in evolution. During the whole period a total of 862 earthquakes (Md≫1) was recorded by the local permanent seismic network run by INGV - Sezione di Catania. The maximum magnitude observed was Md=4.4. We focus our attention on 55 earthquakes with magnitude Md≫ 3.0. The dataset consists of accurate digital pickings of P- and S-phases including first-motion polarities. Firstly earthquakes were located using a 1D velocity model (Hirn et alii, 1991), then events were relocated by using two different 3D velocity models (Aloisi et alii, 2002; Patane et alii, 2002). Results indicate that most of earthquakes are located to the east of the Summit Craters and to northeast of them. Fault plane solutions (FPS) obtained show prevalent strike-slip rupture mechanisms. The suitable FPSs were considered for the application of Gephart and Forsyth`s algorithm in order to evaluate seismic stress field characteristics. Taking into account the preliminary results we propose a kinematic model of the eastern flank eastward movement in response of the intrusion processes in the central part of the volcano. References Aloisi M., Cocina O., Neri G., Orecchio B., Privitera E. (2002). Seismic tomography of the crust underneath the Etna volcano, Sicily. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 4154, pp. 1-17 Hirn A., Nercessian A., Sapin M., Ferrucci F., Wittlinger G. (1991). Seismic heterogeneity of Mt. Etna: structure and activity. Geophys. J. Int., 105, 139-153. Patane D., Chiarabba C., Cocina O., De Gori P., Moretti M., Boschi E. (2002). Tomographic images and 3D earthquake locations of the seismic swarm preceding the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: Evidence for a dyke intrusion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10, 135-138.

  20. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of LCR chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce extinction risks to the Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction into the Chinook River basin. The Duncan Creek project was developed using the same recovery strategy implemented for LCR chum. Biologists with the WDFW and Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) identified Duncan Creek as an ideal upriver location below Bonneville Dam for chum re-introduction. It has several attributes that make it a viable location for a re-introduction project: historically chum salmon were present, the creek is low gradient, has numerous springs/seeps, has a low potential for future development and is located close to a donor population of Lower Gorge chum. The Duncan Creek project has two goals: (1) re-introduction of chum into Duncan Creek by providing off channel high-quality spawning and incubation areas, and (2) to simultaneously evaluate natural recolonization and a supplementation strategy where adults are collected and spawned artificially at a hatchery. For supplementation, eggs are incubated and the fry reared at the Washougal Hatchery to be released back into Duncan Creek. The tasks associated with re-establishing a naturally self-sustaining population include: (1) removing mud, sand and organics present in four of the creek branches and replace with gravels expected to provide maximum egg-to-fry survival rates to a depth of at least two feet; (2) armoring the sides of these channels to reduce importation of sediment by fish spawning on the margins; (3) planting native vegetation adjacent to the channels to stabilize the banks, trap silt and provide shade; (4) annual sampling of gravel in the spawning channels to detect changes in gravel composition and sedimentation levels. Tasks associated with the second goal of the recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum are detailed in The Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Duncan Creek Chum Salmon Reintroduction Program. Four main questions are used to evaluate the success of this program: (1) what egg-to-fry survival rates are being achieved in the renovated channels, (2) what is the survival of the eggs and fry used in the artificial rearing program in Duncan Creek, (3) what is the survival and spawning ground distribution of adult chum salmon produced from the spawning channels and the artificial rearing program, and (4) what is the straying rate of non-program chum salmon into Duncan Creek. The monitoring portion of the Duncan M&E includes documenting and monitoring the physical attributes of the channels.

  1. Selected Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data for 30 Urbanizing Streams in the North Carolina Piedmont Ecoregion, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, E.M.; Moorman, Michelle; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Harned, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides summarized physical, chemical, and biological data collected during a study of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment study. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of streams across a gradient of urban intensity. Thirty sites were selected along an urbanization gradient that represents conditions in the North Carolina Piedmont ecoregion, including the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, Asheboro, and Oxford. Data collected included streamflow variability, stream temperature, instream chemistry, instream aquatic habitat, and collections of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. In addition, ancillary data describing land use, socioeconomic conditions, and urban infrastructure were compiled for each basin using a geographic information system analysis. All data were processed and summarized for analytical use and are presented in downloadable data tables, along with the methods of data collection and processing.

  2. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  3. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project; Klickitat Watershed Enhancement, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, Will

    2004-01-01

    The overall goal of the Klickitat Watershed Enhancement Project (KWEP) is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of stream reaches and watersheds supporting native anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss; ESA- listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU) and spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha). Habitat restoration activities in the Klickitat subbasin augment goals and objectives of the Yakima Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the NMFS Biological Opinion (All-H paper). Work is conducted to enhance instream and contributing upland habitat to facilitate increased natural production potential for native salmonid stocks. Efforts in the Klickitat Subbasin fall into two main categories: (1) identification and prioritization of sites for protection and restoration activities, (2) implementation of protection and restoration measures. KWEP personnel also assist monitoring efforts of the YKFP Monitoring & Evaluation Project. During the September 2002-August 2003 reporting period, KWEP personnel continued efforts to address feedback from the August 2000 Provincial Review that indicated a need for better information management and development of geographic priorities by: (1) Assisting development of the Strategic Habitat Plan for the Klickitat Lead Entity (Task A3.1) and Klickitat steelhead EDT model (Task A4.1); (2) Improving the functionality of reference point, habitat unit, and large woody debris modules of the habitat database as well as addition of a temperature module (Tasks A1.1-1.2); (3) Continuing development and acquisition of GIS data (Task A1.3); (4) Ongoing data collection efforts to fill information gaps including streamflow, habitat, and temperature (Objectives C1 and C2); and (5) Completion of planning, field work, and hydrologic modeling associated with roads assessment in the White Creek watershed (Task A4.2). Significant milestones associated with restoration projects during the reporting period included: (1) Completion of the Surveyors Fish Creek Passage Enhancement project (Task B2.3); (2) Completion of interagency agreements for the Klickitat Meadows (Task B2.4) and Klickitat Mill (Task B2.10) projects; (3) Completion of topographic surveys for the Klickitat Meadows (Task B2.4), Klickitat River Meadows (Task B2.5), Trout Creek and Bear Creek culvert replacements (Task B2.7), and Snyder Swale II (Task B2.13) projects; (4) Completion of the Snyder Swale II - Phase 1 project (Task B2.13); (5) Completion of design, planning, and permitting for the Klickitat Mill project (Task B2.10) and initiation of construction; (6) Design for the Trout and Bear Creek culverts (B2.7) were brought to the 60% level; and (7) Completion of design work for the for the Klickitat Meadows (Task B2.4) and Klickitat River Meadows (Task B2.5) projects.

  4. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These six issues of a periodical intended for teachers and tutors of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students offer articles and features including the following: readers' comments and questions; in-class map practice ideas; songs for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning; suggested films to show in class; conversation activities;…

  5. Columbia Plateau Basin and Fifteenmile Subbasin Water Rights Acquisitons; Oregon Water Trust Combined Work Plan, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Fritz

    2003-12-01

    This is the Final Report submitted regarding Oregon Water Trust's Combined Work Plan for fiscal year 2003, with the contract period April 2002 to May 2003. Of this 12 month period, six month were spent concluding our work for the 2002 irrigation season and six months were spent preparing for the 2003 irrigation season. After this grant was completed, projects were finished with funding from the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program. Many of the 2003 irrigation season successes began in the fall of 2002, when projects were researched and partnerships were developed. Trout Creek Ranch was one of the large successes. During the 2003 irrigation season, 2.6 cfs was leased which led to a permanent instream transfer, protecting critical spawning habitat for summer steelhead in the Deschutes basin. Another success was the Walla Walla Lease Bank project. This project is an agreement between the OWT, the Walla Walla Irrigation District and 11 individual landowners. Through this single year lease, 7.9 cfs of water was legally protected in the Walla Walla River. The Vidando lease on Middle Fork John Day River was renewed for 2 more years, protecting 11.29 cfs. An innovative single year split-season lease was conducted with Voight on Standard Creek in the John Day basin to protect 4.93 cfs. Many other deals were conducted and the total was an impressive 50.43 cfs instream during 2003 and 9.39 cfs pending approval for the 2004 season. Included is a summary of the activities within the Fifteenmile subbasin and the Columbia Plateau basin by quarter and two tables. The summary of activities is broken down by objectives and quarters. The first summarizes the total cfs by type of lease or transfer. The second table lists all the projects by subbasin and provides project type, lease number, cfs, cost of acquisition, partners in the project and funding source.

  6. Understanding Environmental Literacy in America and Making It a Reality: Three-Year Report 2002/2003/2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research by the National Environmental Education & Training Foundation (NEETF) and Roper Public Affairs at NOP World tells that the average 12th grader (and by extension, the average adult) still falls far short of what would be considered "environmentally literate" by anyone's definition. Seemingly elementary questions elude most of the public:…

  7. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff,

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management.

  8. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effect on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington: Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2003-05-15

    A study of mine-waste contamination effects on Methow River habitat on the eastern slopes of the north Cascade Mountains in Washington state, U.S.A., revealed impacts at ecosystem, community, population, individual, tissue, and cellular levels. Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's, but the mines are now inactive. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to compare potentially impacted to control sites. The concentrations of eleven trace elements (i.e., Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Methow River sediments downstream from the abandoned mine sites were higher than background levels. Exposed trout and caddisfly larvae in the Methow River showed reduced growth compared to controls. Samples of liver from juvenile trout and small intestine from exposed caddisfly larvae were examined for evidence of metal accumulation, cytopathological change, and chemical toxicity. Morphological changes that are characteristic of nuclear apoptosis were observed in caddisfly small intestine columnar epithelial and trout liver nuclei where extensive chromatin condensation and margination was observed. Histopathological studies revealed glycogen bodies were present in the cytosol and nuclei, which are indicators of Type IV Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD IV). This suggests food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body resulting in poor growth. Examination of trout hepatocytes by transmission electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of electron dense granules in the mitochondrial matrix. Matrix granules contain mixtures of Cd, Cu, Au, Pb, Ni, and Ti. Contaminated sediments caused adverse biological effects at different levels of biological organization, from the cellular to ecosystem-level responses, even where dissolved metal concentrations in the corresponding surface water met water-quality criteria.

  9. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Easterbrooks, John A.

    2003-09-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a supplementation project sponsored by the Northwest Power Planning Council and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. The YKFP has adopted the definition of supplementation described by Regional Assessment of Supplementation Program (1992), which is ''the use of artificial propagation in an attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population, and keeping the ecological and genetic impacts on nontarget populations within specified biological limits''. Recent scientific reviews of hatchery supplementation continue to highlight the experimental nature and risk of supplementation (Independent Scientific Group 1996; National Research Council 1996; Lichatowich 1999; Independent Multidisciplinary Science Team 2000; Independent Scientific Advisory Board 2003; Hatchery Scientific Review Group 2003). In addition, many of these reviews included recommendations about the best ways to operate a supplementation program. Most of these recommendations were already being done or have been incorporated into the YKFP. The objectives of the YKFP are: (1) to test the hypothesis that new supplementation techniques can be used in the Yakima River Basin to increase natural production and to improve harvest opportunities while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the wild and native salmonid populations and keeping adverse ecological interactions within acceptable limits (Yakima Fisheries Project Final Environment Impact Statement, 1996); (2) provide knowledge about the use of supplementation, so that it may be used to mitigate effects on anadromous fisheries throughout the Columbia River Basin; (3) to maintain and improve the quantity and productivity of salmon and steelhead habitat, including those areas made accessible by habitat improvements; (4) to ensure that Project implementation remains consistent with the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program; and (5) to implement the Project in a prudent and environmentally sound manner. Current YKFP operations have been designed to test the principles of supplementation (Busack et al. 1997). The Project's experimental design has focused on the following critical uncertainties affecting supplementation: (1) The survival and reproductive success of hatchery fish after release from the hatchery; (2) The impacts of hatchery fish as they interact with non-target species and stocks; and, (3) The effects of supplementation on the long-term genetic fitness of fish stocks. The YKFP endorses an adaptive management policy applied through a project management framework as described in the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Planning Status Report (1995), Fast and Craig (1997), and Clune and Dauble 1991. The project is managed by a Policy Group consisting of a representative of the Yakama Nation (YN, lead agency) and a representative of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The functions of the parties are described in an MOU between the YN and the WDFW. A Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of one representative from each management entity reports to the Policy Group and provides technical input on policy and other issues. Additional committee's, such as the Monitoring Implementation and Planning Team (MIPT), serve at the discretion of STAC. The Policy Group and STAC meet periodically (usually monthly) to conduct the business of the YKFP. Although the YKFP is an all stocks initiative (BPA 1996), most effort to date has been directed at spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. This report is a compilation of the year's activities between August 1, 2002 and July 31, 2003. The Yakama Nation's portion of the YKFP is presented in another report. All findings should be considered preliminary until data collection is completed or the information is published in a peer-reviewed journal. Pearsons and Easterbrooks (2003) described last year's activities.

  10. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

  11. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be conducted in FY 2005, we anticipate a significant number of key papers being prepared and submitted in FY 2004 which will go toward identifying the data gaps this RPA is intended to address; (2) Make available data from this project for use on Project 2003-038-00 ('Evaluate restoration potential of Snake River fall chinook salmon') which is a BPA-funded project that will start in FY 2004; and (3) Present results of our work at regional and national meetings in order to facilitate technology transfer and information sharing. The objective of this project is to define the production potential of fall chinook salmon that spawn in the Hanford Reach. We will provide fisheries and resource managers with the information they need to determine if the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is indeed healthy, and whether this population will be capable of seeding other satellite populations in the future. We will accomplish this purpose by continuing our on-going research at determining the carrying capacity of the Hanford Reach for producing fall chinook salmon under current operational scenarios, and then begin an assessment of whether the Reach is functioning as a model of a normative river as is widely believed. The product of our research will be a better understanding of the key habitat features for mainstem populations of anadromous salmonids, as well as a better understanding of the measures that must be taken to ensure long-term protection of the Hanford Reach fall chinook population. Although the project was originally funded in FY 1994, it was significantly redefined in FY 2000. At that time five tasks were proposed to accomplish the project objective. The purpose of this progress report is to briefly describe the activities that have been completed on each of the five tasks from FY 2000 through FY 2003.

  12. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  13. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  14. TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Analysis of synoptic-scale variations for the period 2002-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, P. K.; Law, R. M.; Peters, W.; RöDenbeck, C.; Takigawa, M.; Aulagnier, C.; Baker, I.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bousquet, P.; Brandt, J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Christensen, J. H.; Delage, F.; Denning, A. S.; Fan, S.; Geels, C.; Houweling, S.; Imasu, R.; Karstens, U.; Kawa, S. R.; Kleist, J.; Krol, M. C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lokupitiya, R.; Maki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Niwa, Y.; Onishi, R.; Parazoo, N.; Pieterse, G.; Rivier, L.; Satoh, M.; Serrar, S.; Taguchi, S.; Vautard, R.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Zhu, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The ability to reliably estimate CO2 fluxes from current in situ atmospheric CO2 measurements and future satellite CO2 measurements is dependent on transport model performance at synoptic and shorter timescales. The TransCom continuous experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of forward transport model simulations at hourly, daily, and synoptic timescales, and we focus on the latter two in this paper. Twenty-five transport models or model variants submitted hourly time series of nine predetermined tracers (seven for CO2) at 280 locations. We extracted synoptic-scale variability from daily averaged CO2 time series using a digital filter and analyzed the results by comparing them to atmospheric measurements at 35 locations. The correlations between modeled and observed synoptic CO2 variabilities were almost always largest with zero time lag and statistically significant for most models and most locations. Generally, the model results using diurnally varying land fluxes were closer to the observations compared to those obtained using monthly mean or daily average fluxes, and winter was often better simulated than summer. Model results at higher spatial resolution compared better with observations, mostly because these models were able to sample closer to the measurement site location. The amplitude and correlation of model-data variability is strongly model and season dependent. Overall similarity in modeled synoptic CO2 variability suggests that the first-order transport mechanisms are fairly well parameterized in the models, and no clear distinction was found between the meteorological analyses in capturing the synoptic-scale dynamics.

  15. Beyond Subgroup Reporting: English Language Learners with Disabilities in 2002-2003 Online State Assessment Reports. ELLs with Disabilities Report 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although No Child Left Behind legislation does not require states to report enrollment, participation and performance data for English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities either online or in print-based reports, there is increasing interest in the academic success of this subgroup of students, estimated at about 357,325 nationwide (Zehler,…

  16. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per year of ground water is lost to evapotranspiration in Dry Valley. Combining subsurface-outflow estimates with ground-water evapotranspiration estimates, total natural ground-water discharge from Dry Valley ranges from a minimum of about 700 acre-feet to a maximum of about 1,000 acre-feet annually. Water quality in Dry Valley generally is good and primary drinking-water standards were not exceeded in any samples collected. The secondary standard for manganese was exceeded in three ground-water samples. One spring sample and two surface-water samples exceeded the secondary standard for pH. Dry Valley has two primary types of water chemistry that are distinguishable by cation ratios and related to the two volcanic-rock units that make up much of the surrounding mountains. In addition, two secondary types of water chemistry appear to have evolved by evaporation of the primary water types. Ground water near the State line appears to be an equal mixture of the two primary water chemistries and has as an isotopic characteristic similar to evaporated surface water.

  17. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the two sites located on ridge tops. BTEX and DRO were not detected in any of the water samples, and petroleum hydrocarbons do not appear to have leached into ground water at these sites. Ground-water samples were collected from a small spring and from three auger holes at the third site, which is located in a stream valley. BTEX and DRO were not detected in these ground-water samples, and currently, petroleum hydrocarbons do not appear to be leaching into ground water at this site. Weathered crude oil, however, was detected at the water surface in one of the auger holes, indicating that soluble petroleum hydrocarbons may have leached into the ground water and may have migrated downgradient from the site in the past. The concentration of soluble petroleum hydrocarbons present in the ground water would depend on the concentration of the hydrocarbons in the crude oil at the site. A laboratory study was conducted to examine the dissolution of petroleum hydrocarbons from a fresh crude oil sample collected from one of the study sites. The effective solubility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes for the crude oil sample was determined to be 1,900, 1,800, 220, and 580 micrograms per liter (?g/L), respectively. These results indicate that benzene and toluene could be present at concentrations greater than maximum contaminant levels (5 ?g/L for benzene and 1,000 ?g/L for toluene for drinking water) in ground water that comes into contact with fresh crude oil from the study area.

  18. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam hydroacoustic system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the strobe lights in eliciting a negative phototactic response in fish. The transducers were deployed so they tracked fish entering and within the region illuminated by the strobe lights. Two of the seven transducers were mounted to the frame containing the strobe lights and were oriented horizontally. The remaining five transducers were spaced approximately 4 m apart on individual floating frames upstream of the barge, with the transducers looking vertically downward.

  19. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Connor, William P.

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  20. The morphology and evolution of the Stromboli 2002-2003 lava flow field--An example of a basaltic flow field emplaced on a steep slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lodato, Luigi; Harris, A.; Spampinato, L.; Calvari, Sonia; Dehn, J.; Patrick, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a hand-held thermal camera during the 2002–2003 Stromboli effusive eruption proved essential in tracking the development of flow field structures and in measuring related eruption parameters, such as the number of active vents and flow lengths. The steep underlying slope on which the flow field was emplaced resulted in a characteristic flow field morphology. This comprised a proximal shield, where flow stacking and inflation caused piling up of lava on the relatively flat ground of the vent zone, that fed a medial–distal lava flow field. This zone was characterized by the formation of lava tubes and tumuli forming a complex network of tumuli and flows linked by tubes. Most of the flow field was emplaced on extremely steep slopes and this had two effects. It caused flows to slide, as well as flow, and flow fronts to fail frequently, persistent flow front crumbling resulted in the production of an extensive debris field. Channel-fed flows were also characterized by development of excavated debris levees in this zone (Calvari et al. 2005). Collapse of lava flow fronts and inflation of the upper proximal lava shield made volume calculation very difficult. Comparison of the final field volume with that expecta by integrating the lava effusion rates through time suggests a loss of ~70% erupted lava by flow front crumbling and accumulation as debris flows below sea level. Derived relationships between effusion rate, flow length, and number of active vents showed systematic and correlated variations with time where spreading of volume between numerous flows caused an otherwise good correlation between effusion rate, flow length to break down. Observations collected during this eruption are useful in helping to understand lava flow processes on steep slopes, as well as in interpreting old lava–debris sequences found in other steep-sided volcanoes subject to effusive activity.

  1. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

  2. Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River, 2002-2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Richmond, M.; Coleman, A.

    2003-06-01

    Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Hydrodynamic, water quality, and meteorological conditions around the reservoir were monitored at frequent intervals, and this effort is continuing in 2003. Monitoring of the reservoir is a multi-year endeavor, and this report spans only the first year of data collection. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been applied. This model uses field data as boundary conditions and has been applied to the entire 2002 field season. Numerous data collection sites were within the model domain and serve as both calibration and validation locations for the numerical model. Errors between observed and simulated data varied in magnitude from location to location and from one time to another. Generally, errors were small and within expected ranges, although, as additional 2003 field data becomes available, model parameters may be improved to minimize differences between observed and simulated values. A two-dimensional, laterally-averaged hydrodynamic and water quality model was applied to the three reservoirs downstream of LGR (the pools behind Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor Dams). A two-dimensional model is appropriate for these reservoirs because observed lateral thermal variations during summer and fall 2002 were almost negligible; however, vertical thermal variations were quite large (see USACE 2003). The numerical model was applied to each reservoir independently to simulate the time period between May 1 and October 1, 2002. Differences between observed and simulated data were small, although improvements to model coefficients may be performed as additional thermal data, collected in the reservoirs during 2003, becomes available.

  3. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian

    2004-02-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2002 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2003. We tagged 20,950 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,904 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 1 April 2003 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 15 April 2003. We tagged 20,820 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,628 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning during two acclimation periods. The volitional release for the early acclimation group began 12 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 23 March 2003. The volitional release for the late acclimation group began 31 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 14 April 2003. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2003, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Survival rates for the Imnaha River, Lostine River, and Catherine Creek stocks were 0.714, 0.557, and 0.350, respectively. We PIT-tagged 20,944 BY 2002 Imnaha River stock and 20,980 BY 2002 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny in October and November 2003 as part of the CSS for MY 2004. From tagging to January 28, 2004, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.16% and 0.04%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.19% and 0.06%, respectively.

  4. Hydrogeologic framework and ground-water Flow in quaternary deposits at the U.S. Army Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center near Edinburgh, Indiana, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.; Risch, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    A hydrogeologic framework was developed for unconsolidated Quaternary deposits at the U.S. Army Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center. The framework describes the potential for the occurrence of ground water on the basis of physiography and the distribution of geologic materials within the study area. Four geologic units-the Jessup, Trafalgar, Atherton, and Martinsville Formations-were identified, and their distribution was mapped as four hydrogeologic regions. The Jessup and Trafalgar Formations are fine-grained, poorly sorted tills. At least two facies of the Atherton Formation, the lacustrine and outwash facies, are in the study area. The Martinsville Formation includes materials deposited or reworked since the glacial period. With the exception of the Atherton Formation outwash facies, the Quaternary deposits are primarily fine-grained, silt- and clay-rich sediments that function as confining layers or aquitards. The Atherton Formation out-wash facies includes sand and gravel deposits that constitute the primary aquifers in the study area. The four hydrogeologic regions mapped in this investigation are designated as the Bedrock, Jessup Till, Trafalgar Till, and Atherton Outwash Regions. Each region represents an area with a distinctive physiographic expression and vertical sequence of Quaternary deposits. The Bedrock Region in the western and southwestern part of the study area commonly is underlain by 0 to 15 feet of Martinsville Formation resting directly on bedrock. Potential ground-water yields are limited. The Jessup Till Region in the southeastern part of the study area includes the uplands on either side of the stream valleys. Sediments commonly range from 30 to 90 feet in thickness. This region includes clay-rich till of the Jessup Formation and sand and gravel deposits of the Atherton Formation outwash facies; the Atherton Formation outwash facies tends to be thin, and ground-water yields will be moderate. The Trafalgar Till Region in the north and northwest-central part of the study area commonly is underlain by 10 to 30 feet of Trafalgar till or Trafalgar till over 25 to 50 feet of Jessup till. Within, separating, and beneath these tills are deposits of the Atherton Formation outwash facies-the sand and gravel deposits with the best potential to support a water-supply well. Generally, the outwash facies in this region are thin sand and gravel lenses, except in a few locations that are in excess of 30 feet thick. The Atherton Outwash Region is the lowland area associated with the major valleys in all but the far southwestern part of the study area. This region has the greatest thickness of outwash facies sands and gravels (often in excess of 20 feet), which are the primary aquifers. In the Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center, the combined Atherton Outwash Region and the Trafalgar Till Region have the greatest potential as infiltration areas because of low topographic relief and(or) sandy soils. From water-level data collected in July and August 2003, horizontal ground-water flow was determined generally to be toward the Atherton Outwash Region and the valley of the Drift-wood River to the east. Vertical hydraulic gradients were documented at nested well pairs. At two sites, upwardly directed gradients are reflected by flowing wells. Ground-water discharge to surface water is likely in some eastern reaches of the valleys of Nineveh and Lick Creeks. In the valley of Nineveh Creek, potential for ground-water discharge is indicated by the presence of a flowing well, upwardly directed vertical hydraulic gradients, and ground-water heads that were higher than surface-water elevations. In the valley of Lick Creek, ground-water discharge also is indicated by the presence of flowing wells and ground-water heads that were higher than surface-water elevations.

  5. Return Spawning/Rearing Habitat to Anadromous/Resident Fish within the Fishing Creek to Legendary Bear Creek Analysis Area Watersheds; 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Jr., Emmit E.

    2004-03-01

    This project is a critical component of currently on-going watershed restoration effort in the Lochsa River Drainage, including the Fishing (Squaw) Creek to Legendary Bear (Papoose) Creek Watersheds Analysis Area. In addition, funding for this project allowed expansion of the project into Pete King Creek and Cabin Creek. The goal of this project is working towards the re-establishment of healthy self-sustaining populations of key fisheries species (spring Chinook salmon, steelhead, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) through returning historic habitat in all life stages (spawning, rearing, migration, and over-wintering). This was accomplished by replacing fish barrier road crossing culverts with structures that pass fish and accommodate site conditions.

  6. Reconnaissance of Surface-Water Quality and Possible Sources of Nutrients and Bacteria in the Turkey Creek Watershed, Northwest Oklahoma, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency investigated the distribution of surface-water quality and possible sources of nutrients and Escherichia coli bacteria to surface water in Turkey Creek, which flows about 70 miles through mostly rural agricultural areas in northwest Oklahoma. Results show that discharge on the main stem of Turkey Creek increased during low-flow conditions from an average of 5.4 cubic feet per second at the upper most site to 39 cubic feet per second at the lower most site in the watershed, indicating that Turkey Creek gains water from ground-water discharge. A portion of the increase in stream discharge may be from discharges of treated effluent from city sewage lagoons. However, the volume and frequency of discharges are unknown. Surface-water-quality samples show that specific conductance ranged from 1,180 to 1,740 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius during low-flow conditions and in general, decreased downstream with site 1 or site 2 having the largest measurement and site 5 having the lowest. The pH values were slightly alkaline and ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 with a median of 8.2. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 9.3 to 15.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of November, February, and March and ranged from 5.3 to 13.9 milligrams per liter in samples collected in the months of June, July, and August. Surface-water-quality samples show that the median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (1.16 milligrams per liter) and total phosphorus (0.275 milligram per liter) are larger than the average median concentrations of 0.35 and 0.083 milligram per liter, respectively, calculated from water-quality sites in Oklahoma and part of Arkansas (excluding sites in the Ozark Highland and the Ouachita Mountains ecoregions) having similar stream orders and stream slopes. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen increased slightly in the winter months and decreased in the summer months, whereas, concentrations of total phosphorus and orthophosphate as phosphorus tended to increase during the summer months and decrease in the winter months. During high-flow conditions total phosphorus increased 7.7 times above the average concentration of 0.261 milligram per liter in low-flow samples. Orthophosphate concentrations increased 3.5 to 4 times during high-flow conditions. Almost all low-flow samples showed 15N values between 4 and 10 parts per thousand, above the range for atmospheric nitrogen and synthetic fertilizer and below the range for animal waste. These samples may represent a mixture of nitrate from these two sources and other sources enriched with 15N, such as soils and plants. Results of the bacterial source tracking indicated that the two source groups having the greatest number of ribopattern matches with surface-water isolates were the cattle group, 53 isolates or 23.5 percent, and the human group, 41 isolates or 18.2 percent. Fewer surface-water isolates matched the deer and horse groups, 8.0 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively. About 43 percent or 96 surface-water isolates were not matched to any source group.

  7. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim; Schwabe, Lawrence

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  8. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  9. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2003-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 2002. This report documents the number and extent of chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River, and is the fourth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds located in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. There was a significant increase in the number of fall chinook salmon redds found in the locations surveyed during the 2002 surveys when compared to previous surveys by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A total of 192 redds were found in two general locations adjacent to Pierce Island (river km 228.5) encompassing an area of approximately 9.31 ha. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 15, 2002. An estimated 1,768 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding {approx}1.m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2002. This estimate is the expanded number based on the number of redds found within the pre-defined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 0.9 to 8.5 m and were constructed in gravel to large cobble ranging in size from 4.83 to 13.4 cm in diameter. No chum salmon redds were found in areas surveyed during 2002, although several carcasses were found at the mouth of Woodward Creek and in the deeper sections below Hamilton Creek.

  10. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, E.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Prazeller, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, M.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that some alkanes are underestimated in the emissions inventory, while some olefins and aromatics are overestimated.

  11. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  12. Una guia para los padres sobre lo mas importante: el logro academico plan de educacion de Maryland desde preescolar hasta el 12 grado, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Spanish-language guide for parents outlines the goals and characteristics of…

  13. Relationship between Attitude towards Technical Education and Academic Achievement in Mathematics and Science of the First and Second Year High School Students, Caritas Don Bosco School, SY 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study made use of the "Model of Academic Choice" by Meece et al. (1982). It is a general model of academic choice, expectation and value of attitude leading to achievement. The model links achievement with constructs of expectation of success on a task and the subjective value of the task influencing the attitude of students.…

  14. A STATISTICALLY-DESIGNED SURVEY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS AND CO-PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN U.S. MEAT AND POULTRY, 2002-2003: RESULTS, TRENDS, AND IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To obtain information on dioxin levels in the human diet, the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture recently determined levels of dioxin-like compounds (dioxins/dibenzofurans/PCBs) in four major slaughter classes (steers and heifers, market hogs, young chi...

  15. Host choice and West Nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Culex pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Savage, Harry M; Aggarwal, Deepak; Apperson, Charles S; Katholi, Charles R; Gordon, Emily; Hassan, Hassan K; Anderson, Michael; Charnetzky, Dawn; McMillen, Larry; Unnasch, Emily A; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    The source of bloodmeals in 2,082 blood-fed mosquitoes collected from February 2002 through December 2003 in Memphis and surrounding areas of Shelby County, Tennessee were determined. Members of the genus Culex and Anopheles quadrimaculatus predominated in the collections. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. restuans were found to feed predominately upon avian hosts, though mammalian hosts made up a substantial proportion of the bloodmeals in these species. No significant difference was seen in the host class of bloodmeals in mosquitoes identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, or hybrids between these two taxa. Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Cx. erraticus fed primarily upon mammalian hosts. Three avian species (the American Robin, the Common Grackle, and the Northern Cardinal) made up the majority of avian-derived bloodmeals, with the American Robin representing the most frequently fed upon avian host. An analysis of these host feeding data using a modification of a transmission model for Eastern Equine encephalitis virus suggested that the American Robin and Common Grackle represented the most important reservoir hosts for West Nile virus. A temporal analysis of the feeding patterns of the dominant Culex species did not support a shift in feeding behavior away from robins to mammals late in the summer. However, a significant degree of temporal variation was noted in the proportion of robin-derived bloodmeals when the data were analyzed by semi-monthly periods throughout the summers of 2002 and 2003. This pattern was consistent with the hypothesis that the mosquitoes were preferentially feeding upon nesting birds. PMID:17767413

  16. [Investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients nationwide with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation (2002-2003)--proportion of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2005-11-01

    The propotions of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents were determined for 468 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 557 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation at 20 medical institutions nationwide in the predefined 4-week period during November 2002 and June 2003. PRSP of the S. pneumoniae strains, accounted for 27%, and BLNAR accounted for 35% of the H. influenzae strains. Against the S. pneumoniae strains, faropenem showed the best MIC90 value, 0.5 microg/mL, of the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, followed by cefditoren-pivoxil, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, telithromycin showed the best MIC90 value, 0.12 microg/mL. Against the H. influenzae strains, cefditoren-pivoxil showed the best MIC90 value, 0.25 microg/mL, among the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, azithromycin showed the best activity, followed by telithromycin. It seems necessary to take these results into consideration when choosing drugs for treatment. It will be necessary to survey the trends in resistant strains and the clinical efficacy of various oral antibacterial agents in the future. PMID:16366360

  17. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in aquatic biota associated with abandoned mine lands in the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area and nearby Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, northwestern California, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Gibson, Jennifer K.; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other recently evaluated mine-impacted watersheds in northern California, invertebrates, amphibians, and fish from sites within the Upper Clear Creek watershed tended to have significantly lower concentrations of Hg than at most other sites. For other metals and trace elements, Upper Clear Creek sites were only compared with the Deer Creek watershed, Nevada County, California. Copper from both Willow Creek sites (WLCC and WLTH) in the Clear Creek watershed was the only metal with concentrations in biota that were significantly higher than biota from Deer Creek

  18. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean {+-} SD; 1.468 {+-} 0.107 mm, N = 320) than for western brook lampreys (1.237 {+-} 0.064 mm, N = 280). An unpaired t-test showed that the difference in mean chorion diameter between species was highly significant (t = 32.788, df = 528.62, P < 0.0001). For larvae, we collected, digitized, and preserved 156 individuals from each species. Eight homologous landmarks defining a two-cell truss network with two appended triangles were selected for morphometric analyses and species discrimination. A full model discriminant analysis correctly classified 92% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. When applied to a test data set, the classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys. A backward elimination discriminant analysis removed four variables from the full model, and the reduced model correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. The reduced model classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys in a test data set. In 2001 and 2002 Pacific and western brook lampreys were artificially spawned and resulting progeny were reared in the laboratory at 10 C, 14 C, 18 C, and 22 C. The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.85 C for Pacific and 4.97 C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18 C followed by 14 C, 10 C, and 22 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook than for Pacific lampreys, although the difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Survival to hatch was significantly greater than survival to the larval stage with a difference of only 0.03. The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22 C followed by 18 C, 10 C, and 14 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures.

  19. Homeschooling Almanac, 2002-2003: How To Start, What To Do, Where To Go, Who To Call, Web Sites, Products, Catalogs, Teaching Supplies, Support Groups, Conferences, and More! Prima Home Learning Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Mary; Leppert, Michael

    This almanac is intended for parents who are considering home schooling or who are already home schooling and want to expand and obtain more resources, and for non-home-schooling parents who want educational resources to supplement their child's education at home. Part 1 of the almanac presents background information into what home schooling is…

  20. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were determined on selected samples. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mercury, sulfate stable isotope composition (d34S and d18O of sulfate), stable isotope composition of water (d2H and d18O of water) were measured for selected samples. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and 3He and 3H were measured for age dating on selected samples. Linear regressions from the Straight Creek ground-water data were used to compare ground-water chemistry trends in non-Straight Creek ground waters with Straight Creek alluvial ground-water chemistry dilution trends. Most of the solute trends for the ground waters are similar to those for Straight Creek but there are some notable exceptions. In lithologies that contain substantial pyrite mineralization, acid waters form with similar chemistries to those in Straight Creek and all the waters tend to be calcium-sulfate type. Hottentot ground waters contain substantially lower calcium concentrations relative to those in Straight Creek. This anomaly results from the exposure of rhyolite porphyry in the Hottentot scar and weathering zone. The rhyolite contains less calcium than the altered andesites and tuffs in the Straight Creek catchment and probably does not have the abundant gypsum and calcite. The Hansen ground waters have reached gypsum saturation and have similar calcium, magnesium, and beryllium concentrations as Straight Creek ground waters but have lower concentrations of fluoride, manganese, zinc, cobalt, nickel, copper, and lithium. Lower concentrations of elements related to mineralization at Hansen likely reflect the more distal location of Hansen with respect to intrusive centers that provided the heat source for hydrothermal alteration. The other ground water with water chemistry trends that are outside the Straight Creek trends was from an alluvial well from Capulin Canyon (CC2A). Although it had pH values near 6.0 and most major ions similar to the other Capulin Canyon ground waters, it contained high concentrations

  1. Processes Affecting Phosphorus and Copper Concentrations and Their Relation to Algal Growth in Two Supply Reservoirs in the Lower Coastal Plain of Virginia, 2002-2003, and Implications for Alternative Management Strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, Gary K.; Simon, Nancy S.; Mood-Brown, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated phosphorus concentrations commonly promote excessive growth of algae in waters nationwide. When such waters are used for public supply, the algae can plug filters during treatment and impart tastes and odors to the finished water. This increases treatment costs and results in finished water that may not be of the quality desired for public supply. Consequently, copper sulfate is routinely applied to many reservoirs to control algal growth but only is a 'temporary fix' and must be reapplied at intervals that can range from more than 30 days in the winter to less than 7 days in the summer. Because copper has a maximum allowable concentration in public drinking water and can be toxic to aquatic life, water suppliers commonly seek to develop alternative, long-term strategies for managing reservoirs. Because these are nationwide issues and part of the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to define and protect the quality of the Nation's water resources and better understand the physical, chemical, and biological processes in wetlands, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, investigations into these issues are important to the fulfillment of the mission of the USGS. The City of Newport News, Virginia, provides 50 million gallons per day of treated water for public supply from Lee Hall and Harwoods Mill Reservoirs (terminal reservoirs) to communities on the lower York-James Peninsula. About 3,500 pounds of copper sulfate are applied to each reservoir at 3- to 99-day intervals to control algal growth. Consequently, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Newport News, investigated the effects of management practices and natural processes on phosphorus (the apparent growth-limiting nutrient), copper, and algal concentrations in the terminal reservoirs to provide information that can be used to develop alternative management strategies for the terminal reservoirs. Initial parts of the research evaluated circulation and stratification in the reservoirs because these factors affect phosphorus availability to algae. Results indicate that (1) water flows through both reservoirs in a 'plug-flow' manner; (2) little water in the lower part of Lee Hall Reservoir, into which pumped water enters, flows into the upper part of the reservoir and mixes with that water; (3) Lee Hall Reservoir generally does not stratify; and (4) Harwoods Mill Reservoir stratifies from April to June through September or October into an upper epilimnion that does not mix with water in the lower hypolimnion. The ratio of dissolved nitrogen to phosphorus concentrations (N:P) for sites in both reservoirs generally was greater than 20:1, indicating that phosphorus likely is the growth-limiting nutrient in both reservoirs. Phosphorus was present predominantly as suspended, rather than dissolved, species except in the hypolimnion of Harwoods Mill Reservoir and the natural inflow represented by Baptist Run. Because Harwoods Mill Reservoir stratified, field-measured physical and chemical characteristics and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species changed sharply over short depth intervals in this reservoir. Dissolved phosphorus concentration increased from 0.015 to 0.057 milligrams per liter between a depth of 15 feet (ft) and the bottom (depth of 18 ft), indicating the release of phosphorus by the decomposition of organic material and(or) the reduction of iron oxides in bed sediment and the lower water column. Because the mixing boundary between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion likely was between depths of 6 and 10 ft, such sources in the hypolimnion would not contribute phosphorus to the growth of algae in the epilimnion from which water is withdrawn for supply until the breakdown of stratification in the fall. Furthermore, laboratory studies of samples from both reservoirs indicated that dissolved phosphorus was released from suspended particles at rates of 0.0007 to 0.0019 milligrams per liter per day. At these rates of release, particl

  2. Curriculum Summary: Grade Four, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 4e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 4 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  3. Curriculum Summary: Grade Two, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 2e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 2 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  4. Curriculum Summary: Grade Six, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 6e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 6 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  5. Curriculum Summary: Grade Five, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 5e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 5 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  6. Funding of Schools, 2000-2001 School Year = Financement des ecoles, Annee scolaire 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Available in English or French, this reference guide summarizes the funding of Manitoba public schools for the 2000-2001 school year. School funding for operating and capital expenses is administered by the provincial government. Following a list of 2000-2001 revisions to the Schools Finance Program, the first section describes base support. The…

  7. Physics 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Physique 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Physics 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 37 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  8. Curriculum Summary: Grade Nine, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 9e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 9 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover health and life skills, physical education,…

  9. Curriculum Summary: Grade Eight, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 8e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 8 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover health and life skills, physical education,…

  10. Grade 12 Diploma Examination. Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee. Complete Set, January 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The Alberta (Canada) Department of Education issues "Grade 12 Diploma Examinations" for various disciplines every six months (dated January and June of each year). Except for the English and Francais examinations (which are issued only in their own language), the examinations are issued in an English edition and a French edition. The eight…

  11. Curriculum Summary: Grade Three, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes, 3e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 3 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  12. Chemistry 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Chimie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both French and English versions, is the Chemistry 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 44 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  13. Biology 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Biologie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Biology 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 48 multiple-choice and 8 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  14. A Year of Transitions: 1995 AUCC Activities = Une annee de transitions: 1995 Activites de l'AUCC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This publication in English and French versions describes the activities of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) for 1995; particularly activities in the areas of public policy and advocacy, member services, and contract management. The section on public policy and advocacy describes how deficit reduction and national…

  15. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two and one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  16. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a twelfth-grade chemistry course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  17. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade chemistry course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  18. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  19. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and 3 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  20. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and seven written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  1. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a twelfth-grade biology course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and six written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  2. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and four written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring…

  3. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and 7 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is done by the provincial education department. The…

  4. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and five written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  5. Le Rendement en Lecture dans les Ecoles Franco-Ontariennes (Sixieme, Septieme, et Huitieme Annees) (Reading in Franco-Ontarian Schools [Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grades]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Jean; Langevin, Claude

    A research project was carried out to investigate the reading situation in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades of French-language schools in Ontario. Specifically, the project sought to determine the nature of reading deficiencies found in these schools, the percentage of the student body affected by these deficiencies, and the psychological,…

  6. Modeles de rendement langagier: Francais, 12e annee. Francais langue premiere (Models of Linguistic Production: French, 12th Grade. French as a Native Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Aligned with its 1998 standards for first- and second-language learning, Alberta Learning has published lesson plans that aim for a closer relationship between learning and evaluation. Each volume in this series presents a specific task for students that involves planning, carrying out, and evaluating their work. The task for twelfth grade…

  7. Etude du comportement sous charges laterales des ossatures de beton arme avec murs de remplissage de maconnerie, construites avant les annees 1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Karine

    Reinforced concrete structures with unreinforced masonry infills (BMR) are considered vulnerable to earthquakes. Under seismic actions, infills could fail (causing injuries or death) and cause damages to columns. In Quebec and Canada, most of BMR structures have been constructed prior to the introduction of modern seismic design codes raising question on the contribution of the infill to the structure lateral resistance. The aim of this thesis is to improve modelling technique of BMR structures built in Quebec between 1915 and 1960. This type of structures is found in hospitals or schools buildings, which must comply with some post-earthquake functionality requirements. They could also be residential or office buildings. Actually, practicing engineers usually calculate seismic capacity of BMR structures without considering the infill's structural contribution to the lateral resistance. Yet, this contribution should not be omitted. The first part of the thesis investigates the construction techniques and material properties of the old BMR structures in the Province. The results are the material properties (concrete, reinforcing steel, brick, terra cotta tile, and mortar) and the characteristics of the assemblies (wall section, reinforcement details…). The second part of the thesis presents the results of series of parametric analyses to identify among modelling and geometric parameters, which ones are the most influent on the lateral load response (rigidity, fundamental period, normal modes). Linear and modal analyses were performed. The most influent parameters identified are: number of storeys, number of bays, bay's width, soft storey, openings, upper storeys modelized (instead of being replaced by punctual loads) and the modelization technique of infills panels (strut or shell). Nonlinear static analyses have been performed to identify the most influent parameters to be considered for evaluating the lateral resistance, the capacity (load / displacement) and the yielding sequence (beam versus columns versus infills). The identified parameters are the presence of the infills, the openings and the geometric characteristics of the models (number of storeys and number of bays). One important contribution of this work is the development of an equivalent strut model to represent the action of the infill. The model could be easily implemented in standard analysis software. A central axial hinge reproducing the nonlinear behaviour of the masonry is added to the strut element. This model is a hybridization of existing proposals (FEMA and others) with added innovations by the author. It has been validated with experimental and numerical analyses results from literature. An important conclusion of this thesis is that the contribution of infills to lateral load resisting capacities of BMR structures should be considered for structure of more than one storey. Infills can add up to 51 % to bare frame capacity. The National building code requires that the lateral resistance of existing buildings must be at least 60 % of the equivalent static seismic force (V2005). It is concluded that one storey BMR buildings have a sufficient resistance, while three-storeys structures exhibit plastic deformations for loads under 0,6* V2005.

  8. Evolution du francais au Quebec au cours des vingt dernieres annees (The Evolution of French in Quebec Over the Past Twenty Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbelnet, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey of the evolution of Quebec French over the last twenty years away from anglicizations and toward a modernization which has a tendency to lessen the gap between it and International French. Examples are given of recent "refrancizations"; and reasons for, and obstacles to, this phenomenon are discussed. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  9. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  10. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  11. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  12. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  13. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Fronsac, Cassis, Cerons, Charlemagne, Chateau Chalon, Chateau-Grillet, Chinon, Chorey-les-Beaunes, Clos de... Provence, Cotes du Jura, Cotes du Roussillon, Cotes du Ventoux, Crepy, Dezize-les-Maranges, Faugeres,...

  14. Closing the Education Gender Gap: Estimating the Impact of Girls' Scholarship Program in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajigo, Ousman

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of a school fee elimination program for female secondary students in The Gambia to reduce gender disparity in education. To assess the impact of the program, two nationally representative household surveys were used (1998 and 2002/2003). By 2002/2003, about half of the districts in the country had benefited from the…

  15. Reflections on the Looking at Student Work Project of the Center for Arts Education 2003. CCT Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002-2003 meetings of the Looking at Student Work project (LASW) represent a new phase of the project featuring new organizing principles and practices. Previous year's sessions were observed and documented by EDC/CCT research staff and by Center for Arts Education (CAE) staff. Because the 2002-2003 version of the project introduced new…

  16. French as a Second Language Program of Studies: Intermediate Level. Year 4 to Year 12 = Francais langue seconde programme d'etudes: niveau Intermediaire de la 4e a la 12e annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The program of studies for French as a Second Language is a legal document that specifies what Alberta (Canada) students are expected to learn in French as a second language from early childhood education through grade 12. In this volume, these expectations for learner knowledge, skills, and attitudes are expressed at the intermediate level of…

  17. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  18. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Huitieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning"Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  19. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  20. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  1. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Septieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  2. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Septieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  3. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Huitieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  4. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  5. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manual a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning"Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  6. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  7. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  8. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Neuvieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  9. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  10. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  11. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  12. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  13. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Neuvieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  14. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  15. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Readings Booklet. June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this test, to be accompanied by the questions booklet, contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of…

  16. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet). June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

  17. French as a Second Language. Teacher Resource Manual: Early Childhood Services-Grade 12 = Francais langue seconde: guide d'enseignement de la maternelle a la 12e annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Lisa

    This reference guide provides Alberta (Canada) teachers of French as a Second Language with instructional ideas and teaching methods. The guide outlines features of Alberta's new French curriculum, describes pedagogical principles behind the program's philosophy, and proposes a methodology for instructional planning consistent with the curriculum.…

  18. Francais de base. Programme de 9 ans, materiel didactique: 7e, 8e et 9e annees (Core French. Nine-Year Study Program, Instructional Materials: 7th, 8th and 9th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    Official instructional materials for the second three years (grades 7-9) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program are presented. These materials, intended for teachers, consist of units of instruction for each year, which contain notes for the teacher, suggestions for class activities, materials for student use, and…

  19. L'emploi du traitement de texte dans un cours universitaire de premiere annee portant sur la litterature francaise (The Use of Word Processing in a First-Year University Course in French Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Donald; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study examined effects of requiring mainly nonfrancophone university freshmen to use word processing in a French literature course. Results showed students learned word processing without harmful effects on course performance, showed greater control over French spelling and grammar, and wrote more syntactically complex French. Increased…

  20. 7 CFR 301.89-15 - Compensation for growers, handlers, and seed companies in the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... grower in the 2000-2001 growing season for use as seed in the next growing season, and wheat grown with... kernel, this requirement applies to compensation for wheat from the 2002-2003 and subsequent crop...

  1. 7 CFR 301.89-15 - Compensation for growers, handlers, and seed companies in the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grower in the 2000-2001 growing season for use as seed in the next growing season, and wheat grown with... kernel, this requirement applies to compensation for wheat from the 2002-2003 and subsequent crop...

  2. Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages. Volume XXX, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Gertrud S., Ed.

    The following papers of relevance to second language instruction are compiled here: (1) "Bilingual Math in a Monolingual Classroom: A Field Study," by Elizabeth M. Baricevic; (2) "Ideologie et pedagogie: reflexions sur le manuel de francais au programme de '3e annee secondaire' en Algerie," by Jeanne Adam; (3) "Pedagogic Grammar and Applied…

  3. La reussite scolaire de votre enfant: Pour aider votre enfant a mieux apprendre a la Maison et a l'ecole, de la 1re a la 9e annee. Manuel d'accompagnement a l'intention du parent = The Parent Advantage: Helping Children Become More Successful Learners at Home and School, Grades 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Catherine; Antaya-Moore, Dana

    This guide for French-speaking parents of students with learning disabilities in Alberta presents a variety of strategies parents can use to help their children in grades 1 through 9 become successful learners. Section 1 offers ideas for helping students get and stay organized, such as using self-talk to create a positive attitude and organizing…

  4. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: 10e, 11e, and 12e annees (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grades 10, 11, and 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the senior high school (grades 10-12) curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in…

  5. Rever d'une langue: Anthologie des ecoles d'immersion de l'Alberta de la maternelle a la 11e annee (Dreaming in One Language: An Anthology of Essays from Immersion Schools in Alberta from Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Teachers Association, Edmonton.

    This publication, launched by the French Council of the Alberta Teachers' Association and prepared under the Millennium Partnership Program in Canada, presents a collection of essays written by French language immersion students in the elementary and secondary grades. Essay topics touch on the following themes: remembering, dreaming, celebrating,…

  6. Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

    Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

  7. The Impact of a Management Protocol on the Outcomes of Child Abuse in Hospitalized Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anselm C. W.; Li, C. H.; So, K. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the outcomes of children hospitalized for suspected child abuse before and after the implementation of a management protocol in a hospital in Hong Kong. Study period: Two 2-year periods before (1994-1995) and after (2002-2003) the implementation of the protocol in 1998. Methods: This is a retrospective hospital chart review in…

  8. Factors Affecting the Impact of Professional Development Programs on Teachers' Knowledge, Practice, Student Outcomes & Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Meiers, Marion; Beavis, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003) studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study…

  9. Factors that Promote and Inhibit the Academic Achievement of Rural Elementary African American Males in a Mississippi School: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Jones, Linda

    This study investigated factors that promote and inhibit the academic success of elementary African American males in grades 3 through 6 in a rural school in Mississippi. The qualitative study analyzed interview data gathered in 6 face-to-face interviews with 16 African American males over a 3-month period in the 2002-2003 academic year. All…

  10. Expert Opinions on Postsecondary Outdoor Adventure Risk Management Curriculum Design: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    A study of outdoor adventure risk management education was conducted in the fall of 2003 following the devastating avalanche season of winter 2002-2003, which took close to 50 lives in North America. The study was guided by the desire to better understand effective risk management training of outdoor adventure leaders in postsecondary…

  11. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bask, Miia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…

  12. Evolution of a Department as a Community of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, Charles; Mitchel, Lourdes; Mitchel, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The 2002/2003 Seton Hall University (SHU) ELMP (Education Leadership, Management and Policy) Department objectives included developing a "learning community" or Community of Learners (COL) framework for ELMP to advance a research and scholarship culture and have a "researchable" element. The Department developed a framework and…

  13. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  14. The Evolution of a Middle Level Education Program: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nicole L.; Owens, DeAnna N.; Seed, Allen H.; Key, Shirley G.

    2014-01-01

    Tennessee began its movement toward Middle Level Licensure during the 2002-2003 school year. Only 14 years later, in 2016, Middle Level Licensure in Tennessee will change. In this article, the background and experiences of seven middle level education teacher candidates at the University of Memphis who were the first candidates to complete the…

  15. Developing Digital Portfolios: Investigating How Digital Portfolios Can Facilitate Pupil Talk about Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate; Higgins, Steve; Miller, Jen; Packard, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Digital Portfolio Project at Newcastle University aimed over one year (2002/2003) to support teachers in producing, storing and accessing assessment portfolios of learner's work using information and communications technology (ICT). This paper draws on evidence of pupil views collected as part of 14 teacher-led case studies. The teachers all…

  16. Root Infinitives in Child Second Language English: An Aspectual Features Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavruseva, Elena

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of finiteness in early second language (L2) English of five consecutive bilinguals (ages 6 to 9). The departure point is Gavruseva's (2002; 2003) proposal that nonfinite root predicates result from the underspecification of syntactic aspectual heads at the initial state S0. Gavruseva's 'underspecification of…

  17. Creating Schools That Support Success for English Language Learners. Lessons Learned. Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanek, Jennifer; Raphael, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have brought the second largest wave of immigration in U.S. history. This has led to a rapid and unprecedented influx of immigrants to the Pacific Northwest as well as a rise in the number of English language learners (ELLs) in schools. Between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008, the Northwest's annual growth in ELL enrollment was nearly…

  18. An Overview of Article III and Article XII, Senate Bill 1, 77th Legislature: General Appropriations Act--Agencies of Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Div. of Research, Campus Planning and Finance.

    Almost all the funds appropriated to state agencies and institutions of higher education in Texas for the 2002-2003 biennium are provided through Senate Bill 1, General Appropriations Act, 77th Legislature. This report summarizes the higher education portion of that act. The all funds appropriation for higher education for the biennium is $14.6…

  19. Long-Term Trends in the National Demand, Supply, and Shortage of Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Erling E.

    2006-01-01

    With a focus on both teacher quality and quantity at the national level, this research examined long-term trends in the demand, supply, and shortage of special education teachers for 16 school years, from 1987/1988 through 2002/2003. These trends were based on data published in annual reports to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals…

  20. Recent Cocaine and Crack Use Among New Drug Treatment Clients in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Joanne; Robertson, Michele

    2004-01-01

    UK and US literature indicate that cocaine and crack users experience multiple problems and poor treatment outcomes (Gossop et al., 2002 , 2003 ). Using data collected as part of a Scottish national evaluation of drug treatment effectiveness, this paper: (i) provides information on the nature and extent of recent cocaine and crack use among 585…

  1. The Influence of Teaching Note-Taking and Information Mapping on Learning and Recalling in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    This work describes an experimental research on note taking and concept mapping in a science class of 5 graders in Kayseri (Central Anatolia, Turkey) in the academic year 2002 - 2003. Gained results are in favor of convictions that view note taking as an effective learning strategy. At least it was more effective than concept mapping in the…

  2. Older Computer-Literate Women: Their Motivations, Obstacles, and Paths to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Rita L.

    2008-01-01

    With the ever-increasing impact of computerized communication and information delivery, the need to encourage learning about technology is critical for the older population today as well as for soon-to-be retirees. Adler (1996, 2002, 2003) has described and defined the key benefits to seniors: enhanced communication with family and friends,…

  3. Are Physical Education-Related State Policies and Schools' Physical Education Requirement Related to Children's Physical Activity and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether the extent of states' physical education (PE) requirement policies and the prevalence of schools requiring PE are associated with children's physical activity (PA) and obesity. Methods: Two cycles (2002-2003 and 2006-2007) of cross-sectional data with individual- and state-level information were…

  4. History Jobs Decline 15% after Years of Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a five-year stretch of steady growth in the job market for academic historians is over. The number of job advertisements colleges have posted with the American Historical Association so far this academic year is down 15 percent from last year--the first decline since a slump that occurred in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. The…

  5. Perceived Factors Influencing High School Student Participation in an Integrated Statewide Dual Credit Program: An Examination of Program Success and Student Higher Education Selection Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchstone, Allison J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Dual credit programs have become increasingly popular with 71% U.S. public high schools offering dual credit courses in 2002-2003. As this popularity has grown, so have concerns regarding academic rigor, course quality, parity with college courses, and effects on higher education. Determining actual dual credit course equivalent in higher…

  6. Rising College Costs and an Illinois Effort to Control Them: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Teresa Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Rising college costs are of increasing concern. At the 12 public universities in Illinois, average increases in tuition were modest, generally in the 4% range, until 1999 when individual campuses begin to increase tuition at double digit rates. In 2002-2003, the overall average increase in tuition/fees more than doubled at 13.79%. In an effort to…

  7. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs. Report Number CN-04-SBP. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lawrence S.; McLaughlin, Joan E.; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Daft, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project (SBPP) to study the implementation and effects of providing universal free school breakfast in six school districts across the United States. For three years, from School Year (SY) 2000-2001 through SY 2002-2003, these six school districts received federal funds to offer…

  8. Genetic Interactions with Prenatal Social Environment: Effects on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 16026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Dalton; Rauscher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Caspi et al. (2002, 2003), Guo et al. (2008a), and Pescosolido et al. (2008) all claim to have demonstrated allele-by-environment interactions, but in all cases environmental influences are potentially endogenous to the unmeasured genetic characteristics of the subjects and their families. Thus, gene-gene interactions cannot be ruled out as an…

  9. Family and Consumer Sciences Programs in Secondary Schools: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werhan, Carol; Way, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    A national survey of secondary family and consumer sciences (FCS) education programs focusing on the 2002-2003 academic year showed that 5,517,976 students were enrolled in FCS classes taught by 37,500 teachers. Three states responding to the survey reported having a state requirement for a specific FCS course, and many states reported that local…

  10. "Good Books": Is There a Future for Academic Writing within the Educational Publishing Industry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Jon; Wellington, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on questionnaire responses received (via e-mail) during the period 2002-2003 from senior commissioning editors located within seven of the major UK publishing outlets. Drawing on the analytical framework of an earlier study by Nixon (1999), it focuses on the mediation of educational studies by market forces operating within and…

  11. Frequency of Repeated Courses Its Relation to Persistence and Performance in Lebanon's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ramzi; Nauffal, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between the frequency of repeating courses and students' performance in college. The study uses cohort data from academic years 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. We compared those who had repeated one, two and three courses on GPA and whether a relation exists of those who graduated/did not…

  12. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  13. 7 CFR 1463.106 - Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers... TOBACCO TRANSITION PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.106 Base quota levels for eligible tobacco producers. (a) BQL is determined separately, for each of the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, for...

  14. Your Renewal FAFSA: Free Application for Federal Student Aid, 2003-2004 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This form is used to renew an application for federal and state grants, work study, and loans. The renewal version contains preprinted information that the student reported for the 2002-2003 school year. As a result, it is faster and easier for the student to use than the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The form contains…

  15. The Compleat Teacher-Scholar: An Interview with Stephen F. Davis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William

    2009-01-01

    Stephen F. Davis is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Emporia State University. He served as the 2002-2003 Knapp Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Diego. Currently, he is Distinguished Guest Professor at Morningside College and Visiting Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Texas Wesleyan University. Since…

  16. Transforming the School Workforce: Remodelling Experiences in the Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Steve; Gunter, Helen; Thomas, Hywel; Butt, Graham; Lance, Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article draws upon a case study of a special school (Park Vale) participating in the Department for Education and Science (DfES) Transforming School Workforce (TSW) Pathfinder Pilot Project (2002-2003). The Project was developed as a response by the DfES: firstly, to growing difficulties in the recruitment and retention of teachers in the…

  17. Fathers' Participation in the Domestic Activities of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Maria Clelia; Bruzzese, Dario

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the data from the multi-purpose survey on household "Time Use" conducted by Istat (the Italian National Statistical Institute) in 2002-2003 and the data from this same survey conducted in 1988-1989 will be analysed with the purpose of describing the fathers' daily participation in the domestic activities and of highlighting the…

  18. Relational Trust and Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of Principal Trust and School Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Trust among teachers is an important aspect of the capacity for reform in schools. In previous research, trust has traditionally been considered as a monolithic variable that characterizes this special element as a relationship across a school (Bryk & Schneider, 2002, 2003; Goddard, 2003; Kochanek, 2005). However, this study proposes that the…

  19. Payload Flight Assignments: NASA Mixed Fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Robert A. R.

    1997-01-01

    This manifest summarizes the missions planned by NASA for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV's) as of the date of publication. Space Shuttle and ELV missions are shown through calendar year 2003. Space Shuttle missions for calendar years 2002-2003 are under review pending the resolution of details in the assembly sequence of the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Voices from the Field: Educators Respond to Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Elisabeth L.; Buttles, Melissa; Kafka, Judith; Park, Sandra; Russell, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to understand teachers' and administrators' experiences with public school accountability, Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE), with the support of the Noyce Foundation, established the Educator Responses to Accountability Project (ERAP). During the 2002-2003 school year, the authors conducted in-depth interviews with…

  1. IMPACT OF VARIABLE WELL YIELD ON CENTER PIVOT PACKAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect the continuing decrease on water levels have on center pivot irrigation systems is analyzed. Area weighted average water level changes are -1.0, -1.7, and -1.3 feet in the states of Colorado, Kansas and Nebraska. The 2002-2003 water level changes varied from a rise of 9 feet to a decli...

  2. Discourse Analysis as Potential for Re-Visioning Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Brent C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with a premise that each person's musical education is made of multiple and diverse experiences that occur in settings both in and out of school (Campbell 2002, 2003, 2008; Green 2002, 2005; Jaffurs 2004, 2006). Nevertheless, when speaking and writing about music education, one often restricts the kinds of music, ways of…

  3. Serving Those Most In Need or Not? A Report on the Implementation of the NCLB's Supplemental Education Services in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    This report discusses findings from 2003 surveys conducted by Advocates for Children of New York (AFC), which assessed the implementation and effectiveness of the Supplemental Education Services program (SES) required under the No Child Left Behind Act. SES services, which began in 2002-2003, offered over 240,000 eligible children in schools…

  4. Tracking Foreign Students in the U.S.: Recent Developments. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Patricia

    According to the latest report by the Institute of International Education, 586,323 foreign students studied in the United States in the 2002-2003 academic year. Foreign students benefit U.S. colleges and universities in many ways, including economic contributions and the value of their work as teachers and researchers, but there has been…

  5. Assessment of the Undergraduate Medical Education Environment in a Large UK Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Fidelma; McAleer, Sean; Roff, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the undergraduate educational environment in a large UK medical school. Method: Prospective study using the already validated Dundee Ready Education Environment (DREEM) questionnaire ("Appendix 1"). Setting: A large UK medical school. Participants: All medical students enrolled in the academic year 2002/2003. Main outcome…

  6. The Distribution of Teacher Quality in Illinois. Policy Research Report: IERC 2005-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Karen J.; Presley, Jennifer B.; White, Bradford R.

    2005-01-01

    This study looks at the distribution of all 140,000 teachers in 2002-2003 among Illinois' public schools using five teacher attributes that have been shown in previous research to be related to student performance and for which they were able to obtain data--college competitiveness, years of experience, type of credential, performance on the Basic…

  7. Evaluation of New Century High Schools: Profile of an Initiative to Create and Sustain Small, Successful High Schools. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Eileen M.; Klinge, Allan; Reisner, Elizabeth R.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of the New Century High Schools (NCHS) initiative examined operations and student outcomes in 75 schools from 2002-2003 through 2005-2006. This report, the final in a series of annual evaluation reports, presents data collected over those years, with a focus on school year 2005-2006. The NCHS initiative grew out of a program theory…

  8. The Provision of Foreign Language Learning for Pupils at Key Stage 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Patricia; Jones, Jane; Macrory, Gee

    2004-01-01

    Following the publication of the National Languages Strategy "Languages for All: Languages for life" (2002), the DfES commissioned research in the 2002-2003 academic year to investigate the extent and nature of the teaching of modern foreign languages at key stage 2 (KS2) in England. Three further research aims related to the effectiveness of…

  9. Missing Out: Excessive Absenteeism Adversely Affects Elementary Reading Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockert, Christine; Harrington, Sonja; Vaughn, Debra; Kelly, Kirk; Gooden, John

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to answer the question "Does excessive absenteeism affect student academic achievement?" During the 2002-2003 academic year, 188 students attending grades 3 through 5 at an urban Tennessee elementary school with a high poverty level participated in the study. Demographic data were gathered to provide descriptive statistics…

  10. Trends in College Pricing, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, New York, NY.

    This report, based on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges, provides updated information on tuition and other expenses associated with attending public and private nonprofit institutions of postsecondary education in the United States in the 2002-2003 academic year. The annual survey is distributed to more than 2,900 postsecondary…

  11. Technological Literacy Standards: Practical Answers and Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Shelli; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In October 2005, the Technology for All Americans Project (TfAAP) came to an end, having far exceeded its goals. TfAAP delivered a philosophical basis of the need for technological literacy (ITEA, 1996); content, student assessment, professional development, and program standards for technological literacy (ITEA, 2000/2002; 2003), and practical…

  12. Building an Effective Citizenry: Lessons Learned from Initiatives in Youth Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sarah S.; Voke, Heather M.

    In 2002-2003, American Youth Policy Forum conducted a series of forums and field trips focused on issues related to the development of effective citizenry and youth engagement. This publication reports on some of the ideas that were presented and discussed during the course of these activities, and describes some of the work that individuals and…

  13. Lifelong Learning and "Time Competence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Ute

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the question of the strategies and responsibilities of employers and employees with regard to the investment of time into learning. It is based on the findings of a study of medium-sized businesses in Thuringen 2002/2003. Employees and human resources (HR) personnel from thirteen companies were surveyed about general and…

  14. State-Level Uses of NSSE Data: Observations from Kentucky. National Roundtable Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    During the 2002-2003 academic year, six roundtables were held to explore uses of the data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) for improvement of student learning. This paper describes the roundtable discussion held in Kentucky in December 2002. This roundtable focused on ways the NSSE can contribute to state-level efforts on…

  15. Evaluating the Integration of Technology in a Teacher Preparation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecker, Beverly M.; Lennex, Lesia; Lackner, Katherine

    The Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers for Technology grant at Morehead State University, Kentucky, was designed to have an immediate, simultaneous impact on the education of teacher candidates, professional development of university faculty, and curriculum reform. In the third year of the grant (2002-2003), evaluation focused on the integration of…

  16. Quantifying Variation in Head Start Effects on Young Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Skills Using Data from the National Head Start Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Weiland, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), a nationally representative multisite randomized trial, to quantify variation in effects of Head Start during 2002-2003 on children's cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes relative to the effects of other local alternatives, including parent care. We find that (1) treatment and control…

  17. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  18. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  19. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  20. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  1. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  2. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  3. PARTICULATE ORGANIC SOURCE MARKERS IN THE NEW YORK CITY METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling network of four sites was established for the Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM2.5 (SOAP) project during 2002-2003 to investigate composition, seasonal and spatial variability, and source contributions to particulate organic matter in the New York City met...

  4. Competition: Charter and Public Elementary Schools in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamienski, Al

    2011-01-01

    Since the 2002-2003 academic year, the number of students attending and number of charter schools has grown. Yet, unknown are the comparative performance of charter schools as well as any factors, such as the market-based theory of competition, which may contribute to differences. Using geographic information systems and hierarchical linear…

  5. High Expense: Disability Severity and Charter School Attendance in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    Much of the literature related to the skimming or cropping of students by charter schools has ignored special education students. This article examines the relationship between the severity of student disabilities and their likelihood of having attended an Arizona charter school in the 2002-2003 school year. After adjusting for student traits,…

  6. In Search of Quality in Finnish Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted during the academic year 2002-2003 in a municipality in Eastern Finland. It focuses on pre-school education assessing its quality factors from the parents', teachers' and children's points of view. Theoretically, the study focuses on analyses of the purposes of the national core curriculum and pedagogical issues that are…

  7. DMSP AND ITS ROLE AS AN ANTIOXIDANT IN THE SALT MARSH MACROPHYTE SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will continue to measure seasonal patterns of DMSP and its oxidation products in natural populations of S. alterniflora throughout the 2002-2003 project period. We will carry out tests using antibiotics and antifungal agents to evaluate whether leaf micro...

  8. Legislative Report on Charter Schools. Statutory Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Paula Crandall; Geraghty, Lisa; Wendt, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the actions taken on new charter school petitions or proposals. This report offers a summary of charter school activity in the 426 Wisconsin school districts during the 2002-2003 school year. The data is based upon an electronic survey administered by the Wisconsin Department of Public…

  9. Why Are Recovering Substance Abuse Counselors Paid Less?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Todd A.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Roman, Paul M.; Sindelar, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine why recovering substance abuse counselors are paid less, on average and controlling for other factors, than nonrecovering substance abuse counselors. The data come from the 2002-2003 wave of the National Treatment Center Study and consist of 1,487 full-time counselors from nationally representative samples of…

  10. Detection and isolation of exotic Newcastle disease (ENDV) from field collected flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flies were collected by sweep net from the vicinity of two small groups of "backyard" poultry (10-20 chickens per group) that had been identified as infected with exotic Newcastle disease virus (ENDV) in Los Angeles County during the 2002-2003 END outbreak in California. Collected flies were subdiv...

  11. Narrative Language Pedagogy and the Stabilization of Indigenous Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warford, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses recent trends in language pedagogy that emphasize movement from a psycholinguistic to a more sociocultural view of language teaching and learning. Nourished primarily by sociocultural theory and Hinton's (2002, 2003) efforts to promote the stabilization of indigenous languages, the author presents Narrative Language…

  12. Depression and Anxiety among Asian Americans: The Effects of Social Support and Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangalang, Cindy C.; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2012-01-01

    It is almost taken for granted that social relationships benefit mental health, yet these relationships may not always be protective. This study examines how the support and strains individuals derive from family and friends may be related to depression and anxiety among Asian Americans. Data come from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian…

  13. Student Achievement in Private Schools: Results From NAEP 2000-2005. NCES 2006-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report is the first to focus on private school students' performance on NAEP assessments. It provides results in reading, mathematics, science, and writing in 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Specifically, it focuses on the three private school types that combined enroll the greatest proportion of private school students (Catholic, Lutheran, and…

  14. Mission IM-Possible: Starting an Instant Message Reference Service Using Trillian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocco, Ronalee; Huff, Alice

    2007-01-01

    The authors, both of whom are working at the Musselman library, relate how they are always looking for ways to improve and update their reference service. When they introduced a chat reference service to their online library services, they received only four inquiries in the entire year 2002-2003. The authors found out later that the paltry number…

  15. How a Strong School Faced "Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likis, Lori

    2006-01-01

    When Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Boston realized that their students' 2002-2003 math scores on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System fell below the target set by Massachusetts for adequate yearly progress, they saw not one problem (poor math achievement), but two. Because it was the fifth year the school had not hit AYP…

  16. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Material on Students' Cognitive Levels, Misconceptions and Attitudes Towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were…

  17. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  18. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  19. Understanding Why Students Participate in Multiple Surveys: Who are the Hard-Core Responders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at survey response across multiple surveys to understand who the hard-core survey responders and non-responders are. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use the number of surveys…

  20. Non-Response in Student Surveys: The Role of Demographics, Engagement and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at participation across multiple surveys to understand survey non-response; by using multiple surveys we minimize the impact of survey salience. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use…

  1. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  2. Hierarchy and Happiness: The Influence of Emotion on Administrative Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Administrative job satisfaction in higher education is influenced by intrinsic and interpersonal factors (Volkwein & Zhou, 2002, 2003). Pioneers of the "affect as information" hypothesis of emotion postulate that emotions provide value-laden information regarding whether goals, standards, and attitudes are impacted positively or negatively by…

  3. Reflective Teaching Practice among Student Teachers: The Case in a Tertiary Institution in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonor, B. O.; Badmus, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the reform outcome of reflective teaching introduced by the Faculty of Education among the student teachers in a Nigerian University during the 2002\\2003 teaching practice exercise. Three hundred and four students who were in the final and penultimate years of graduation comprised the sample for the study. Six research questions…

  4. Language Choice, Education and Community Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the pedagogical and cultural impact of the PROPELCA (Operational Research Project for the Teaching of Cameroonian Languages) mother-tongue education program being implemented in the Bafut, Kom and Nso' language communities of the Northwest Province of Cameroon. Using research carried out in 2002-2003, the author…

  5. The Changing Prevalence of Autism in Three Regions of Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène; Coo, Helen; Lam, Miu; Breitenbach, Marlene M.; Hennessey, Paula E.; Jackman, Paulette D.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Dewey, Deborah; Bernier, François P.; Chung, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2002/2003, the National Epidemiologic Database for the Study of Autism in Canada started capturing information on children diagnosed with autism in different regions of the country. Based on data collected through 2008 in Newfoundland and Labrador and 2010 in Prince Edward Island and Southeastern Ontario, the estimated average annual percent…

  6. Jet Charge Tagging at CDF using Run II Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    We present a study of the jet charge tagging in Run II CDF. The jet charge tagging method is applied to determine the b/barb-quark flavor of B hadrons at the time of production in a sample of b arrow ℓ ν X decays collected in 2002-2003.

  7. Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bressan, Andrea

    2006-07-11

    The COMPASS Experiment at the CERN SPS has a broad physics program focused on the nucleon spin structure and on hadron spectroscopy, using muon and hadron beams. One of the main objectives for the spin program with the muon beam is the measurement of the transversity distribution {delta}Tq(x) in semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS). In the years 2002, 2003, and 2004 data were collected using a 160 GeV polarized muon beam and a 6LiD target transversely polarized with respect to the muon beam for about 20% of the running time. Here the results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetries extracted from the 2002 data are presented together with the projected statistical error for the whole 2002-2004 period and for the proton run foreseen in 2006. Results for {lambda} polarization from 2002-2003 data are also presented.

  8. Evidence for the presence of bluetongue virus in Kosovo between 2001 and 2004.

    PubMed

    Osmani, A; Murati, B; Kabashi, Q; Goga, I; Berisha, B; Wilsmore, A J; Hamblin, C

    2006-03-25

    In 2001, clinical cases of bluetongue were observed in Kosovo, and in that year and in 2003 and 2004, serum samples were collected from cattle and small ruminants and tested for antibodies to bluetongue virus. The results provide evidence that bluetongue virus was not present in Kosovo before the summer of 2001, but that the virus circulated subclinically among the cattle and sheep populations of Kosovo in 2002, 2003 and 2004. PMID:16565337

  9. Results of GEANT simulations and comparison with first experiments at DANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    Reifarth, R.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Browne, J. C.; Esch, E. I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2003-07-29

    This report describes intensive Monte Carlo simulations carried out to be compared with the results of the first run cycle with DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments). The experimental results were gained during the commissioning phase 2002/2003 with only a part of the array. Based on the results of these simulations the most important items to be improved before the next experiments will be addressed.

  10. Why Rural Matters 2005: The Facts about Rural Education in the 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry; Strange, Marty

    2005-01-01

    In 2002-2003, 27% (12.5 million) of public school students attended school in communities of fewer than 25,000 and 19% (8.8 million) attended school in smaller communities of fewer than 2,500. In this report, the authors focus on the schools in those smaller communities, the most rural schools in America. They frame the report around 22…

  11. Teaching and Communicating Astronomy at Rey Juan Carlos University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán-Obispo, M.; Serrano, A.; Aguirre, J.; Martín, P. San

    We present our activities of popularization of Astronomy at Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid, especially our 30-h workshop for people older than 55 (University for the Elderly) held since the academic year 2002/2003. Our course aims to introduce the basic topics on Astronomy to a group of motivated students who, in most cases, were not able to complete their education in their youth due to the historical environment of Spain in the middle of the twentieth century.

  12. Assuring that Lessons Learned Critical to Mission Success Get Used

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA has an established process for documenting and disseminating lessons learned from spaceflight missions and related activities. However, independent assessments of the NASA lessons learned process conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2011 have concluded that NASA programs and projects are failing to heed and apply these lessons learned. JPL recently completed implementation of a three-pronged approach to assure that NASA lessons learned get used by JPL spaceflight projects.

  13. La Cometa 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko el il contributo degli astrofili italiani alla missione ROSETTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Giannantonio

    2004-08-01

    Comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the new target of the ROSETTA spacecraft, was oberved during the 2002/2003 apparition, displacing an unusual tail. The tail was compatible with a neck-line structure and this implies a high nuclear activity far before perihelion. Images and data from the current and previous apparitions show that the comet reaches the maximum brightening after the perihelion passage (Af[rho] = 200-250 cm).

  14. Same Side Pion Tagging Study at CDF using Run II Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Christoph

    2004-05-01

    We present a study of the same side tagging in Run II CDF. The same side pion tagging method is applied to determine the b/barb-quark flavor of B mesons at the time of production in a sample of B_u,d arrow ℓ D^(*) X decays collected in 2002-2003. Three decay signatures are reconstructed. The analysis is a prerequisite to apply same-side kaon tagging to the lepton+D_s^(*) sample in the future.

  15. Same Side Pion Tagging Study in Lepton+D^(*) Sample at CDF using Run 2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitin, Alexandre

    2003-04-01

    The same side pion tagging method is applied to determine the b/barb-quark flavor of B mesons at the time of production in a sample of B_u,d arrow ℓ D^(*) X decays collected in 2002-2003 using the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Three decay signatures are reconstructed. The analysis is a prerequisite to apply same-side kaon tagging to the lepton+D_s^(*) sample in the future.

  16. [Applicability of agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM) in simulating the production and water use of wheat-maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zheng, You-fei; Yu, Qiang; Wang, En-li

    2007-11-01

    The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was applied to simulate the 1999-2001 field experimental data and the 2002-2003 water use data at the Yucheng Experiment Station under Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, aimed to verify the applicability of the model to the wheat-summer maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain. The results showed that the average errors of the simulations of leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and soil moisture content in 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field experiments were 27.61%, 24.59% and 7.68%, and 32.65%, 35.95% and 10.26%, respectively, and those of LAI and biomass on the soils with high and low moisture content in 2002-2003 were 26.65% and 14.52%, and 23.91% and 27.93%, respectively. The simulations of LAI and biomass accorded well with the measured values, with the coefficients of determination being > 0.85 in 1999-2000 and 2002-2003, and 0.78 in 2000-2001, indicating that APSIM had a good applicability in modeling the crop biomass and soil moisture content in the continuous cropping system, but the simulation error of LAI was a little larger. PMID:18260451

  17. The influence of health expenditures on household impoverishment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. METHODS Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households) with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. RESULTS After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8%) and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%), respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9%) and 1.3 (17.3%) percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. CONCLUSIONS Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged. PMID:25372171

  18. Pluto's volatile distribution from speckle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Leslie; Howell, Steve; Young, Eliot; Buie, Marc; Grundy, Will

    2013-08-01

    Howell et al. (2012) separated Pluto and Charon with the speckle imager, DSSI, and measured their diameters. We propose to build on this work, to map the volatiles on Pluto, by taking more exposures, observing in four filters designed to measure Pluto's albedo, color, and CH_4 distribution, and observing multiple faces on Pluto. This will help us study Pluto's migrating frosts as Pluto leaves the sun, and as its summer pole becomes more directly illuminated. We compare results back to HST maps in 1994 and 2002/2003 and forward to New Horizons maps in 2015 and future ground-based maps in 2015 or beyond.

  19. Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.

  20. Episodic ejection from super-massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Hunstead, Richard W.

    2007-04-01

    Episodic activity in super-massive black holes on timescales of a million years is confirmed by radio galaxies exhibiting `double-double' radio morphologies (Subrahmanyan et al, 1996; Schoenmakers et al, 2000). Spectacular examples showing a renewal of beam activity in the form of new beams emerging within relic radio lobes of previous activity have placed the phenomenon of recurrence in AGN outflows on a firm footing (Saripalli et al 2002; 2003). Using 25% of the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey we have compiled flux and volume limited samples of giant radio galaxies (Saripalli et al 2005) and herein we discuss the occurrence rates for the restarting of nuclear activity.

  1. ELECTRON DETECTORS FOR VACUUM PRESSURE RISE DIAGNOSTICS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    IRISO-ARIZ,U.DREES,A.FISCHER,W.GASSNER,D.GOULD,O.GULLOTTA,J.LEE,R.PONNAIYAN,V.TRBOJEVIC,D.ZENO,K.ZHANG,S.Y.

    2003-05-12

    In the RHIC 2001 run, an unexpected vacuum pressure rise versus bunch increasing currents was observed in both gold and proton operations. This pressure increase due to molecular desorption is suspected to be induced mainly by electron multipacting, but other causes may coexist, such as ion desorption due to halo scraping. In order to get a reliable diagnostic of the phenomenon electron detectors have been installed along the RHIC ring. In this report we describe results measured by the electron detectors with energy filters during the RHIC 2002/2003 run.

  2. [Analysis of the progressivity of Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) financing].

    PubMed

    Ugá, Maria Alicia Domínguez; Santos, Isabela Soares

    2006-08-01

    This article analyzes the level of progressivity in taxes financing the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). Distribution of the tax burden financing the SUS was calculated using micro-data from the Household Budgets Survey, 2002-2003. The Kakwani index, which shows a tax system's level of progressivity, was calculated. The Kakwani index of public financing was -0.008, and SUS financing was nearly proportional to income. From a social justice perspective this is highly undesirable in a society like Brazil, with a Gini index of 0.57. The system should be clearly progressive in order to counterbalance the country's extreme income concentration. PMID:16832531

  3. Study of the relationship between organizational culture and organizational outcomes using hierarchical linear modeling methodology.

    PubMed

    Platonova, Elena A; Hernandez, S Robert; Shewchuk, Richard M; Leddy, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of organizational culture influence organizational outcomes, specially, individual employee job satisfaction. The study was conducted in the health care industry in the United States. It examined the data on employee perceptions of job attributes, organizational culture, and job satisfaction, collected by Press Ganey Associates from 88 hospitals across the country in 2002-2003. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test how organizational culture affects individual employee job satisfaction. Results indicated that some dimensions of organizational culture, specifically, job security and performance recognition, play a role in improving employee job satisfaction. PMID:16849991

  4. Trace gas emissions from biomass burning inferred from aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton-Walsh, Clare; Jones, Nicholas; Wilson, Stephen; Meier, Arndt; Deutscher, Nicholas; Griffith, David; Mitchell, Ross; Campbell, Susan

    2004-03-01

    We have observed strong correlations between simultaneous and co-located measurements of aerosol optical depth and column amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde and ammonia in bushfire smoke plumes over SE Australia during the Austral summers of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003. We show how satellite-derived aerosol optical depth maps may be used in conjunction with these correlations to determine the total amounts of these gases present in a fire-affected region. This provides the basis of a method for estimating total emissions of trace gases from biomass burning episodes using visible radiances measured by satellites.

  5. Transversity signals in two hadron correlation at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Rainer

    2006-07-11

    Measurement of two hadron production introducing the chiral odd interference fragmentation function H{sub 1}{sup arcl} is considered a new probe of the transverse spin distribution {delta}Tq(x). COMPASS is a fixed target experiment on the SPS M2 beamline at CERN. Its target can be polarised both longitudinally and transversely with respect to the polarised 160 GeV/c {mu}+ beam. In 2002, 2003, and 2004, 20% of the beam-time was spent in the transverse configuration on a 6LiD target, allowing the measurement of transversity effects. First results of the analysis of two hadron production will be reported.

  6. Transversity signals in two hadron correlation at COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Rainer

    2005-10-06

    Measurement of two hadron production introducing the chiral odd interference fragmentation function H{sub 1} is considered a new probe of the transverse spin distribution {delta}Tq(x). COMPASS is a fixed target experiment on the SPS M2 beamline at CERN. Its target can be polarised both longitudinally and transversally with respect to the polarised 160 GeV/c {mu}+ beam. In 2002, 2003, and 2004, 20% of the beam-time was spent in the transverse configuration on a 6LiD target, allowing the measurement of transversity effects. First results of the analysis of two hadron production will be reported.

  7. Magnetic CVs in the UCT CCD CV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.

    2004-12-01

    An overview is given of all the magnetic CVs found in the UCT CCD CV Survey (Woudt & Warner 2001, 2002, 2003a). We have identified eight new candidate Intermediate Polars (IP), of which six are classical novae (RR Cha, DD Cir, AP Cru, V697 Sco, V373 Sct, and RX J1039.7-0507). The two other candidate IPs are Aqr1 (2236+0052) and RX J0944.5+0357. In addition, there are two probable Polars, namely V351 Pup (= Nova Puppis 1991) and FIRST J102347.6+003841.

  8. High Energy Cosmic Ray Electron Spectra measured from the ATIC Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K. E.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) is specifically designed for high energy cosmic ray ion detection. From simulation and a CERN beam test exposure we find that the design consisting of a graphite target and an energy detection device, a totally active calorimeter of BGO scintillator, gives us sufficient information to distinguish electrons from protons up to the TeV energy range. Balloon observations were successfully carried out over Antarctica in both 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 for a total of more than 35 days. This paper presents preliminary results on the spectrum of high energy electrons observed in the first ATIC flight.

  9. Molecular Tools for Investigating the Gut Microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Christophe

    The “microbial world within us” (Zoetendal et al., 2006) is populated by a complex society of indigenous microorganisms that feature different “ethnic” populations. Those microbial cells thriving within us are estimated to outnumber human body cells by a factor of ten to one. Insights into the relation between the intestinal microbial community and its host have been gained through gnotobiology. Indeed, the influence of the gut microbiota upon human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition has been inferred by comparing gnotoxenic and axenic murine models (Hooper et al., 1998, 2002, 2003; Hooper and Gordon, 2001).

  10. Being influenced: a Cherokee way of mentoring.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research findings related to how the Cherokee male achieves self-reliance and how health care professionals can facilitate and incorporate the Cherokee concept of self-reliance into heath care of the Cherokee. Self-reliance to the Cherokee has been defined as a cultural domain with a composite of the three categories: (a) being responsible, (b) being disciplined, and (c) being confident (Lowe, 2002, 2003). Two sample groups of 12 to 14 Cherokee adults were interviewed and observed. The results reveal that mentor-type relationships influenced the participants in the development of Cherokee self-reliance. PMID:16028448

  11. Investigations of volcanic and earthquake-related deformation: Observations and models from Long Valley Caldera, northwestern Peloponnese, and northwestern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lujia

    2011-12-01

    The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized geodesy with high accuracy, fast speed, simple use, and low cost. This dissertation investigates three topics on volcano and earthquake-related deformation using GPS measurements and models to demonstrate the power of the new generation of geodetic methods. The three topics include the 2002-2003 continued episodic inflation at Long Valley Caldera in eastern California, the coseismic and postseismic response of the energetic 2008 MW 6.4 Achaia-Elia Earthquake in northwest Peloponnese, Greece, and the interseismic megathrust coupling and forearc sliver transport near the Nicoya Peninsula in northwest Costa Rica.

  12. Direct measurement of the W boson decay width in proton-antiproton collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jun-jie

    2004-10-01

    This dissertation describes a direct measurement of the W boson total decay width, {Lambda}{sub W}, using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement uses an integrated luminosity of 177.3 pb{sup -1} data, collected during the 2002-2003 run. The width is determined from the shape of the transverse mass distribution, M{sub T}, by fitting the data in the tail region 100 < M{sub T} < 200 GeV. The result if {Lambda}{sub W} = 2.011 {+-} 0.093(stat) {+-} 0.107(syst) GeV.

  13. Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Andrea; Alparone, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. More than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered 'burst-type', i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group 'v', located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more 'tectonic' behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group 'v' and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the late seismogram windows, highlighted by cross correlation analysis, as well as in delays, increasing proportionally to lapse time, detected by coda wave interferometry. Such

  14. Qui sera le nouvel Einstein ? Vers une nouvelle theorie de la gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1999-10-01

    Un debat de plus d'un siecle a resurgi ces toutes dernieres annees avec une vigueur nouvelle. L'enjeu ? Mettre fin, ni plus ni moins, a l'une des contradictions les plus inouies de la physique fondamentale, en reconciliant mecanique quantique et relativite generale. En effet, a l'heure ou la gravitation semble enfin sur le point de fusionner avec les trois autres forces de la nature. il est certain que la relativite d'Einstein doit etre bientot remplacer par une autre theorie... Reste quye tous les physiciens sont loin de s'accorder sur la marche a suivree. Gravitation quantique, relativite d'echelle, supersymetrie, les candidates ne manquent pas.

  15. Fluctuations quantiques et instabilites structurales dans les conducteurs a basse dimensionalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikande, Alain Moise

    Un engouement particulier s'est manifeste ces dernieres annees pour les systemes electroniques fortement correles, ce en rapport avec l'immense richesse de leurs proprietes physiques. En general, ces proprietes sont induites par la presence d'interactions entre electrons qui, combinees a la structure du reseau moleculaire, donnent parfois lieu a une tres grande variete de phases electroniques et structurales ayant des incidences directes sur les phenomenes de transport dans ces materiaux. Les systemes electroniques couples a un reseau moleculaire et designes systemes electron-phonon font partie de cette classe de materiaux qui ont recemment capte l'attention, en raison notamment de la competition entre plusieurs echelles d'energie dans un environnement caracterise par une forte anisotropie cristalline et une dynamique moleculaire assez importante. En effet, en plus des proprietes electroniques et structurales particulieres la dimensionalite de ces systemes contribue egalement a leur richesse. Ainsi, une tres forte anisotropie structurale peut rehausser de facon considerable l'importance des interactions entre electrons et entre molecules constituant le reseau au point ou la physique du systeme soit regie par de tres fortes fluctuations. Ce dernier contexte est devenu un domaine a part de la physique des systemes fortement correles, a savoir celui des les phenomenes critiques quantiques . Parmi les systemes electron-phonon, on retrouve les composes inorganique KCP et organique TTF-TCNQ decouverts durant les annees 70, et explores en profondeur a cause de leur tendance vers une instabilite du type onde de densite de charge a basse temperature. Ces composes, en general designes systemes de Peierls en reference a l'instabilite de leurs structures electroniques regie par le reseau moleculaire, ont recemment connu un regain d'interet a la lumiere des nouveaux developpements dans les techniques de caracterisation des structures electroniques ainsi que sur le plan de

  16. Bumble bee fauna of Palouse Prairie: survey of native bee pollinators in a fragmented ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hatten, T D; Looney, C; Strange, J P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bumble bees, Bombus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae:), are dominant pollinators in the northern hemisphere, providing important pollination services for commercial crops and innumerable wild plants. Nationwide declines in several bumble bee species and habitat losses in multiple ecosystems have raised concerns about conservation of this important group. In many regions, such as the Palouse Prairie, relatively little is known about bumble bee communities, despite their critical ecosystem functions. Pitfall trap surveys for ground beetles in Palouse prairie remnants conducted in 2002-2003 contained considerable by-catch of bumble bees. The effects of landscape context, remnant features, year, and season on bumble bee community composition were examined. Additionally, bees captured in 2002-2003 were compared with historic records for the region to assess changes in the presence of individual species. Ten species of bumble bee were captured, representing the majority of the species historically known from the region. Few detectable differences in bumble bee abundances were found among remnants. Community composition differed appreciably, however, based on season, landscape context, and elevation, resulting in different bee assemblages between western, low-lying remnants and eastern, higherelevation remnants. The results suggest that conservation of the still species-rich bumble bee fauna should take into account variability among prairie remnants, and further work is required to adequately explain bumble bee habitat associations on the Palouse. PMID:23902138

  17. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002-2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n = 196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. Economic development (GDP/c), degree of urbanization, and the Human Development Index (HDI) were used to measure country-level variables and physical inactivity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association among country-level factors, individual occupational status, and physical inactivity. Overall, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity in 2002-2003 was 23.7%. Individuals working in the white-collar industry compared to agriculture were 84% more likely to be physically inactive (OR: 1.84, CI: 1.73-1.95). Among low- and middle-income countries increased HDI values were associated with decreased levels of physical inactivity (OR: 0.98, CI: 0.97-0.99). This study is one of the first to adjust for within-country differences, specifically occupation while analyzing physical inactivity. As countries experience economic development, changes are also seen in their occupational structure, which result in increased countrywide physical inactivity levels. PMID:26844185

  18. Five-year analysis of background carbon dioxide and ozone variations during summer seasons at the Mario Zucchelli station (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Calzolari, F.; Bonafè, U.; Lanconelli, C.; Lupi, A.; Busetto, M.; Vitale, V.; Colombo, T.; Bonasoni, P.

    2011-11-01

    The work focuses on the analysis of CO2 and O3 surface variations observed during five summer experimental campaigns carried out at the ‘Icaro Camp’ clean air facility (74.7°S, 164.1°E, 41 m a.s.l.) of the ‘Mario Zucchelli’ Italian coastal research station. This experimental activity allowed the definition of summer average background O3 values that ranged from 18.3 ± 4.7 ppbv (summer 2005-2006) to 21.3 ± 4.0 ppbv (summer 2003-2004). Background CO2 concentrations showed an average growth rate of 2.10 ppmv yr-1, with the highest CO2 increase between the summer campaigns 2002-2003 and 2001-2002 (+2.85 ppmv yr-1), probably reflecting the influence of the 2002/2003 ENSO event. A comparison with other Antarctic coastal sites suggested that the summer background CO2 and O3 at MZS-IC are well representative of the average conditions of the Ross Sea coastal regions. As shown by the analysis of local wind direction and by 3-D back-trajectory calculations, the highest CO2 and O3 values were recorded in correspondence to air masses flowing from the interior of the Antarctic continent. These results suggest that air mass transport from the interior of the continent exerts an important influence on air mass composition in Antarctic coastal areas.

  19. Comparing Model Ozone Loss during the SOLVE and SOLVE-2 Winters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Model simulations have been used to analyze the factors influencing ozone loss during the 1999-2000 and 2002-2003 js. For both winters, the evolution of the Arctic vortex from November to April has been simulated using a trajectory-based microphysical and photochemical model. Extensive PSC formation and strong ozone depletion are evident in both winters. However, the ozone loss begins earlier in the 2002-2003 winter, with significant ozone depletion by early January. Analysis of the model results shows that during December 2002 not only cold temperatures but also the vortex structure was critical, allowing PSC-processed air parcels to experience significant solar exposure. The resultant ozone loss can be differentiated from ozone loss that occurs in the springtime, in particular because of the continued exposure to PSCs. For example, chlorine reactivation by the PSCs causes ozone loss to be insensitive to denitrification. Therefore, diagnosing the extent of ozone loss early in the winter is critical In understanding the overall winter-long ozone depletion.

  20. Integrating Landscape Ecology and Geoinformatics to Decipher Landscape Dynamics for Regional Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikou, Angela; Papapanagiotou, Evangelos; Troumbis, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning.

  1. Effect of air temperature on forecasting the start of Cupressaceae pollen type in Ponferrada (Leon, Spain).

    PubMed

    Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; González-Parrado, Zulima; Vega-Maray, Ana María; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa María; Fernández-González, Delia

    2007-01-01

    In order to survive periods of adverse cold climatic conditions, plant requirements are satisfied by means of physiological adaptations to prevent cells from freezing. Thus, the growth of woody plants in temperate regions slows down and they enter into a physiological state called dormancy. In order to identify the chilling and heat requirements to overcome the dormancy period of Cupressaceae pollen type in the south of Europe, we have carried out our study with aerobiological data from a 10-year (1996-2005) period in Ponferrada, León (Spain). For the chilling requirements the best result was with a threshold temperature of 7.1 degrees C and an average of 927 CH. Calculation of heat requirements was carried out with maximum temperature, with 490 growth degree days (GDD) needed, with a threshold temperature of 0 degrees C. We have used the 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 periods in order to determine the real validity of the model. We have not used these years in developing the models. The dates predicted differ in only a few days from those observed: in 2002-2003 there was a difference of 11 days, in 2003-2004 predicted and observed dates were the same, but in 2004-2005 the difference obtained was of 43 days. PMID:18247458

  2. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robert G; Chartier, Mariette J; Whalen, Jeanne C; Chateau, Dan; Boyd, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Aggression, bullying and violence in children and youth are prevalent in Canada (18%) and internationally. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of Roots of Empathy (ROE), a school-based mental health promotion and violence prevention program for children that has been widely implemented but rarely evaluated. Eight school divisions were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received ROE in 2002-2003 (445 students) or a wait-list control group (315 students). These were compared on three child mental health outcomes (physical aggression, indirect aggression and pro-social behaviour), rated by teachers and students (self-rated). The three wait-list school divisions received ROE in 2003-2004 (new cohort of 265 students) and were compared with the control group from 2002-2003 on the three outcomes, for replication purposes. For both comparisons, the authors report multi-level modelling analyses regarding (1) immediate effects after ROE completion at the end of the school year (pretest to post-test) and (2) long-term ROE effects up to three years after post-test. ROE had replicated, beneficial effects on all teacher-rated outcomes, which were generally maintained or further improved across follow-up. However, ROE had almost no statistically significant or replicated effects on student-rated outcomes. This is the first evaluation to suggest that ROE appears effective when implemented on a large scale under real-world delivery conditions. PMID:24956430

  3. Precipitation thresholds and drought-induced tree die-off: insights from patterns of Pinus edulis mortality along an environmental stress gradient.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Michael J; Royer, Patrick D; Cobb, Neil S; Breshears, David D; Ford, Paulette L

    2013-10-01

    Recent regional tree die-off events appear to have been triggered by a combination of drought and heat - referred to as 'global-change-type drought'. To complement experiments focused on resolving mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality, an evaluation of how patterns of tree die-off relate to highly spatially variable precipitation is needed. Here, we explore precipitation relationships with a die-off event of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) in southwestern North America during the 2002-2003 global-change-type drought. Pinyon die-off and its relationship with precipitation was quantified spatially along a precipitation gradient in north-central New Mexico with standard field plot measurements of die-off combined with canopy cover derived from normalized burn ratio (NBR) from Landsat imagery. Pinyon die-off patterns revealed threshold responses to precipitation (cumulative 2002-2003) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), with little to no mortality (< 10%) above 600 mm and below warm season VPD of c. 1.7 kPa. [Correction added after online publication 17 June 2013; in the preceding sentence, the word 'below' has been inserted.] Our results refine how precipitation patterns within a region influence pinyon die-off, revealing a precipitation and VPD threshold for tree mortality and its uncertainty band where other factors probably come into play - a response type that influences stand demography and landscape heterogeneity and is of general interest, yet has not been documented. PMID:23772860

  4. Detecting short-term evolution of Etnean scoria cones: a LIDAR-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Behncke, Boris; Favalli, Massimiliano; Neri, Marco; Tarquini, Simone; Boschi, Enzo

    2010-12-01

    The 2001 and 2002-2003 flank eruptions on Mount Etna (Italy) were characterized by intense explosive activity which led to the formation of two large monogenetic scoria cones (one from each eruption) on the upper southern flank of the volcano. Continuous monitoring of Etna, especially during flank eruptions, has provided detailed information on the growth of these cones. They differ in genesis, shape, and size. A set of high resolution (1 m) digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data collected during four different surveys (2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007) has been used to map morphology and to extract the morphometric parameters of the scoria cones. By comparing LIDAR-derived DEMs with a pre-eruption (1998) 10 m DEM, the volume of the two scoria cones was calculated for the first time. Comparison of the LIDAR-derived DEMs revealed in unprecedented detail morphological changes during scoria cone degradation. In particular, the morphologically more exposed and structurally weaker 2002-2003 cone was eroded rapidly during the first few years after its emplacement mainly due to gravitational instability of slopes and wind erosion.

  5. Estimating time-dependent magma source properties at the Long Valley caldera using InSAR and GPS time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, B. V.; Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    For the past few decades, the Long Valley caldera in California has experienced several inflation and deflation episodes leading to uplift and subsidence, respectively, of the resurgent dome. The abundance of geodetic measurements from leveling, microgravity, GPS, two-color electronic distance meter (EDM), and interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series has allowed the geodetic community to closely monitor surface deformation of the caldera. However, estimation of the source properties of the underlying magma chamber has led to a number of different models that often disagree over important features, such as chamber depth, chamber shape, influence of the south moat fault on the southern edge of the caldera, etc. These discrepancies can often be attributed to strong non-linearities of the different source models and trade-offs between various parameters. Furthermore, underestimation of the observation errors and uncertainties regarding the elastic structure can lead to biases and overconfidence of the inversion results. We address these issues by studying the 2002-2003 inflation episode due to the availability of GPS, EDM, and InSAR time series for that time period. We first use a transient detection approach that incorporates compressed sensing principles to compactly reconstruct temporally and spatially coherent transient signals for the GPS and EDM data. A similar approach is used to construct a continuous InSAR time series formed from over 200 ERS and Envisat interferograms over a 20-year time period. We compute static offsets for the 2002-2003 inflation event and perform a fully Bayesian analysis to estimate parameter values and uncertainties for various non-linear source models. Additionally, we also test a linear source model consisting of a grid of point volume-sources. By again using compressed sensing principles, we show that the linear model is largely consistent with the more compact non-linear analytical models. We use the linear model

  6. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on Television: A Quantitative Analysis Across Two Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Gruber, Enid L.

    2007-01-01

    Two annual content analyses of programming from the 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 television seasons (n = 1,276 and 1,439 programs, respectively) were conducted to assess the presence of behaviors and verbal messages related to the sexuality of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Sexual content associated with nonheterosexuals was found in about 15% of programs overall; however, rates of occurrence within episodes were low. Of 14 genres, only movies and variety/comedy shows had substantial percentages of programs that contained nonheterosexual content. Programs on commercial broadcast networks were less likely to have nonheterosexual content than those on cable networks, especially those on premium cable movie networks. Implications of the continued lack of attention to sexual minorities are discussed for both heterosexual and nonheterosexual viewers. PMID:17594976

  7. Comparison of the BD Directigen Flu A+B Kit and the Abbott TestPack RSV with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA for rapid detection of influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Gröndahl, B; Puppe, W; Weigl, J; Schmitt, H-J

    2005-10-01

    The Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay and the Abbott TestPack RSV enzyme immunoassay were each compared with a multiplex RT-PCR ELISA by testing 635 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged < 16 years who had been hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infection during the epidemic season 2002-2003. In this study, the sensitivity of the Directigen Flu A+B assay was unacceptably low (29.3% and 10.0%, respectively) for the detection of influenza A and B viruses. The sensitivity of the Abbott TestPack RSV assay (77.4%) was acceptable and in agreement with the multiplex RT-PCR ELISA. PMID:16153263

  8. Dr. Smith Goes to Washington: A Physicist Wanders the Halls of Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2005-03-23

    Dr. Tannenbaum was the 2002-2003 APS Congressional Science Fellow. He worked in the office of U.S. Rep. Edward Markey (D-MA) on nuclear nonproliferation issues. His work in Congressman Markey's office focused on issues including missile defense, the nuclear program in Iran, prevention of the transfer of U.S. nuclear technology to North Korea, and the security of nuclear sites in Iraq. Dr. Tannenbaum will discuss this experience and observations concerning 'underinformed and uninformed' decision-making in Congress. He will also briefly discuss goals of the Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Finally, he will discuss ways in which physicists can get more involved in the political process.

  9. Recruiting minority men who have sex with men for HIV research: results from a 4-city campaign.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Anthony J; Hylton, John B; Johnson, Lisette M; Houston, Carmoncelia; Witt, Mallory; Jacobson, Lisa; Ostrow, David

    2006-06-01

    We describe the efforts of a 4-city campaign to recruit Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men into an established HIV epidemiological study. The campaign used community organizing principles and a social marketing model that focused on personnel, location, product, costs and benefits, and promotion. The campaign was developed at the community, group, and individual levels to both increase trust and reduce barriers.The proportion of Hispanic men recruited during the 2002-2003 campaign doubled compared with the 1987 campaign, and the proportion and number of White men decreased by 20%. The proportion of Black men decreased because of the large increase in Hispanic men, although the number of Black men increased by 56%. Successful recruitment included training recruitment specialists, involving knowledgeable minority community members during planning, and having an accessible site with convenient hours. PMID:16670218

  10. Modelling the ecology of the coastal mosquitoes Aedes vigilax and Aedes camptorhynchus at Port Pirie, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Kokkinn, M J; Duval, D J; Williams, C R

    2009-03-01

    Two mosquito species, Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for significant nuisance biting and disease transmission in southern coastal Australia. Mosquito abundance, tide height, temperature and rainfall data were collected over three summer seasons (2002, 2003, 2004) at Port Pirie, South Australia and subjected to statistical analysis to develop ecological models for predicting problem mosquito outbreaks. A logistic regression model for Ae. camptorhynchus gave a predictive R(2) of 0.30 using mean air temperature, whereas, for Ae. vigilax, tide height, mean air temperature and day length yielded a regression with an R(2) of 0.68. These models identify significant environmental drivers for both species and may be useful in the prediction of future outbreaks, particularly of Ae. vigilax. PMID:19239618

  11. Joint regression analysis and AMMI model applied to oat improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A.; Oliveira, T. A.; Mejza, S.

    2012-09-01

    In our work we present an application of some biometrical methods useful in genotype stability evaluation, namely AMMI model, Joint Regression Analysis (JRA) and multiple comparison tests. A genotype stability analysis of oat (Avena Sativa L.) grain yield was carried out using data of the Portuguese Plant Breeding Board, sample of the 22 different genotypes during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 in six locations. In Ferreira et al. (2006) the authors state the relevance of the regression models and of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) model, to study and to estimate phenotypic stability effects. As computational techniques we use the Zigzag algorithm to estimate the regression coefficients and the agricolae-package available in R software for AMMI model analysis.

  12. Recent spatial changes in bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGrath, G; Clegg, T A; More, S J

    2014-07-12

    There has been a steady reduction in the levels of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Ireland for some years. This paper presents a number of methods employing geographical information systems to examine how this reduction is manifested in space and time. The focus of disease mapping has traditionally been placed on identifying areas with problems. There has been limited work done in visualising improvements. The authors describe recent spatial changes in the relative incidence of bTB in Ireland across an uniform hexagonal grid, comparing the mean of the annual animal level bTB incidence during the 10-year period from 1998 to 2007 to the years 2008 to 2012. The authors map bTB incidence trends for three successive five-year periods (1998-2002, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012). Finally, the authors investigate the change in extent and severity of interpolated bTB reactor density over time. PMID:24836431

  13. An agricultural survey for more than 9,500 African households.

    PubMed

    Waha, Katharina; Zipf, Birgit; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep; Hassan, Rashid M

    2016-01-01

    Surveys for more than 9,500 households were conducted in the growing seasons 2002/2003 or 2003/2004 in eleven African countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger and Senegal in western Africa; Egypt in northern Africa; Ethiopia and Kenya in eastern Africa; South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Households were chosen randomly in districts that are representative for key agro-climatic zones and farming systems. The data set specifies farming systems characteristics that can help inform about the importance of each system for a country's agricultural production and its ability to cope with short- and long-term climate changes or extreme weather events. Further it informs about the location of smallholders and vulnerable systems and permits benchmarking agricultural systems characteristics. PMID:27218890

  14. A methodology for the evaluation of water policies in European countries.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Lucia; Gilsanz, Javier de Pedraza; Gil, Fermín Villarroya

    2010-06-01

    Periodic assessment of progress toward established policy goals is crucial to understanding whether the applied efforts are effective. In Europe, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in year 2000 set ambitious environmental objectives to be achieved by the end of 2015 through the implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles. While at this stage it is premature to measure the impact of this Directive in terms of environmental outcomes, it is nonetheless important to develop indicators in order to monitor whether water management practices throughout Europe are aligning towards IWRM. This article presents the methodological development of the Water and Wetland Index, a comparative water policy assessment by environmental NGOs that was carried out in 2002-2003, and highlights the interest of repeating it in 2015, when the first WFD planning cycle will be completed. PMID:20437178

  15. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk). PMID:15619562

  16. Undergraduate Astronomy Instruction With an Automated Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Michael; Littler, Christopher; Weathers, Duncan

    2001-10-01

    The University of North Texas currently enrolls 2400 students per academic year in survey astronomy classes. As one element in our laboratory program, we are developing an automated observatory for use by these students. The UNT Monroe Observatory is located at a dark site approximately 45 miles northwest of Denton (80 miles from the Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex). We plan 2-4 telescopes in the 36-40 cm range, outfitted with CCD cameras, to be remotely operated from the University in Denton. This automated observatory will permit students to conduct individualized observational astronomy experiments in a manner similar to those employed in astronomical research. These imaging experiments will be the centerpiece of the students' laboratory experience. Our goal is to provide an exemplary laboratory experience for students attempting to meet a natural science curriculum requirement. Currently, the equipment has been procured and the observing site prepared. We anticipate first use during the 2002-2003 academic year.

  17. The relationship between club drug use and other drug use: a survey of New York City middle school students.

    PubMed

    Goldsamt, Lloyd A; O'Brien, Julie; Clatts, Michael C; McGuire, Laura Silver

    2005-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between use of club drugs (crystal methamphetamine, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine), and use of other drugs, survey data collected from 23,780 middle school students in New York City during 2002-2003 was examined. Results of HGLM analyses (a generalization of HLM to accommodate nonlinear outcomes), controlling for the effect of school, indicate that Black students are less likely than White students to use club drugs depending on the timeframe of use. The use of alcohol and/or marijuana predict club drug use regardless of the timeframe of use, and lifetime cigarette use predicts lifetime club drug use. Recommendations for future research and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:16048832

  18. SARS and MERS: recent insights into emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Falzarano, Darryl; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. The continuing introductions of MERS-CoV from dromedary camels, the subsequent travel-related viral spread, the unprecedented nosocomial outbreaks and the high case-fatality rates highlight the need for prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Scientific advancements since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) pandemic allowed for rapid progress in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and the development of therapeutics. In this Review, we detail our present understanding of the transmission and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and discuss the current state of development of measures to combat emerging coronaviruses. PMID:27344959

  19. A system to test the ground surface conditions of construction sites--for safe and efficient work without physical strain.

    PubMed

    Koningsveld, Ernst; van der Grinten, Maarten; van der Molen, Henk; Krause, Frank

    2005-07-01

    Ground surface conditions on construction sites have an important influence on the health and safety of workers and their productivity. The development of an expert-based "working conditions evaluation" system is described, intended to assist site managers in recognising unsatisfactory ground conditions and remedying these. The system was evaluated in the period 2002-2003. The evaluation shows that companies recognize poor soil/ground conditions as problematic, but are not aware of the specific physical workload hazards. The developed methods allow assessment of the ground surface quality and selection of appropriate measures for improvement. However, barriers exist at present to wide implementation of the system across the industry. Most significant of these is that responsibility for a site's condition is not clearly located within contracting arrangements, nor is it a topic of serious negotiation. PMID:15892938

  20. Present status and changes of the phytoplankton community after invasion of Neosalanx taihuensis since 1982 in a deep oligotrophic plateau lake, Lake Fuxian in the subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Xie, Ping; Chen, Fei-Zhou; Li, Yan-Ling; Li, Si-Xin; Guo, Ni-Chun; Qin, Jian-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton assemblages in the subtrophical oligotrophic Lake Fuxian, the second deepest lake in China, were investigated monthly from September 2002 to August 2003. A total of 113 species belonging to seven phyla were identified, among them, a filamentous green alga, Mougeotia sp., dominated almost throughout the study period and comprised most of the total phytoplankton biomass. Mougeotia sp. has made a substantial development during the past decades: it was absent in 1957, only occasionally present in 1983, increased substantially in 1993, and became predominant in 2002-2003. It is likely that natural invasion of the Taihu Lake noodlefish (Neosalanx taihuensis) has led to a change of dominant herbivorous zooplankton from small to large calanoid, which has increased grazing pressure on small edible algae, and thus has indirectly favored the development of the inedible filamentous Mougeotia sp. PMID:16083109

  1. Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from the COMPASS data

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Paolo

    2005-10-06

    COMPASS is a fixed target experiment presently running at CERN. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 it used a 160 GeV polarized muon beam coming from SPS and scattered off a 6LiD (deuteron) target. The nucleons in the target can be polarized either longitudinally or transversely with respect to the muon beam and 20% of the running time has been devoted to transverse polarization. Hereby the final results for the Collins and the Sivers asymmetries calculated from the data taken in transverse polarization in 2002 are presented. In the forthcoming 2006 run, COMPASS plans to run with a NH3 (proton) target. Projections for the statistical accuracy which will be ultimately achieved on both the proton and the deuteron asymmetries are also given.

  2. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups. PMID:25910620

  3. Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Rignot, E; Casassa, G; Kanagaratnam, P; Acuña, C; Akins, T; Brecher, H; Frederick, E; Gogineni, P; Krabill, W; Manizade, S; Ramamoorthy, H; Rivera, A; Russell, R; Sonntag, J; Swift, R; Yungel, J; Zwally, J

    2004-10-01

    Recent aircraft and satellite laser altimeter surveys of the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica show that local glaciers are discharging about 250 cubic kilometers of ice per year to the ocean, almost 60% more than is accumulated within their catchment basins. This discharge is sufficient to raise sea level by more than 0.2 millimeters per year. Glacier thinning rates near the coast during 2002-2003 are much larger than those observed during the 1990s. Most of these glaciers flow into floating ice shelves over bedrock up to hundreds of meters deeper than previous estimates, providing exit routes for ice from further inland if ice-sheet collapse is under way. PMID:15388895

  4. The "newer" progestogens and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HRT).

    PubMed

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2014-07-01

    After a worldwide breakdown of hormone therapy [HT] following the publications of the Women's Health Initiative trial and Million Women's Study in 2002-2003, there is now a trend to turn attention again to HT and to explore particular progestogens, which have been discredited with respect to their side effects. The progestogens to be considered should control undue proliferation of the endometrium and should not interfere negatively with the positive effects of estradiol, regarding carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as hemostasis. In the present review, three "newer progestogens" are scrutinized regarding their various actions, in combination with estradiol; the progestogens include dienogest, drospirenone and nomegestrol acetate. This article is part of a special issue entitled Menopause. PMID:24333799

  5. Search for second-generation scalar leptoquarks in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, Anthony A.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Azfar, F.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., EFI /Dubna, JINR /Duke U. /Fermilab /Florida U. /Frascati /Geneva U. /Glasgow U.

    2005-12-01

    Results on a search for pair production of second generation scalar leptoquark in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s=1.96 TeV are reported. The data analyzed were collected by the CDF detector during the 2002-2003 Tevatron Run II and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 198 pb{sup -1}. Leptoquarks (LQ) are sought through their decay into (charged) leptons and quarks, with final state signatures represented by two muons and jets and one muon, large transverse missing energy and jets. We observe no evidence for LQ production and derive 95% C.L. upper limits on the LQ production cross sections as well as lower limits on their mass as a function of {beta}, where {beta} is the branching fraction for LQ {yields} {mu}q.

  6. Gender differences in the relationship between discrimination and substance use disorder among Latinos.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, India J; Hong, Seunghye

    2012-10-01

    Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study collected in 2002-2003 (N = 2,554), we assessed the adjusted odds of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) associated with report of both unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination. Among men, SUD was increased for those reporting low, moderate, and high levels of unfair treatment compared to those reporting no unfair treatment and patterns were similar for racial/ethnic discrimination. Among women, only those reporting high levels of unfair treatment were at increased risk of lifetime SUD and no associations were observed between racial/ethnic discrimination and lifetime SUD. Future research should examine the role that discrimination plays in the development of substance misuse among Latinos. PMID:22950437

  7. CESAR Mission—Cooperation Española-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acedo, Lucía; Urech, Alvaro; Caruso, Daniel; Yelós, Juan

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the CESAR Mission, an Earth Observation Satellite Mission developed in cooperation between INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain and CONAE (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) from Argentina. The Mission, with a proposed launch date of the corresponding CESAR satellite circa 2002/2003, consists in the design, construction, launch and operation of a small satellite, less than 500 Kg, and the update of the existing Ground Segment Capabilities in Spain and Argentina to receive and process the CESAR generated data. The primary objectives will be: Cartography, Natural Resources and Geophysics, with a Satellite Payload composed of a Panchromatic Camera with 5 meters geometric resolution and 10 bits radiometric resolution, for cartography and topography studies; a Multispectral Camera with 6 bands, 34 meters geometric resolution and 10 bits radiometric resolution, for thematic studies; and Panchromatic High Sensibility Camera with 1Km geometric resolution and a Spectrometer, for geophysics studies.

  8. Search for first generation leptoquarks in proton-antiproton collisions at the center of mass energy = 1.96 TeV in the dielectron + dijet channel using the D0 detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Shaohua

    2004-01-01

    We describe a search for first generation leptoquarks decaying into the eejj final state in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. this search is based on data collected during 2002-2003 with an integrated luminosity of (130.4 =- 8.5) pb -1. Leptoquarks are assumed to be produced in pairs and to decay into an electron and a quark with a branching ration β. We observe no evidence for leptoquarks, and set an upper cross section limit of 0.086 pb at the 95% confidence level corresponding to a lower mass limit of 231 GeV/c2 for scalar leptoquarks when β = 1.

  9. SABER observations of mesospheric ozone during NH late winter 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. K.; López-Puertas, M.; García-Comas, M.; Tukiainen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Observations from the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics) satellite show interannual variations of mesospheric ozone in the NH late winter. Ozone in the mid-January to mid-March period is significantly different in 2004, 2006, and 2009 than in other years (2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008). The altitudes of the ozone secondary maximum (˜90-95 km), the minimum (˜80 km) and the tertiary maximum (˜72 km) are all lower by 3-5 km during the three anomalous winters. The ozone anomalies indicate enhanced downward motion and are consistent with other observations of unusual profiles of trace species. The ozone perturbations extend to at least 100 km while temperatures above 90 km are within the range found in the other years.

  10. Key issues relating to decentralization at the provincial level of health management in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Men, Bunnan; Grundy, John; Cane, Jeff; Rasmey, Lon Chan; An, Nguon Sim; Soeung, Sann Chan; Jenkinson, Karl; Boreland, Marian; Maynard, Jim; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2005-01-01

    The following study was conducted as part of a review of management systems at a Provincial Health Department (Kampong Cham Province) and a National Health Programme (National Immunization Program) in 2002-2003 in Cambodia. The aim of this paper is to identify, analyse and recommend those management system factors that are critical to the success of health management performance, with a particular focus on provincial management. The review has identified critical success factors associated with health management performance at the sub-national level that include a stronger role for effective human resource management in health sector reform, elevation of the status of planning in senior level management, and the development of a more comprehensive and transparent finance system. These success factors will position the provincial level of health management to respond more effectively to the reform challenges of administrative de-concentration and political decentralization that are currently underway across a range of government sectors in Cambodia. PMID:15799454

  11. Sand and nest temperatures and an estimate of hatchling sex ratio from the Heron Island green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) rookery, Southern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, David T.; Freeman, Candida

    2006-11-01

    Sand and nest temperatures were monitored during the 2002-2003 nesting season of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Sand temperatures increased from ˜ 24°C early in the season to 27-29°C in the middle, before decreasing again. Beach orientation affected sand temperature at nest depth throughout the season; the north facing beach remained 0.7°C warmer than the east, which was 0.9°C warmer than the south, but monitored nest temperatures were similar across all beaches. Sand temperature at 100 cm depth was cooler than at 40 cm early in the season, but this reversed at the end. Nest temperatures increased 2-4°C above sand temperatures during the later half of incubation due to metabolic heating. Hatchling sex ratio inferred from nest temperature profiles indicated a strong female bias.

  12. HCCI Engine Optimization and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Rolf D. Reitz

    2005-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop methods to optimize and control Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, with emphasis on diesel-fueled engines. HCCI offers the potential of nearly eliminating IC engine NOx and particulate emissions at reduced cost over Compression Ignition Direct Injection engines (CIDI) by controlling pollutant emissions in-cylinder. The project was initiated in January, 2002, and the present report is the final report for work conducted on the project through December 31, 2004. Periodic progress has also been reported at bi-annual working group meetings held at USCAR, Detroit, MI, and at the Sandia National Laboratories. Copies of these presentation materials are available on CD-ROM, as distributed by the Sandia National Labs. In addition, progress has been documented in DOE Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Progress Reports for FY 2002, 2003 and 2004. These reports are included as the Appendices in this Final report.

  13. Moons over Jupiter: transits and shadow transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. H.; et al.

    2003-06-01

    There is no more beautiful illustration of orbital motions than the movements of Jupiter's satellites. Every six years, their movements are most strikingly displayed, when the jovian system is presented edge-on to Earth. This means that there is a higher frequency of multiple transits over the face of the planet, as all the moons transit across the equatorial zone, whereas in other years Ganymede and Callisto transit near the poles or not at all. Also, for a few months, the satellites pass in front of each other, displaying mutual eclipses and occultations. In 2002/2003 we have been able to observe a fine series of these multiple and mutual events. On the cover, and on these pages, are some of the highest-resolution images received.

  14. SPOT-VEG Based Analysis of Siberian Silkmoth Outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viatcheslav I.; Ranson, K. Jon; Im. Sergey T.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of an outbreak of the Siberian silkmoth were correlated with topographic features of the affected area using SPOT-VEG data and a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM). In 2002-2003 an outbreak affected approximately 20,000 ha in the South Siberian mountains of Russia. The outbreak began between the elevations of approximately 430- 480 m and on southwest slopes with steepness < 5 degrees. As the pest searched for food it moved up and down slope, resulting in an elevation distribution split within a range of approximately 390-540 m and slope steepness up to 15 degrees. In the final phase the azimuth distribution of damaged stands became even. The correlation between the initial phase and topographic features can be used to prioritize monitoring forest areas most vulnerable to destruction by pests.

  15. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn. PMID:17647095

  16. Energy Spectra of H and He from the ATIC-2 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment measures the energy spectra of individual elements, from H to Fe, in the energy region from about 100 GeV to tens of TeV. The ATIC instrument was flown twice in long-duration balloon flights around the South Pole in 2000-2001 (ATIC-1) and 2002-2003 (ATIC-2). ATIC-2 gathered about 18 days of data at an altitude of 36 km. In this paper we discuss the separation of protons from helium and present preliminary energy spectrum of each component, including deconvolution of the measured energy deposit spectra. The results are compared to previous data and to different cosmic ray propagation models, including a diffusion model with weak re-acceleration.

  17. An agricultural survey for more than 9,500 African households

    PubMed Central

    Waha, Katharina; Zipf, Birgit; Kurukulasuriya, Pradeep; Hassan, Rashid M.

    2016-01-01

    Surveys for more than 9,500 households were conducted in the growing seasons 2002/2003 or 2003/2004 in eleven African countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger and Senegal in western Africa; Egypt in northern Africa; Ethiopia and Kenya in eastern Africa; South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe in southern Africa. Households were chosen randomly in districts that are representative for key agro-climatic zones and farming systems. The data set specifies farming systems characteristics that can help inform about the importance of each system for a country’s agricultural production and its ability to cope with short- and long-term climate changes or extreme weather events. Further it informs about the location of smallholders and vulnerable systems and permits benchmarking agricultural systems characteristics. PMID:27218890

  18. Comparison of the Directigen Flu A+B Membrane Enzyme Immunoassay with Viral Culture for Rapid Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses in Respiratory Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Cazacu, Andreea C.; Chung, Sooyoung E.; Greer, Jewel; Demmler, Gail J.

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a commercially available, rapid membrane enzyme immunoassay for influenza A and B virus detection was compared to that of viral culture in 4,092 respiratory specimens collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms during the 2002-2003 influenza season. The test's overall sensitivity was 43.83%, lower than previously reported but similar for detection of both influenza A and B viruses (42.98 versus 44.76%). However, specificity, 99.74%, was excellent for both influenza A and B viruses (99.82 versus 99.92%). These values make this test a very good confirmatory test when clinical suspicion is high, but a less accurate screening test for large populations. PMID:15297520

  19. Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.

  20. Visual Communication in Web Design - Analyzing Visual Communication in Web Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    Web sites are rapidly becoming the preferred media choice for information search, company presentation, shopping, entertainment, education, and social contacts. And along with the various forms of communication that the Web offers the aesthetic aspects have begun to play an increasingly important role. However, studies in the design and the relevance of focusing on the aesthetic aspects in planning and using Web sites have only to a smaller degree been subject of theoretical reflection. For example, Miller (2000), Thorlacius (2001, 2002, 2005), Engholm (2002, 2003), and Beaird (2007) have been contributing to set a beginning agenda that address the aesthetic aspects. On the other hand, there is a considerable amount of literature addressing the theoretical and methodological aspects focusing on the technical and functional aspects. In this context it is the aim of this article to introduce a model for analysis of visual communication on websites.

  1. Characterization of Field Exposed Thin Film Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Sastry, O. S.; Stokes, A.; Singh, Y. K.; Kumar, M.

    2012-06-01

    Test arrays of thin film modules have been deployed at the Solar Energy Centre near New Delhi, India since 2002-2003. Performances of these arrays were reported by O.S. Sastry [1]. This paper reports on NREL efforts to support SEC by performing detailed characterization of selected modules from the array. Modules were selected to demonstrate both average and worst case power loss over the 8 years of outdoor exposure. The modules characterized included CdTe, CIS and three different types of a-Si. All but one of the a-Si types were glass-glass construction. None of the modules had edge seals. Detailed results of these tests are presented along with our conclusions about the causes of the power loss for each technology.

  2. Estimation of winter wheat yield by using remote sensing data and crop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianmao; Zheng, Tengfei; Wang, Qi; Yang, Jia; Shi, Junyi; Zhu, Jinhui

    2012-10-01

    Remote sensing data combined with crop model is an important application and development trend of current agricultural information technology, it can solve the problem that remote sensing or crop model cannot solve alone. In order to simulate crop growth and yield prediction in large scale, this paper using field test data to calibrate and validation the model parameters before apply to the winter wheat WOFOST model, than according to the actual environment of Xinxiang, simulate the growth in 3 different condition in the 2002-2003 growing season. Contrast the simulation value WOFOST model, using the Landsat-7 ETM retrieving leaf area index, define winter wheat's growth condition in each pixel, the remote sensing information combined with crop model is accomplished at pixel scale. Based on the actual production of Xinxiang winter wheat in 2003,compare the simulate results with the corresponding parameter, results shows that the method of this study method is feasible.

  3. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  4. Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human

    PubMed Central

    Song, Huai-Dong; Tu, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zheng, Kui; Lei, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Gao, Yu-Wei; Zhou, Hui-Qiong; Xiang, Hua; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Chern, Shur-Wern Wang; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Chun-Ming; Xuan, Hua; Chen, Sai-Juan; Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhou, Duan-Hua; Liu, Yu-Fei; He, Jian-Feng; Qin, Peng-Zhe; Li, Ling-Hui; Ren, Yu-Qi; Liang, Wen-Jia; Yu, Ye-Dong; Anderson, Larry; Wang, Ming; Xu, Rui-Heng; Wu, Xin-Wei; Zheng, Huan-Ying; Chen, Jin-Ding; Liang, Guodong; Gao, Yang; Liao, Ming; Fang, Ling; Jiang, Li-Yun; Li, Hui; Chen, Fang; Di, Biao; He, Li-Juan; Lin, Jin-Yan; Tong, Suxiang; Kong, Xiangang; Du, Lin; Hao, Pei; Tang, Hua; Bernini, Andrea; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Spiga, Ottavia; Guo, Zong-Ming; Pan, Hai-Yan; He, Wei-Zhong; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Fontanet, Arnaud; Danchin, Antoine; Niccolai, Neri; Li, Yi-Xue; Wu, Chung-I; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The genomic sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from human and palm civet of the 2003/2004 outbreak in the city of Guangzhou, China, were nearly identical. Phylogenetic analysis suggested an independent viral invasion from animal to human in this new episode. Combining all existing data but excluding singletons, we identified 202 single-nucleotide variations. Among them, 17 are polymorphic in palm civets only. The ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide substitution in palm civets collected 1 yr apart from different geographic locations is very high, suggesting a rapid evolving process of viral proteins in civet as well, much like their adaptation in the human host in the early 2002–2003 epidemic. Major genetic variations in some critical genes, particularly the Spike gene, seemed essential for the transition from animal-to-human transmission to human-to-human transmission, which eventually caused the first severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak of 2002/2003. PMID:15695582

  5. Contagious equine metritis eradicated from Japan.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Toru; Kamada, Masanobu; Niwa, Hidekazu; Eguchi, Masashi; Nishi, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a contagious venereal disease of horses, invaded Japan in 1980 and spread in the Thoroughbred population of the Hidaka-Iburi district of Hokkaido. To eradicate CEM, we ran a program aimed at detecting Taylorella equigenitalis, the causal agent, in carrier horses by using the PCR test, followed by culling or treatment. In 2001, the first year of the program, 12,356 Thoroughbred racing stallions and mares were tested and 11 carriers were found. Four, two, one, and one carrier mares were detected in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, by application of the program at the same scale as in 2001. No PCR-positive horses were found from 2006 to 2010. These results strongly suggest that CEM was eradicated from Japan by 2010. PMID:22123306

  6. Gender, acculturation, and smoking behavior among U.S. Asian and Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Bridget K; Lariscy, Joseph T; Kaushik, Charisma

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we examine smoking prevalence and frequency among Asian and Latino U.S. immigrants, focusing on how gender differences in smoking behavior are shaped by aspects of acculturation and the original decision to migrate. We draw on data from 3249 immigrant adults included in the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study. Findings confirm the gender gap in smoking, which is larger among Asian than Latino immigrants. While regression models reveal that gender differences in smoking prevalence, among both immigrant groups, are not explained with adjustment for measures of acculturation and migration decisions, adjustment for these factors does reduce gender differences in smoking frequency to non-significance. Following, we examine gender-stratified models and test whether aspects of migration decisions and acculturation relate more strongly to smoking behavior among women; we find that patterns are complex and depend upon pan-ethnic group and smoking measure. PMID:24561772

  7. Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, A.; Alparone, S.; Ursino, A.

    2012-12-01

    Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. The number of VT earthquakes making up the families ranges from 2 to 23. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. The occurrence lifetime is also highly variable ranging from some minutes to ten years. In particular, more than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered "burst-type", i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group "v", located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more "tectonic" behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group "v" and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the

  8. Folk phytotherapeutical plants from Maratea area (Basilicata, Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2005-07-14

    Field ethnobotanical survey was undertaken for the period of 2002-2003 in the Tyrrhenian part of the Basilicata region of southern Italy. Data of 56 species of plants belonging to 29 families where gathered through interviews; among the species, 47 are used in human therapy, 6 as insect repellents, 15 in veterinary medicine, 1 for its ichthyotoxic properties and 3 for magic therapeutic purposes. The most important findings in ethnomedicine relate to Nasturtium officinale (renal colic, liver diseases), Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (mouth ulcers), Leopoldia comosa (toothache, headache), Micromeria graeca subsp. graeca (coughs) and Ceterach officinarum (malaria), while in the ethnoveterinary field, we have Pteridium aquilinum (wolf bites) and Spartium junceum (fractures of animal limbs). PMID:15878246

  9. Variation of energy and carbon fluxes from a restored temperate freshwater wetland and implications for carbon market verification protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Frank E.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Sturtevant, Cove; Knox, Sara; Hastings, Lauren; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Detto, Matteo; Hestir, Erin L.; Drexler, Judith; Miller, Robin L.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis; Snyder, Richard L.; Fujii, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Temperate freshwater wetlands are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems, stimulating interest in using restored wetlands as biological carbon sequestration projects for greenhouse gas reduction programs. In this study, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure surface energy carbon fluxes from a constructed, impounded freshwater wetland during two annual periods that were 8 years apart: 2002-2003 and 2010-2011. During 2010-2011, we measured methane (CH4) fluxes to quantify the annual atmospheric carbon mass balance and its concomitant influence on global warming potential (GWP). Peak growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) were greater in 2002-2003 compared to 2010-2011. In 2002, the daily net ecosystem exchange reached as low as -10.6 g C m-2 d-1, which was greater than 3 times the magnitude observed in 2010 (-2.9 g C m-2 d-1). CH4 fluxes during 2010-2011 were positive throughout the year and followed a strong seasonal pattern, ranging from 38.1 mg C m-2 d-1 in the winter to 375.9 mg C m-2 d-1 during the summer. The results of this study suggest that the wetland had reduced gross ecosystem productivity in 2010-2011, likely due to the increase in dead plant biomass (standing litter) that inhibited the generation of new vegetation growth. In 2010-2011, there was a net positive GWP (675.3 g C m-2 yr-1), and when these values are evaluated as a sustained flux, the wetland will not reach radiative balance even after 500 years.

  10. Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Bhuva, Uttpal B; Katoch, Priyanka

    2006-09-01

    Rapidly industrializing India is described by the International Monetary Fund as a young, disciplined, and vibrant economy with a projected growth of 6.7% for 2005. The total workforce of 397 million has only 7% of workers employed in the organized sector with construction, where asbestos exposure is prevalent, employing 4.4%. The domestic production of asbestos declined from 20,111 tons in 1998-1999 to 14,340 tons in 2002-2003. The imports from Russia and Canada increased from 61,474 tons in 1997-1998 to 97,884 tons in 2001-2002. The production of asbestos cement products went up from 0.68 million tons in 1993-1994 to 1.38 million tons in 2002-2003. The asbestos industry has been delicensed since March 2003. The number of asbestos-based units stood at 32, with the western state of Maharashtra having the largest number. According to official figures, the industry employs 8000 workers. The occupational exposure standard is still 2 fibers/mL, worse still, mesothelioma is not recognized as an occupational disease. The latest cancer registry data have no information on mesothelioma. The health and safety legislation does not cover 93% of workers in the unorganized sector where asbestos exposures are extremely high. Workers remain uninformed and untrained in dealing with asbestos exposure. Enforcement agencies are not fully conscious of the risks of asbestos exposure. Industrial hygiene assessment is seldom carried out and pathologists do not receive training in identifying mesothelioma histopathologically. The lack of political will and powerful influence of the asbestos industry are pushing India toward a disaster of unimaginable proportion. PMID:17119210

  11. Comparison of polar ozone loss rates simulated by one-dimensional and three-dimensional models with Match observations in recent Antarctic and Arctic winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Om Prakash; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; LefèVre, Franck; PazmiñO, Andrea; Hauchecorne, Alain; Chipperfield, Martyn; Feng, Wuhu; Millard, Genevieve; Rex, Markus; Streibel, Martin; von der Gathen, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Simulations of ozone loss rates using a three-dimensional chemical transport model and a box model during recent Antarctic and Arctic winters are compared with experimental loss rates. The study focused on the Antarctic winter 2003, during which the first Antarctic Match campaign was organized, and on Arctic winters 1999/2000, 2002/2003. The maximum ozone loss rates retrieved by the Match technique for the winters and levels studied reached 6 ppbv/sunlit hour and both types of simulations could generally reproduce the observations at 2-sigma error bar level. In some cases, for example, for the Arctic winter 2002/2003 at 475 K level, an excellent agreement within 1-sigma standard deviation level was obtained. An overestimation was also found with the box model simulation at some isentropic levels for the Antarctic winter and the Arctic winter 1999/2000, indicating an overestimation of chlorine activation in the model. Loss rates in the Antarctic show signs of saturation in September, which have to be considered in the comparison. Sensitivity tests were performed with the box model in order to assess the impact of kinetic parameters of the ClO-Cl2O2 catalytic cycle and total bromine content on the ozone loss rate. These tests resulted in a maximum change in ozone loss rates of 1.2 ppbv/sunlit hour, generally in high solar zenith angle conditions. In some cases, a better agreement was achieved with fastest photolysis of Cl2O2 and additional source of total inorganic bromine but at the expense of overestimation of smaller ozone loss rates derived later in the winter.

  12. First Results Obtained with Wide-Angle Cerenkov Light Telescope BEO p. Mussala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavcheva Malamova, E.; Angelov, I.; Davidkov, K.; Stamenov, J.; Kirov, I.

    2003-07-01

    The first results from experiment using Cerenkov light of EAS, reflected from the snow surface of Ice Lake p. Mussala, Bulgaria are described. The construction of the telescope was started in autumn 2000.The first measurements with 1-meter diameter reflectors and FEU110 were carried out in winter 2000-2001. During 2002-2003 the detector was improved. The first results obtained in winter 2002-2003 are presented in this paper. Introduction Our experiment is based on the Prof. A.E. Chudakov (1972)[1] idea to detect the Cerenkov light from EAS reflected by snow surface.The special feature of that method is the possibility to use a sensitive area over some hundred square kilometers with comparatively small detectors. The intensity of Cerenkov light from EAS is proportional to the energy of the primary cosmic ray particle so this method is a calorimetric one. It gives the possibility for experimental investigation of the primary spectrum of the cosmic rays with very and ultra high energies. The Basic Environmental Observatory on peak Mussala (2925-m a.s.l) provides a real opportunity for realization of that method. The Ice Lake is located in the Mussala circus region, at 200 m below the peak (2925-m a.s.l). The lake's area is approximately 20.103 m2 . Its surface retains an ice-cover approximately 7 to 8 months annually. Detector is situated on the 212m high mountain ledge nearby Ice Lake and registers the Cerenkov light of the air showers reflected from the snow surface of the lake.The limits of the zenith angle for the photons descended by the reflecting surface, are determined by the terrain's specifics: d=0.73 rad The detector setting up consists of two parab olic reflectors with 1.40-meter diameter each. The light spots are detected by two photomultipliers (FEU-49B),

  13. Factors associated with introduction of infectious laryngotracheitis virus on broiler farms during a localized outbreak.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Victoriya; Thornton, Danny; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Cummings, Tim; Luna, Lynne; Watson, Jim; Wills, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed factors involved in the introduction of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus (ILTV) onto broiler farms during a localized outbreak in an immunologically naive broiler population. The outbreak occurred in the state of Mississippi, United States in 2002-2003. From the responses to a retrospective survey questionnaire administered via personal interviews, 181 farm-level risk factors were defined and analyzed for their association with ILTV introduction using logistic regression. There were 27 case farms (93% of all the infected broiler farms) and two sets of controls: farms matched to the cases by location and those randomly selected among the broiler farms in Mississippi. We found that farm suppliers such as gas company representatives, who are likely to visit other farms, and farm-workers who visit other chicken farms, are likely vehicles of ILTV introduction onto broiler farms. These risks can be greatly reduced by following biosecurity procedures, in particular if farm workers bathe and change footwear prior to entering broiler houses on their own farm. Footbaths for farm visitors can provide a false sense of security during an ILT outbreak when, indeed, other practices such as plastic boots or changing boots are more effective in preventing ILTV transmission. Sharing of equipment used for removal of caked broiler litter between subsequent flocks may also serve as an important vehicle of ILTV transmission. During the 2002-2003 outbreak, shared litter removal equipment was associated with ILTV transmission despite a requirement being put in place for litter decontamination. We also found that tunnel-ventilated broiler houses with inlets toward a neighboring poultry farm are more likely to get infected with ILTV. In addition to this analysis, the data collected provide a good overview of the actual practices and deficiencies of biosecurity undertaken on broiler farms in this part of the United States. PMID:23050469

  14. Atmospheric Effects of Energetic Particle Precipitation in the Arctic Winter 1978-1979 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (approximately 2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003 2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  15. Integrating landscape ecology and geoinformatics to decipher landscape dynamics for regional planning.

    PubMed

    Dikou, Angela; Papapanagiotou, Evangelos; Troumbis, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning. PMID:21744152

  16. Impact of the "Guidelines for infection prevention in dentistry" (2006) by the Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch-Institute (KRINKO) on hygiene management in dental practices – analysis of a survey from 2009

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Handrup, Stephan; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess trends in hygiene management in dental practices in comparison to an earlier survey in 2002/2003 and to point out key aspects for future efforts. Method: The infection prevention management of all dental practices in Greifswald (n=35) was determined by a questionnaire in a personal interview in 2008/2009. Results: 26% of the dentists did not use sufficient personal protective equipment during the general examination of the patient. In conservative and prosthetic dentistry, 15% still did not use adequate measures and 9% did not even in surgical interventions. Vaccination coverage was clearly too low, as only 35% of dentists were vaccinated against influenza and coverage with other vaccinations was also quite low. 11% of the dentists did not perform a documented anamnesis and in 29% of the dental practices no appointment system for risk patients existed. There were significant deficiencies in the reprocessing of medical devices and in the equipment needed for reprocessing. The opportunity to participate in further training in this field was rejected by 23% of the dentists. In 10 dental practices, the colony count in the dental unit water-conducting system was five times higher than the limit. A contamination with P. aeruginosa was discovered in 4 practices. All units were renovated. Discussion: Overall, both the hygiene management and hygiene equipment in the practices have improved considerably compared to the previous survey in 2002/2003. This demonstrates the positive effect of the KRINKO guidelines from 2006. However, the survey again showed relevant deficiences in the hygiene management of dental practices, which agrees with a Germany-wide online survey from 2009. Conclusion: While the study revealed persistent deficiencies in hygiene management, especially in reprocessing, it confirms that the KRINKO guidelines for dental practices from 2006 led to significant improvements in hygiene management. Doubts about the impact of the guidelines are not

  17. Population survey and conservation assessment of the globally threatened cheer pheasant (Catreus wallichi) in Jhelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naeem Awan, Muhammad; Ali, Hassan; Charles Lee, David

    2014-07-01

    The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi is a globally threatened species that inhabits the western Himalayas. Though it is well established that the species is threatened and its numbers declining, updated definitive estimates are lacking, so in 2011, we conducted a survey to assess the density, population size, and threats to the species in Jhelum valley, Azad Kashmir, which holds the largest known population of cheer pheasants in Pakistan. We conducted dawn call count surveys at 17 points clustered in three survey zones of the valley, 11 of which had earlier been used for a 2002-2003 survey of the birds. Over the course of our survey, 113 birds were recorded. Mean density of cheer pheasant in the valley was estimated at 11.8 ± 6.47 pairs per km², with significant differences in terms of both counts and estimated density of cheer were significantly different across the three survey zones, with the highest in the Chinari region and the lowest, that is the area with no recorded sightings of the pheasants, in Gari Doppata. The total breeding population of cheer pheasants is estimated to be some 2 490 pairs, though this does not consider the actual area of occupancy in the study area. On the whole, more cheer pheasants were recorded in this survey than from the same points in 2002-2003, indicating some success in population growth. Unfortunately, increasing human settlement, fires, livestock grazing, hunting, and the collection of non-timber forest products continue to threaten the population of cheer in the Jhelum valley. To mitigate these potential impacts, some degree of site protection should be required for the conservation of cheer pheasants in Pakistan, and more effective monitoring of the species is clearly needed. PMID:25017755

  18. Atmospheric effects of energetic particle precipitation in the Arctic winter 1978-1979 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-03-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (˜2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003-2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  19. Agronomic and molecular characterization of introgression lines from the interspecific cross Oryza sativa (BG90-2) x Oryza glumaepatula (RS-16).

    PubMed

    Rangel, P N; Brondani, R P V; Rangel, P H N; Brondani, C

    2008-01-01

    The reduced genetic variability of modern rice varieties (Oryza sativa) is of concern because it reduces the possibilities of genetic gain in breeding programs. Introgression lines (ILs) containing genomic fragments from wild rice can be used to obtain new improved cultivars. The objective of the present study was to perform the agronomic and molecular characterizations of 35 BC2F8 ILs from the cross O. glumaepatula x O. sativa, aiming to select high-yielding ILs to be used in rice-breeding programs. All 35 ILs were field evaluated in the season 2002/2003 in three locations and the 15 best performing ones were evaluated in the season 2003/2004 in five locations. In 2003/2004, six ILs (CNAi 9934, CNAi 9931, CNAi 9930, CNAi 9935, CNAi 9936, and CNAi 9937) showed the highest yield means and were statistically superior to the controls Metica 1 and IRGA 417. Molecular characterization of the 35 ILs was performed with 92 microsatellite markers distributed on the 12 rice chromosomes and a simple regression quantitative trait locus analysis was performed using the phenotypic data from 2002/2003. The six high-yielding ILs showed a low proportion of wild fragment introgressions. A total of 14 molecular markers were associated with quantitative trait loci in the three locations. The six high-yielding ILs were incorporated in the Embrapa breeding program, and the line CNAi 9930 is recommended for cultivation due to additional advantages of good grain cooking and milling qualities and high yield stability. The O. glumaepatula-derived ILs proved to be a source of new alleles for the development of high-yielding rice cultivars. PMID:18393222

  20. Dynamics of Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Malaria in an Armed Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Thomas; Raso, Giovanna; Acka, Cinthia A.; Tschannen, Andres B.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Background Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and malaria. Methodology The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Côte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. Principal Findings There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. Conclusion New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects. PMID:19907632

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. Meat and poultry from two statistically designed surveys showing trends and levels from 2002 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Huwe, Janice K; West, Mark

    2011-05-25

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burdens in the general U.S. population have been linked to the consumption of red meat and poultry. Exposure estimates have also indicated that meat products are a major contributor to PBDE dietary intake. To establish solid estimates of PBDE concentrations in domestic meat and poultry, samples from two statistically designed surveys of U.S. meat and poultry were analyzed for PBDEs. The two surveys were conducted in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008, between which times the manufacturing of penta-BDE and octa-BDE formulations had ceased in the United States (December 2004). Thus, the data provided an opportunity to observe prevalence and concentration trends that may have occurred during this time frame and to compare the mean PBDE levels among the meat and poultry industries. On the basis of composite samples, the average sum of the seven most prevalent PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) decreased by >60% from 1.95 ng/g lipid in 2002-2003 to 0.72 ng/g lipid in 2007-2008 for meat and poultry. PBDEs measured in individual samples in 2008 showed that beef samples had the lowest PBDE levels followed by hogs and chickens and then by turkeys. The PBDE congener pattern was the same for both surveys and resembled the penta-BDE formulation with BDE-47 and -99 accounting for 30 and 40% of the total, respectively. On the basis of the data from the two surveys, it appears that PBDE levels in U.S. meat and poultry have declined since manufacturing ceased; however, exposure pathways of PBDEs to livestock are still not known. PMID:21491934

  2. [The hospitals constructed in France for the U.S. Army from 1950 to 1967. Organization, location, usage].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A few years after the Second World War the US Army was authorized to set up in France a line of communication intended to resupply the occupying forces in Germany. The logistical zone was greatly developed after the creating of Nato in 1949. It was made up of numerous depots and some hospitals built between 1953 and 1960 and placed along the road joining La Rochelle to Kaiserslautern in FRG that is La Rochelle, Poitiers, Chinon, Orléans, Vitry-le-François, Toul, Bar-le-Duc and Verdun. After the departure of US Army in 1966-1967, some of these hospitals were used by the French Army and its Health Service. Except for one of them all were sold and essentially used as hospitals. Nowadays they are disappearing and at the end of 2007 only three buildings are still complete: Toul is used as a hospital, Olivet as barracks and Croix-Chapeau (La Rochelle) as an industrial zone and in complete renewing. PMID:19230435

  3. Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A study of the effect of surface preparation on the radiation buildup of steam generator materials of construction was conducted. The tests consisted of exposing treated manway seal plates to primary reactor coolant during the second through the fifth fuel cycle of the Chinon B1 pressurized water reactor. The pretreatments included: mechanical polishing, electropolishing (either on the as received surface or on a surface which had been previously mechanically polished), and passivation via the RCT (laboratory) process or the Framatome (in situ) process. Radioactivity buildup was determined at the end of each fuel cycle. A selected number of the seal plates were removed from the steam generators after each exposure cycle for destructive examinations. The electropolished surfaces exhibited a significantly lower radioactive buildup rate; an average factor of five less buildup compared to an as-received surface. Passivation of the electropolished surface, especially via the RCT process, reduced the buildup rate still further by a factor of two over the electropolished-only surface. Examination of the surfaces by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, etc., after exposure indicated no detrimental effects on the surface characteristics attributable to the surface treatments. A program has now been instituted to electropolish the steam generator channel heads of all new reactors in France, as well as the steam generators intended for replacement in existing plants. 1 ref., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Sur la nature des absorbeurs dans l'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sebastien

    L'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique est l'une des plus recentes propositions de description des phenomenes du microcosme. En accord avec les predictions de la mecanique quantique standard, l'interpretation transactionnelle propose une alternative a celle de Copenhague. Son principal avantage est qu'elle permet de visualiser les mecanismes sous-jacents a l'echange d'energie, de quantite de mouvement ou d'autres quantites quantiques entre un emetteur et un absorbeur. Ces echanges sont le resultat, a l'instar de la theorie de l'absorbeur de Wheeler et Feynman, de l'utilisation autant d'ondes avancees que retardees. Bien que l'interpretation transactionnelle n'ait pas attire la plus grande attention scientifique, plusieurs critiques lui ont ete adressees. Dans les annees 1990, differentes experiences a mesure sans interaction ont ete concues. Depuis, il a ete avance que la version originale de l'interpretation transactionnelle pouvait difficilement rendre compte de ce type d'experience et meme qu'elle n'est pas compatible avec le concept d'univers quadridimensionnel. La recherche de ce memoire par article consiste a montrer que lorsque l'on utilise systematiquement l'interpretation transactionnelle en considerant la configuration totale des absorbeurs (incluant l'absorbeur universel), il n'est pas necessaire de faire appel a une hierarchie de transactions comme certains l'ont propose.

  5. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Alexandre

    Depuis sa formulation, la theorie de l'information a ete basee, implicitement, sur les lois de la physique classique. Une telle formulation est toutefois incomplete puisqu'elle ne tient pas compte de la realite quantique. Au cours des vingt dernieres annees, l'expansion de la theorie de l'information englobant les effets purement quantiques a connu un interet grandissant. La realisation d'un systeme de traitement de l'information quantique, un ordinateur quantique, presente toutefois de nombreux defis. Dans ce document, on s'interesse a differents aspects concernant ces defis. On commence par presenter des concepts algorithmiques comme l'optimisation de calculs quantiques et le calcul quantique geometrique. Par la suite, on s'interesse au design et a differents aspects de l'utilisation de qubits bases sur les jonctions Josephson. En particulier, un nouveau design de qubit supraconducteur est suggere. On presente aussi une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est tres generale puisqu'elle peut etre appliquee a differents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'interesse a la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le detecteur suggere ici a l'avantage de pouvoir etre decouple du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours.

  6. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Charles E. Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To determine the changes that occurred regarding interventional radiologic research in the major American radiology journals between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003. Methods. Articles published in three major American radiology journals (Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, and Radiology) during two distinct 24-month time periods (1992-1993 and 2002-2003) were evaluated. All articles judged to be pertinent to the interventional radiologic community were included. Investigations included in journal subheadings other than 'interventional' or 'vascular radiology' were included if the emphasis of the article was on a vascular imaging modality or peripheral intervention. Exclusions included: case reports, technical reports, letters to the editor, breast interventions, and primary neurointerventions. Data were collected regarding the affiliations of the primary author (nationality, hospital type, department); primary category of interest of the investigation; funding information; and study design variables. Two-by-two chi-squared statistical analyses were performed comparing the variables from the early and late data sets. Results. A total of 405 articles met the inclusion criteria for the early data set (1992-1993); 488 articles met the inclusion criteria for the late data set (2002-2003). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from the early data set to the late data set included: articles in which the primary author was from a department of radiology (91.1% vs. 86.3%; p < 0.025); articles written by a primary author who was American (69.4% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001); and articles with a primary category of investigation that had a nonvascular intervention focus (22.7% vs. 11.9%; p < 0.001). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant increase from the early data set to the late data set included primary authors from Western Europe (18.0% vs. 30.1%; p < 0.001) and Asia (6.6% vs. 18.4%; p

  7. Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

    2006-09-30

    Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the

  8. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  9. Relating seismic swarms and deformation in Long Valley Caldera, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Hill, D. P.; Shelly, D. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Lisowski, M.; Llenos, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake swarm activity in the South Moat Seismic Zone (SMSZ) in Long Valley caldera began increasing following the onset of slow inflation of the resurgent dome in 2011. From 1980 through 1999 the caldera produced recurring earthquake swarms in the SMSZ accompanied by an 80-cm uplift of the resurgent dome. Since 2000, the caldera has been quieter than from 1980 to 1999, but it experienced a gradual 7-cm uplift episode in 2002-2003 and currently the caldera has been gradually uplifting since 2011 at less than half of the peak uplift velocity observed in the late 1990's. Two of the recent swarms in October/November of 2012 and March 2013 have been accompanied by small deformation transients during which caldera uplift paused for about a week despite otherwise steady inflation. To better understand this recent activity, we cross correlate seismic velocity waveforms from individual events recorded by the Long Valley seismic network to identify similar clusters (families) of earthquakes and analyze their temporal recurrence. Then, we use representative waveforms from each family as templates to search the continuous waveforms from the deep borehole seismometers in the Long Valley Exploratory Well (MDH1) for repeating, yet smaller, earthquakes. MDH1 consists of two three-component instruments, located 2592 m and 2263 m below ground level, that provide 6 channels with very low background noise relative to surface seismometers. The cross correlations identify about 25 times more earthquakes with most magnitudes ranging from -1 to +0.5, determined from an empirical relationship between catalog magnitude and observed amplitude on MDH1. We apply an ETAS model to the augmented catalog to detect subtle changes in background earthquake rates that might suggest a change in stressing rate. For comparison with the change in seismicity rates, a geodetically determined stress change is estimated from a simple model of the continuous GPS data. We model the uplift from 2011 to

  10. Neural network treatment of 4 years long NO measurement in temperate spruce and beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Delon, C.; Bruggemann, N.; SerçA, D.

    2008-12-01

    NO soil emissions are directly influenced by soil environmental (temperature, humidity), chemical (pH, N content, C content…) and physical (soil content, texture) variables. All these parameters exert linear or non linear influences that fluctuate in threshold and intensity between sites. Because of the lack of field experiments and to the high variability in time (diurnal and seasonal cycle) and space (regions, soil and vegetation type) of the environmental parameters influencing NO emissions, estimates of NO emissions worldwide still remain highly uncertain. In this study we developed nonlinear regressions to describe NO flux emission from soil in dependency with relevant environmental parameters for a forest site in a temperate region (Höglwald, South Germany, 1994-1997) using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The resulting algorithm links NO fluxes with air, surface and depth temperatures, surface WFPS (Water Field Pore Space) and humus pH. All these parameters were evaluated and selected as relevant and non redundant. Network performances are evaluated for different numbers of hidden neurons. Resulting equations linking NO fluxes from soils and variables are obtained, and show to perform well with measurements (R2 = 0.81). Average NO fluxes values of 14.6 gN ha-1 d-1 are obtained for calculated and measured fluxes. In a second part, 2002-2003 NO soil fluxes are estimated from the ANN equation obtained from 1994-1997 flux measurements performed at the same site. Overall, simulated results give a good estimation of NO fluxes, with a mean value of 15.3 gN ha d-1 close to the 21.7 gN ha d-1 measured mean for the 2002-2003 period. ANN algorithm gives also a good representation of low frequency (seasonal) variations. On the basis of our results, we suggest that ANN is a good alternative between detailed biogeochemical models and large scale models, and may be the appropriate tool for estimating NO emissions at a regional scale.

  11. Using multi-sensor satellite remote sensing and catch data to detect ocean hot spots for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) in the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Mukti; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Saitoh, Katsuya; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2006-02-01

    To understand better and describe oceanic hot spots for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga), we linked remotely sensed data from multi-sensor satellite images of TRMM/TMI sea-surface temperature (SST), SeaWiFS chlorophyll- a concentration and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and AVISO mean sea-level anomaly (MSLA) with fisheries catch data from 1998 to 2003. A probability map was generated based on biophysical environmental variables (SST and chlorophyll- a) in relation to the catch data. The probability of environmental variables was combined with an eddy kinetic energy (EKE) map to describe the oceanographic features around fishing locations. Primary production was examined to assess the productivity of the fishing grounds and was calculated from chlorophyll- a, SST and PAR using the vertically generalized production model (VGPM). Results indicate that the greatest catches occurred mainly in November, and the catches were highest at warm SSTs (19.78±1.69°C) and relatively high chlorophyll- a concentrations (0.31±0.13 mg m -3). Highest catches occurred in areas where primary production rates ranged from 15.65 to 20.61 g C m -2 month -1 (18.12±4.98 g C m -2 month -1). Our analysis found that catch per unit efforts (CPUEs) tended to increase significantly in areas of increasing probability of environmental variables ( P<0.0001) during the season of high abundance. Albacore CPUEs were clearly higher during November 1998-2000 than during November 2002-2003. During 1998-2000, the congregating spots of albacore clearly showed that the probability and primary productivity rates were higher than during 2002-2003. It is likely that the area of high probability (preferred biophysical environmental factors) corresponds to the location of frontal zones, where albacore prey were abundant. Regions of high tuna abundance occurred in relatively high EKE and geostrophic currents, reflecting that tuna aggregations were associated with anticyclonic eddies. These eddies may

  12. Observations of Atmospheric Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deposition During the Period of Algal Bloom Formation in Northern Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shuijing; Yang, Longyuan; Hu, Weiping

    2009-09-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu occurred at the end of April 2007 and had crucial impacts on the livelihood of millions of people living there. Excessive nutrients may promote bloom formation. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition appears to play an important role in algal bloom formation. Bulk deposition and rain water samples were collected respectively from May 1 to November 30, 2007, the period of optimal algal growth, to measure the bulk atmospheric deposition rate, wet deposition rate, and dry deposition rate for total nitrogen (TN; i.e., all species of nitrogen), and total phosphorus (TP; i.e., all species of phosphorus), in northern Lake Taihu, China. The trends of the bulk atmospheric deposition rate for TN and the wet deposition rate for TN showed double peaks during the observation period and distinct influence with plum rains and typhoons. Meanwhile, monthly bulk atmospheric deposition rates for TP showed little influence of annual precipitation. However, excessive rain may lead to high atmospheric N and P deposition rates. In bulk deposition samples, the average percentage of total dissolved nitrogen accounting for TN was 91.2% and changed little with time. However, the average percentage of total dissolved phosphorus accounting for TP was 65.6% and changed substantially with time. Annual bulk atmospheric deposition rates of TN and TP during 2007 in Lake Taihu were estimated to be 2,976 and 84 kg km-2 a-1, respectively. The results showed decreases of 34.4% and 78.7%, respectively, compared to 2002-2003. Annual bulk deposition load of TN for Lake Taihu was estimated at 6,958 t a-1 in 2007 including 4,642 t a-1 of wet deposition, lower than the values obtained in 2002-2003. This may be due to measures taken to save energy and emission control regulations in the Yangtze River Delta. Nevertheless, high atmospheric N and P deposition loads helped support cyanobacterial blooms in northern Lake Taihu during summer and autumn, the period

  13. Changes in agricultural cropland areas between a water-surplus year and a water-deficit year impacting food security, determined using MODIS 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques, in the Krishna river basin (India)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Muralikrishna, I.V.; Velpuri, M.N.; Gangadhararao, P.T.; Dheeravath, V.; Biradar, C.M.; Nalan, S.A.; Gaur, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in cropland areas as a result of water availability using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m time-series data and spectral matching techniques (SMTs). The study was conducted in the Krishna River basin in India, a very large river basin with an area of 265 752 km2 (26 575 200 ha), comparing a water-surplus year (2000-2001) and a water-deficit year (2002-2003). The MODIS 250 m time-series data and SMTs were found ideal for agricultural cropland change detection over large areas and provided fuzzy classification accuracies of 61-100% for various land-use classes and 61-81% for the rain-fed and irrigated classes. The most mixing change occurred between rain-fed cropland areas and informally irrigated (e.g. groundwater and small reservoir) areas. Hence separation of these two classes was the most difficult. The MODIS 250 m-derived irrigated cropland areas for the districts were highly correlated with the Indian Bureau of Statistics data, with R2-values between 0.82 and 0.86. The change in the net area irrigated was modest, with an irrigated area of 8 669 881 ha during the water-surplus year, as compared with 7 718 900 ha during the water-deficit year. However, this is quite misleading as most of the major changes occurred in cropping intensity, such as changing from higher intensity to lower intensity (e.g. from double crop to single crop). The changes in cropping intensity of the agricultural cropland areas that took place in the water-deficit year (2002-2003) when compared with the water-surplus year (2000-2001) in the Krishna basin were: (a) 1 078 564 ha changed from double crop to single crop, (b) 1 461 177 ha changed from continuous crop to single crop, (c) 704 172 ha changed from irrigated single crop to fallow and (d) 1 314 522 ha changed from minor irrigation (e.g. tanks, small reservoirs) to rain-fed. These are highly significant changes that will have strong impact on food

  14. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  15. Deep Structure and Earthquake Generating Properties in the Yamasaki Fault Zone Estimated from Dense Seismic Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishigami, K.; Shibutani, T.; Katao, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mamada, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have been estimating crustal heterogeneous structure and earthquake generating properties in and around the Yamasaki fault zone, which is a left-lateral strike-slip active fault with a total length of about 80 km in southwest Japan. We deployed dense seismic observation network, composed of 32 stations with average spacing of 5-10 km around the Yamasaki fault zone. We estimate detailed fault structure such as fault dip and shape, segmentation, and possible location of asperities and rupture initiation point, as well as generating properties of earthquakes in the fault zone, through analyses of accurate hypocenter distribution, focal mechanism, 3-D velocity tomography, coda wave inversion, and other waveform analyses. We also deployed a linear seismic array across the fault, composed of 20 stations with about 20 m spacing, in order to delineate the fault-zone structure in more detail using the seismic waves trapped inside the low velocity zone. We also estimate detailed resistivity structure at shallow depth of the fault zone by AMT (audio-frequency magnetotelluric) and MT surveys. In the scattering analysis of coda waves, we used 2,391 wave traces from 121 earthquakes that occurred in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009, recorded at 60 stations, including dense temporary and routine stations. We estimated 3-D distribution of relative scattering coefficients along the Yamasaki fault zone. Microseismicity is high and scattering coefficient is relatively larger in the upper crust along the entire fault zone. The distribution of strong scatterers suggests that the Ohara and Hijima faults, which are the segments in the northwestern part of the Yamasaki fault zone, have almost vertical fault plane from surface to a depth of about 15 km. We used seismic network data operated by Universities, NIED, AIST, and JMA. This study has been carried out as a part of the project "Study on evaluation of earthquake source faults based on surveys of inland active faults" by Japan Nuclear

  16. Crustal heterogeneity and earthquake generating properties in and around the Yamasaki fault zone, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishigami, K.; Shibutani, T.; Ohmi, S.; Katao, H.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mamada, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We have been estimating crustal heterogeneous structure and earthquake generating properties in and around the Yamasaki fault zone, which is a left-lateral strike-slip active fault with a total length of ~80 km in southwest Japan. We deployed dense seismic observation network, composed of 32 stations with average spacing of ~10 km around the Yamasaki fault zone. We will estimate detailed fault structure such as fault dip and shape, segmentation, and possible location of asperities and rupture initiation point, as well as generating properties of earthquakes in the fault zone, through analyses of accurate hypocenter distribution, focal mechanism, 3-D velocity tomography, coda wave inversion, and other waveform analyses. We also deployed a linear seismic array across the fault, composed of 20 stations with ~20 m spacing, in order to delineate the fault-zone structure in more detail using the seismic waves trapped inside the low velocity zone. We also estimate detailed resistivity structure of the fault zone by AMT (audio-frequency magnetotelluric) and MT surveys. In the scattering analysis of coda waves, we used 1,762 wave traces from 106 earthquakes that occurred in 2002, 2003, and 2008, recorded at 60 stations, including dense temporary and routine stations. We estimated 3-D distribution of relative scattering coefficients along the Yamasaki fault zone. Microseismicity is high and scattering coefficient is relatively larger in the upper crust along the entire fault zone. The distribution of strong scatterers suggests that the Ohara and Hijima faults, which are the segments in the northwestern part of the Yamasaki fault zone, have almost vertical fault plane from surface to a depth of ~15 km. We used seismic network data operated by Universities, NIED, AIST, and JMA. This study has been carried out as a part of the project "Study on evaluation of earthquake source faults based on surveys of inland active faults" by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES

  17. Incidences and risk factors of first-line HAART discontinuation: a limitation to the success of the "seek, test, treat, and retain" strategy?

    PubMed

    Keita, Momory; Perbost, Isabelle; Pugliese-Wehrlen, Sylvia; Abel, Sylvie; Pugliese, Pascal; Enel, Patricia; Cuzin, Lise; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of first-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) modifications/interruptions and their causes in a cohort of newly-treated patients by using a competing risk model. In nine centers of the French cohort Dat'AIDS, in 1 year and 2 years of censorship, a competing risk analysis was implemented in HIV1 patients aged 18 years or older first-treated between September 2002 and March 2012. In 4669 patients, 3628 modifications (77.7%) were observed (median: 13.5 months). Cumulative incidence in 1 year: 46.8% [45.4-48.3]; in 2 years: 65.3% [63.8-66.8]. Intolerance (n = 1167; 32.3%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2005, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (24.6%) 2004-2005 (26.1%), 2006-2007 (19.4%), 2008-2009 (18.8%) and 2010-2011 (15.7%). Women, AIDS patients, and those aged 50 years and older had an excess risk. Therapeutic simplification (n = 1037; 28.6%): in 1 year, except first-treated from 2002 to 2003, modifications were not different: 2002-2003 (9.0%), 2004-2005 (16.0%), 2006-2007 (11.0%), 2008-2009 (15.7%) and 2010-2011 (10.0%). Conversely to injecting-drug-users and AIDS patients, women and first-treated with non-nucleosides had an excess risk. Therapeutic failure (n = 189; 5.2%): contrary to first-treated between 2002 and 2003 or 2008 and 2009, in 1 year as in 2 years, modifications were not different. In 1 year, 1.9% for 2004-2005, 1.6% for 2006-2007 and 1.2% for 2010-2011. Maximum viral load ≥5.0 log10 copies/ml and CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) had a high probability. The study of first-HAART modifications suggests that in 1-year follow-up, intolerance incidence in the recent calendar year is still as frequent as the previous period which may constitute a limitation to the success of the seek, test, treat, and retain. PMID:24517736

  18. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  19. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  20. Early life ecology of Alaska plaice ( Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: Seasonality, distribution, and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Wilderbuer, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    We examined the patterns of abundance and distribution of Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus, eggs, larvae and pelagic juveniles over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to better understand factors controlling transport and recruitment of flatfish in the Bering Sea. Ichthyoplankton data were derived from plankton surveys conducted in 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Temperature, salinity, depth, and abundance of microzooplankton were measured concurrently. Eggs and larvae were primarily collected from depths < 200 m, with the majority occurring over bottom depths ranging 50-100 m. Eggs were present throughout the water column, though densities of preflexion stage larvae were concentrated at depths 10-20 m. There was no evidence of vertical migration for pre-flexion stages. Spawning in Alaska plaice occurs primarily east of Port Moller in April and May, and eggs and larvae appear to drift to the north and northeast, an observation based on satellite-tracked drifter information, model output, and collections of older, later-stage postlarvae. Connectivity between spawning areas and nursery habitats is likely influenced by wind forcing, so climate-mediated changes to dispersal trajectory or timing is expected to have significant impacts on recruitment in this species, though entrainment in consistent, directional currents may modify these effects.

  1. The relationship between personality styles of sociotropy and autonomy and suicidal tendency in medical students.

    PubMed

    Raeisei, Ahmadali; Mojahed, Azizollah; Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The research aim was investigating the relationship between personality styles of autonomy and sociotropy, and suicidal behavior at Zahedan University of medical sciences' medical students. This was a descriptive correlational study. The population consisted of all medical students at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences internship period 2002-2003. The number of samples was 102 patients, including 47 males and 55 females. To collect information, the personal style inventory (PSI) with 48 items. Twenty four items to assess sociotropy, 24 items to assess autonomy, and to measure suicide the suicidal subscale (MMPI) with 21 items were used. The two scales had the content validity and for the reliability used Cronbach a. So the reliability of the personality styles is 0.84 and the reliability of the suicidal subscales is 0.83. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation methods. The results showed that there is an inverse and significant relation between autonomic style and trends of suicide in men (P = 0.02, r = -0.43), but no association between sociotropy and suicidal tendencies were observed in men. There was no significant relationship between autonomy and sociotropy personality styles and tendency towards suicide in women. PMID:25948467

  2. Electric Activity in Dust Devils and Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, R. O.; Yana, C.; Covert, A.; Renno, K.; Wilson, J.

    2005-12-01

    Terrestrial dust devils produce charge separation and electric fields that exceeds the breakdown potential of the thin Martian atmosphere (Farrell et al., 2002, 2003; Krauss et al., 2002; Renno et al., 2004). Typical Martian dust devils are wider, taller and have larger dust content than terrestrial vortices. Thus, charge separation and electric-field breakdown are likely to occur in Martian dust devils and dust storms. We show that theory, laboratory experiments, and field measurements in Arizona suggests that collisions between sand and dust particles at the bottom of dust devils produce non-thermal microwave radiation. The non-thermal microwave emission allows not only the indirect detection of electric activity but could also allow the determination of the physical properties of Martian sand and dust by remote sensing. Besides being geologically important, electrically charged Martian dust devils and dust storms are potential hazards to Landers and at minimum would be an annoyance to future astronauts exploring the planet. Indeed, the design of adequate mechanical and electrical systems for these Landers cannot progress effectively without a better understanding of Martian dust devils and dust storms. Moreover, ancillary phenomena associated with electrically charged vortices can ionize atmospheric gases and might have important implications for atmosphere chemistry and even habitability.

  3. Multi machine scaling of fuel retention in 4 carbon dominated tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Pégourié, B.; Marandet, Y.; Artaud, J. F.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Corre, Y.; Dittmar, T.; Gauthier, E.; Languille, P.; Linez, F.; Loarer, T.; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Kallenbach, A.; Krieger, K.; Mayer, M.; Neu, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rubel, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Wienhold, P.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Lipschultz, B.; Doerner, R.

    2011-08-01

    In order to benchmark predictions for the in vessel tritium inventory in ITER, a survey of fuel retention measured in 4 carbon dominated tokamaks (TEXTOR, ASDEX Upgrade in the 2002-2003 carbon configuration, Tore Supra and JET) was performed, showing retention rates from ˜1 g D/h in TEXTOR (L mode, limiter machine) up to ˜6-12 g D/h in AUG (H mode, divertor machine). A simple scaling used for ITER predictions is applied for comparison with experimental values: (1) estimate of wall fluxes, (2) estimate of the gross carbon erosion, (3) estimate of the net erosion/redeposition assuming a redeposition fraction and (4) estimate of the retention rate using D/C ratio scalings. The validity of each step is discussed, showing that this approach yields the right order of magnitude, but tends to underestimate the experimental values unless a high wall flux, a low local redeposition fraction and/or a high D/C ratio are used.

  4. Participation and risk of high grade cytological lesions among immigrants and Italian-born women in an organized cervical cancer screening program in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Carmen Beatriz; Crocetti, Emanuele; Zappa, Marco; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Bulgaresi, Paolo; Alfieri, Antonia; Amunni, Gianni

    2015-06-01

    Few studies analyzed the risk for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) among immigrants and natives attending organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs (SP). We evaluated participation and diagnosis of HSIL+ by country of birth with logistic models. Overall 540,779 invitation letters were delivered to target women of Florence SP in three screening rounds (years 2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008). The probability of attending screening was lower for immigrants than natives, but the difference decreased from 35% (1st round) to 20% (2nd-3rd round) for women born in high migration pressure (HMP) countries. The risk of HSIL+ was double than natives for HMP-born women from countries with high prevalence of human papillomavirus, even adjusting for age and previous history of Pap test. This is an important public health problem due to an increasing proportion over time of immigrant women with a lower attendance and greater risk for CC. PMID:24917238

  5. A Decade of Satellite Ocean Color Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    After the successful Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS, 1978-1986), demonstration that quantitative estimations of geophysical variables such as chlorophyll a and diffuse attenuation coefficient could be derived from top of the atmosphere radiances, a number of international missions with ocean color capabilities were launched beginning in the late 1990s. Most notable were those with global data acquisition capabilities, i.e., the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS 1996-1997), the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, United States, 1997-present), two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers, (MODIS, United States, Terra/2000-present and Aqua/2002-present), the Global Imager (GLI, Japan, 2002-2003), and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, European Space Agency, 2002-present). These missions have provided data of exceptional quality and continuity, allowing for scientific inquiries into a wide variety of marine research topics not possible with the CZCS. This review focuses on the scientific advances made over the past decade using these data sets.

  6. Using anchoring vignettes to assess the comparability of self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Boyle, Michael H

    2012-03-01

    General measures of self-rated health are collected routinely in national health surveys and widely used in the analyses of determinants of health and health care utilization. However, these subjective assessments can be influenced by health expectations (contextualized beliefs about health) that may vary systematically across individuals and be associated with their socio-demographic characteristics. Our objective is to contrast the impact of health expectations associated with respondent characteristics (reporting heterogeneity) on self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression obtained from general population samples in France and Vietnam. Based on self ratings and ratings in response to common anchoring vignettes depicting different levels of depression, we used nationally representative data from the World Health Survey conducted in France (2002) and Vietnam (2002-2003) and a modification of the standard probit model to test and adjust for reporting heterogeneity associated with individual characteristics. We find evidence of reporting heterogeneity within France and Vietnam and across the two countries. In particular we find that, when adjusted for reporting heterogeneity, sex is no longer significantly associated with self-rated feelings of sadness, lowness or depression in France. Given the absence of clear biological markers in the definitions of depressive disorders and the substantial impact reporting heterogeneity is shown to have, measures of depressive disorders based on self-reports should be interpreted with caution. PMID:22411195

  7. Weekly Solutions of Time-Variable Gravity from 1993 to 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F.; Chinn, D.; Le Bail, K.; Zelensky, N.; Melachroinos, S.; Beall, J.

    2011-01-01

    The GRACE mission has been highly successful in determining the time-variable gravity field of the Earth, producing monthly or even more frequent solutions (cf. 10-day) solutions using both spherical harmonics and mascons. However the GRACE time series only commences in 2002 - 2003 and a gap of several years may occur in the series before a GRACE follow-on satellite is launched. Satellites tracked by SLR and DORIS have also been used to study time variations in the Earth's gravitational field. These include (most recently) the solutions of Cox and Chao (2002), Cheng et al. (2004, 2007) and Lemoine et al. (2007). In this paper we discuss the development of a new time series of low degree spherical harmonic fields based on the available SLR, DORIS and GPS data. We develop simultaneous solutions for both the geocenter and the low degree harmonics up to 5x5. The solutions integrate data from SLR geodetic satellites (e.g., Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Larets, Westpac), altimetry satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2), and satellites tracked solely by DORIS (e.g. SPOT2-5). We discuss some pertinent aspects of the satellite-specific modeling. We include altimeter crossovers in the weekly solutions where feasible and time permits. The resulting geocenter time series is compared with geophysical model predictions and other independently-derived solutions. Over the GRACE time period the fidelity and consistency with the GRACE solutions are presented.

  8. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  9. Hot Subdwarf Stars and the ZAHeMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.

    2014-04-01

    The precise evolutionary mechanism for the production of hot subdwarf stars remains unsolved, though there are many plausible explanations. One general group of hypotheses proposes that sdB/EHB stars are the result of various processes typical of their single-star progeny, quite possibly very much affected by chemical environment and stellar wind mass loss. An alternative set of hypothesis proposes that such hot subdwarf/EHB objects are the result of binary interactions. Following the methodology of Han et al. (2002, 2003) in their binary population synthesis study of the evolutionary channels of sdB stars in the Galactic field for Z=0.02, this study has conducted a binary population synthesis investigation at various metallicities in order to examine the production of hot subwarf stars in different environments. Although it is found that metallicity is not a major factor in the production of such helium burning stars, there are a number of second-order effects. Results yield some hot subdwarf stars placed in areas below the ZAHeMS (in the log10g,log10 Teff diagram) which could give some information on the production of low-mass sdBs.

  10. Reducing unnecessary inpatient laboratory testing in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    May, Todd A; Clancy, Mary; Critchfield, Jeff; Ebeling, Fern; Enriquez, Anita; Gallagher, Carmel; Genevro, Jim; Kloo, Jay; Lewis, Paul; Smith, Rita; Ng, Valerie L

    2006-08-01

    After an inpatient phlebotomy-laboratory test request audit for 2 general inpatient wards identified 5 tests commonly ordered on a recurring basis, a multidisciplinary committee developed a proposal to minimize unnecessary phlebotomies and laboratory tests by reconfiguring the electronic order function to limit phlebotomy-laboratory test requests to occur singly or to recur within one 24-hour window. The proposal was implemented in June 2003. Comparison of fiscal year volume data from before (2002-2003) and after (2003-2004) implementation revealed 72,639 (12.0%) fewer inpatient tests, of which 41,765 (57.5%) were related directly to decreases in the 5 tests frequently ordered on a recurring basis. Because the electronic order function changes did not completely eliminate unnecessary testing, we concluded that the decrease in inpatient testing represented a minimum amount of unnecessary inpatient laboratory tests. We also observed 17,207 (21.4%) fewer inpatient phlebotomies, a decrease sustained in fiscal year 20042005. Labor savings allowed us to redirect phlebotomists to our understaffed outpatient phlebotomy service. PMID:16891194

  11. Antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection: Swedish recommendations 2007.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Filip; Albert, Jan; Flamholc, Leo; Gisslén, Magnus; Karlström, Olof; Lindgren, Susanne-Rosa; Navér, Lars; Sandström, Eric; Svedhem-Johansson, Veronica; Svennerholm, Bo; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2007-01-01

    On 3 previous occasions, in 2002, 2003 and 2005, the Swedish Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket) and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) have jointly published recommendations for the treatment of HIV infection. An expert group, under the guidance of RAV, has now revised the text again. Since the publication of the previous treatment recommendations, 1 new drug for the treatment of HIV has been approved - the protease inhibitor (PI) darunavir (Prezista). Furthermore, 3 new drugs have become available: the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (MK-0518), the CCR5-inhibitor maraviroc (Celsentri), both of which have novel mechanisms of action, and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) etravirine (TMC-125). The new guidelines differ from the previous ones in several respects. The most important of these are that abacavir is now preferred to tenofovir and zidovudine, as a first line drug in treatment-naïve patients, and that initiation of antiretroviral treatment is now recommended before the CD4 cell count falls below 250/microl, rather than 200/microl. Furthermore, recommendations on the treatment of HIV infection in children have been added to the document. As in the case of the previous publication, recommendations are evidence-graded in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, 2001 (see http://www.cebm.net/levels_of_evidence.asp#levels). PMID:17577810

  12. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth. PMID:17048298

  13. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Chediak, Mateus; G Pimenta, Fabiano; Coelho, Giovanini E; Braga, Ima A; Lima, José Bento P; Cavalcante, Karina Ribeiro Lj; Sousa, Lindemberg C de; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V de; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da G; Araújo, Ana Paula de; Ayres, Constância Flávia J; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa M; Gomes, Ricristhi Gonçalves de A; Campos, Kauara B; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2016-05-01

    The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites. PMID:27143489

  14. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.

    PubMed

    Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values

  15. Renewed inflation of Long Valley Caldera, California (2011 to 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Wicks, C. W.; Cervelli, P. F.; Langbein, J. O.; Svarc, J. L.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Lisowski, M.

    2015-07-01

    Slow inflation began at Long Valley Caldera in late 2011, coinciding with renewed swarm seismicity. Ongoing deformation is concentrated within the caldera. We analyze this deformation using a combination of GPS and InSAR (TerraSAR-X) data processed with a persistent scatterer technique. The extension rate of the dome-crossing baseline during this episode (CA99 to KRAC) is 1 cm/yr, similar to past inflation episodes (1990-1995 and 2002-2003), and about a tenth of the peak rate observed during the 1997 unrest. The current deformation is well modeled by the inflation of a prolate spheroidal magma reservoir ˜7 km beneath the resurgent dome, with a volume change of ˜6 × 106 m3/yr from 2011.7 through the end of 2014. The current data cannot resolve a second source, which was required to model the 1997 episode. This source appears to be in the same region as previous inflation episodes, suggesting a persistent reservoir.

  16. Morphofunctional parameters and adaptation capabilities of students at the beginning of the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Negasheva, Marina A; Mishkova, T A

    2005-07-01

    On the basis of comprehensive anthropometrical observation of 1st and 2nd year students from different faculties of Moscow State University (MSU) carried out in 2002-2003, functional characteristics of the cardiovascular system (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) were investigated in 205 young men and 327 young women along with traditional morphological parameters. In comparisons of contemporary young men and women with their peers, whose characteristics were obtained in the course of investigations carried out over the period 1920-1990, secular trends towards an increase of body length and a worsening of strength indices were detected. Evaluation and comparative analysis of adaptation capabilities of students were carried out based on screening and assessment of adaptation potential using the Bayevsky method (1987). It was shown that the parameters of physical development and the level of adaptation of an organism to environmental conditions can be used as additional markers for determination of the health status of contemporary students for early prevention of some diseases, improvement of their physical status and increase of adaptation potentials. PMID:16079587

  17. Endosafe(R)-Portable Test System (PTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Burbank, Dan

    2005-01-01

    The Portable Test System (PTS) is a hand-held device for monitoring the presence of potentially hazardous bacteria in the environment. It uses an immunological method derived from the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) to detect bacterial cell membranes and other molecular components of a cell. Further modifications of the PTS will allow detection of individual hazardous species of bacteria. This study was a follow-up of previous PTS and other immunological tests performed on the KC-135 during 2002-2003 (Maule et al., 2003, J. Gravit. Physiol.) and in the underwater habitat Aquarius during NEEMO 5 (Maule et al., 2005, Appl. Environ. Microbiol in prep.). The experiments described here were part of a final testing phase prior to use of the PTS on the International Space Station (ISS), scheduled for launch on 12A.1 on February 9th 2006. The specific aspects of PTS operation studied were those involving a fluid component: pumping, mixing, incubations and pipetting into the instrument. The PTS uses a stepper motor to move fluid along small channels, which may be affected by reduced gravity.

  18. Persistent HIV Viremia: Description of a Cohort of HIV Infected Individuals with ART Failure in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.; Fernández-Santos, Diana; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppression in patients. We present data of a cohort of Puerto Rican patients with HIV who were under treatment with a steady regime of ART across a time horizon of eleven years. The time periods were categorized into four year stratums: 2000 to 2002; 2003 to 2005; 2006 to 2008 and 2009 to 2011. Socio-demographic profile, HIV risk factors, co-morbid conditions were included as study variables. One year mortality was defined. The p value was set at ≤0.05. The cohort consisted of 882 patients with 661 subjects presenting with persistent HIV viral load after a self-reported 12 month history of ART use. In this sub-cohort a higher viral load was seen across time (p < 0.05). Illicit drug use, IV drug use, alcohol use, loss of work were associated to having higher viral load means (p < 0.05). HIV viral load mean was lower as BMI increased (p < 0.001). It is imperative to readdress antiretroviral adherence protocols and further study ART tolerance and compliance. PMID:26703691

  19. Tracing Nitrate Contributions to Streams During Varying Flow Regimes at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, Vermont, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Shanley, J. B.; Boyer, E. W.; Ohte, N.; Doctor, D. H.; Kendall, C.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying sources and transformations of nitrate in headwater catchments is fundamental to understanding the movement of nitrogen to streams. At the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont (USA), we are using multiple chemical tracer and mixing model approaches to quantify sources and transport of nitrate to streams under varying flow regimes. We sampled streams, lysimeters, and wells at nested locations from the headwaters to the outlet of the 41 ha W-9 watershed under the entire range of flow regimes observed throughout 2002-2003, including baseflow and multiple events (stormflow and snowmelt). Our results suggest that nitrogen sources, and consequently stream nitrate concentrations, are rapidly regenerated during several weeks of baseflow and nitrogen is flushed from the watershed by stormflow events that follow baseflow periods. Both basic chemistry data (anions, cations, & dissolved organic carbon) and isotopic data (nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved inorganic carbon) indicate that nitrogen source contributions vary depending upon the extent of saturation in the watershed, the initiation of shallow subsurface water inputs, and other hydrological processes. Stream nitrate concentrations typically peak with discharge and are higher on the falling than the rising limb of the hydrograph. Our data also indicate the importance of terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical processes, in addition to hydrological connectivity in controlling how nitrate moves from the terrestrial landscape to streams. Our detailed sampling data from multiple flow regimes are helping to identify and quantify the "hot spots" and "hot moments" of biogeochemical and hydrological processes that control nitrogen fluxes in streams.

  20. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  1. Multi-year global land cover mapping at 300 m and characterization for climate modelling: achievements of the Land Cover component of the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Radoux, J.; Santoro, M.; Vanbogaert, E.; Wegmuller, U.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Ramoino, F.; Arino, O.; Defourny, P.

    2015-04-01

    Essential Climate Variables were listed by the Global Climate Observing System as critical information to further understand the climate system and support climate modelling. The European Space Agency launched its Climate Change Initiative in order to provide an adequate response to the set of requirements for long-term satellite-based products for climate. Within this program, the CCI Land Cover project aims at revisiting all algorithms required for the generation of global land cover products that are stable and consistent over time, while also reflecting the land surface seasonality. To this end, the land cover concept is revisited to deliver a set of three consistent global land cover products corresponding to the 1998-2002, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012 periods, along with climatological 7-day time series representing the average seasonal dynamics of the land surface over the 1998-2012 period. The full Envisat MERIS archive (2003-2012) is used as main Earth Observation dataset to derive the 300-m global land cover maps, complemented with SPOT-Vegetation time series between 1998 and 2012. Finally, a 300-m global map of open permanent water bodies is derived from the 2005-2010 archive of the Envisat Advanced SAR imagery mainly acquired in the 150m Wide Swath Mode.

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of tularemia in French wildlife: 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Decors, Anouk; Mendy, Christiane; Faure, Eva; Durand, Benoit; Madani, Nora

    2016-08-01

    Tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is endemic in France. The surveillance of this disease in wildlife is operated by the SAGIR Network and by the National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia. Wild animals found dead or dying collected by the SAGIR network are necropsied and when tularemia is suspected culture and/or PCR are performed to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to present the results of tularemia surveillance in wildlife and to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of tularemia observed between the 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 hunting seasons in French wildlife. Fourty-one to 121 cases were collected each hunting season for a total of 693 confirmed cases and 46 additional suspected cases. The main species affected was the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) but 4 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one wild boar (Sus scrofa) were also found positive. The Standard Mortality Ratio was mapped and Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistic was implemented and allowed the detection of several clusters: the nationwide outbreak of 2007-2008; 2 clusters in northern and central-western France in high hare-abundance areas and another in North-eastern France where the abundance of hares is low. Our results confirm the usefulness of brown hare as a sentinel of environmental risk. PMID:27435644

  3. Submerged turbulence detection with optical satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Keeler, R. Norris; Bondur, Valery G.; Leung, Pak T.; Prandke, H.; Vithanage, D.

    2007-09-01

    During fall periods in 2002, 2003 and 2004 three major oceanographic expeditions were carried out in Mamala Bay, Hawaii. These were part of the RASP Remote Anthropogenic Sensing Program. Ikonos and Quickbird optical satellite images of sea surface glint revealed ~100 m spectral anomalies in km2 averaging patches in regions leading from the Honolulu Sand Island Municipal Outfall diffuser to distances up to 20 km. To determine the mechanisms behind this phenomenon, the RASP expeditions monitored the waters adjacent to the outfall with an array of hydrographic, optical and turbulence microstructure sensors in anomaly and ambient background regions. Drogue tracks and mean turbulence parameters for 2 × 10 4 microstructure patches were analyzed to understand complex turbulence, fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence near-vertical internal wave transport processes. The dominant mechanism appears to be generic to stratified natural fluids including planet and star atmospheres and is termed beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA). Most of the bottom turbulent kinetic energy is converted to ~ 100 m fossil turbulence waves. These activate secondary (zombie) turbulence in outfall fossil turbulence patches that transmit heat, mass, chemical species, momentum and information vertically to the sea surface for detection in an efficient maser action. The transport is beamed in intermittent mixing chimneys.

  4. Submerged turbulence detection with optical satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.; Keeler, R. Norris; Bondur, Valery G.; Leung, Pak T.; Prandke, H.; Vithanage, D.

    2013-01-01

    During fall periods in 2002, 2003 and 2004 three major oceanographic expeditions were carried out in Mamala Bay, Hawaii. These were part of the RASP Remote Anthropogenic Sensing Program. Ikonos and Quickbird optical satellite images of sea surface glint revealed !100 m spectral anomalies in km2 averaging patches in regions leading from the Honolulu Sand Island Municipal Outfall diffuser to distances up to 20 km. To determine the mechanisms behind this phenomenon, the RASP expeditions monitored the waters adjacent to the outfall with an array of hydrographic, optical and turbulence microstructure sensors in anomaly and ambient background regions. Drogue tracks and mean turbulence parameters for 2 ! 104 microstructure patches were analyzed to understand complex turbulence, fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence near-vertical internal wave transport processes. The dominant mechanism appears to be generic to stratified natural fluids including planet and star atmospheres and is termed beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA). Most of the bottom turbulent kinetic energy is converted to ! 100 m fossil turbulence waves. These activate secondary (zombie) turbulence in outfall fossil turbulence patches that transmit heat, mass, chemical species, momentum and information vertically to the sea surface for detection in an efficient maser action. The transport is beamed in intermittent mixing chimneys.

  5. Integration of MODIS-derived metrics to assess interannual variability in snowpack, lake ice, and NDVI in southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.; Budde, M.; Spencer, P.; Miller, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change are expected to result in greater variation in the seasonality of snowpack, lake ice, and vegetation dynamics in southwest Alaska. All have wide-reaching physical and biological ecosystem effects in the region. We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) calibrated radiance, snow cover extent, and vegetation index products for interpreting interannual variation in the duration and extent of snowpack, lake ice, and vegetation dynamics for southwest Alaska. The approach integrates multiple seasonal metrics across large ecological regions. Throughout the observation period (2001-2007), snow cover duration was stable within ecoregions, with variable start and end dates. The start of the lake ice season lagged the snow season by 2 to 3??months. Within a given lake, freeze-up dates varied in timing and duration, while break-up dates were more consistent. Vegetation phenology varied less than snow and ice metrics, with start-of-season dates comparatively consistent across years. The start of growing season and snow melt were related to one another as they are both temperature dependent. Higher than average temperatures during the El Ni??o winter of 2002-2003 were expressed in anomalous ice and snow season patterns. We are developing a consistent, MODIS-based dataset that will be used to monitor temporal trends of each of these seasonal metrics and to map areas of change for the study area.

  6. Factors influencing movement probabilities of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Bowen, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated movements of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) roosting in maternity colonies in buildings in Fort Collins, Colorado (USA), during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2005. This behavior can be of public health concern where bats that may carry diseases (e.g., rabies) move among buildings occupied by people. We used passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to mark individual bats and hoop PIT readers at emergence points to passively monitor the use of building roosts by marked adult females on a daily basis during the lactation phase of reproduction. Multi-strata models were used to examine movements among roosts in relation to ambient temperatures and ectoparasite loads. Our results suggest that high ambient temperatures influence movements. Numbers of mites (Steatonyssus occidentalis) did not appear to influence movements of female bats among building roosts. In an urban landscape, periods with unusually hot conditions are accompanied by shifting of bats to different buildings or segments of buildings, and this behavior may increase the potential for contact with people in settings where, in comparison to their more regularly used buildings, the bats may be more likely to be of public concern as nuisances or health risks. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Information and data real time transmission acoustic underwater system: TRIDENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubuil, Joel; Labat, Joel; Lapierre, Gerard

    2001-05-01

    The objective of the Groupe d'Etudes Sous-Marines de l'Atlantique (GESMA) is to develop a robust high data rate acoustic link. A real-time receiver recently developed at ENST Bretagne has just been designed to cope with all perturbations induced by such harsh channels. In order to cope with channel features, a spatio-temporal equalizer introduced by J. Labat et al. [Brevet FT no. 9914844, ``Perfectionnements aux dispositifs d'galisation adaptative pour recepteurs de systemes de communications numriques,'' Nov. 1999] was recently implemented and evaluated. This equalizer is the core of the receiver platform [Trubuil et al., ``Real-time high data rate acoustic link based on spatio temporal blind equalization: the TRIDENT acoustic system,'' OCEANS 2002]. This paper provides an overview of this project. The context of the study and the design of high data rate acoustic link are presented. Last Brest harbor experiments (2002, 2003) are described. The real time horizontal acoustic link performances are evaluated. Two carriers frequencies are available (20, 35 kHz). Acoustic communications for bit rate ranging from 10 to 20 kbps and for channel length (shallow water) ranging from 500 to 4000 m have been conducted successfully over several hours.

  8. Sun-Tanning Perceptions of a New Zealand Urban Population (1994–2005/6)

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, A. I.; McLeod, G. F. H.; Gray, A. R.; McGee, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sun-tanning perceptions are monitored to identify changes and help refine targeting of skin cancer prevention messages. Aim. To investigate associations between perceptions of sun-tanning and demographic factors among a New Zealand urban population, 1994–2006. Methods. A telephone survey series was conducted during summer in 1994, 1997, 1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2005/2006. Demographic and personal information (sex, age group, skin sun-sensitivity, and self-defined ethnicity) obtained from 6,195 respondents, 50.2% female, 15–69 years, was investigated in relation to six sun-tanning related statements. A total “positive perceptions of tanning” (ProTan) score was also calculated. Regression analyses modelled each component and the ProTan score against survey year and respondent characteristics. Results. Statistically significantly higher ProTan scores were found for age group (strong reverse dose-response effect), male sex, residence (highest in Auckland), ethnicity (highest among Europeans), and sun sensitivity (an n-shaped association). There was no statistically significant change in total ProTan scores from baseline. Conclusions. The development, pretesting, and evaluation of messages for those groups most likely to endorse ProTan statements should be considered for the New Zealand skin cancer prevention program. To achieve and embed significant change, mass media campaigns may require greater intensity and reinforcement with sustained contextual support for settings-based behavioural change. PMID:24660064

  9. Chemical and morphological diversity in wild populations of Mentha longifolia in Israel.

    PubMed

    Segev, Daniel; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Eshel, Amram; Dudai, Nativ

    2012-03-01

    Populations of Mentha longifolia, an endangered species in Israel, were tested for essential oil composition and conservational ability. In 2002-2003, 25 wild populations country-wide were tested, indicating population divergence into two chemotypes. Chemotype A was characterized by high levels of menthone and pulegone, and chemotype B by high levels of piperitenone oxide and piperitone oxide. Chemotype A was more abundant (22 of 25 populations) than chemotype B (11 of 25 populations). However, a chemotype/population interaction was not recorded (P > 0.05). In spring 2003, seven of the 25 wild populations were resampled, propagated, and cultivated at the Newe Ya'ar campus. Then, in 2004, the propagated plants were tested for essential oil composition. The propagated plants maintained the essential oil composition as well as the chemotype-frequency distribution of the original wild population from which they were obtained. Since a chemotype/population interaction was not recorded, and the cultivated plants displayed the wild population essential oil composition, it can be concluded that i) the chemotype diversity is genetically based, and ii) the M. longifolia populations sampled can be horticulturally conserved. PMID:22422525

  10. Water source dynamics in a glacierized alpine river basin (Taillon-Gabiétous, French Pyrénées)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Lee E.; Hannah, David M.; Milner, Alexander M.; Soulsby, Chris; Hodson, Andrew J.; Brewer, Mark J.

    2006-08-01

    Currently, there is minimal information relating to temporal variability of water source contributions in alpine glacierized basins or the influence of glacier meltwater in a basin-wide context. This study adopts an end-member mixing approach to understand basin-scale water source dynamics in a French Pyrenean, alpine glacierized river system (Taillon-Gabiétous). Major ion and Si data were collected for snow, groundwater tributaries, and four mainstream sites during the 2002/2003 melt seasons. Three conceptual water sources were identified: "quick flow" (dilute, rapidly routed meltwater), "distributed" (SO42- enriched, slow routed subglacial waters), and "groundwater" (Si-enriched groundwater). Water source contributions at nested spatial and temporal scales were determined using end-member mixing and uncertainty analysis. Changes in stream hydrochemistry indicated marked meltwater-groundwater mixing. Quick flow contributions typically decreased over the melt season; groundwater contributions were highest at the beginning of the melt seasons following recharge by snowmelt but also later in the 2002 melt season following prolonged precipitation. Overall, the results suggest an alternative alpine basin melt season hydrological progression compared with previous models (i.e., simple snowmelt to glacier melt to groundwater domination) and emphasize the need to understand water source dynamics to inform related water resource availability, water quality, and stream ecology studies within alpine basins.

  11. Double-observer approach to estimating egg mass abundance of vernal pool breeding amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.; Jung, R.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in seasonally flooded pools, and the status of associated amphibian populations, has initiated programs in the northeastern United States to document and monitor these habitats. Counting egg masses is an effective way to determine the population size of pool-breeding amphibians, such as wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). However, bias is associated with counts if egg masses are missed. Counts unadjusted for the proportion missed (i.e., without adjustment for detection probability) could lead to false assessments of population trends. We used a dependent double-observer method in 2002-2003 to estimate numbers of wood frog and spotted salamander egg masses at seasonal forest pools in 13 National Wildlife Refuges, 1 National Park, 1 National Seashore, and 1 State Park in the northeastern United States. We calculated detection probabilities for egg masses and examined whether detection probabilities varied by species, observers, pools, and in relation to pool characteristics (pool area, pool maximum depth, within-pool vegetation). For the 2 years, model selection indicated that no consistent set of variables explained the variation in data sets from individual Refuges and Parks. Because our results indicated that egg mass detection probabilities vary spatially and temporally, we conclude that it is essential to use estimation procedures, such as double-observer methods with egg mass surveys, to determine population sizes and trends of these species.

  12. Search for New Physics in Dielectron Events in 1.96-TeV Proton - Anti-proton Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ikado, Koji

    2004-03-01

    The authors have searched for new physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particle physics in dielectron decay mode at the CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) experiment in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data were collected during the 2002-2003 runs corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 200 pb{sup -1}. Many extensions of the Standard Model have been proposed. Grand Unified Theories (GUT) assumes a larger gauge symmetry group and predict new gauge bosons. GUT has hierarchy problem in it and there have been many attempts to solve the hierarchy problem. Solutions for the hierarchy problem are supersymmetry, technicolor, large extra dimensions, warped extra dimensions and little Higgs models. The authors analyze the differential distribution of dielectron events in terms of their invariant mass and no significant excess is found in very high mass region. They present a 95% confidence level limit on the production cross section times branching ratio for new resonant particles decaying into an electron pair as a function of invariant mass. New resonant particles include new neutral gauge boson Z', Randall-Sundrum graviton, R-parity violating sneutrino, and technicolor particles. They also present limits on the effective Planck scale of large extra dimensions.

  13. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  14. Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Use among First Year U.S. College Students: A time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Stolar, Marilyn; Richardson, Elizabeth; Tiffany, Stephen; Flay, Brian; Collins, Linda; Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Bailey, Steffani; Clayton, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the day-to-day patterns of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use among first year college students in the U.S. Using 210 days of weekly time-line follow-back diary data collected in 2002-2003, the authors examined within-person patterns of use. The sample was 48% female and 90% Caucasian. Sixty eight percent of the participants were permanent residents of Indiana. Univariate time series analysis was employed to evaluate behavioral trends for each substance across the academic year and to determine the predictive value of day-to-day substance use. Some of the most common trends included higher levels of substance use at the beginning and/or end of the academic year. Use on any given day could be predicted best from the amount of corresponding substance use one day prior. Conclusions While universal intervention might best be focused in the earliest weeks on campus and at the end of the year when substance use is at its highest, the diversity of substance use trajectories suggests the need for more targeted approaches to intervention. Study limitations are noted. PMID:18393083

  15. South American rainfall impacts associated with inter-El Niño variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. J.; Taschetto, A. S.; England, M. H.

    2009-10-01

    The impacts of inter-El Niño events on South American circulation during austral summer are investigated using observations and an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). The AGCM was forced with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific for the two El Niño events of 1997/1998 (EN97) and 2002/2003 (EN02). The strong eastern Pacific SST anomaly of EN97 resulted in a typical displacement of the Walker circulation, causing a decrease in precipitation across the north of South America. A strengthened low-level jet (LLJ) east of the Andes during EN97 enhanced the moisture transport from low latitudes to the subtropics, leading to intensified precipitation over southeastern South America. The simulated circulation in EN02 reveals a weakened LLJ and anomalous convergence of moisture over eastern South America, which can be attributed to a displacement of the Pacific-South American (PSA) mode in response to the different location of the heat sources along the tropical Pacific Ocean.

  16. Clifford algebra-based structure filtering analysis for geophysical vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Luo, W.; Yi, L.; Hu, Y.; Yuan, L.

    2013-07-01

    A new Clifford algebra-based vector field filtering method, which combines amplitude similarity and direction difference synchronously, is proposed. Firstly, a modified correlation product is defined by combining the amplitude similarity and direction difference. Then, a structure filtering algorithm is constructed based on the modified correlation product. With custom template and thresholds applied to the modulus and directional fields independently, our approach can reveal not only the modulus similarities but also the classification of the angular distribution. Experiments on exploring the tempo-spatial evolution of the 2002-2003 El Niño from the global wind data field are used to test the algorithm. The results suggest that both the modulus similarity and directional information given by our approach can reveal the different stages and dominate factors of the process of the El Niño evolution. Additional information such as the directional stability of the El Niño can also be extracted. All the above suggest our method can provide a new powerful and applicable tool for geophysical vector field analysis.

  17. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26077858

  18. Toward a record of Central Pacific El Niño events since 1880

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascolini-Campbell, M.; Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Timmreck, C.; Matei, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Graf, H.-F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the various methods currently available for distinguishing between the Central Pacific (CP) El Niño (or "El Niño Modoki") and the canonical El Niño by considering nine different methods and five sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from 1880 to 2010. This is aimed to demonstrate the variety which exists between different classification methods as well as to help identify years which can be more confidently classified as CP events. Classifying CP El Niños based on the greatest convergence between methods and between SST datasets provides a more robust identification of these events. Analysis of the SST patterns of the CP years identified demonstrates several misclassifications, stressing the importance of not relying solely on indices. After removal, 14 years which are classified the most consistently as CP events include the following: 1885/1886, 1914/1915, 1940/1941, 1958/1959, 1963/1964, 1968/1969, 1977/1978, 1986/1987, 1990/1991, 1991/1992, 1994/1995, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, and 2004/2005. Our findings also indicate the intermittent appearance of CP events throughout the time period investigated, inciting the role of multidecadal natural climate variability in generating CP El Niños.

  19. Science Advising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2004-05-01

    The need for competent physical scientists in public policy is often overlooked. Science and technology play an ever-growing role in our lives, but the people setting the policies governing their use too often lack the skills and knowledge needed to make well-informed decisions. Making the transition from academia to public policy is not as difficult as one might imagine and can lead to a challenging, rewarding career. Dr. Tannenbaum recently completed a 2002-2003 AAAS Science and Technology Fellowship sponsored by the American Physical Society during which he worked in the office of U.S. Representative Edward J. Markey (D-MA) on nuclear nonproliferation issues. His work in Congressman Markey's office focused on issues including US nuclear weapons policy, missile defense, the nuclear program in Iran, prevention of the transfer of U.S. nuclear technology to North Korea, and the security of nuclear sites in Iraq. Dr. Tannenbaum will discuss this experience and observations concerning "underinformed and uninformed" decision-making in Congress and the role of scientists in that process. He will also discuss his current position at the Federation of American Scientists.

  20. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.