Science.gov

Sample records for chip scale liquid

  1. Towards Chip Scale Liquid Chromatography and High Throughput Immunosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, J.

    2000-09-21

    This work describes several research projects aimed towards developing new instruments and novel methods for high throughput chemical and biological analysis. Approaches are taken in two directions. The first direction takes advantage of well-established semiconductor fabrication techniques and applies them to miniaturize instruments that are workhorses in analytical laboratories. Specifically, the first part of this work focused on the development of micropumps and microvalves for controlled fluid delivery. The mechanism of these micropumps and microvalves relies on the electrochemically-induced surface tension change at a mercury/electrolyte interface. A miniaturized flow injection analysis device was integrated and flow injection analyses were demonstrated. In the second part of this work, microfluidic chips were also designed, fabricated, and tested. Separations of two fluorescent dyes were demonstrated in microfabricated channels, based on an open-tubular liquid chromatography (OT LC) or an electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) format. A reduction in instrument size can potentially increase analysis speed, and allow exceedingly small amounts of sample to be analyzed under diverse separation conditions. The second direction explores the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a signal transduction method for immunoassay analysis. It takes advantage of the improved detection sensitivity as a result of surface enhancement on colloidal gold, the narrow width of Raman band, and the stability of Raman scattering signals to distinguish several different species simultaneously without exploiting spatially-separated addresses on a biochip. By labeling gold nanoparticles with different Raman reporters in conjunction with different detection antibodies, a simultaneous detection of a dual-analyte immunoassay was demonstrated. Using this scheme for quantitative analysis was also studied and preliminary dose-response curves from an immunoassay of a

  2. Chip Scale Package Implementation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    The JPL-led MicrotypeBGA Consortium of enterprises representing government agencies and private companies have jointed together to pool in-kind resources for developing the quality and reliability of chip scale packages (CSPs) for a variety of projects. In the process of building the Consortium CSP test vehicles, many challenges were identified regarding various aspects of technology implementation. This paper will present our experience in the areas of technology implementation challenges, including design and building both standard and microvia boards, and assembly of two types of test vehicles. We also discuss the most current package isothermal aging to 2,000 hours at 100 C and 125 C and thermal cycling test results to 1,700 cycles in the range of -30 to 100 C.

  3. Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Jokerst, Nan; Royal, Matthew; Palit, Sabarni; Luan, Lin; Dhar, Sulochana; Tyler, Talmage

    2009-04-01

    Medicine, environmental monitoring, and security are application areas for miniaturized, portable sensing systems. The emerging integration of sensors with other components (electronic, photonic, fluidic) is moving sensing toward higher levels of portability through the realization of self-contained chip scale sensing systems. Planar optical sensors, and in particular, microresonator sensors, are attractive components for chip scale integrated sensing systems because they are small, have high sensitivity, can be surface customized, and can be integrated singly or in arrays in a planar format with other components using conventional semiconductor fabrication technologies. This paper will focus on the progress and prospects for the integration of microresonator sensors at the chip scale with photonic input/output components and with sample preparation microfluidics, toward self-contained, portable sensing systems. PMID:19367589

  4. System-level simulation of liquid filling in microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongjun; Wang, Yi; Pant, Kapil

    2011-06-01

    Liquid filling in microfluidic channels is a complex process that depends on a variety of geometric, operating, and material parameters such as microchannel geometry, flow velocity∕pressure, liquid surface tension, and contact angle of channel surface. Accurate analysis of the filling process can provide key insights into the filling time, air bubble trapping, and dead zone formation, and help evaluate trade-offs among the various design parameters and lead to optimal chip design. However, efficient modeling of liquid filling in complex microfluidic networks continues to be a significant challenge. High-fidelity computational methods, such as the volume of fluid method, are prohibitively expensive from a computational standpoint. Analytical models, on the other hand, are primarily applicable to idealized geometries and, hence, are unable to accurately capture chip level behavior of complex microfluidic systems. This paper presents a parametrized dynamic model for the system-level analysis of liquid filling in three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic networks. In our approach, a complex microfluidic network is deconstructed into a set of commonly used components, such as reservoirs, microchannels, and junctions. The components are then assembled according to their spatial layout and operating rationale to achieve a rapid system-level model. A dynamic model based on the transient momentum equation is developed to track the liquid front in the microchannels. The principle of mass conservation at the junction is used to link the fluidic parameters in the microchannels emanating from the junction. Assembly of these component models yields a set of differential and algebraic equations, which upon integration provides temporal information of the liquid filling process, particularly liquid front propagation (i.e., the arrival time). The models are used to simulate the transient liquid filling process in a variety of microfluidic constructs and in a multiplexer, representing a

  5. Log-scale Dose Response of Inhibitors on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae Young; Jambovane, Sachin; Kim, Se-Kwon; Cho, Sung-Hak; Duin, Evert C; Hong, Jong Wook

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the accommodation of log-scale concentration gradients of inhibitors on a single microfluidic chip with a semi-direct dilution capability of reagents for the determination of the half-inhibitory concentration or IC50. The chip provides a unique tool for hosting a wide-range of concentration gradient for studies that require an equal distribution of measuring points on a logarithmic scale. Using Matrix metalloproteinase IX and three of its inhibitors, marimastat, batimastat and CP471474, we evaluated the IC50 of each inhibitor with a single experiment. The present work could be applied to the systematic study of biochemical binding and inhibition processes particularly in the field of mechanistic enzymology and the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:21696192

  6. VCSEL polarization control for chip-scale atomic clocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Wendt, Joel Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Keeler, Gordon Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Mytek, LLC have collaborated to develop a monolithically-integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) assembly with controllable polarization states suitable for use in chip-scale atomic clocks. During the course of this work, a robust technique to provide polarization control was modeled and demonstrated. The technique uses deeply-etched surface gratings oriented at several different rotational angles to provide VCSEL polarization stability. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) model was used to optimize the design for high polarization selectivity and fabrication tolerance. The new approach to VCSEL polarization control may be useful in a number of defense and commercial applications, including chip-scale atomic clocks and other low-power atomic sensors.

  7. 75 FR 24742 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips or products containing the same that...

  8. SPIDER: Next Generation Chip Scale Imaging Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Alan; Kendrick, Rick; Thurman, Sam; Wuchenich, Danielle; Scott, Ryan P.; Yoo, S. J. B.; Su, Tiehui; Yu, Runxiang; Ogden, Chad; Proiett, Roberto

    The LM Advanced Technology Center and UC Davis are developing an Electro-Optical (EO) imaging sensor called SPIDER (Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-optical Reconnaissance) that provides a 10x to 100x size, weight, and power (SWaP) reduction alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope and focal plane detector array. The substantial reductions in SWaP would reduce cost and/or provide higher resolution by enabling a larger aperture imager in a constrained volume. The SPIDER concept consists of thousands of direct detection white-light interferometers densely packed onto Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) to measure the amplitude and phase of the visibility function at spatial frequencies that span the full synthetic aperture. In other words, SPIDER would sample the object being imaged in the Fourier domain (i.e., spatial frequency domain), and then digitally reconstruct an image. The conventional approach for imaging interferometers requires complex mechanical delay lines to form the interference fringes. This results in designs that are not traceable to more than a few simultaneous spatial frequency measurements. SPIDER seeks to achieve this traceability by employing micron-=scale optical waveguides and nanophotonic structures fabricated on a PIC with micron-scale packing density to form the necessary interferometers. Prior LM IRAD and DARPA/NASA CRAD-funded SPIDER risk reduction experiments, design trades, and simulations have matured the SPIDER imager concept to a TRL 3 level. Current funding under the DARPA SPIDER Zoom program is maturing the underlying PIC technology for SPIDER to the TRL 4 level. This is done by developing and fabricating a second-generation PIC that is fully traceable to the multiple layers and low-power phase modulators required for higher-dimension waveguide arrays that are needed for higher field-of-view sensors. Our project also seeks to extend the SPIDER concept to add a zoom capability that would provide

  9. Co-gasification of hardwood chips and crude glycerol in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Pordesimo, Lester O; Haryanto, Agus; Wooten, James

    2011-05-01

    Seeking appropriate approaches to utilize the crude glycerol produced in biodiesel production is very important for the economic viability and environmental impacts of biodiesel industry. Gasification may be one of options for addressing this issue. Co-gasification of hardwood chips blending with crude glycerol in various loading levels was undertaken in the study involving a pilot scale fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The results indicated that crude glycerol loading levels affected the gasifier's performance and the quality of syngas produced. When crude glycerol loading level increased, the CO, CH(4), and tar concentrations of the syngas also increased but particle concentration decreased. Though further testing is suggested, downdraft gasifiers could be run well with hardwood chips blending with liquid crude glycerol up to 20 (wt%). The syngas produced had relatively good quality for fueling internal combustion engines. This study provides a considerable way to utilize crude glycerol. PMID:21435871

  10. A chip scale electrocaloric effect based cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Haiming; Qian, Xiaoshi; Li, Xinyu; Craven, Brent; Zhu, Wenyi; Cheng, Ailan; Yao, S. C.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2013-03-01

    The recent finding of large electrocaloric effect in several ferroelectric polymers creates unique opportunity for developing compact size solid state cooling cycles beyond the traditional mechanical vapor compression cycles. Here, we show that, by employing regeneration process with solid state regenerators, a chip scale Electrocaloric Oscillatory Refrigeration (ECOR) can be realized. A prototype ECOR is fabricated and characterized. More than 6 K temperature span is obtained near room temperature between the hot and cold sides of a 2 cm long device. Finite volume simulation validates the test results and shows the potential high performance of the ECOR.

  11. The chip-scale atomic clock : prototype evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Mescher, Mark; Varghese, Mathew; Lutwak, Robert; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Tepolt, Gary; Geib, Kent Martin; Leblanc, John; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Rashid, Ahmed

    2007-12-01

    The authors have developed a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) for applications requiring atomic timing accuracy in portable battery-powered applications. At PTTI/FCS 2005, they reported on the demonstration of a prototype CSAC, with an overall size of 10 cm{sup 3}, power consumption > 150 mW, and short-term stability sy(t) < 1 x 10-9t-1/2. Since that report, they have completed the development of the CSAC, including provision for autonomous lock acquisition and a calibrated output at 10.0 MHz, in addition to modifications to the physics package and system architecture to improve performance and manufacturability.

  12. 75 FR 51843 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ..., based on a complaint filed by Panasonic Corporation (``Panasonic'') of Japan. 75 FR 24742-43. The... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... importation of certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips and products containing same...

  13. Chip Scale Package Integrity Assessment by Isothermal Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    Many aspects of chip scale package (CSP) technology, with focus on assembly reliability characteristics, are being investigated by the JPL-led consortia. Three types of test vehicles were considered for evaluation and currently two configurations have been built to optimize attachment processes. These test vehicles use numerous package types. To understand potential failure mechanisms of the packages, particularly solder ball attachment, the grid CSPs were subjected to environmental exposure. Package I/Os ranged from 40 to nearly 300. This paper presents both as assembled, up to 1, 000 hours of isothermal aging shear test results and photo micrographs, and tensile test results before and after 1,500 cycles in the range of -30/100 C for CSPs. Results will be compared to BGAs with the same the same isothermal aging environmental exposures.

  14. Magnetoencephalography with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Sander, T. H.; Preusser, J.; Mhaskar, R.; Kitching, J.; Trahms, L.; Knappe, S.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the measurement of somatosensory-evoked and spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer (CSAM) based on optical spectroscopy of alkali atoms. The uncooled, fiber-coupled CSAM has a sensitive volume of 0.77 mm3 inside a sensor head of volume 1 cm3 and enabled convenient handling, similar to an electroencephalography (EEG) electrode. When positioned over O1 of a healthy human subject, α-oscillations were observed in the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the scalp surface. Furthermore, by stimulation at the right wrist of the subject, somatosensory-evoked fields were measured with the sensors placed over C3. Higher noise levels of the CSAM were partly compensated by higher signal amplitudes due to the shorter distance between CSAM and scalp. PMID:22567591

  15. Liquids on-chip: direct storage and release employing micro-perforated vapor barrier films.

    PubMed

    Czurratis, Daniel; Beyl, Yvonne; Grimm, Alexander; Brettschneider, Thomas; Zinober, Sven; Lärmer, Franz; Zengerle, Roland

    2015-07-01

    Liquids on-chip describes a reagent storage concept for disposable pressure driven Lab-on-Chip (LoC) devices, which enables liquid storage in reservoirs without additional packaging. On-chip storage of liquids can be considered as one of the major challenges for the commercial break through of polymer-based LoC devices. Especially the ability for long-term storage and reagent release on demand are the most important aspects for a fully developed technology. On-chip storage not only replaces manual pipetting, it creates numerous advantages: fully automated processing, ease of use, reduction of contamination and transportation risks. Previous concepts for on-chip storage are based on liquid packaging solutions (e.g. stick packs, blisters, glass ampoules), which implicate manufacturing complexity and additional pick and place processes. That is why we prefer on-chip storage of liquids directly in reservoirs. The liquids are collected in reservoirs, which are made of high barrier polymers or coated by selected barrier layers. Therefore, commonly used polymers for LoC applications as cyclic olefin polymer (COP) and polycarbonate (PC) were investigated in the context of novel polymer composites. To ensure long-term stability the reservoirs are sealed with a commercially available barrier film by hot embossing. The barrier film is structured by pulsed laser ablation, which installs rated break points without affecting the barrier properties. A flexible membrane is actuated through pneumatic pressure for reagent release on demand. The membrane deflection breaks the barrier film and leads to efficient cleaning of the reservoirs in order to provide the liquids for further processing. PMID:26038101

  16. Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) Embedded Readout Designs for Liquid Helium Level Sensors.

    PubMed

    Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Usha Rani, R; Sheela, O K; Janawadkar, M P

    2014-01-24

    This article reports the development of programmable system-on-chip (PSoC)-based embedded readout designs for liquid helium level sensors using resistive liquid vapor discriminators. The system has been built for the measurement of liquid helium level in a concave-bottomed, helmet-shaped, fiber-reinforced plastic cryostat for magnetoencephalography. This design incorporates three carbon resistors as cost-effective sensors, which are mounted at desired heights inside the cryostat and were used to infer the liquid helium level by measuring their temperature-dependent resistance. Localized electrical heating of the carbon resistors was used to discriminate whether the resistor is immersed in liquid helium or its vapor by exploiting the difference in the heat transfer rates in the two environments. This report describes a single PSoC chip for the design and development of a constant current source to drive the three carbon resistors, a multiplexer to route the sensor outputs to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a buffer to avoid loading of the sensors, an ADC for digitizing the data, and a display using liquid crystal display cum light-emitting diode modules. The level sensor readout designed with a single PSoC chip enables cost-effective and reliable measurement system design. PMID:24464811

  17. Reliability of BGA Packages for Highly Reliable Application and Chip Scale Package Board Level Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1997-01-01

    Diffenent aspects of advanced surface mount package technology have been investigated for aerospace applications. Three key areas included understanding assembly reliability behavior of conventional surface Mount, Ball Grid Arrays (BGAs), and Chip Scale Packages.

  18. Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both the quality of the experimental washing protocol and adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. Results We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of the number of washing cycles. For calibration and analysis of the intensity data we make use of the 'hook' method which allows intensity contributions due to non-specific and specific hybridization of perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) probes to be disentangled in a sequence specific manner. On average, washing according to the standard protocol removes about 90% of the non-specific background and about 30-50% and less than 10% of the specific targets from the MM and PM, respectively. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. It depends on the intensity contribution due to specific and non-specific hybridization per probe which can be estimated for each probe using existing methods. The washing function allows probe intensities to be calibrated for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures, especially in the limit of small and large values. Conclusions Washing is among the factors which potentially distort expression measures. The proposed first-order correction method allows direct implementation in existing calibration algorithms for microarray data. We provide an experimental 'washing data set' which might

  19. High Efficiency Mixing Chip with Liquid Flow Actuators Operated by Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Tsunemasa; Utsumi, Yuichi

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be used as component parts for micro total analysis systems (μTASs), because the structures of these are very simple. We thus fabricated a mixing chip with liquid flow actuators operated only by the SAWs. The chip is mainly consisted of one Y-type flow channel, two pumps and one mixer. The pump is located at each upstream area of merging point of the flow channel, and the mixer is located at its downstream area. Incidentally, the flow actuators have interdigital transducers (IDTs) to generate the SAWs. The IDTs were fabricated by patterning Al/Cr on a LiNbO3 substrate, and the flow channel wall was made of epoxy-based negative resist SU-8. Using the mixing chip, we carried out a mixing experiment of two water solutions with different concentrations by using glycerin, and a chemical reaction experiment of luminol luminescence. Through the experimentations, it was found that the local and rapid mixing of continuous liquid flow was possible by using the SAW actuators, and the availability of our fabricated mixing chip as a reactor was demonstrated.

  20. Neuron-synapse IC chip-set for large-scale chaotic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Horio, Y; Aihara, K; Yamamoto, O

    2003-01-01

    We propose a neuron-synapse integrated circuit (IC) chip-set for large-scale chaotic neural networks. We use switched-capacitor (SC) circuit techniques to implement a three-internal-state transiently-chaotic neural network model. The SC chaotic neuron chip faithfully reproduces complex chaotic dynamics in real numbers through continuous state variables of the analog circuitry. We can digitally control most of the model parameters by means of programmable capacitive arrays embedded in the SC chaotic neuron chip. Since the output of the neuron is transfered into a digital pulse according to the all-or-nothing property of an axon, we design a synapse chip with digital circuits. We propose a memory-based synapse circuit architecture to achieve a rapid calculation of a vast number of weighted summations. Both of the SC neuron and the digital synapse circuits have been fabricated as IC forms. We have tested these IC chips extensively, and confirmed the functions and performance of the chip-set. The proposed neuron-synapse IC chip-set makes it possible to construct a scalable and reconfigurable large-scale chaotic neural network with 10000 neurons and 10000/sup 2/ synaptic connections. PMID:18244585

  1. On the density scaling of liquid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragiadakis, D.; Roland, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Superpositioning of relaxation data as a function of the product variable TVγ, where T is temperature, V the specific volume, and γ a material constant, is an experimental fact demonstrated for approximately 100 liquids and polymers. Such scaling behavior would result from the intermolecular potential having the form of an inverse power law (IPL), suggesting that an IPL is a good approximation for certain relaxation properties over the relevant range of intermolecular distances. However, the derivation of the scaling property of an IPL liquid is based on reduced quantities, for example, the reduced relaxation time equal to T1/2V-1/3 times the actual relaxation time. The difference between scaling using reduced rather than unreduced units is negligible in the supercooled regime; however, at higher temperature the difference can be substantial, accounting for the purported breakdown of the scaling and giving rise to different values of the scaling exponent. Only the γ obtained using reduced quantities can be sensibly related to the intermolecular potential.

  2. Liquidity crises on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  3. Design of liquid lens based optical system for microfluidic chip detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Lijun; Zhou, Ya; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Chang

    2015-08-01

    The precision of manufacturing and installing together with the flexibility is a serious challenge for laser induced fluorescent detector (LIFD) of microfluidic chip. In this paper, a focus tunable liquid lens based on liquid zoom system for LIFD with automatic adjustment is proposed. With the help of liquid zoom lens whose surface curvature can be varied continuously by current, the system can achieve a continuous zoom. Instead of using the traditional mechanical axial displacement scanning motion mechanism, the proposed zoom system can implement axial displacement scan by means of the well-designed autofocus feedback current control function. The simulation results show that the focal length variation range of the designed optical system is 4.87mm~ 8.40mm, which is also the axial scanning displacement range. The size of scanning spot is around 15μm when a 473nm wavelength laser is used, which can meet the demand of microfluidic chip detection. With this design, the required precision of the LIFD could be reduced significantly as well as costs. Moreover, it also makes the detection of microfluidic chip qualified to adapt to different size of detecting channel.

  4. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

    2006-08-01

    Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of

  5. Micron-Scale Differential Scanning Calorimeter on a Chip

    DOEpatents

    Cavicchi, Richard E; Poirier, Gregory Ernest; Suehle, John S; Gaitan, Michael; Tea, Nim H

    1998-06-30

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter produced on a silicon chip enables microscopic scanning calorimetry measurements of small samples and thin films. The chip may be fabricated using standard CMOS processes. The microcalorimeter includes a reference zone and a sample zone. The reference and sample zones may be at opposite ends of a suspended platform or may reside on separate platforms. An integrated polysilicon heater provides heat to each zone. A thermopile consisting of a succession of thermocouple junctions generates a voltage representing the temperature difference between the reference and sample zones. Temperature differences between the zones provide information about the chemical reactions and phase transitions that occur in a sample placed in the sample zone.

  6. Fabrication method for chip-scale-vacuum-packages based on a chip-to-wafer-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J.; Weiler, D.; Ruß, M.; Heß, J.; Yang, P.; Voß, J.; Arnold, N.,; Vogt, H.

    2010-10-01

    This paper introduces a simple vacuum packaging method which is based on a Chip-to-Wafer process. The MEMS-device is provided with an electroplated solder frame. A Si-lid with the same solder frame is mounted on each die of the wafer using a flip chip process. The same materials for lid and substrate are used in order to reduce the mechanical stress due to the same thermal coefficients of expansion. The resulting cavity between die and lid can be evacuated and hermetically sealed with an eutectic soldering process. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated with an infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). In this case, the Si-lid acts as an optical window and contains an anti reflective layer for the 8-14 μm wavelength area on both sides. The long-term vacuum stability is supported by a getter film inside the package. This method simplifies the sawing process and has the additional cost benefit that it is possible to package only known good dies.

  7. Chip scale humidity sensing based on a microfluidic infiltrated photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Bedoya, A.; Shahnia, S.; Di Battista, D.; Mägi, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents an optical on-a-chip humidity sensor based on the hydroscopic behavior of an infiltrated liquid into the sub-micron holes of a silicon photonic crystal. Direct measurements of the liquid refractive index in combination with numerical simulations show that the sensitivity of the device is due to changes of both the liquid's refractive index and volume. We report humidity sensing with a response time of 0.1 ms and study the stability and reversibility of the sensor. This demonstration highlights the sensitivity offered by optofluidics in photonic crystal circuits and the potential for realizing ultra-compact integrated humidity sensing components.

  8. On-Chip Pressure Generation for Driving Liquid Phase Separations in Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ling; Choi, Chiwoong; Kothekar, Shrinivas C; Dutta, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    In this Article, we describe the generation of pressure gradients on-chip for driving liquid phase separations in submicrometer deep channels. The reported pressure-generation capability was realized by applying an electrical voltage across the interface of two glass channel segments with different depths. A mismatch in the electroosmotic flow rate at this junction led to the generation of pressure-driven flow in our device, a fraction of which was then directed to an analysis channel to carry out the desired separation. Experiments showed the reported strategy to be particularly conducive for miniaturization of pressure-driven separations yielding flow velocities in the separation channel that were nearly unaffected upon scaling down the depth of the entire fluidic network. Moreover, the small dead volume in our system allowed for high dynamic control over this pressure gradient, which otherwise was challenging to accomplish during the sample injection process using external pumps. Pressure-driven velocities up to 3.1 mm/s were realized in separation ducts as shallow as 300 nm using our current design for a maximum applied voltage of 3 kV. The functionality of this integrated device was demonstrated by implementing a pressure-driven ion chromatographic analysis that relied on analyte interaction with the nanochannel surface charges to yield a nonuniform solute concentration across the channel depth. Upon coupling such analyte distribution to the parabolic pressure-driven flow profile in the separation duct, a mixture of amino acids could be resolved. The reported assay yielded a higher separation resolution compared to its electrically driven counterpart in which sample migration was realized using electroosmosis/electrophoresis. PMID:26636608

  9. Liquid-filled varifocal lens on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Tae; Lee, Jeong Yub; Kwon, Jong Oh; Lee, Seungwan; Kim, Woonbae

    2009-02-01

    In this study we developed a liquid-filled varifocal lens operated by electroactive polymer actuators. A silicon wafer was structured with micromachining processes to have four microfluidic chambers and a circular hole working as an aperture. The structured silicon wafer (opaque frame) was bonded to a glass wafer (transparent frame), and thus microfluidic channels were formed between them. Top surface of the main frame was covered with a transparent elastomer membrane, and the internal volume confined by the membrane and the two frames was filled with optical fluid. In order to operate this varifocal lens system, multilayered P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) [poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-clorofluoroethylene)] polymer actuators were also developed, which show relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and thus produce large electrostrictive strain. When an electric field is applied, the multilayered P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) polymer actuators push the optical fluid so that the elastomer membrane together with the internal fluid changes their shape, which alters the light path of the varifocal lens. The original shape of the elastomer membrane is restored by the elastic recovery of the P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) actuators when an applied electric field is removed. We observed that with the applied voltage of 40 V the varifocal lens changes the optical power of more than 30 diopters within 20 ms. Optical analysis showed that the deformation shape of the optical membrane can be successfully used to design phone camera modules with auto-focus function.

  10. Advancement in stationary phase for peptide separation helps in protein identification: application to atheroma plaque proteomics using nano-chip liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Cédric; Noyon, Caroline; Raynal, Pierre; Dufour, Damien; Nève, Jean; Abts, Frederic; Haex, Martin; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2015-03-13

    In the last decades, proteomics has largely progressed. Mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography (LC) are generally used in proteomics. These techniques enable proper separation of peptides and good identification and/or quantification of them. Later, nano-scaled liquid chromatography, improvements of mass spectrometry resolution and sensitivity brought huge advancements. Enhancements in chemistry of chromatographic columns also brought interesting results. In the present work, the potency of identification of proteins by different nano-chip columns was studied and compared with classical LC column. The present study was applied to cardiovascular field where proteomics has shown to be highly helpful in research of new biomarkers. Protein extracts from atheroma plaques were used and proteomics data were compared. Results show that fewer spectra were acquired by the mass spectrometer when nano-chip columns were used instead of the classical ones. However, approximately 40% more unique peptides were identified by the recently optimized chip named Polaris-HR-chip-3C18 column, and 20% more proteins were identified. This fact leads to the identification of more low-abundance proteins. Many of them are involved in atheroma plaque development such as apolipoproteins, ceruloplasmin, etc. In conclusion, present data shows that recent developments of nanoLC column chemistry and dimensions enabled the improved detection and identification of low-abundance proteins in atheroma plaques. Several of them are of major interest in the field of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25680550

  11. Developing Electrocaloric (EC) Materials with Giant EC Response and Chip-Scale EC Cooling Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiming

    2015-03-01

    The direct and efficient coupling between the electric signals and the elastic, thermal, optical and magnetic signals in ferroelectric based electroactive materials makes them attractive for exploiting a broad range of cross-coupling phenomena which have great promise for new device technologies. This talk will present the recent advances at Penn State in developing electrocaloric materials which may provide alternative cooling technology to replace the century old vapor compression cycle (VCC) based cooling which employs strong greenhouse gases as the refrigerants. Electrocaloric effect (ECE), which is the temperature and entropy change of insulating dielectric materials under electric fields, is attractive to realize efficient cooling devices. However, the relatively small ECE observed in dielectrics in the last century make it unimpressive for any practical applications. Experimental results on the ECE in the relaxor ferroelectric polymers and general theoretical considerations for achieving large ECE will be presented. This talk will also discuss considerations on and present recent works in using nanocomposites to further enhancing the ECE beyond the pure relaxor polymers, on the giant ECE in a class of dielectric liquid, and in bulk ferroelectric ceramics near the invariant critical point. The works related to developing the chip-scale EC cooling devices, exploiting the newly discovered large ECE in ferroelectric materials and featuring high cooling power density and high efficiency, will also be presented. This work has been supported by DoE BES and by ARO.

  12. Vapor pressure of ionic liquids at low temperatures from AC-chip-calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Ahrenberg, Mathias; Beck, Martin; Neise, Christin; Keßler, Olaf; Kragl, Udo; Verevkin, Sergey P; Schick, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The very low vapor pressure of ionic liquids is challenging to measure. At elevated temperatures the liquids might start to decompose, and at relatively low temperatures the vapor pressure becomes too low to be measured by conventional methods. In this work we developed a highly sensitive method for mass loss determination at temperatures starting from 350 K. This technique is based on an alternating current calorimeter equipped with a chip sensor that consists of a free-standing SiNx-membrane (thickness <1 μm) and a measuring area with lateral dimensions of the order of 1 mm. A small droplet (diameter ca. 600 μm) of an ionic liquid is vaporized isothermally from the chip sensor in a vacuum-chamber. The surface-to-volume-ratio of such a droplet is large and the relative mass loss due to evaporation is therefore easy to monitor by the changing heat capacity (J K(-1)) of the remaining liquid. The vapor pressure is determined from the measured mass loss rates using the Langmuir equation. The method was successfully tested for the determination of the vapor pressure and the vaporization enthalpy of an archetypical ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][NTf2]). The data set created in this way in an extremely broad temperature range from 358 K to 780 K has allowed the estimation of the boiling temperature of [EMIm][NTf2]. The value (1120 ± 50) K should be considered as the first reliable boiling point of the archetypical ionic liquid obtained from experimental vapor pressures measured in the most possible close proximity to the normal boiling temperature. PMID:27425628

  13. An all-glass chip-scale MEMS package with variable cavity pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Douglas; Trevino, Jacob; Massoud-Ansari, Sonbol; Najafi, Nader

    2006-11-01

    A dielectric, chip-scale MEMS packaging method is discussed. The packaging method uses wafer-to-wafer bonding of micromachined glass wafers with a reflowed, glass, sealing ring. The glass wafers are micromachined and have metal and silicon structures patterned on them with metal and fluidic feedthroughs. A variety of getters and sealing designs are disclosed to vary the pressure of the microcavity by many orders of magnitude from under 1 mTorr up to 1 atm (760 000 mTorr), enabling either vacuum or damped packaging of the device elements on the same chip. The final singulated, all-glass, chip-scale package can have electrical, optical/IR and fluidic interfaces. Applications for resonators, switches, optical sensors and displays are discussed.

  14. Photonic-crystal lasers on silicon for chip-scale optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Koji; Fujii, Takuro; Shinya, Akihiko; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya; Hasebe, Koichi; Kakitsuka, Takaaki; Matsuo, Shinji

    2016-03-01

    Optical interconnects are expected to reduce the power consumption of ICT instruments. To realize chip-to-chip or chip-scale optical interconnects, it is essential to fabricate semiconductor lasers with a smaller energy cost. In this context, we are developing lambda-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal (LEAP) lasers as light sources for chip-scale optical interconnects. We demonstrated the first continuous-wave (CW) operation of LEAP lasers in 2012 and reported a record low threshold current and energy cost of 4.8 μA and 4.4 fJ/bit at 10 Gbit/s in 2013. We have also integrated photonic crystal photodetectors on the same InP chip and demonstrated waveform transfer along 500-μm-long waveguides. Although LEAP lasers exhibit excellent performance, they have to be integrated on Si wafers for use as light sources for chip-scale optical interconnects. In this paper, we give a brief overview of our LEAP lasers on InP and report our recent progress in fabricating them on Si. We bonded the InP wafers with quantum-well gain layers directly on thermally oxidized Si wafers and performed all process steps on the Si wafer, including high-temperature regrowth. After this process modification, we again achieved CW operation and obtained a threshold current of 57 μA with a maximum output power of more than 3.5 μW at the output waveguides. An output light was successfully guided through 500 × 250-nm InP waveguides.

  15. On-Chip Production of Size-Controllable Liquid Metal Microdroplets Using Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Ayan, Bugra; Nama, Nitesh; Bian, Yusheng; Lata, James P; Guo, Xiasheng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-07-01

    Micro- to nanosized droplets of liquid metals, such as eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) and Galinstan, have been used for developing a variety of applications in flexible electronics, sensors, catalysts, and drug delivery systems. Currently used methods for producing micro- to nanosized droplets of such liquid metals possess one or several drawbacks, including the lack in ability to control the size of the produced droplets, mass produce droplets, produce smaller droplet sizes, and miniaturize the system. Here, a novel method is introduced using acoustic wave-induced forces for on-chip production of EGaIn liquid-metal microdroplets with controllable size. The size distribution of liquid metal microdroplets is tuned by controlling the interfacial tension of the metal using either electrochemistry or electrocapillarity in the acoustic field. The developed platform is then used for heavy metal ion detection utilizing the produced liquid metal microdroplets as the working electrode. It is also demonstrated that a significant enhancement of the sensing performance is achieved by introducing acoustic streaming during the electrochemical experiments. The demonstrated technique can be used for developing liquid-metal-based systems for a wide range of applications. PMID:27309129

  16. 76 FR 14688 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... of Japan. 75 FR 24742-43. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930... Freescale Xiqing, Freescale Innovation, and Newark, respectively. 75 FR 51843 (August 23, 2010). On February... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and...

  17. Chip scale low dimensional materials: optoelectronics & nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Tingyi

    The CMOS foundry infrastructure enables integration of high density, high performance optical transceivers. We developed integrated devices that assemble resonators, waveguide, tapered couplers, pn junction and electrodes. Not only the volume standard manufacture in silicon foundry is promising to low-lost optical components operating at IR and mid-IR range, it also provides a robust platform for revealing new physical phenomenon. The thesis starts from comparison between photonic crystal and micro-ring resonators based on chip routers, showing photonic crystal switches have small footprint, consume low operation power, but its higher linear loss may require extra energy for signal amplification. Different designs are employed in their implementation in optical signal routing on chip. The second part of chapter 2 reviews the graphene based optoelectronic devices, such as modulators, lasers, switches and detectors, potential for group IV optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC). In chapter 3, the highly efficient thermal optic control could act as on-chip switches and (transmittance) tunable filters. Local temperature tuning compensates the wavelength differences between two resonances, and separate electrode is used for fine tuning of optical pathways between two resonators. In frequency domain, the two cavity system also serves as an optical analogue of Autler-Towns splitting, where the cavity-cavity resonance detuning is controlled by the length of pathway (phase) between them. The high thermal sensitivity of cavity resonance also effectively reflects the heat distribution around the nanoheaters, and thus derives the thermal conductivity in the planar porous suspended silicon membrane. Chapter 4 & 5 analyze graphene-silicon photonic crystal cavities with high Q and small mode volume. With negligible nonlinear response to the milliwatt laser excitation, the monolithic silicon PhC turns into highly nonlinear after transferring the single layer graphene with

  18. User-Loaded SlipChip for Equipment-Free Multiplexed Nanoliter-Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang; Du, Wenbin; Ismagilov, Rustem

    2010-08-04

    This paper describes a microfluidic approach to perform multiplexed nanoliter-scale experiments by combining a sample with multiple different reagents, each at multiple mixing ratios. This approach employs a user-loaded, equipment-free SlipChip. The mixing ratios, characterized by diluting a fluorescent dye, could be controlled by the volume of each of the combined wells. The SlipChip design was validated on an {approx}12 nL scale by screening the conditions for crystallization of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Burkholderia pseudomallei against 48 different reagents; each reagent was tested at 11 different mixing ratios, for a total of 528 crystallization trials. The total consumption of the protein sample was {approx}10 {micro}L. Conditions for crystallization were successfully identified. The crystallization experiments were successfully scaled up in well plates using the conditions identified in the SlipChip. Crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction and provided a protein structure in a different space group and at a higher resolution than the structure obtained by conventional methods. In this work, this user-loaded SlipChip has been shown to reliably handle fluids of diverse physicochemical properties, such as viscosities and surface tensions. Quantitative measurements of fluorescent intensities and high-resolution imaging were straighforward to perform in these glass SlipChips. Surface chemistry was controlled using fluorinated lubricating fluid, analogous to the fluorinated carrier fluid used in plug-based crystallization. Thus, we expect this approach to be valuable in a number of areas beyond protein crystallization, especially those areas where droplet-based microfluidic systems have demonstrated successes, including measurements of enzyme kinetics and blood coagulation, cell-based assays, and chemical reactions.

  19. Design and implementation of an automated liquid-phase microextraction-chip system coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Payán, María D Ramos; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-03-01

    An automated liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) device in a chip format has been developed and coupled directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 10-port 2-position switching valve was used to hyphenate the LPME-chip with the HPLC autosampler, and to collect the extracted analytes, which then were delivered to the HPLC column. The LPME-chip-HPLC system was completely automated and controlled by the software of the HPLC instrument. The performance of this system was demonstrated with five alkaloids i.e. morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine as model analytes. The composition of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) and carrier was optimized in order to achieve reasonable extraction performance of all the five alkaloids. With 1-octanol as SLM solvent and with 25 mM sodium octanoate as anionic carrier, extraction recoveries for the different opium alkaloids ranged between 17% and 45%. The extraction provided high selectivity, and no interfering peaks in the chromatograms were observed when applied to human urine samples spiked with alkaloids. The detection limits using UV-detection were in the range of 1-21 ng/mL for the five opium alkaloids presented in water samples. The repeatability was within 5.0-10.8% (RSD). The membrane liquid in the LPME-chip was regenerated automatically between every third injection. With this procedure the liquid membrane in the LPME-chip was stable in 3-7 days depending on the complexity of sample solutions with continuous operation. With this LPME-chip-HPLC system, series of samples were automatically injected, extracted, separated, and detected without any operator interaction. PMID:24468363

  20. Generation of Monodisperse Liquid Droplets in a Microfluidic Chip Using a High-Speed Gaseous Microflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirandazi, Pooyan; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few years, microfluidic systems known as Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) have been increasingly developed as essential components for numerous biochemical applications. Droplet microfluidics, however, provides a distinctive attribute for delivering and processing discrete as well as ultrasmall volumes of fluid, which make droplet-based systems more beneficial over their continuous-phase counterparts. Droplet generation in its conventional scheme usually incorporates the injection of a liquid (water) into a continuous immiscible liquid (oil) medium. In this study we demonstrate a novel scheme for controlled generation of monodisperse droplets in confined gas-liquid microflows. We experimentally investigate the manipulation of water droplets in flow-focusing configurations using a high inertial air stream. Different flow regimes are observed by varying the gas and liquid flow rates, among which, the ``dripping regime'' where monodisperse droplets are generated is of great importance. The controlled size and generation rate of droplets in this region provide the capability for precise and contaminant-free delivery of microliter to nanoliter volumes of fluid. Furthermore, the high speed droplets generated in this method represent the basis for a new approach based on droplet pair collisions for fast efficient micromixing which provides a significant development in modern LOC and μTAS devices. This project is currently being supported by an NSF CAREER Award grant CBET-1151091.

  1. Microfabricated chip-scale rubidium plasma light source for miniature atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vinu; Pétremand, Yves; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano; de Rooij, Nico F; Shea, Herbert

    2012-03-01

    We present the microfabrication and characterization of a low-power, chip-scale Rb plasma light source, designed for optical pumping in miniature atomic clocks. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration is used to ignite a Rb plasma in a micro-fabricated Rb vapor cell on which external indium electrodes were deposited. The device is electrically driven at frequencies between 1 and 36 MHz, and emits 140 μW of stable optical power while coupling less than 6 mW of electrical power to the discharge cell. Optical powers of up to 15 and 9 μW are emitted on the Rb D2 and D1 lines, respectively. Continuous operation of the light source for several weeks has been demonstrated, showing its capacity to maintain stable optical excitation of Rb atoms in chip-scale double-resonance atomic clocks. PMID:22481778

  2. Chip Scale Atomic Resonator Frequency Stabilization System With Ultra-Low Power Consumption for Optoelectronic Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianye; Zhang, Yaolin; Lu, Haoyuan; Hou, Dong; Zhang, Shuangyou; Wang, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    We present a long-term chip scale stabilization scheme for optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) based on a rubidium coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic resonator. By locking a single mode of an OEO to the (85)Rb 3.035-GHz CPT resonance utilizing an improved phase-locked loop (PLL) with a PID regulator, we achieved a chip scale frequency stabilization system for the OEO. The fractional frequency stability of the stabilized OEO by overlapping Allan deviation reaches 6.2 ×10(-11) (1 s) and  ∼ 1.45 ×10 (-11) (1000 s). This scheme avoids a decrease in the extra phase noise performance induced by the electronic connection between the OEO and the microwave reference in common injection locking schemes. The total physical package of the stabilization system is [Formula: see text] and the total power consumption is 400 mW, which provides a chip scale and portable frequency stabilization approach with ultra-low power consumption for OEOs. PMID:26529751

  3. Large-scale liquid scintillation detectors for solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benziger, Jay B.; Calaprice, Frank P.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale liquid scintillation detectors are capable of providing spectral yields of the low energy solar neutrinos. These detectors require > 100 tons of liquid scintillator with high optical and radiopurity. In this paper requirements for low-energy neutrino detection by liquid scintillation are specified and the procedures to achieve low backgrounds in large-scale liquid scintillation detectors for solar neutrinos are reviewed. The designs, operations and achievements of Borexino, KamLAND and SNO+ in measuring the low-energy solar neutrino fluxes are reviewed.

  4. Three-dimensional integrated circuits for lab-on-chip dielectrophoresis of nanometer scale particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Samuel J.; Noyola, Arnaldo J.; Levitan, Steven P.; Chiarulli, Donald M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a mixed-technology micro-system for electronically manipulating and optically detecting virusscale particles in fluids that is designed using 3D integrated circuit technology. During the 3D fabrication process, the top-most chip tier is assembled upside down and the substrate material is removed. This places the polysilicon layer, which is used to create geometries with the process' minimum feature size, in close proximity to a fluid channel etched into the top of the stack. By taking advantage of these processing features inherent to "3D chip-stacking" technology, we create electrode arrays that have a gap spacing of 270 nm. Using 3D CMOS technology also provides the ability to densely integrate analog and digital control circuitry for the electrodes by using the additional levels of the chip stack. We show simulations of the system with a physical model of a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus, which has a radius of approximately 125 nm, being dielectrophoretically arranged into striped patterns. We also discuss how these striped patterns of trapped nanometer scale particles create an effective diffraction grating which can then be sensed with macro-scale optical techniques.

  5. Universal scaling of dielectric response of various liquid crystals and glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałązka, M.; Juszyńska-Gałązka, E.; Osiecka, N.; Bąk, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new generalized scaling relationship accounting both for the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity data. The generalized scaling procedure has been successfully used for various relaxation processes in liquid crystals (4-bromobenzylidene-4‧-pentyloxyaniline, 4-bromobenzylidene-4‧-hexyloxyaniline, 4‧-butyl-4-(2-methylbutoxy)-azoxybenzene, 4-ethyl-4‧-octylazoxybenzene), and in glass-forming liquids (glycerol, propylene carbonate, salol, cresolphthalein-dimethylether). As it is shown, one obtains common master-curve for liquid-like phases (isotropic liquid, cholesteric, nematic, smectic A), solid-like phases (smectic B, conformationally disorder crystal) and supercooled liquid phase.

  6. Stabilized chip-scale Kerr frequency comb via a high-Q reference photonic microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jinkang; Huang, Shu-Wei; Vinod, Abhinav K.; Mortazavian, Parastou; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-08-01

    We stabilize a chip-scale Si3N4 phase-locked Kerr frequency comb via locking the pump laser to an independent stable high-Q reference microresonator and locking the comb spacing to an external microwave oscillator. In this comb, the pump laser shift induces negligible impact on the comb spacing change. This scheme is a step towards miniaturization of the stabilized Kerr comb system as the microresonator reference can potentially be integrated on-chip. Fractional instability of the optical harmonics of the stabilized comb is limited by the microwave oscillator used for comb spacing lock below 1 s averaging time and coincides with the pump laser drift in the long term.

  7. Monitoring CO2 invasion processes at the pore scale using geological labs on chip.

    PubMed

    Morais, S; Liu, N; Diouf, A; Bernard, D; Lecoutre, C; Garrabos, Y; Marre, S

    2016-09-21

    In order to investigate at the pore scale the mechanisms involved during CO2 injection in a water saturated pore network, a series of displacement experiments is reported using high pressure micromodels (geological labs on chip - GLoCs) working under real geological conditions (25 < T (°C) < 75 and 4.5 < p (MPa) < 8). The experiments were focused on the influence of three experimental parameters: (i) the p, T conditions, (ii) the injection flow rates and (iii) the pore network characteristics. By using on-chip optical characterization and imaging approaches, the CO2 saturation curves as a function of either time or the number of pore volume injected were determined. Three main mechanisms were observed during CO2 injection, namely, invasion, percolation and drying, which are discussed in this paper. Interestingly, besides conventional mechanisms, two counterintuitive situations were observed during the invasion and drying processes. PMID:27494277

  8. On being the right size: scaling effects in designing a human-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M; Leung, Brendan M; Inoue, Mayumi; Chun, Tae-Hwa; Takayama, Shuichi

    2013-09-01

    Developing a human-on-a-chip by connecting multiple model organ systems would provide an intermediate screen for therapeutic efficacy and toxic side effects of drugs prior to conducting expensive clinical trials. However, correctly designing individual organs and scaling them relative to each other to make a functional microscale human analog is challenging, and a generalized approach has yet to be identified. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of rational design of both the individual organ and its relationship with other organs, using a simple two-compartment system simulating insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipose tissues. We demonstrate that inter-organ scaling laws depend on both the number of cells and the spatial arrangement of those cells within the microfabricated construct. We then propose a simple and novel inter-organ 'metabolically supported functional scaling' approach predicated on maintaining in vivo cellular basal metabolic rates by limiting resources available to cells on the chip. This approach leverages findings from allometric scaling models in mammals that limited resources in vivo prompt cells to behave differently than in resource-rich in vitro cultures. Although applying scaling laws directly to tissues can result in systems that would be quite challenging to implement, engineering workarounds may be used to circumvent these scaling issues. Specific workarounds discussed include the limited oxygen carrying capacity of cell culture media when used as a blood substitute and the ability to engineer non-physiological structures to augment organ function, to create the transport-accessible, yet resource-limited environment necessary for cells to mimic in vivo functionality. Furthermore, designing the structure of individual tissues in each organ compartment may be a useful strategy to bypass scaling concerns at the inter-organ level. PMID:23925524

  9. Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, D.; Schenkel, Thomas; Awschalom, David D.

    2010-07-02

    We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length scales. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements facilitate depth profiling of the implanted nitrogen to provide three-dimensional characterization of the NV center spatial distribution. Measurements of NV center coherence with on-chip coplanar waveguides suggest a pathway for incorporating this scalable nanofabrication technique in future quantum applications.

  10. Chip scale mechanical spectrum analyzers based on high quality factor overmoded bulk acouslic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, R. H., III

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop high frequency quality factor (fQ) product acoustic resonators matched to a standard RF impedance of 50 {Omega} using overmoded bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. These resonators are intended to serve as filters in a chip scale mechanical RF spectrum analyzer. Under this program different BAW resonator designs and materials were studied theoretically and experimentally. The effort resulted in a 3 GHz, 50 {Omega}, sapphire overmoded BAW with a fQ product of 8 x 10{sup 13}, among the highest values ever reported for an acoustic resonator.

  11. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Runchen; Zhang, Qianyun; Tjugito, Hendro; Gao, Ming; Cheng, Xiang

    Granular impact cratering by liquid drops is a ubiquitous phenomenon, directly relevant to many important natural and industrial processes such as soil erosion, drip irrigation, and dispersion of micro-organisms in soil. Here, by combining the high-speed photography with high precision laser profilometry, we investigate the liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular surfaces and monitor the morphology of resulting craters. Our experiments reveal novel scaling relations between the size of granular impact craters and important control parameters including the impact energy, the size of impinging drops and the degree of liquid saturation in a granular bed. Interestingly, we find that the scaling for liquid-drop impact cratering in dry granular media can be quantitatively described by the Schmidt-Holsapple scaling originally proposed for asteroid impact cratering. On the other hand, the scaling for impact craters in wet granular media can be understood by balancing the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface. Our study sheds light on the mechanism governing liquid-drop impacts on dry/wet granular surfaces and reveals a remarkable analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in granular media.

  12. A smartphone-based chip-scale microscope using ambient illumination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ah; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    Portable chip-scale microscopy devices can potentially address various imaging needs in mobile healthcare and environmental monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the adaptation of a smartphone’s camera to function as a compact lensless microscope. Unlike other chip-scale microscopy schemes, this method uses ambient illumination as its light source and does not require the incorporation of a dedicated light source. The method is based on the shadow imaging technique where the sample is placed on the surface of the image sensor, which captures direct shadow images under illumination. To improve the imaging resolution beyond the pixel size, we perform pixel super-resolution reconstruction with multiple images at different angles of illumination, which are captured while the user is manually tilting the device around any ambient light source, such as the sun or a lamp. The lensless imaging scheme allows for sub-micron resolution imaging over an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV). Image acquisition and reconstruction is performed on the device using a custom-built android application, constructing a stand-alone imaging device for field applications. We discuss the construction of the device using a commercial smartphone and demonstrate the imaging capabilities of our system. PMID:24964209

  13. A smartphone-based chip-scale microscope using ambient illumination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ah; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-08-21

    Portable chip-scale microscopy devices can potentially address various imaging needs in mobile healthcare and environmental monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the adaptation of a smartphone's camera to function as a compact lensless microscope. Unlike other chip-scale microscopy schemes, this method uses ambient illumination as its light source and does not require the incorporation of a dedicated light source. The method is based on the shadow imaging technique where the sample is placed on the surface of the image sensor, which captures direct shadow images under illumination. To improve the image resolution beyond the pixel size, we perform pixel super-resolution reconstruction with multiple images at different angles of illumination, which are captured while the user is manually tilting the device around any ambient light source, such as the sun or a lamp. The lensless imaging scheme allows for sub-micron resolution imaging over an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV). Image acquisition and reconstruction are performed on the device using a custom-built Android application, constructing a stand-alone imaging device for field applications. We discuss the construction of the device using a commercial smartphone and demonstrate the imaging capabilities of our system. PMID:24964209

  14. Topological Properties of Some Integrated Circuits for Very Large Scale Integration Chip Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, S.; Lanzerotti, M.; Vernizzi, G.; Kujawski, J.; Weatherwax, A.

    2015-03-01

    This talk presents topological properties of integrated circuits for Very Large Scale Integration chip designs. These circuits can be implemented in very large scale integrated circuits, such as those in high performance microprocessors. Prior work considered basic combinational logic functions and produced a mathematical framework based on algebraic topology for integrated circuits composed of logic gates. Prior work also produced an historically-equivalent interpretation of Mr. E. F. Rent's work for today's complex circuitry in modern high performance microprocessors, where a heuristic linear relationship was observed between the number of connections and number of logic gates. This talk will examine topological properties and connectivity of more complex functionally-equivalent integrated circuits. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

  15. Validation and reliability assessment of board level drop test of chip-scale-packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Tuan-Yu; Chou, Chan-Yen; Yew, Ming-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Ning

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a stress-buffer-improved package that is subjected to a board level drop test under a specific-G impact level. In this regard, both the drop test experiment and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA simulations are carried out. Several studies have shown that the solder joints having the brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) layers within the wafer level chip scale packaging (WLCSP) are the weakest part. For the most part, this is due to the large relative motion occurring between the board and the chip. In addition, the stress buffer layer exhibiting a relatively large elongation which reduces the impact on the solder balls. Meanwhile, the novel stress-buffer-improve package's failure mode is different from the convention WLCSP structure which shifts to the trace damage of the chip side. The leading concern between the solder ball and trace damage is the critical region where failure occurred owing to the stress concentration effect. During the drop test experiment, the proposed stress-buffer-improved package is able to survive over 100 drops (most packages survived at above 200 drops). Hence, this drop performance very much surpasses the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC) criterion (drop number is 30 times). Nevertheless, the metal traces which are embedded in the stress buffer layer suffered relatively larger deformation. Generally, the stress concentration occurs at a single position, much like the trace/pad connecting junction in the analysis of detailed stress-buffer-improved package. Finally, the predict result in finite element (FE) analysis is similar to the broken metal trace's failure analysis in the drop test experiment.

  16. Simulations of Small-Scale Liquid Film Combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Pavel; Sirignano, William

    2015-11-01

    Recent technological advances have generated need for small-scale combustor designs. The reduction of scale, however, leads to a higher area to volume ratio and thus greater relative heat loss. Liquid film combustors are one proposed design which aims to overcome this obstacle. In them, the fuel is injected as a liquid film on the combustor wall, and heat transfer is reduced due to evaporative cooling of the liquid film leading to reduced temperature gradients at the combustor walls. In this work, we present simulation results for a cylindrical small scale liquid film combustor, in which the reactants are liquid heptane and gaseous air. A computational procedure has been developed to simulate this two-phase combustion problem, using detailed chemical mechanisms. A cubic equation of state is applied for the simulation of the gaseous phase at high pressures. The present study examines the structure of the triple flame inside this combustor design, which has been analyzed in previous experimental work. Comparison between simulation and experimental work is made, with particular emphasis on the influence of the chemical mechanism, high-pressure equation of state, and the effect of swirl amplitudes in the liquid and gas phases on the structure of the flame. Supported by AFOSR grant FA9550-12-1-0156, AFOSR scientific manager: Dr. Mitat Birkan.

  17. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Vaden; S. X. Li; B. R. Westphal; K. B. Davies; T. A. Johnson; D. M. Pace

    2008-05-01

    Recovery of uranium and transuranic (TRU) actinides from spent nuclear fuel by an electrorefining process was investigated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. Experiments were performed in a shielded hot cell at the Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory. The goal of these experiments was to collect, by an electrochemical process, kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium into what is called a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). For each experiment, a steel basket loaded with chopped spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II acted as the anode in the electrorefiner. The cathode was a beryllium oxide crucible containing ~26 kg of cadmium metal (the LCC). In the three experiments performed to date, between 1 and 2 kg of heavy metal was collected in the LCC after passing an integrated current between 1.80 and 2.16 MC (500 and 600 A h) from the anode to the cathode. Sample analysis of the processed LCC ingots measured detectable amounts of TRUs and rare earth elements.

  18. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James

    2008-01-01

    The objectives are: a) Re-introduce to you the concept of scaling; b) Describe the scaling research conducted in the 1950s and early 1960s, and present some of their conclusions; c) Narrow the focus to scaling for performance of combustion devices for liquid propellant rocket engines; and d) Present some results of subscale to full-scale performance from historical programs. Scaling is "The ability to develop new combustion devices with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with old devices." Scaling can be used to develop combustion devices of any thrust size from any thrust size. Scaling is applied mostly to increase thrust. Objective is to use scaling as a development tool. - Move injector design from an "art" to a "science"

  19. Flexible Chip Scale Package and Interconnect for Implantable MEMS Movable Microelectrodes for the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Nathan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2009-01-01

    We report here a novel approach called MEMS microflex interconnect (MMFI) technology for packaging a new generation of Bio-MEMS devices that involve movable microelectrodes implanted in brain tissue. MMFI addresses the need for (i) operating space for movable parts and (ii) flexible interconnects for mechanical isolation. We fabricated a thin polyimide substrate with embedded bond-pads, vias, and conducting traces for the interconnect with a backside dry etch, so that the flexible substrate can act as a thin-film cap for the MEMS package. A double gold stud bump rivet bonding mechanism was used to form electrical connections to the chip and also to provide a spacing of approximately 15–20 µm for the movable parts. The MMFI approach achieved a chip scale package (CSP) that is lightweight, biocompatible, having flexible interconnects, without an underfill. Reliability tests demonstrated minimal increases of 0.35 mΩ, 0.23 mΩ and 0.15 mΩ in mean contact resistances under high humidity, thermal cycling, and thermal shock conditions respectively. High temperature tests resulted in an increase in resistance of > 90 mΩ when aluminum bond pads were used, but an increase of ~ 4.2 mΩ with gold bond pads. The mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) was estimated to be at least one year under physiological conditions. We conclude that MMFI technology is a feasible and reliable approach for packaging and interconnecting Bio-MEMS devices. PMID:20160981

  20. Chip-Scale Power Conversion for LED Lighting: Integrated Power Chip Converter for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: Teledyne is developing cost-effective power drivers for energy-efficient LED lights that fit on a compact chip. These power drivers are important because they transmit power throughout the LED device. Traditional LED driver components waste energy and don't last as long as the LED itself. They are also large and bulky, so they must be assembled onto a circuit board separately which increases the overall manufacturing cost of the LED light. Teledyne is shrinking the size and improving the efficiency of its LED driver components by using thin layers of an iron magnetic alloy and new gallium nitride on silicon devices. Smaller, more efficient components will enable the drivers to be integrated on a single chip, reducing costs. The new semiconductors in Teledyne's drivers can also handle higher levels of power and last longer without sacrificing efficiency. Initial applications for Teledyne's LED power drivers include refrigerated grocery display cases and retail lighting.

  1. Development of the large-scale oligonucleotide chip for the diagnosis of plant viruses and its practical use.

    PubMed

    Nam, Moon; Kim, Jeong-Seon; Lim, Seungmo; Park, Chung Youl; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Su-Heon

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale oligonucleotide (LSON) chip was developed for the detection of the plant viruses with known genetic information. The LSON chip contains two sets of 3,978 probes for 538 species of targets including plant viruses, satellite RNAs and viroids. A hundred forty thousand probes, consisting of isolate-, species- and genus-specific probes respectively, are designed from 20,000 of independent nucleotide sequence of plant viruses. Based on the economic importance, the amount of genome information, and the number of strains and/or isolates, one to fifty-one probes for each target virus are selected and spotted on the chip. The standard and field samples for the analysis of the LSON chip have been prepared and tested by RT-PCR. The probe's specific and/or nonspecific reaction patterns by LSON chip allow us to diagnose the unidentified viruses. Thus, the LSON chip in this study could be highly useful for the detection of unexpected plant viruses, the monitoring of emerging viruses and the fluctuation of the population of major viruses in each plant. PMID:25288985

  2. Liquidity Spillover in International Stock Markets through Distinct Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  3. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    PubMed

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale. PMID:24465918

  4. On-chip purification via liquid immersion of arc-discharge synthesized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokkanen, Matti J.; Lautala, Saara; Shao, Dongkai; Turpeinen, Tuomas; Koivistoinen, Juha; Ahlskog, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Arc-discharge synthesized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AD-MWNT) have been proven to be of high quality, but their use is very limited due to difficulties in obtaining them in a clean and undamaged form. Here, we present a simple method that purifies raw AD-MWNT material in laboratory scale without damage, and that in principle can be scaled up. The method consists of depositing raw AD-MWNT material on a flat substrate and immersing the substrate slowly in water, whereby the surface tension force of the liquid-substrate contact line selectively sweeps away the larger amorphous carbon debris and leaves relatively clean MWNTs on the substrate. We demonstrate the utility of the method by preparing clean individual MWNTs for measurement of their Raman spectra. The spectra exhibit the characteristics of high-quality tubes free from contaminants. We also show how one concomitantly with the purification process can obtain large numbers of clean suspended MWNTs.

  5. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses scaling of combustion and combustion performance in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. In development of new combustors, comparisons are often made between predicted performance in a new combustor and measured performance in another combustor with different geometric and thermodynamic characteristics. Without careful interpretation of some key features, the comparison can be misinterpreted and erroneous information used in the design of the new device. This paper provides a review of this performance comparison, including a brief review of the initial liquid rocket scaling research conducted during the 1950s and 1960s, a review of the typical performance losses encountered and how they scale, a description of the typical scaling procedures used in development programs today, and finally a review of several historical development programs to see what insight they can bring to the questions at hand.

  6. Scaling of Performance in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses scaling of combustion and combustion performance in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. In development of new combustors, comparisons are often made between predicted performance in a new combustor and measured performance in another combustor with different geometric and thermodynamic characteristics. Without careful interpretation of some key features, the comparison can be misinterpreted and erroneous information used in the design of the new device. This paper provides a review of this performance comparison, including a brief review of the initial liquid rocket scaling research conducted during the 1950s and 1960s, a review of the typical performance losses encountered and how they scale, a description of the typical scaling procedures used in development programs today, and finally a review of several historical development programs to see what insight they can bring to the questions at hand.

  7. Chip-scale fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexing subsystem in polymer microphotonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuhara, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Junichiro; Radojevic, Antonije; Gerhardt, Reinald; Eldada, Louay A.

    2004-10-01

    We report on a highly integrated photonic circuit using a polymer-based planar waveguide system. The properties of the materials used in this work such as ultra-low optical loss, widely tunable refractive index, and large thermo-optic coefficient, enable a multi-functional chip-scale microphotonic circuit. We discuss the application of this technology to the fabrication of a fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer. This subsystem includes channel switching, power monitoring, load balancing, and wavelength shuffling functionalities that are required for agile wavelength-division multiplexing optical networks. Optical properties of our material systems and performance characteristics of the implemented optical passive/active elements are presented, and the integration schemes of the devices to achieve a fully integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer are discussed.

  8. A scalable silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for high performance computing systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Runxiang; Cheung, Stanley; Li, Yuliang; Okamoto, Katsunari; Proietti, Roberto; Yin, Yawei; Yoo, S J B

    2013-12-30

    This paper discusses the architecture and provides performance studies of a silicon photonic chip-scale optical switch for scalable interconnect network in high performance computing systems. The proposed switch exploits optical wavelength parallelism and wavelength routing characteristics of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router (AWGR) to allow contention resolution in the wavelength domain. Simulation results from a cycle-accurate network simulator indicate that, even with only two transmitter/receiver pairs per node, the switch exhibits lower end-to-end latency and higher throughput at high (>90%) input loads compared with electronic switches. On the device integration level, we propose to integrate all the components (ring modulators, photodetectors and AWGR) on a CMOS-compatible silicon photonic platform to ensure a compact, energy efficient and cost-effective device. We successfully demonstrate proof-of-concept routing functions on an 8 × 8 prototype fabricated using foundry services provided by OpSIS-IME. PMID:24514859

  9. Sacrificial Microchannel Sealing by Glass-Frit Reflow for Chip Scale Atomic Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazuya; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Koji; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    A novel sealing technique using sacrificial microchannels was proposed for atmosphere control in a micromachined alkali gas-filled cell for a chip scale atomic magnetometer. The microchannels act as feedthrough connecting the cell to outside atmosphere during evacuation and gas-filling steps, and eventually they are sealed by glass-frit reflow. Si microchannel dedicated as a sacrificial microchannel was proposed and its feasibility was successfully demonstrated by experiments. The simulation results clarified the glass-frit reflow characteristics and its dependence on cross-sectional shape of the microchannel. Hermeticity of the proposed sealing technique of less than 10-12Pa·m3/s leak rate was verified by a high resolution helium leak test.

  10. Chipping In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1984

    1984-01-01

    International Business Machines is providing hardware and software to the College of Engineering at Pennsylvania State University for a program in which students will design very large scale integration computer chips. (MLF)

  11. Localization of burn mark under an abnormal topography on MOSFET chip surface using liquid crystal and emission microscopy tools.

    PubMed

    Lau, C K; Sim, K S; Tso, C P

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the localization of burn mark in MOSFET and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection on the defect location. When a suspect abnormal topography is shown on the die surface, further methods to pin-point the defect location is necessary. Fault localization analysis becomes important because an abnormal spot on the chip surface may and may not have a defect underneath it. The chip surface topography can change due to the catastrophic damage occurred at layers under the chip surface, but it could also be due to inconsistency during metal deposition in the wafer fabrication process. Two localization techniques, liquid crystal thermography and emission microscopy, were performed to confirm that the abnormal topography spot is the actual defect location. The tiny burn mark was surfaced by performing a surface decoration at the defect location using hot hydrochloric acid. SEM imaging, which has the high magnification and three-dimensional capabilities, was used to capture the images of the burn mark. PMID:21462221

  12. Thermal chip fabrication with arrays of sensors and heaters for micro-scale impingement cooling heat transfer analysis and measurements.

    PubMed

    Shen, C H; Gau, C

    2004-07-30

    The design and fabrication for a thermal chip with an array of temperature sensors and heaters for study of micro-jet impingement cooling heat transfer process are presented. This thermal chip can minimize the heat loss from the system to the ambient and provide a uniform heat flux along the wall, thus local heat transfer processes along the wall can be measured and obtained. The fabrication procedure presented can reach a chip yield of 100%, and every one of the sensors and heaters on the chip is in good condition. In addition, micro-jet impingement cooling experiments are performed to obtain the micro-scale local heat transfer Nusselt number along the wall. Flow visualization for the micro-impinging jet is also made. The experimental results indicate that both the micro-scale impinging jet flow structure and the heat transfer process along the wall is significantly different from the case of large-scale jet impingement cooling process. PMID:15142582

  13. Liquid crystal alignment induced by micron-scale patterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Willman, E; Seddon, L; Osman, M; Bulak, A; James, R; Day, S E; Fernandez, F A

    2014-05-01

    Induced bulk orientation of nematic liquid crystal in contact with micron-scale patterned surfaces is investigated using the Landau-de Gennes theory by means of three-dimensional simulations. The effect of the size and spacing of square cross-sectional well and post patterns is investigated and shown to influence the orientation of the liquid crystal bulk, far removed from the surface. Additionally, the effective anchoring strength of the induced alignment is estimated using a modified version of the torque balance method. Both azimuthal and zenithal multistability are shown to exist within unique ranges of feature sizes. PMID:25353809

  14. A novel concept for long-term pre-storage and release of liquids for pressure-driven lab-on-a-chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czurratis, D.; Beyl, Y.; Zinober, S.; Lärmer, F.; Zengerle, R.

    2015-04-01

    On-chip storage of liquids is one of the major challenges of polymer-based lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices. To ensure long-term storage of even highly volatile reagents in polymer disposal LoC cartridges, robust reagent storage concepts are necessary. Tubular bags, so-called stick packs, are widely used in the packaging industry. They offer sufficient vapor barrier properties for liquid storage. Here we present a polymer multilayer LoC-stack with integrated stick packs for the long-term storage of liquid reagents required for diagnostic applications. The storage concept fulfils two main requirements: firstly, the long-term storage of reagents in stick packs without significant losses or interaction with the surroundings and secondly, the on-demand release of liquids, which is realized by the delamination of a stick pack’s peel seam through pneumatic pressure. Furthermore, effects on the opening behavior of stick packs through accelerated aging were investigated after different storage conditions to proof repeatability. This concept enables on-chip storage of liquid reagents at room temperature and allows the implementation in different pressure driven LoC devices or similar applications. Since liquid storage in stick packs is well-established, emerging fields such as lab-on-a-chip combined with novel reagent release mechanisms should be of great interest for the commercialization of life science products.

  15. Experimental assessment of on-chip liquid cooling through microchannels with de-ionized water and diluted ethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yonghyun; Kim, Sungdong; Eunkyung Kim, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in Si IC devices, which results in an increase in power density and decrease in device size, poses various thermal challenges owing to high heat dissipation. Therefore, conventional cooling techniques become ineffective and produce a thermal bottleneck. In this study, an on-chip liquid cooling module with microchannels and through Si via (TSV) was fabricated, and cooling characteristics were evaluated by IR measurements. Both the microchannels and TSVs were fabricated in a Si wafer by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and the wafer was bonded with a glass wafer by a anodic bonding. The fabricated liquid cooling sample was evaluated using two different coolants (de-ionized water and 70 wt % diluted ethylene glycol), and the effect of coolants on cooling characteristics was investigated.

  16. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Walker R.; Bermel, Peter; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Marton, Christopher H.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system design, which we name the microthermophotovoltaic (μTPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat-to-electricity conversion within a millimeter-scale form factor. Although considerable technological barriers need to be overcome to reach full performance, we have performed a robust experimental demonstration that validates the theoretical framework and the key system components. Even with a much-simplified μTPV system design with theoretical efficiency prediction of 2.7%, we experimentally demonstrate 2.5% efficiency. The μTPV experimental system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an integrated high-temperature photonic crystal selective thermal emitter, four 0.55-eV GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes, and an ultra-high-efficiency maximum power-point tracking power electronics converter. The system was demonstrated to operate up to 800 °C (silicon microcombustor temperature) with an input thermal power of 13.7 W, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm2 area. PMID:23440220

  17. Refractive index-based detection of gradient elution liquid chromatography using chip-integrated microring resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as nondestructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution, a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and, in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviates extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well-characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of postcolumn (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also make it an attractive potential detection

  18. CMOS VLSI pilot and support chip for a liquid crystal on silicon 8x8 optical cross connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelah, Alan; Vinouze, Bruno; Martel, Gilbert; Perez-Segovia, Tomas; Geoffroy, Philippe; Laval, Jean-Paul; Jayet, Philippe; Senn, Patrice; Gravey, Philippe; Wolffer, Nicole; Lever, Roger; Tan, Antione

    2001-12-01

    With the explosion of Internet and multi-service traffic, telecommunication transport networks today are turning to Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Optical cross-connects (OXCs) allow flexible rerouting of wavelength channels. It has been shown that 2-D free-space beam deflection by nematic liquid crystal gratings provide a good solution for the realization of optical switches in OXCs. Operating in the telecom 1.5 micrometers wavelength region they serve as an active holographic element. Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS) combined with VLSI technologies allow the fabrication of large capacity, low cost and low consumption compact free-space switches. An N X N optical switch can be built by cascading two LCOS-based spatial light modulators (SLMs). The first part of the paper describes a circuit that provides the physical support as well as piloting circuitry for such SLMs. It is capable of piloting beams from a linear array of 8 incoming fibers towards a similar array of 8 outgoing fibers. The electrode command voltages are analog while the external interface as well as on-chip memory is digital. The chip has been implemented in a CMOS 0.5 (mu) process with 600,000 transistors while die size is 320 mm2 (80 mm2 active area).

  19. Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, J. A.; Sweatlock, L. A.; Atwater, H. A.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a numerical analysis of surface plasmon waveguides exhibiting both long-range propagation and spatial confinement of light with lateral dimensions of less than 10% of the free-space wavelength. Attention is given to characterizing the dispersion relations, wavelength-dependent propagation, and energy density decay in two-dimensional Ag/SiO2/Ag structures with waveguide thicknesses ranging from 12nmto250nm . As in conventional planar insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) surface plasmon waveguides, analytic dispersion results indicate a splitting of plasmon modes—corresponding to symmetric and antisymmetric electric field distributions—as SiO2 core thickness is decreased below 100nm . However, unlike IMI structures, surface plasmon momentum of the symmetric mode does not always exceed photon momentum, with thicker films ( dtilde 50nm) achieving effective indices as low as n=0.15 . In addition, antisymmetric mode dispersion exhibits a cutoff for films thinner than d=20nm , terminating at least 0.25eV below resonance. From visible to near infrared wavelengths, plasmon propagation exceeds tens of microns with fields confined to within 20nm of the structure. As the SiO2 core thickness is increased, propagation distances also increase with localization remaining constant. Conventional waveguiding modes of the structure are not observed until the core thickness approaches 100nm . At such thicknesses, both transverse magnetic and transverse electric modes can be observed. Interestingly, for nonpropagating modes (i.e., modes where propagation does not exceed the micron scale), considerable field enhancement in the waveguide core is observed, rivaling the intensities reported in resonantly excited metallic nanoparticle waveguides.

  20. Quantitative determination of 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) in human urine using microfluidic chip-based nano-liquid chromatography with on-chip sample enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hsin-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chan, Shan-An; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2011-04-15

    Urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F(2α) (8-isoPGF(2α)) has been reported as an important biomarker to indicate the oxidative stress status in vivo. In order to quantitatively determine the low contents of 8-isoPGF(2α) (in sub- to low ng mL(-1) range) in physiological fluids, a sensitive detection method has become an important issue. In this study, we employed a microfluidic chip-based nano liquid chromatography (chip-nanoLC) with on-chip sample enrichment coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS) for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. This chip-nanoLC unit integrates a microfluidic switch, a chip column design having a pre-column (enrichment column) for sample enrichment prior to an analytical column for separation, as well as a nanospray emitter on a single polyimide chip. The introduction of enrichment column offers the advantages of online sample pre-concentration and reducing matrix influence on MS detection to improve sensitivity. In this study, the chip-nanoLC consisting of Zorbax 300A SB-C18 columns and Agilent QqQ Mass spectrometer were used for determining 8-isoPGF(2α) in human urine. Gradient elution was employed for effective LC separation and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was utilized for the quantitative determination of 8-isoPGF(2α) (m/z 353→193). We employed liquid-liquid extraction (LLE)/solid-phase extraction (SPE) for extracting analyte and reducing matrix effect from urine sample prior to chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS analysis for determining urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). Good recoveries were found to be in the range of 83.0-85.3%. The linear range was 0.01-2 ng mL(-1) for urinary 8-isoPGF(2α). In addition, the proposed method showed good precision and accuracy for 8-isoPGF(2α) spiked synthetic urine samples. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.8-5.0% and 4.3-5.8%, respectively. The method accuracy for intra-day and inter-day assays ranged from 99.3 to 99.9% and 99.4 to 99.7%, respectively. Due to its

  1. Correlations and scaling properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations in liquid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brogioli, Doriano; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Vailati, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion in liquids is accompanied by nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations spanning all the length scales comprised between the microscopic scale a and the macroscopic size of the system, L. Up to now, theoretical and experimental investigations of nonequilibrium fluctuations have focused mostly on determining their mean-square amplitude as a function of the wave vector. In this work, we investigate the local properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations arising during a stationary diffusion process occurring in a binary liquid mixture in the presence of a uniform concentration gradient, ∇c_{0}. We characterize the fluctuations by evaluating statistical features of the system, including the mean-square amplitude of fluctuations and the corrugation of the isoconcentration surfaces; we show that they depend on a single mesoscopic length scale l=sqrt[aL] representing the geometric average between the microscopic and macroscopic length scales. We find that the amplitude of the fluctuations is very small in practical cases and vanishes when the macroscopic length scale increases. The isoconcentration surfaces, or fronts of diffusion, have a self-affine structure with corrugation exponent H=1/2. Ideally, the local fractal dimension of the fronts of diffusion would be D_{l}=d-H, where d is the dimensionality of the space, while the global fractal dimension would be D_{g}=d-1. The transition between the local and global regimes occurs at a crossover length scale of the order of the microscopic length scale a. Therefore, notwithstanding the fact that the fronts of diffusion are corrugated, they appear flat at all the length scales probed by experiments, and they do not exhibit a fractal structure. PMID:27627281

  2. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  3. Adiabatic shear banding and scaling laws in chip formation with application to cutting of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, A.; Soldani, X.; Miguélez, M. H.

    2013-11-01

    The phenomenon of adiabatic shear banding is analyzed theoretically in the context of metal cutting. The mechanisms of material weakening that are accounted for are (i) thermal softening and (ii) material failure related to a critical value of the accumulated plastic strain. Orthogonal cutting is viewed as a unique configuration where adiabatic shear bands can be experimentally produced under well controlled loading conditions by individually tuning the cutting speed, the feed (uncut chip thickness) and the tool geometry. The role of cutting conditions on adiabatic shear banding and chip serration is investigated by combining finite element calculations and analytical modeling. This leads to the characterization and classification of different regimes of shear banding and the determination of scaling laws which involve dimensionless parameters representative of thermal and inertia effects. The analysis gives new insights into the physical aspects of plastic flow instability in chip formation. The originality with respect to classical works on adiabatic shear banding stems from the various facets of cutting conditions that influence shear banding and from the specific role exercised by convective flow on the evolution of shear bands. Shear bands are generated at the tool tip and propagate towards the chip free surface. They grow within the chip formation region while being convected away by chip flow. It is shown that important changes in the mechanism of shear banding take place when the characteristic time of shear band propagation becomes equal to a characteristic convection time. Application to Ti-6Al-4V titanium are considered and theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data in a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. The fundamental knowledge developed in this work is thought to be useful not only for the understanding of metal cutting processes but also, by analogy, to similar problems where convective flow is also interfering with

  4. Fully automated Liquid Extraction-Based Surface Sampling and Ionization Using a Chip-Based Robotic Nanoelectrospray Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling device utilizing an Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system is reported. Analyses were enabled for discrete spot sampling by using the Advanced User Interface of the current commercial control software. This software interface provided the parameter control necessary for the NanoMate robotic pipettor to both form and withdraw a liquid microjunction for sampling from a surface. The system was tested with three types of analytically important sample surface types, viz., spotted sample arrays on a MALDI plate, dried blood spots on paper, and whole-body thin tissue sections from drug dosed mice. The qualitative and quantitative data were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling techniques. The successful analyses performed here utilized the hardware and software elements already present in the NanoMate system developed to handle and analyze liquid samples. Implementation of an appropriate sample (surface) holder, a solvent reservoir, faster movement of the robotic arm, finer control over solvent flow rate when dispensing and retrieving the solution at the surface, and the ability to select any location on a surface to sample from would improve the analytical performance and utility of the platform.

  5. Low-temperature indium-bonded alkali vapor cell for chip-scale atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straessle, R.; Pellaton, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Pétremand, Y.; Briand, D.; Mileti, G.; de Rooij, N. F.

    2013-02-01

    A low-temperature sealing technique for micro-fabricated alkali vapor cells for chip-scale atomic clock applications is developed and evaluated. A thin-film indium bonding technique was used for sealing the cells at temperatures of ≤140 °C. These sealing temperatures are much lower than those reported for other approaches, and make the technique highly interesting for future micro-fabricated cells, using anti-relaxation wall coatings. Optical and microwave spectroscopy performed on first indium-bonded cells without wall coatings are used to evaluate the cleanliness of the process as well as a potential leak rate of the cells. Both measurements confirm a stable pressure inside the cell and therefore an excellent hermeticity of the indium bonding. The double-resonance measurements performed over several months show an upper limit for the leak rate of 1.5 × 10-13 mbar.l/s. This is in agreement with additional leak-rate measurements using a membrane deflection method on indium-bonded test structures.

  6. Progress toward mid-IR chip-scale integrated-optic TDLAS gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Shankar, Raji; Bulu, Irfan; Frank, Ian; Laderer, Matthew C.; Wainner, Richard T.; Allen, Mark G.; Lončar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We are building prototype chip-scale low-power integrated-optic gas-phase chemical sensors based on mid-infrared (3-5μm) Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). TDLAS is able to sense many gas phase chemicals with high sensitivity and selectivity. Novel gas sensing elements using low-loss resonant photonic crystal cavities or waveguides will permit compact integration of a laser source, sampling elements, and detector in configurations suitable for inexpensive mass production. Recently developed Interband Cascade Lasers (ICLs) that operate at room temperature with low power consumption are expected to serve as monochromatic sources to probe the mid-IR molecular spectral transitions. Practical challenges to fabricating these sensors include: a) selecting and designing the high-Q microresonator sensing element appropriate for the selected analyte; b) coupling laser light into and out of the sensing element; and c) device thermal management, especially stabilizing laser temperature with the precision needed for sensitive spectroscopic detection. This paper describes solutions to these challenges.

  7. Single-mode vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers for {sup 87}Rb-based chip-scale atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Derebezov, I. A. Haisler, V. A.; Bakarov, A. K.; Kalagin, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Kachanova, M. M.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Semenova, O. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2010-11-15

    The results of numerical simulation and study of lasing characteristics of semiconductor verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers based on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As alloys are presented. Lasers exhibit stable single-mode lasing at a wavelength of 795 nm at low operating currents {approx}1.5 mA and an output power of 350 {mu}W, which offers prospects of their applications in next-generation chip-scale atomic clocks

  8. The Atomic scale structure of liquid metal-electrolyte interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. M.; Festersen, S.; Magnussen, O. M.

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical interfaces between immiscible liquids have lately received renewed interest, both for gaining fundamental insight as well as for applications in nanomaterial synthesis. In this feature article we demonstrate that the atomic scale structure of these previously inaccessible interfaces nowadays can be explored by in situ synchrotron based X-ray scattering techniques. Exemplary studies of a prototypical electrochemical system - a liquid mercury electrode in pure NaCl solution - reveal that the liquid metal is terminated by a well-defined atomic layer. This layering decays on length scales of 0.5 nm into the Hg bulk and displays a potential and temperature dependent behaviour that can be explained by electrocapillary effects and contributions of the electronic charge distribution on the electrode. In similar studies of nanomaterial growth, performed for the electrochemical deposition of PbFBr, a complex nucleation and growth behaviour is found, involving a crystalline precursor layer prior to the 3D crystal growth. Operando X-ray scattering measurements provide detailed data on the processes of nanoscale film formation.

  9. The Atomic scale structure of liquid metal-electrolyte interfaces.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B M; Festersen, S; Magnussen, O M

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical interfaces between immiscible liquids have lately received renewed interest, both for gaining fundamental insight as well as for applications in nanomaterial synthesis. In this feature article we demonstrate that the atomic scale structure of these previously inaccessible interfaces nowadays can be explored by in situ synchrotron based X-ray scattering techniques. Exemplary studies of a prototypical electrochemical system - a liquid mercury electrode in pure NaCl solution - reveal that the liquid metal is terminated by a well-defined atomic layer. This layering decays on length scales of 0.5 nm into the Hg bulk and displays a potential and temperature dependent behaviour that can be explained by electrocapillary effects and contributions of the electronic charge distribution on the electrode. In similar studies of nanomaterial growth, performed for the electrochemical deposition of PbFBr, a complex nucleation and growth behaviour is found, involving a crystalline precursor layer prior to the 3D crystal growth. Operando X-ray scattering measurements provide detailed data on the processes of nanoscale film formation. PMID:27301317

  10. Large-Scale Liquid Simulation on Adaptive Hexahedral Grids.

    PubMed

    Ferstl, Florian; Westermann, Rudiger; Dick, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Regular grids are attractive for numerical fluid simulations because they give rise to efficient computational kernels. However, for simulating high resolution effects in complicated domains they are only of limited suitability due to memory constraints. In this paper we present a method for liquid simulation on an adaptive octree grid using a hexahedral finite element discretization, which reduces memory requirements by coarsening the elements in the interior of the liquid body. To impose free surface boundary conditions with second order accuracy, we incorporate a particular class of Nitsche methods enforcing the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the pressure in a variational sense. We then show how to construct a multigrid hierarchy from the adaptive octree grid, so that a time efficient geometric multigrid solver can be used. To improve solver convergence, we propose a special treatment of liquid boundaries via composite finite elements at coarser scales. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for liquid simulations that would require hundreds of millions of simulation elements in a non-adaptive regime. PMID:26357387

  11. Refractive Index-Based Detection of Gradient Elution Liquid Chromatography using Chip-Integrated Microring Resonator Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wade, James H.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Refractive index-based sensors offer attractive characteristics as non-destructive and universal detectors for liquid chromatographic separations, but a small dynamic range and sensitivity to minor thermal perturbations limit the utility of commercial RI detectors for many potential applications, especially those requiring the use of gradient elutions. As such, RI detectors find use almost exclusively in sample abundant, isocratic separations when interfaced with HPLC. Silicon photonic microring resonators are refractive index-sensitive optical devices that feature good sensitivity and tremendous dynamic range. The large dynamic range of microring resonators allows the sensors to function across a wide spectrum of refractive indices, such as that encountered when moving from an aqueous to organic mobile phase during a gradient elution – a key analytical advantage not supported in commercial RI detectors. Microrings are easily configured into sensor arrays, and chip-integrated control microrings enable real-time corrections of thermal drift. Thermal controls allow for analyses at any temperature and in the absence of rigorous temperature control, obviating extended detector equilibration wait times. Herein, proof of concept isocratic and gradient elution separations were performed using well characterized model analytes (e.g., caffeine, ibuprofen) in both neat buffer and more complex sample matrices. These experiments demonstrate the ability of microring arrays to perform isocratic and gradient elutions under ambient conditions, avoiding two major limitations of commercial RI-based detectors and maintaining comparable bulk RI sensitivity. Further benefit may be realized in the future through selective surface functionalization to impart degrees of post-column (bio)molecular specificity at the detection phase of a separation. The chip-based and microscale nature of microring resonators also makes it an attractive potential detection technology that could be

  12. A new effective on chip electromembrane extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for enhancement of extraction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abdossalami Asl, Yousef; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Ebrahimpour, Behnam

    2015-10-22

    In the present research, an effective on chip electromembrane extraction (CEME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was presented for analysis of nortriptyline (NOR) and amitriptyline (AMI) as basic model analytes from urine samples. The chip consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) parts with two craved microfluidic channels in each part. These channels were used as flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase. A porous polypropylene sheet membrane impregnated with an organic solvent was placed between two parts of chip device to separate the channels. Two platinum electrodes were mounted at the bottom of these channels that were connected to a power supply providing the electrical driving force for migration of ionized analytes from sample solution through the porous sheet membrane into the acceptor phase. This new setup provides effective and reproducible extractions with low volume of sample solution. Efficient parameters on CEME of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 10.0-500 μg L(-1) with coefficient of determination (r(2)) more than 0.9902. The relative standard deviations (RSDs %) for extraction and determination of the analytes were less than 6.8% based on six replicate measurements. LODs less than 4.0 μg L(-1) were obtained for both of the model analytes. The preconcentration factors higher than 17.0-fold were obtained. The results demonstrated that CEME would be used efficiently for extraction and determination of AMI and NOR from urine samples. PMID:26526909

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography on glass chips using precisely defined porous polymer monoliths as particle retaining elements.

    PubMed

    Thurmann, Sebastian; Mauritz, Laura; Heck, Christian; Belder, Detlev

    2014-11-28

    A stable and permanent integration of miniature packed bed separation columns into microfluidic systems is a major issue in nano liquid chromatography. Various approaches like differently shaped retaining elements or the use of key stone effect have been investigated. We show a flexible integration of miniature packed bed separation columns into microfluidic chips utilising common HPLC material achieved by laser-assisted generation of narrow, photopolymerised frits. The generated retaining elements serve as an in- and outlet frits for the columns. An optimised pre-polymeric solution, consisting of butyl acrylates and a porogen, allows a precise fabrication of frit-type structures with lengths of less than 100 m and the capability to withstand common slurry packing pressures of more than 250 bar. The separation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by pressure-driven, reversed-phase chromatography proves the high quality of the created chromatographic column inside a glass chip. Plate heights down to 2.9 were achieved and extremely fast separations with sub-second peak widths were performed in isocratic and gradient elution modes on very short columns (≤ 25 mm). PMID:25459645

  14. Flexible desk top computers using Large Scale Integration (L.S.I.) chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garett, H.; Asquith, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Microprogrammable modular computer utilizing only seven different types of L.S.I. elements lowers manufacturing cost and improves reliability. Chips can be standarized and used to implement variable bit length computers.

  15. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  16. Large-Scale, Highly Efficient, and Green Liquid-Exfoliation of Black Phosphorus in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wancheng; Xue, Zhimin; Wang, Jinfang; Jiang, Jingyun; Zhao, Xinhui; Mu, Tiancheng

    2015-12-23

    We developed a facile, large-scale, and environmentally friendly liquid-exfoliation method to produce stable and high-concentration dispersions of mono- to few-layer black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets from bulk BP using nine ionic liquids. The prepared suspensions can stabilize without any obvious sedimentation and aggregation in ambient air for one month. In particular, the concentration (up to 0.95 mg mL(-1)) of BP nanoflakes obtained in 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethansulfonate ([HOEMIM][TfO]) is the highest reported for BP nanosheets dispersions. This work provides new opportunities for preparing atomically thin BP nanosheets in green, large-scale, and highly concentrated processes and achieving its in situ application. PMID:26642883

  17. Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hye-Young Park

    2005-12-17

    This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed

  18. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G; Peng, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of sub-nanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with width from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of ion solvation in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  19. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-Filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of subnanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with widths from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width-dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of 'ion solvation' in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  20. Characterization and modeling of two-phase heat transfer in chip-scale non-uniformly heated microgap channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ihab A.

    A chip-scale, non-uniformly heated microgap channel, 100 micron to 500 micron in height with dielectric fluid HFE-7100 providing direct single- and two-phase liquid cooling for a thermal test chip with localized heat flux reaching 100 W/cm2, is experimentally characterized and numerically modeled. Single-phase heat transfer and hydraulic characterization is performed to establish the single-phase baseline performance of the microgap channel and to validate the mesh-intensive CFD numerical model developed for the test channel. Convective heat transfer coefficients for HFE-7100 flowing in a 100-micron microgap channel reached 9 kW/m2K at 6.5 m/s fluid velocity. Despite the highly non-uniform boundary conditions imposed on the microgap channel, CFD model simulation gave excellent agreement with the experimental data (to within 5%), while the discrepancy with the predictions of the classical, "ideal" channel correlations in the literature reached 20%. A detailed investigation of two-phase heat transfer in non-ideal micro gap channels, with developing flow and significant non-uniformities in heat generation, was performed. Significant temperature non-uniformities were observed with non-uniform heating, where the wall temperature gradient exceeded 30°C with a heat flux gradient of 3-30 W/cm2, for the quadrant-die heating pattern compared to a 20°C gradient and 7-14 W/cm2 heat flux gradient for the uniform heating pattern, at 25W heat and 1500 kg/m2s mass flux. Using an inverse computation technique for determining the heat flow into the wetted microgap channel, average wall heat transfer coefficients were found to vary in a complex fashion with channel height, flow rate, heat flux, and heating pattern and to typically display an inverse parabolic segment of a previously observed M-shaped variation with quality, for two-phase thermal transport. Examination of heat transfer coefficients sorted by flow regimes yielded an overall agreement of 31% between predictions of the

  1. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, A; Salcedo, J; Barile, D; Bunyatratchata, A; Moreno, F J; Martin-García, I; Clemente, A; Sanz, M L; Ruiz-Matute, A I

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8-1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40°C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315mgL(-1) for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251mgL(-1) for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  2. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Ortiz, A.; Salcedo, J.; Barile, D.; Bunyatratchata, A.; Moreno, F.J.; Martin-García, I.; Clemente, A.; Sanz, M.L.; Ruiz-Matute, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2–0.6 min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8–1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40 °C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315 mg L−1 for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251 mg L−1 for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. PMID:26427327

  3. Flow-focusing generation of monodisperse water droplets wrapped by ionic liquid on microfluidic chips: from plug to sphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Han; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Xie, Ya-Ni; Wang, Li; Yi, Song; Liu, Kan; Liu, Jia; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2007-11-01

    Generating droplets via microfluidic chips is a promising technology in microanalysis and microsynthesis. To realize room-temperature ionic liquid (IL)-water two-phase studies in microscale, a water-immiscible IL was employed as the continuous phase for the first time to wrap water droplets (either plugs or spheres) on flow-focusing microfluidic chips. The IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), could wet both hydrophilic and hydrophobic channel surfaces because of its dual role of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and extremely high viscosity, thus offering the possibility of wrapping water droplets in totally hydrophilic (THI), moderately hydrophilic (MHI), and hydrophobic (HO) channels. The droplet shape could be tuned from plug to sphere, with the volume from 6.3 nL to 65 pL, by adding an orifice in the focusing region, rendering the hydrophilic channel surface hydrophobic, and suppressing the Uw/UIL ratio below 1.0. Three different breakup processes were defined and clarified, in which the sub-steady breakup and steady breakup were essential for the formation of plugs and spheric droplets, respectively. The influences of channel hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity on droplet formation were carefully studied by evaluating the wetting abilities of water and IL on different surfaces. The superiority of IL over water in wetting hydrophobic surface led to the tendency of forming small, spheric aqueous droplets in the hydrophobic channel. This IL-favored droplet-based system represented a high efficiency in water/IL extraction, in which rhodamine 6G was extracted from aqueous droplets to [BMIM][PF6] in the hydrophobic orifice-included (HO-OI) channel in 0.51 s. PMID:17918864

  4. Kinetically engendered subspinodal length scales in spontaneous dewetting of thin liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotni, Tirumala Rao; Sarkar, Jayati; Khanna, Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    Numerical simulations reveal emergence of subspinodal length scales in spontaneous dewetting of nonslipping unstable thin liquid films on homogeneous substrates if the liquid viscosity decreases with decrease in film thickness.

  5. Thermally triggered phononic gaps in liquids at THz scale.

    PubMed

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav'yalov, Dmitry; Stoupin, Stanislav; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Cai, Yong Q

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in a diamond anvil cell and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the behavior of phononic excitations in liquid Ar. The spectra calculated using molecular dynamics were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, we observe that, upon temperature increases, a low-frequency transverse phononic gap emerges while high-frequency propagating modes become evanescent at the THz scale. The effect of strong localization of a longitudinal phononic mode in the supercritical phase is observed for the first time. The evidence for the high-frequency transverse phononic gap due to the transition from an oscillatory to a ballistic dynamic regimes of motion is presented and supported by molecular dynamics simulations. This transition takes place across the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit which demarcates compressed liquid and non-compressed fluid domains on the phase diagram and is supported by calculations within the Green-Kubo phenomenological formalism. These results are crucial to advance the development of novel terahertz thermal devices, phononic lenses, mirrors, and other THz metamaterials. PMID:26763899

  6. Thermally triggered phononic gaps in liquids at THz scale

    PubMed Central

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav’yalov, Dmitry; Stoupin, Stanislav; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Cai, Yong Q.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in a diamond anvil cell and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the behavior of phononic excitations in liquid Ar. The spectra calculated using molecular dynamics were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, we observe that, upon temperature increases, a low-frequency transverse phononic gap emerges while high-frequency propagating modes become evanescent at the THz scale. The effect of strong localization of a longitudinal phononic mode in the supercritical phase is observed for the first time. The evidence for the high-frequency transverse phononic gap due to the transition from an oscillatory to a ballistic dynamic regimes of motion is presented and supported by molecular dynamics simulations. This transition takes place across the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit which demarcates compressed liquid and non-compressed fluid domains on the phase diagram and is supported by calculations within the Green-Kubo phenomenological formalism. These results are crucial to advance the development of novel terahertz thermal devices, phononic lenses, mirrors, and other THz metamaterials. PMID:26763899

  7. Thermally triggered phononic gaps in liquids at THz scale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zavyalov, Dmitry; Stoupin, Stanislav; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Cai, Yong Q.

    2016-01-14

    In this study we present inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in a diamond anvil cell and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the behavior of phononic excitations in liquid Ar. The spectra calculated using molecular dynamics were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, we observe that, upon temperature increases, a low-frequency transverse phononic gap emerges while high-frequency propagating modes become evanescent at the THz scale. The effect of strong localization of a longitudinal phononic mode in the supercritical phase is observed for the first time. The evidence for the high-frequency transverse phononic gap due to themore » transition from an oscillatory to a ballistic dynamic regimes of motion is presented and supported by molecular dynamics simulations. This transition takes place across the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit which demarcates compressed liquid and non-compressed fluid domains on the phase diagram and is supported by calculations within the Green-Kubo phenomenological formalism. These results are crucial to advance the development of novel terahertz thermal devices, phononic lenses, mirrors, and other THz metamaterials.« less

  8. Nanolitre-scale crystallization using acoustic liquid-transfer technology

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor, Armando G.; Wong, April; Shao, Ada; Garg, Ankur; Donohue, Timothy J.; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Harris, Seth F.

    2012-01-01

    Focused acoustic energy allows accurate and precise liquid transfer on scales from picolitre to microlitre volumes. This technology was applied in protein crystallization, successfully transferring a diverse set of proteins as well as hundreds of precipitant solutions from custom and commercial crystallization screens and achieving crystallization in drop volumes as small as 20 nl. Only higher concentrations (>50%) of 2-­methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) appeared to be systematically problematic in delivery. The acoustic technology was implemented in a workflow, successfully reproducing active crystallization systems and leading to the discovery of crystallization conditions for previously uncharacterized proteins. The technology offers compelling advantages in low-nanolitre crystallization trials by providing significant reagent savings and presenting seamless scalability for those crystals that require larger volume optimization experiments using the same vapor-diffusion format. PMID:22868754

  9. Chip-scale fluorescence microscope based on a silo-filter complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    PubMed

    Ah Lee, Seung; Ou, Xiaoze; Lee, J Eugene; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate a silo-filter (SF) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for a chip-scale fluorescence microscope. The extruded pixel design with metal walls between neighboring pixels guides fluorescence emission through the thick absorptive filter to the photodiode of a pixel. Our prototype device achieves 13 μm resolution over a wide field of view (4.8 mm × 4.4 mm). We demonstrate bright-field and fluorescence longitudinal imaging of living cells in a compact, low-cost configuration. PMID:23722754

  10. Design optimization of liquid-phase flow patterns for microfabricated lung on a chip.

    PubMed

    Long, C; Finch, C; Esch, M; Anderson, W; Shuler, M; Hickman, J

    2012-06-01

    Microreactors experience significant deviations from plug flow due to the no-slip boundary condition at the walls of the chamber. The development of stagnation zones leads to widening of the residence time distribution at the outlet of the reactor. A hybrid design optimization process that combines modeling and experiments has been utilized to minimize the width of the residence time distribution in a microreactor. The process was used to optimize the design of a microfluidic system for an in vitro model of the lung alveolus. Circular chambers to accommodate commercial membrane supported cell constructs are a particularly challenging geometry in which to achieve a uniform residence time distribution. Iterative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to optimize the microfluidic structures for two different types of chambers. The residence time distributions of the optimized chambers were significantly narrower than those of non-optimized chambers, indicating that the final chambers better approximate plug flow. Qualitative and quantitative visualization experiments with dye indicators demonstrated that the CFD results accurately predicted the residence time distributions within the bioreactors. The results demonstrate that such a hybrid optimization process can be used to design microreactors that approximate plug flow for in vitro tissue engineered systems. This technique has broad application for optimization of microfluidic body-on-a-chip systems for drug and toxin studies. PMID:22271245

  11. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10(-16) relative uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-04-01

    Optical frequency combs-coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations-have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb's two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of [Formula: see text]. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10(-16), heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography. PMID:27152341

  12. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10−16 relative uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H.; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs—coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations—have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb’s two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of 3.6mHz/τ. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10−16, heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography. PMID:27152341

  13. Thermodynamic scaling of dynamic properties of liquid crystals: Verifying the scaling parameters using a molecular model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2013-08-01

    The thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamic properties of rotation and thermodynamic parameters in a nematic phase was investigated by a molecular dynamic simulation using the Gay-Berne potential. A master curve for the relaxation time of flip-flop motion was obtained using thermodynamic scaling, and the dynamic property could be solely expressed as a function of TV^{γ _τ }, where T and V are the temperature and volume, respectively. The scaling parameter γτ was in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameter Γ, which is the logarithm of the slope of a line plotted for the temperature and volume at constant P2. This line was fairly linear, and as good as the line for p-azoxyanisole or using the highly ordered small cluster model. The equivalence relation between Γ and γτ was compared with results obtained from the highly ordered small cluster model. The possibility of adapting the molecular model for the thermodynamic scaling of other dynamic rotational properties was also explored. The rotational diffusion constant and rotational viscosity coefficients, which were calculated using established theoretical and experimental expressions, were rescaled onto master curves with the same scaling parameters. The simulation illustrates the universal nature of the equivalence relation for liquid crystals.

  14. Thermodynamic scaling of dynamic properties of liquid crystals: verifying the scaling parameters using a molecular model.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2013-08-28

    The thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamic properties of rotation and thermodynamic parameters in a nematic phase was investigated by a molecular dynamic simulation using the Gay-Berne potential. A master curve for the relaxation time of flip-flop motion was obtained using thermodynamic scaling, and the dynamic property could be solely expressed as a function of TV(γτ) , where T and V are the temperature and volume, respectively. The scaling parameter γτ was in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameter Γ, which is the logarithm of the slope of a line plotted for the temperature and volume at constant P2. This line was fairly linear, and as good as the line for p-azoxyanisole or using the highly ordered small cluster model. The equivalence relation between Γ and γ(τ) was compared with results obtained from the highly ordered small cluster model. The possibility of adapting the molecular model for the thermodynamic scaling of other dynamic rotational properties was also explored. The rotational diffusion constant and rotational viscosity coefficients, which were calculated using established theoretical and experimental expressions, were rescaled onto master curves with the same scaling parameters. The simulation illustrates the universal nature of the equivalence relation for liquid crystals. PMID:24007031

  15. Long-scale evolution of thin liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Alexander; Davis, Stephen H.; Bankoff, S. George

    1997-07-01

    Macroscopic thin liquid films are entities that are important in biophysics, physics, and engineering, as well as in natural settings. They can be composed of common liquids such as water or oil, rheologically complex materials such as polymers solutions or melts, or complex mixtures of phases or components. When the films are subjected to the action of various mechanical, thermal, or structural factors, they display interesting dynamic phenomena such as wave propagation, wave steepening, and development of chaotic responses. Such films can display rupture phenomena creating holes, spreading of fronts, and the development of fingers. In this review a unified mathematical theory is presented that takes advantage of the disparity of the length scales and is based on the asymptotic procedure of reduction of the full set of governing equations and boundary conditions to a simplified, highly nonlinear, evolution equation or to a set of equations. As a result of this long-wave theory, a mathematical system is obtained that does not have the mathematical complexity of the original free-boundary problem but does preserve many of the important features of its physics. The basics of the long-wave theory are explained. If, in addition, the Reynolds number of the flow is not too large, the analogy with Reynolds's theory of lubrication can be drawn. A general nonlinear evolution equation or equations are then derived and various particular cases are considered. Each case contains a discussion of the linear stability properties of the base-state solutions and of the nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of the interface (and other scalar variables, such as temperature or solute concentration). The cases reducing to a single highly nonlinear evolution equation are first examined. These include: (a) films with constant interfacial shear stress and constant surface tension, (b) films with constant surface tension and gravity only, (c) films with van der Waals (long-range molecular

  16. Adsorption kinetics of surfactants at liquid-solid and liquid-vapor interfaces from atomic-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskrenova, Eugeniya K.; Patnaik, Soumya S.

    2012-02-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of pure liquid is a complex process involving different size- and time-scale phenomena. The appearance of the first nanobubble in the liquid at the bottom of a hot pan, the detachment of the bubble from the solid surface, its subsequent coalescence with other bubbles, all represent complex multiscale phenomena. Surfactants added to water increase the complexity of the process by contributing to the dynamic surface tension at the liquid-vapor and liquid-solid interfaces and thus affecting the heat and mass transfer at those interfaces. We apply molecular dynamics simulations to study the adsorption kinetics of anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants at liquid/solid and liquid/vapor interfaces. The all-atom vs. united-atom approaches for the solid and surfactants are surveyed in view of their applicability at near boiling temperatures and a range of model water potentials is assessed for reproducing the thermal properties of water at boiling conditions.

  17. Hydrogen-bond acidity of ionic liquids: an extended scale.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Kiki A; Lima, Filipa; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-07-15

    One of the main drawbacks comprising an appropriate selection of ionic liquids (ILs) for a target application is related to the lack of an extended and well-established polarity scale for these neoteric fluids. Albeit considerable progress has been made on identifying chemical structures and factors that influence the polarity of ILs, there still exists a high inconsistency in the experimental values reported by different authors. Furthermore, due to the extremely large number of possible ILs that can be synthesized, the experimental characterization of their polarity is a major limitation when envisaging the choice of an IL with a desired polarity. Therefore, it is of crucial relevance to develop correlation schemes and a priori predictive methods able to forecast the polarity of new (or not yet synthesized) fluids. In this context, and aiming at broadening the experimental polarity scale available for ILs, the solvatochromic Kamlet-Taft parameters of a broad range of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-([NTf2](-))-based fluids were determined. The impact of the IL cation structure on the hydrogen-bond donating ability of the fluid was comprehensively addressed. Based on the large amount of novel experimental values obtained, we then evaluated COSMO-RS, COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents, as an alternative tool to estimate the hydrogen-bond acidity of ILs. A three-parameter model based on the cation-anion interaction energies was found to adequately describe the experimental hydrogen-bond acidity or hydrogen-bond donating ability of ILs. The proposed three-parameter model is also shown to present a predictive capacity and to provide novel molecular-level insights into the chemical structure characteristics that influence the acidity of a given IL. It is shown that although the equimolar cation-anion hydrogen-bonding energies (EHB) play the major role, the electrostatic-misfit interactions (EMF) and van der Waals forces (EvdW) also contribute

  18. Nature-inspired interconnects for self-assembled large-scale network-on-chip designs.

    PubMed

    Teuscher, Christof

    2007-06-01

    Future nanoscale electronics built up from an Avogadro number of components need efficient, highly scalable, and robust means of communication in order to be competitive with traditional silicon approaches. In recent years, the networks-on-chip (NoC) paradigm emerged as a promising solution to interconnect challenges in silicon-based electronics. Current NoC architectures are either highly regular or fully customized, both of which represent implausible assumptions for emerging bottom-up self-assembled molecular electronics that are generally assumed to have a high degree of irregularity and imperfection. Here, we pragmatically and experimentally investigate important design tradeoffs and properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible three-dimensional (3D) small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, number of switch nodes, and distribution of long- versus short-range connections, and measure the network's relevant communication characteristics. We further explore the robustness against link failures and the ability and efficiency to solve a simple toy problem, the synchronization task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising and disruptive computing paradigm for self-assembled nanoscale electronics and (2) that 3D small-world interconnect fabrics with a power-law decaying distribution of shortcut lengths are physically plausible and have major advantages over local two-dimensional and 3D regular topologies. PMID:17614693

  19. Nature-inspired interconnects for self-assembled large-scale network-on-chip designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuscher, Christof

    2007-06-01

    Future nanoscale electronics built up from an Avogadro number of components need efficient, highly scalable, and robust means of communication in order to be competitive with traditional silicon approaches. In recent years, the networks-on-chip (NoC) paradigm emerged as a promising solution to interconnect challenges in silicon-based electronics. Current NoC architectures are either highly regular or fully customized, both of which represent implausible assumptions for emerging bottom-up self-assembled molecular electronics that are generally assumed to have a high degree of irregularity and imperfection. Here, we pragmatically and experimentally investigate important design tradeoffs and properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible three-dimensional (3D) small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, number of switch nodes, and distribution of long- versus short-range connections, and measure the network's relevant communication characteristics. We further explore the robustness against link failures and the ability and efficiency to solve a simple toy problem, the synchronization task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising and disruptive computing paradigm for self-assembled nanoscale electronics and (2) that 3D small-world interconnect fabrics with a power-law decaying distribution of shortcut lengths are physically plausible and have major advantages over local two-dimensional and 3D regular topologies.

  20. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-06-01

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (Rg/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2Rg ˜ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2Rg ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order Rg) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2Rg ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are discussed.

  1. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  2. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-06-07

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (R{sub g}/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2R{sub g} ∼ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2R{sub g} ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order R{sub g}) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2R{sub g} ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are

  3. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2015-06-01

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (Rg/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2Rg ∼ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2Rg ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order Rg) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2Rg ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are discussed. PMID:26049520

  4. Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) of hydrophobic TLC plates coupled to chip-based nanoelectrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Direct identification and structural characterization of analyte spots on TLC plates have always been of great interest and the development of interfaces that allow TLC to be combined with MS is making steady progress. The recently introduced liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) approach has the potential to hyphenate TLC with MS. A mixture of lipid standards was separated on HPTLC RP-18 glass plates using chloroform:methanol :acetonitrile 2:1:1 (v:v:v) as mobile phase. After visualization with primuline dye (0.02% in acetone:water 8:2 (v:v)), LESA was performed, followed by a chip-based nanoflow infusion in combination with FTICRMS. The optimized extraction solvent composition was methanol:chloroform:water:formic acid 52:24:24:0.2 (v:v:v:v). A nanoelectrospray voltage of 1.6 kV and a gas pressure of 0.2 psi were applied in all experiments. All phospholipids were extracted successfully and detected unambiguously using the optimized TLC-LESA-FTICRMS procedure. Sampling the tricaprylin spot gave the most intense signals and also tricaprin was detected. Three other triacylglycerols of higher molecular mass have logP values between 15.5 and 21.6, which are the highest among all investigated compounds and are not detected from their corresponding spots, due to the fact that the solubility of very apolar lipids is not high enough in the extraction solvent. It was demonstrated that TLC can be elegantly combined with mass spectrometry based on the LESA approach. In general, apart from the analysis of lipids, TLC-LESA-MS has a high potential for medium-polar compounds separated on reversed-phase TLC plates, but limitations are present when very apolar compounds have to be extracted. PMID:24801846

  5. Three-Dimensional Architecture at Chip Level for Large-Scale-Integration of Superconducting Quantum Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göppl, Martin; Kurpiers, Philipp; Wallraff, Andreas

    We propose a novel way to realize three-dimensional circuit QED systems at chip level. System components such as qubits, transmission lines, capacitors, inductors or cross-overs can be implemented as suspended, electromagnetically shielded and optionally, as hermetically sealed structures. Compared to known state-of-the-art devices, volumes of dielectrics penetrated by electromagnetic fields can be drastically reduced. Our intention is to harness process technologies for very-large-scale-integration, reliably applied and improved over decades in micro-sensor- and semiconductor industry, for the realization of highly integrated circuit QED systems. Process capabilities are demonstrated by fabricating first exploratory devices using the back-end-of-line part of a commercial 180 nm CMOS foundry process in conjunction with HF vapor phase release etching.

  6. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  7. Integrated chip-scale Si3N4 wavemeter with narrow free spectral range and high stability.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Chao; Tran, Minh A; Komljenovic, Tin; Hulme, Jared; Davenport, Michael; Baney, Doug; Szafraniec, Bogdan; Bowers, John E

    2016-07-15

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized an integrated chip-scale wavemeter based on an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with 300 MHz free spectral range. The wavemeter is realized in the Si3N4 platform, allowing for low loss with ∼62  cm of on-chip delay. We also integrated an optical hybrid to provide phase information. The main benefit of a fully integrated wavemeter, beside its small dimensions, is increased robustness to vibrations and temperature variations and much improved stability over fiber-based solutions. PMID:27420522

  8. Excess Entropy Scaling Law for Diffusivity in Liquid Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dynamic properties depend on the structure and thermodynamics in liquids is a long-standing open problem in condensed matter physics. A very simple approach is based on the Dzugutov contribution developed on model fluids in which a universal (i.e. species-independent) connection relates the pair excess entropy of a liquid to its reduced diffusion coefficient. However its application to “real” liquids still remains uncertain due to the ability of a hard sphere (HS) reference fluid used in reducing parameters to describe complex interactions that occur in these liquids. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate both structural and dynamic properties at different temperatures for a wide series of liquid metals including Al, Au, Cu, Li, Ni, Ta, Ti, Zn as well as liquid Si and B. From this analysis, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully if a self-consistent method to determine the packing fraction of the hard sphere reference fluid is used as well as the Carnahan-Starling approach to express the excess entropy.

  9. Excess Entropy Scaling Law for Diffusivity in Liquid Metals

    PubMed Central

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dynamic properties depend on the structure and thermodynamics in liquids is a long-standing open problem in condensed matter physics. A very simple approach is based on the Dzugutov contribution developed on model fluids in which a universal (i.e. species-independent) connection relates the pair excess entropy of a liquid to its reduced diffusion coefficient. However its application to “real” liquids still remains uncertain due to the ability of a hard sphere (HS) reference fluid used in reducing parameters to describe complex interactions that occur in these liquids. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate both structural and dynamic properties at different temperatures for a wide series of liquid metals including Al, Au, Cu, Li, Ni, Ta, Ti, Zn as well as liquid Si and B. From this analysis, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully if a self-consistent method to determine the packing fraction of the hard sphere reference fluid is used as well as the Carnahan-Starling approach to express the excess entropy. PMID:26862002

  10. Excess Entropy Scaling Law for Diffusivity in Liquid Metals.

    PubMed

    Jakse, N; Pasturel, A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dynamic properties depend on the structure and thermodynamics in liquids is a long-standing open problem in condensed matter physics. A very simple approach is based on the Dzugutov contribution developed on model fluids in which a universal (i.e. species-independent) connection relates the pair excess entropy of a liquid to its reduced diffusion coefficient. However its application to "real" liquids still remains uncertain due to the ability of a hard sphere (HS) reference fluid used in reducing parameters to describe complex interactions that occur in these liquids. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate both structural and dynamic properties at different temperatures for a wide series of liquid metals including Al, Au, Cu, Li, Ni, Ta, Ti, Zn as well as liquid Si and B. From this analysis, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully if a self-consistent method to determine the packing fraction of the hard sphere reference fluid is used as well as the Carnahan-Starling approach to express the excess entropy. PMID:26862002

  11. Density scaling of the transport properties of molecular and ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    López, Enriqueta R; Pensado, Alfonso S; Comuñas, María J P; Pádua, Agílio A H; Fernández, Josefa; Harris, Kenneth R

    2011-04-14

    Casalini and Roland [Phys. Rev. E 69, 062501 (2004); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 3936 (2007)] and other authors have found that both the dielectric relaxation times and the viscosity, η, of liquids can be expressed solely as functions of the group (TV (γ)), where T is the temperature, V is the molar volume, and γ a state-independent scaling exponent. Here we report scaling exponents γ, for the viscosities of 46 compounds, including 11 ionic liquids. A generalization of this thermodynamic scaling to other transport properties, namely, the self-diffusion coefficients for ionic and molecular liquids and the electrical conductivity for ionic liquids is examined. Scaling exponents, γ, for the electrical conductivities of six ionic liquids for which viscosity data are available, are found to be quite close to those obtained from viscosities. Using the scaling exponents obtained from viscosities it was possible to correlate molar conductivity over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. However, application of the same procedures to the self-diffusion coefficients, D, of six ionic and 13 molecular liquids leads to superpositioning of poorer quality, as the scaling yields different exponents from those obtained with viscosities and, in the case of the ionic liquids, slightly different values for the anion and the cation. This situation can be improved by using the ratio (D∕T), consistent with the Stokes-Einstein relation, yielding γ values closer to those of viscosity. PMID:21495764

  12. On-chip actuation transmitter for enhancing the dynamic response of cell manipulation using a macro-scale pump

    PubMed Central

    Monzawa, Takumi; Kaneko, Makoto; Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Sakuma, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    An on-chip actuation transmitter for achieving fast and accurate cell manipulation is proposed. Instead of manipulating cell position by a directly connected macro-scale pump, polydimethylsiloxane deformation is used as a medium to transmit the actuation generated from the pump to control the cell position. This actuation transmitter has three main advantages. First, the dynamic response of cell manipulation is faster than the conventional method with direct flow control based on both the theoretical modeling and experimental results. The cell can be manipulated in a simple harmonic motion up to 130 Hz by the proposed actuation transmitter as opposed to 90 Hz by direct flow control. Second, there is no need to fill the syringe pump with the sample solution because the actuation transmitter physically separates the fluids between the pump and the cell flow, and consequently, only a very small quantity of the sample is required (<1 μl). In addition, such fluid separation makes it easy to keep the experiment platform sterilized because there is no direct fluid exchange between the sample and fluid inside the pump. Third, the fabrication process is simple because of the single-layer design, making it convenient to implement the actuation transmitter in different microfluidic applications. The proposed actuation transmitter is implemented in a lab-on-a-chip system for red blood cell (RBC) evaluation, where the extensibility of red blood cells is evaluated by manipulating the cells through a constriction channel at a constant velocity. The application shows a successful example of implementing the proposed transmitter. PMID:25713696

  13. Slip, Crystal Orientation, and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in High-Strain Wafer-Level Chip-Scale Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bite; Zhou, Quan; Bieler, Thomas R.; Lee, Tae-kyu

    2015-03-01

    Wafer-level chip-scale package samples with pre-cross-sectioned edge rows were thermally cycled to study microstructure evolution and damage development. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and high-energy x-ray diffraction were used to obtain Sn grain orientations and the average coefficient of thermal expansion normal to the board in every joint of the package for samples in the as-fabricated and thermally cycled conditions. The results indicated a near-random distribution of joint orientation. Optical, scanning electron microscopy, and EBSD methods were used to characterize microstructure changes in pre-cross-sectioned samples due to thermal cycling. Slip trace analysis and Orientation Imaging Microscopy™ (OIM) show that slip systems with high Schmid factors (estimated global shear stress based on the package neutral point) are responsible for the observed microstructure evolution during thermal cycling, which provides information about slip systems that are more easily activated. Two joints were analyzed in detail to evaluate slip activity at different stages of their thermal history. The first case showed that a solidification twin grain boundary misorientation deviated from the twin relationship due to slip activity during thermal cycling, which can influence damage development and the path of crack propagation. The second case showed a new grain orientation developing due to gradual lattice rotation about the Sn [110] axis by a continuous recrystallization mechanism. This rotation was correlated with the operation of slip system . Small tin whiskers emerged from the initially polished chip interface and grew with increasing thermal cycles until a crack developed in the solder that relieved the stress. As the local stresses are not known experimentally, this analysis provides observations that can be compared with a crystal plasticity model simulation.

  14. On the electric breakdown in liquid argon at centimeter scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Blatter, A.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Janos, S.; Kreslo, I.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Strauss, T.; Weber, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    We present a study on the dependence of electric breakdown discharge properties on electrode geometry and the breakdown field in liquid argon near its boiling point. The measurements were performed with a spherical cathode and a planar anode at distances ranging from 0.1 mm to 10.0 mm. A detailed study of the time evolution of the breakdown volt-ampere characteristics was performed for the first time. It revealed a slow streamer development phase in the discharge. The results of a spectroscopic study of the visible light emission of the breakdowns complement the measurements. The light emission from the initial phase of the discharge is attributed to electro-luminescence of liquid argon following a current of drifting electrons. These results contribute to set benchmarks for breakdown-safe design of ionization detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPC).

  15. Universal scaling laws of diffusion in two-dimensional granular liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Hung; Yu, Szu-Hsuan; Chen, Peilong

    2015-06-01

    We find, in a two-dimensional air table granular system, that the reduced diffusion constant D* and excess entropy S(2) follow two distinct scaling laws: D*∼e(S(2)*) for dense liquids and D∼e(3S(2)*) for dilute ones. The scaling for dense liquids is very similar to that for three-dimensional liquids proposed previously [M. Dzugutov, Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996); A. Samanta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145901 (2004)]. In the dilute regime, a power law [Y. Rosenfeld, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 5415 (1999)] also fits our data reasonably well. In our system, particles experience low air drag dissipation and interact with each others through embedded magnets. These near-conservative many-body interactions are responsible for the measured Gaussian velocity distribution functions and the scaling laws. The dominance of cage relaxations in dense liquids leads to the different scaling laws for dense and dilute regimes. PMID:26172645

  16. Reducing weight precision of convolutional neural networks towards large-scale on-chip image recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhengping; Ovsiannikov, Ilia; Wang, Yibing; Shi, Lilong; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we develop a server-client quantization scheme to reduce bit resolution of deep learning architecture, i.e., Convolutional Neural Networks, for image recognition tasks. Low bit resolution is an important factor in bringing the deep learning neural network into hardware implementation, which directly determines the cost and power consumption. We aim to reduce the bit resolution of the network without sacrificing its performance. To this end, we design a new quantization algorithm called supervised iterative quantization to reduce the bit resolution of learned network weights. In the training stage, the supervised iterative quantization is conducted via two steps on server - apply k-means based adaptive quantization on learned network weights and retrain the network based on quantized weights. These two steps are alternated until the convergence criterion is met. In this testing stage, the network configuration and low-bit weights are loaded to the client hardware device to recognize coming input in real time, where optimized but expensive quantization becomes infeasible. Considering this, we adopt a uniform quantization for the inputs and internal network responses (called feature maps) to maintain low on-chip expenses. The Convolutional Neural Network with reduced weight and input/response precision is demonstrated in recognizing two types of images: one is hand-written digit images and the other is real-life images in office scenarios. Both results show that the new network is able to achieve the performance of the neural network with full bit resolution, even though in the new network the bit resolution of both weight and input are significantly reduced, e.g., from 64 bits to 4-5 bits.

  17. Online Peptide Fractionation Using a Multiphasic Microfluidic Liquid Chromatography Chip Improves Reproducibility and Detection Limits for Quantitation in Discovery and Targeted Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Krisp, Christoph; Yang, Hao; van Soest, Remco; Molloy, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive proteomic profiling of biological specimens usually requires multidimensional chromatographic peptide fractionation prior to mass spectrometry. However, this approach can suffer from poor reproducibility because of the lack of standardization and automation of the entire workflow, thus compromising performance of quantitative proteomic investigations. To address these variables we developed an online peptide fractionation system comprising a multiphasic liquid chromatography (LC) chip that integrates reversed phase and strong cation exchange chromatography upstream of the mass spectrometer (MS). We showed superiority of this system for standardizing discovery and targeted proteomic workflows using cancer cell lysates and nondepleted human plasma. Five-step multiphase chip LC MS/MS acquisition showed clear advantages over analyses of unfractionated samples by identifying more peptides, consuming less sample and often improving the lower limits of quantitation, all in highly reproducible, automated, online configuration. We further showed that multiphase chip LC fractionation provided a facile means to detect many N- and C-terminal peptides (including acetylated N terminus) that are challenging to identify in complex tryptic peptide matrices because of less favorable ionization characteristics. Given as much as 95% of peptides were detected in only a single salt fraction from cell lysates we exploited this high reproducibility and coupled it with multiple reaction monitoring on a high-resolution MS instrument (MRM-HR). This approach increased target analyte peak area and improved lower limits of quantitation without negatively influencing variance or bias. Further, we showed a strategy to use multiphase LC chip fractionation LC-MS/MS for ion library generation to integrate with SWATHTM data-independent acquisition quantitative workflows. All MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001464. PMID:25850434

  18. Online Peptide fractionation using a multiphasic microfluidic liquid chromatography chip improves reproducibility and detection limits for quantitation in discovery and targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Krisp, Christoph; Yang, Hao; van Soest, Remco; Molloy, Mark P

    2015-06-01

    Comprehensive proteomic profiling of biological specimens usually requires multidimensional chromatographic peptide fractionation prior to mass spectrometry. However, this approach can suffer from poor reproducibility because of the lack of standardization and automation of the entire workflow, thus compromising performance of quantitative proteomic investigations. To address these variables we developed an online peptide fractionation system comprising a multiphasic liquid chromatography (LC) chip that integrates reversed phase and strong cation exchange chromatography upstream of the mass spectrometer (MS). We showed superiority of this system for standardizing discovery and targeted proteomic workflows using cancer cell lysates and nondepleted human plasma. Five-step multiphase chip LC MS/MS acquisition showed clear advantages over analyses of unfractionated samples by identifying more peptides, consuming less sample and often improving the lower limits of quantitation, all in highly reproducible, automated, online configuration. We further showed that multiphase chip LC fractionation provided a facile means to detect many N- and C-terminal peptides (including acetylated N terminus) that are challenging to identify in complex tryptic peptide matrices because of less favorable ionization characteristics. Given as much as 95% of peptides were detected in only a single salt fraction from cell lysates we exploited this high reproducibility and coupled it with multiple reaction monitoring on a high-resolution MS instrument (MRM-HR). This approach increased target analyte peak area and improved lower limits of quantitation without negatively influencing variance or bias. Further, we showed a strategy to use multiphase LC chip fractionation LC-MS/MS for ion library generation to integrate with SWATH(TM) data-independent acquisition quantitative workflows. All MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001464. PMID:25850434

  19. Length scales for fragile glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, Raymond D.

    1995-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation results are used to demonstrate the existence of a growing length in supercooled, fragile glass-forming liquids. This length is the longest wavelength, propagating shear wave the fluid can support. Explicit results are reported for an equimolar soft-sphere mixture. A possible connection between this length and the size of locally rigid clusters is discussed.

  20. On-chip frame memory reduction using a high-compression-ratio codec in the overdrives of liquid-crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Min, Kyeong-Yuk; Chong, Jong-Wha

    2010-11-01

    Overdrive is commonly used to reduce the liquid-crystal response time and motion blur in liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). However, overdrive requires a large frame memory in order to store the previous frame for reference. In this paper, a high-compression-ratio codec is presented to compress the image data stored in the on-chip frame memory so that only 1 Mbit of on-chip memory is required in the LCD overdrives of mobile devices. The proposed algorithm further compresses the color bitmaps and representative values (RVs) resulting from the block truncation coding (BTC). The color bitmaps are represented by a luminance bitmap, which is further reduced and reconstructed using median filter interpolation in the decoder, while the RVs are compressed using adaptive quantization coding (AQC). Interpolation and AQC can provide three-level compression, which leads to 16 combinations. Using a rate-distortion analysis, we select the three optimal schemes to compress the image data for video graphics array (VGA), wide-VGA LCD, and standard-definitionTV applications. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed schemes outperform interpolation BTC both in PSNR (by 1.479 to 2.205 dB) and in subjective visual quality.

  1. Hidden scale invariance in molecular van der Waals liquids: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrøder, Thomas B.; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Toxvaerd, Søren; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2009-10-01

    Results from molecular dynamics simulations of two viscous molecular model liquids—the Lewis-Wahnström model of orthoterphenyl and an asymmetric dumbbell model—are reported. We demonstrate that the liquids have a “hidden” approximate scale invariance: equilibrium potential energy fluctuations are accurately described by inverse power-law (IPL) potentials, the radial distribution functions are accurately reproduced by the IPL’s, and the radial distribution functions obey the IPL predicted scaling properties to a good approximation. IPL scaling of the dynamics also applies—with the scaling exponent predicted by the equilibrium fluctuations. In contrast, the equation of state does not obey the IPL scaling. We argue that our results are general for van der Waals liquids, but do not apply, e.g., for hydrogen-bonded liquids.

  2. Novel on chip-interconnection structures for giga-scale integration VLSI ICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelakuditi, Usha R.; Reddy, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the guidelines of International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) Intel has already designed and manufactured the next generation product of the Itanium family containing 1.72 billion transistors. In each new technology due to scaling, individual transistors are becoming smaller and faster, and are dissipating low power. The main challenge with these systems is wiring of these billion transistors since wire length interconnect scaling increases the distributed resistance-capacitance product. In addition, high clock frequencies necessitate reverse scaling of global and semi-global interconnects so that they satisfy the timing constraints. Hence, the performances of future GSI systems will be severely restricted by interconnect performance. It is therefore essential to look at interconnect design techniques that will reduce the impact of interconnect networks on the power, performance and cost of the entire system. In this paper a new routing technique called Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing similar to Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is discussed. This technique is highly useful for the current high density CMOS VLSI ICs. The major advantages of WPM routing technique are flexible, robust, simple to implement, and realized with low area, low power and performance overhead requirements.

  3. Stable 85Rb micro vapour cells: fabrication based on anodic bonding and application in chip-scale atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Juan; Deng, Ke; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Geng-Min; Chen, Xu-Zong

    2010-11-01

    We describe the microfabrication of 85Rb vapour cells using a glass-silicon anodic bonding technique and in situ chemical reaction between rubidium chloride and barium azide to produce Rb. Under controlled conditions, the pure metallic Rb drops and buffer gases were obtained in the cells with a few mm3 internal volumes during the cell sealing process. At an ambient temperature of 90 °C the optical absorption resonance of 85Rb D1 transition with proper broadening and the corresponding coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance, with a signal contrast of 1.5% and linewidth of about 1.7 kHz, have been detected. The sealing quality and the stability of the cells have also been demonstrated experimentally by using the helium leaking detection and the after-9-month optoelectronics measurement which shows a similar CPT signal as its original status. In addition, the physics package of chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) based on the cell was realized. The measured frequency stability of the physics package can reach to 2.1 × 10-10 at one second when the cell was heated to 100 °C which proved that the cell has the quality to be used in portable and battery-operated devices.

  4. Towards an interpretation of the scale diffusivity in liquid atomization process: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumouchel, Christophe; Ménard, Thibaut; Aniszewski, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    Recent investigations have presented an application of the scale entropy diffusion theory to model liquid atomization process. This theory describes multi-scale behavior by a diffusion equation of the scale entropy function. In atomization, this function is related to the scale-distribution which provides a measurement of the specific-length of the eroded liquid system according to the scale of erosion. The present paper performs a detailed description of the scale diffusion mechanism for the atomization process of a liquid jet emanating from a gasoline injector with the objective of determining the scale diffusivity parameter introduced by the diffusion theory. The 2-D description of the gasoline jet as a function of the injection pressure reveals that the scale space is divided into two regions according to the sign of the scale specific-length variation rate: The small-scale region refers to the scales that undergo an elongation mechanism whereas the large-scale region concerns the scales that undergo a contraction mechanism. Furthermore, two phases of the atomization process are identified depending on whether the elongation mechanism is governed by the jet dynamics or surface tension effects. A non-dimensional number segregating these two phases is established. During the atomization process, the contraction mechanism diffuses in the small scale region. This manifests by a temporal decrease of the scale with a zero specific-length variation. It is found that the scale diffusivity parameter can be determined from the evolution of this characteristic scale in the second phase of the atomization process.

  5. Microfluidic chip-based nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of aflatoxins in peanut products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Chan, Shan-An; Lin, Tzuen-Yeuan; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2013-09-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), a group of mycotoxins, are generally produced by fungi Aspergillus species. The naturally occurring AFs including AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 have been clarified as group 1 human carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Developing a sensitive analytical method has become an important issue to accurately quantify trace amount of AFs in foodstuffs. In this study, we employed a microfluidic chip-based nano LC (chip-nanoLC) coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS) system for the quantitative determination of AFs in peanuts and related products. Gradient elution and multiple reaction monitoring were utilized for chromatographic separation and MS measurements. Solvent extraction followed by immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction was employed to isolate analytes and reduce matrix effect from sample prior to chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS analysis. Good recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.8%-100.4%. The linear range was 0.048-16 ng g(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1. Limits of detection were estimated as 0.004-0.008 ng g(-1). Good intra-day/inter-day precision (2.3%-9.5%/2.3%-6.6%) and accuracy (96.1%-105.7%/95.5%-104.9%) were obtained. The applicability of this newly developed chip-nanoLC/QqQ-MS method was demonstrated by determining the AFs in various peanut products purchased from local markets. PMID:23708626

  6. Design and analysis of a chip-scale photonic analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawy, Ahmed; Chen, Caihua; Miao, BingLin; Shi, Shouyuan; Prather, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we present novel designs for all optical analog-to-digital converters simulated and realized in photonic crystal platforms. The designs presented were implemented on both photonic bandgap based structures as well as self collimation based structures. Numerical simulation results as well as fabrication results are also included. Characterization results validate the designs presented for a functional all optical two bit analog to digital converters in photonic crystals. The design presented can be further scaled to higher resolution conversion as well as to no optical frequencies if necessary.

  7. Development of a microfluidic-chip system for liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents for the extraction and preconcentration of some hormonal drugs.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, an on-chip liquid phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was introduced for the analysis of levonorgestrel (Levo), dydrogesterone (Dydo) and medroxyprogesterone (Medo) as the model analytes in biological samples. The chip-based LPME set-up was composed of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates with microfabricated channels and a microporous membrane sandwiched between them to separate the sample solution and acceptor phase. These channels were used as a flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase, respectively. In this system, two immiscible organic solvents were used as supported liquid membrane (SLM) and acceptor phase, respectively. During extraction, the model analytes in the sample solution were transported through the SLM (n-dodecane) into the acceptor organic solvent (methanol). The new set-up provided effective and reproducible extractions using low volumes of the sample solution. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the new set-up provided good linearity in the range of 5.0-500µgL(-1) for the model analytes with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.9909. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) and limits of detection (LODs) values were less than 6.5% (n=5) and 5.0µgL(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were obtained using 1.0mL of the sample solution and 20.0µL of the acceptor solution higher than 19.9-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the model analytes in urine samples. PMID:27591655

  8. Real-Time Very Large-Scale Integration Recognition System with an On-Chip Adaptive K-Means Learning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zuoxun; Ma, Yitao; Zhu, Hongbo; Zheng, Nanning; Shibata, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    A very large-scale integration (VLSI) recognition system equipped with an on-chip learning capability has been developed for real-time processing applications. This system can work in two functional modes of operation: adaptive K-means learning mode and recognition mode. In the adaptive K-means learning mode, the variance ratio criterion (VRC) has been employed to evaluate the quality of K-means classification results, and the evaluation algorithm has been implemented on the chip. As a result, it has become possible for the system to autonomously determine the optimum number of clusters (K). In the recognition mode, the nearest-neighbor search algorithm is very efficiently carried out by the fully parallel architecture employed in the chip. In both modes of operation, many hardware resources are shared and the functionality is flexibly altered by the system controller designed as a finite-state machine (FSM). The chip is implemented on Altera Cyclone II FPGA with 46K logic cells. Its operating clock is 25 MHz and the processing times for adaptive learning and recognition with 256 64-dimension feature vectors are about 0.42 ms and 4 µs, respectively. Both adaptive K-means learning and recognition functions have been verified by experiments using the image data from the COIL-100 (Columbia University Object Image Library) database.

  9. Self-adaptive phosphor coating technology for wafer-level scale chip packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsong, Zhou; Haibo, Rao; Wei, Wang; Xianlong, Wan; Junyuan, Liao; Xuemei, Wang; Da, Zhou; Qiaolin, Lei

    2013-05-01

    A new self-adaptive phosphor coating technology has been successfully developed, which adopted a slurry method combined with a self-exposure process. A phosphor suspension in the water-soluble photoresist was applied and exposed to LED blue light itself and developed to form a conformal phosphor coating with self-adaptability to the angular distribution of intensity of blue light and better-performing spatial color uniformity. The self-adaptive phosphor coating technology had been successfully adopted in the wafer surface to realize a wafer-level scale phosphor conformal coating. The first-stage experiments show satisfying results and give an adequate demonstration of the flexibility of self-adaptive coating technology on application of WLSCP.

  10. The combination of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and chip-based infusion for improved screening and characterization of drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    An approach has been developed for drug metabolism studies of non-radiolabeled compounds using on-line liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) combined with chip-based infusion following fraction collection. The potential of this approach, which improves the data quality compared with only LC/MS analysis, has been investigated for the analysis of in vitro metabolites of tolcapone and talinolol, two compounds with well-characterized metabolism. The information-dependent LC/MS/MS analysis enables the characterization of the major metabolites while the chip-based infusion is used to obtain good product ion spectra for lower level metabolites, to generate complementary MS information on potential metabolites detected in the LC/MS trace, or to screen for unexpected metabolites. Fractions from the chromatographic analysis are collected in 20 second steps, into a 96-well plate. The fractions of interest can be re-analyzed with chip-based infusion on a variety of mass spectrometers including triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QqLIT or Q TRAP) and QqTOF systems. Acquiring data for several minutes using multi-channel acquisition (MCA), or signal averaging while infusing the fractions at approximately 200 nL/min, permits about a 50 times gain in sensitivity (signal-to-noise) in MS/MS mode. A 5-10 microL sample fraction can be infused for more than 30 min allowing the time to perform various MS experiments such as MS(n), precursor ion or neutral loss scans and accurate mass measurement, all in either positive or negative mode. Through fraction collection and infusion, a significant gain in data quality is obtained along with a time-saving benefit, because the original sample needs neither to be re-analyzed by re-injection nor to be pre-concentrated. Therefore, a novel hydroxylated talinolol metabolite could be characterized with only one injection. PMID:15685686

  11. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators - Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit

    2013-12-01

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further.

  12. Tensile Strength of Liquids: Equivalence of Temporal and Spatial Scales in Cavitation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Huang, J Y; Wu, H A; Zhu, M H; Goddard, W A; Luo, S N

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that strain rate and size effects are both important in material failure, but the relationships between them are poorly understood. To establish this connection, we carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of cavitation in Lennard-Jones and Cu liquids over a very broad range of size and strain rate. These studies confirm that temporal and spatial scales play equivalent roles in the tensile strengths of these two liquids. Predictions based on smallest-scale MD simulations of Cu for larger temporal and spatial scales are consistent with independent simulations, and comparable to experiments on liquid metals. We analyze these results in terms of classical nucleation theory and show that the equivalence arises from the role of both size and strain rate in the nucleation of a daughter phase. Such equivalence is expected to hold for a wide range of materials and processes and to be useful as a predictive bridging tool in multiscale studies. PMID:26885747

  13. Molecular-scale remnants of the liquid-gas transition in supercritical polar fluids.

    PubMed

    Sokhan, V P; Jones, A; Cipcigan, F S; Crain, J; Martyna, G J

    2015-09-11

    An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of nonpercolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend farther, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquidlike and gaslike state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models, suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase. PMID:26406855

  14. Molecular-Scale Remnants of the Liquid-Gas Transition in Supercritical Polar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhan, V. P.; Jones, A.; Cipcigan, F. S.; Crain, J.; Martyna, G. J.

    2015-09-01

    An electronically coarse-grained model for water reveals a persistent vestige of the liquid-gas transition deep into the supercritical region. A crossover in the density dependence of the molecular dipole arises from the onset of nonpercolating hydrogen bonds. The crossover points coincide with the Widom line in the scaling region but extend farther, tracking the heat capacity maxima, offering evidence for liquidlike and gaslike state points in a "one-phase" fluid. The effect is present even in dipole-limit models, suggesting that it is common for all molecular liquids exhibiting dipole enhancement in the liquid phase.

  15. Thermal lens measurements in liquids on a submicrosecond time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Isak, S. J.; Komorowski, S. J.; Merrow, C. N.; Poston, P. E.; Eyring, E. M.

    1989-03-01

    The use of the thermal lens method is shown to be quite suitable for kinetic studies of quenching on a submicrosecond time scale. The lower limit of time resolution that can be achieved is determined by the acoustic transit time, /tau//sub /ital a//, in the medium. A thermal lens signal with a 100-ns time constant due to the quenched triplet state of benzophenone is readily measured. The thermal lens method is superior to the photoacoustic (PA) method in the breadth of the accessible time range, and in the significantly fewer measurements required to obtain accurate data, including no requirement for a reference sample; it is also less sensitive to geometrical and laser power requirements than is the PA method.

  16. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH’s above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  17. Evaluation of liquid-fed ceramic melter scale-up correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the parameters governing factors of scale for liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) in order to design full-scale melters using smaller-scale melter data. Results of melter experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are presented for two feed compositions and five different liquid-fed ceramic melters. The melter performance data including nominal feed rate and glass melt rate are correlated as a function of melter surface area. Comparisons are made between the actual melt rate data and melt rates predicted by a cold cap heat transfer model. The heat transfer model could be used in scale-up calculations, but insufficient data are available on the cold cap characteristics. Experiments specifically designed to determine heat transfer parameters are needed to further develop the model. 17 refs.

  18. Reference Gauging System for a Small-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Siegwarth, James D.

    2003-01-01

    A system to accurately weigh the fluid contents of a small-scale liquid hydrogen test tank has been experimentally verified. It is intended for use as a reference or benchmark system when testing lowgravity liquid quantity gauging concepts in the terrestrial environment. The reference gauging system has shown a repeatable measurement accuracy of better than 0.5 percent of the full tank liquid weight. With further refinement, the system accuracy can be improved to within 0.10 percent of full scale. This report describes the weighing system design, calibration, and operational results. Suggestions are given for further refinement of the system. An example is given to illustrate additional sources of uncertainty when mass measurements are converted to volume equivalents. Specifications of the companion test tank and its multi-layer insulation system are provided.

  19. Scaling of viscous dynamics in simple liquids: theory, simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bøhling, L.; Ingebrigtsen, T. S.; Grzybowski, A.; Paluch, M.; Dyre, J. C.; Schrøder, T. B.

    2012-11-01

    Supercooled liquids are characterized by relaxation times that increase dramatically by cooling or compression. From a single assumption follows a scaling law according to which the relaxation time is a function of h(ρ) over temperature, where ρ is the density and the function h(ρ) depends on the liquid in question. This scaling is demonstrated to work well for simulations of the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones mixture and two molecular models, as well as for the experimental results for two van der Waals liquids, dibutyl phthalate and decahydroisoquinoline. The often used power-law density scaling, h(ρ)∝ργ, is an approximation to the more general form of scaling discussed here. A thermodynamic derivation was previously given for an explicit expression for h(ρ) for liquids of particles interacting via the generalized Lennard-Jones potential. Here a statistical mechanics derivation is given, and the prediction is shown to agree very well with simulations over large density changes. Our findings effectively reduce the problem of understanding the viscous slowing down from being a quest for a function of two variables to a search for a single-variable function.

  20. Universal scaling laws of diffusion in two-dimensional granular liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen-Hung; Yu, Szu-Hsuan; Chen, Peilong

    2015-06-01

    We find, in a two-dimensional air table granular system, that the reduced diffusion constant D* and excess entropy S2* follow two distinct scaling laws: D*˜eS2* for dense liquids and D*˜e3 S2* for dilute ones. The scaling for dense liquids is very similar to that for three-dimensional liquids proposed previously [M. Dzugutov, Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996), 10.1038/381137a0; A. Samanta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145901 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.145901]. In the dilute regime, a power law [Y. Rosenfeld, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, 5415 (1999), 10.1088/0953-8984/11/28/303] also fits our data reasonably well. In our system, particles experience low air drag dissipation and interact with each others through embedded magnets. These near-conservative many-body interactions are responsible for the measured Gaussian velocity distribution functions and the scaling laws. The dominance of cage relaxations in dense liquids leads to the different scaling laws for dense and dilute regimes.

  1. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial† unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  2. Dynamics and Stability of Capillary Surfaces: Liquid Switches at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Paul H.; Bhandar, Anand; Vogel, Michael J.; Hirsa, Amir H.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics and stability of systems of interfaces is central to a range of technologies related to the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS). Our premise is that dramatic shape changes can be manipulated to advantage with minimal input, if the system is near instability. The primary objective is to develop the science base to allow novel approaches to liquid management in low-gravity based on this premise. HEDS requires efficient, reliable and lightweight technologies. Our poster will highlight our progress toward this goal using the capillary switch as an example. A capillary surface is a liquid/liquid or liquid/gas interface whose shape is determined by surface tension. For typical liquids (e.g., water) against gas on earth, capillary surfaces occur on the millimeterscale and smaller where shape deformation due to gravity is unimportant. In low gravity, they can occur on the centimeter scale. Capillary surfaces can be combined to make a switch a system with multiple stable states. A capillary switch can generate motion or effect force. To be practical, the energy barriers of such a switch must be tunable, its switching time (kinetics) short and its triggering mechanism reliable. We illustrate these features with a capillary switch that consists of two droplets, coupled by common pressure. As long as contact lines remained pinned, motions are inviscid, even at sub-millimeter scales, with consequent promise of low-power consumption at the device level. Predictions of theory are compared to experiment on i) a soap-film prototype at centimeter scale and ii) a liquid droplet switch at millimeter-scale.

  3. Toward giga-pixel nanoscopy on a chip: a computational wide-field look at the nano-scale without the use of lenses

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Luo, Wei; Mudanyali, Onur; Greenbaum, Alon

    2013-01-01

    The development of lensfree on-chip microscopy in the past decade has opened up various new possibilities for biomedical imaging across ultra-large fields of view using compact, portable, and cost-effective devices. However, until recently, its ability to resolve fine features and detect ultra-small particles has not rivalled the capabilities of the more expensive and bulky laboratory-grade optical microscopes. In this Frontier Review, we highlight the developments over the last two years that have enabled computational lensfree holographic on-chip microscopy to compete with and, in some cases, surpass conventional bright-field microscopy in its ability to image nano-scale objects across large fields of view, yielding giga-pixel phase and amplitude images. Lensfree microscopy has now achieved a numerical aperture as high as 0.92, with a spatial resolution as small as 225 nm across a large field of view e.g., >20 mm2. Furthermore, the combination of lensfree microscopy with self-assembled nanolenses, forming nano-catenoid minimal surfaces around individual nanoparticles has boosted the image contrast to levels high enough to permit bright-field imaging of individual particles smaller than 100 nm. These capabilities support a number of new applications, including, for example, the detection and sizing of individual virus particles using field-portable computational on-chip microscopes. PMID:23592185

  4. Flock on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Denis; Desreumaux, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    We will show how to motorize colloidal particles capable of sensing the orientation of their neighbors and how to handle them in microfluidic chips. These populations of colloidal rollers display non-equilibrium transitions toward swarming or swirling motion depending on the system geometry . After characterizing these emergent patterns we will quantitatively describe them by means of an hydrodynamic theory of polar active liquids.

  5. Pressure-energy correlations and thermodynamic scaling in viscous Lennard-Jones liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coslovich, D.; Roland, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulation results on viscous binary Lennard-Jones mixtures to examine the correlation between the potential energy and the virial. In accord with a recent proposal [U. R. Pedersen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 015701 (2008)], the fluctuations in the two quantities are found to be strongly correlated, exhibiting a proportionality constant, Γ, numerically equal to one-third the slope of an inverse power law approximation to the intermolecular potential function. The correlation is stronger at higher densities, where interatomic separations are in the range where the inverse power law approximation is more accurate. These same liquids conform to thermodynamic scaling of their dynamics, with the scaling exponent equal to Γ. Thus, the properties of strong correlation between energy and pressure and thermodynamic scaling both reflect the ability of an inverse power law representation of the potential to capture interesting features of the dynamics of dense, highly viscous liquids.

  6. Design and fabrication of a compact chip-scale optical cross-connect enabled by photonic crystals for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablocki, Mathew Joseph

    As integrated circuits, such as microprocessors, are fabricated with higher yields and with increasing numbers of smaller and smaller transistors, the communication between discrete elements becomes as important as the elements themselves. The delays associated with signal distribution across the chip have become a limiting factor for processor speeds, and are primarily located within the global interconnect layers for intra-chip and inter-chip communication. Optical interconnects have the potential to relieve the restrictions set by the interconnect bottleneck by taking advantage of their reduced power demands for signal distribution and their lower propagation delays. The work within this dissertation discusses the design, fabrication and characterization of an ultra-compact photonic crystal optical switch for use within a transparent optical cross-connect (OXC). To reduce the size and power consumption of the switch, perturbations were made within the photonic crystal structure to achieve a degree of slow light, decreasing the group velocity of the propagating signals. Further, as a means to integrate the developed switch matrix to a microprocessor in order to serve as a chip's optical global interconnect, a process was developed to transfer the switch fabric to a new substrate as a silicon-nanomembrane (Si-NM). The developed transfer process allows the transfer and stacking of intricate photonic devices, such as the aforementioned switch matrix, to new material platforms and substrates that would be incompatible with typical complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor CMOS processing. The developed Si-NM processing along with the developed switch matrix for a transparent OXC are significant steps toward implementing an optical interconnect network on a chip.

  7. Evaporation of Liquid Droplet in Nano and Micro Scales from Statistical Rate Theory.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; He, Bin; Wei, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The statistical rate theory (SRT) is applied to predict the average evaporation flux of liquid droplet after the approach is validated in the sessile droplet experiments of the water and heavy water. The steady-state experiments show a temperature discontinuity at the evaporating interface. The average evaporation flux is evaluated by individually changing the measurement at a liquid-vapor interface, including the interfacial liquid temperature, the interfacial vapor temperature, the vapor-phase pressure, and the droplet size. The parameter study shows that a higher temperature jump would reduce the average evaporation flux. The average evaporation flux can significantly be influenced by the interfacial liquid temperature and the vapor-phase pressure. The variation can switch the evaporation into condensation. The evaporation flux is found to remain relative constant if the droplet is larger than a micro scale, while the smaller diameters in nano scale can produce a much higher evaporation flux. In addition, a smaller diameter of droplets with the same liquid volume has a larger surface area. It is suggested that the evaporation rate increases dramatically as the droplet shrinks into nano size. PMID:26353528

  8. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed.

  9. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed. PMID:26684508

  10. Thermodynamics and dynamics of the two-scale spherically symmetric Jagla ramp model of anomalous liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Angell, C. Austen; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2006-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the Jagla model of a liquid which consists of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric two-scale potential with both repulsive and attractive ramps. This potential displays anomalies similar to those found in liquid water, namely expansion upon cooling and an increase of diffusivity upon compression, as well as a liquid-liquid (LL) phase transition in the region of the phase diagram accessible to simulations. The LL coexistence line, unlike in tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, has a positive slope, because of the Clapeyron relation, corresponding to the fact that the high density phase (HDL) is more ordered than low density phase (LDL). When we cool the system at constant pressure above the critical pressure, the thermodynamic properties rapidly change from those of LDL-like to those of HDL-like upon crossing the Widom line. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity also changes rapidly in the vicinity of the Widom line, namely the slope of the Arrhenius plot sharply increases upon entering the HDL domain. The properties of the glass transition are different in the two phases, suggesting that the less ordered phase is fragile, while the more ordered phase is strong, which is consistent with the behavior of tetrahedrally coordinated liquids such as water silica, silicon, and BeF2 .

  11. Finite-size scaling study of shear viscosity anomaly at liquid-liquid criticality.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sutapa; Das, Subir K

    2014-12-21

    We study the equilibrium dynamics of a symmetrical binary Lennard-Jones fluid mixture near its consolute criticality. Molecular dynamics simulation results for the shear viscosity, η, from a microcanonical ensemble are compared with those from a canonical ensemble with various thermostats. It is observed that the Nosé-Hoover thermostat is a good candidate for this purpose, and is therefore adopted for the quantification of the critical singularity of η, to avoid the temperature fluctuations (or even drifts) that are often encountered in microcanonical simulations. Via a finite-size scaling analysis of our simulation data we have been able to confirm that the shear viscosity exhibits a weak critical singularity in agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:25527943

  12. Finite-size scaling study of shear viscosity anomaly at liquid-liquid criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sutapa; Das, Subir K.

    2014-12-01

    We study the equilibrium dynamics of a symmetrical binary Lennard-Jones fluid mixture near its consolute criticality. Molecular dynamics simulation results for the shear viscosity, η, from a microcanonical ensemble are compared with those from a canonical ensemble with various thermostats. It is observed that the Nosé-Hoover thermostat is a good candidate for this purpose, and is therefore adopted for the quantification of the critical singularity of η, to avoid the temperature fluctuations (or even drifts) that are often encountered in microcanonical simulations. Via a finite-size scaling analysis of our simulation data we have been able to confirm that the shear viscosity exhibits a weak critical singularity in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  13. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  14. Large scale, liquid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides by the phosphoramidite approach.

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, G M; Biancotto, G; Maffini, M; Scremin, C L

    1993-01-01

    A new method for the liquid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides is described which makes use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as soluble support and phosphoramidite derivatives as synthons. The new synthetic protocol was applied to a quite large scale production (about 100 mumoles) of such compounds up to the 20mer level. This solution method, called HELP High Efficiency Liquid Phase) Plus, appears effective in terms of speed and coupling yield and can be evaluated for the production of large amount of oligonucleotides. PMID:8464706

  15. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E

    2011-02-14

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  16. Multi-Scale Modeling of Liquid Phase Sintering Affected by Gravity: Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olevsky, Eugene; German, Randall M.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-scale simulation concept taking into account impact of gravity on liquid phase sintering is described. The gravity influence can be included at both the micro- and macro-scales. At the micro-scale, the diffusion mass-transport is directionally modified in the framework of kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations to include the impact of gravity. The micro-scale simulations can provide the values of the constitutive parameters for macroscopic sintering simulations. At the macro-scale, we are attempting to embed a continuum model of sintering into a finite-element framework that includes the gravity forces and substrate friction. If successful, the finite elements analysis will enable predictions relevant to space-based processing, including size and shape and property predictions. Model experiments are underway to support the models via extraction of viscosity moduli versus composition, particle size, heating rate, temperature and time.

  17. Design and Use of a Large-Scale Liquid Helium Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, P. N.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale liquid helium (LHe) to high-pressure (HP) gas conversion system has been implemented at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helium is used by the Space Shuttle, Titan, Atlas, and Delta programs for prelaunch processing, during launch count-down, and for postlaunch securing. The first phase of modifications to the Compressor Converter Facility (CCF), operational in April 1998, allowed the facility to accept bulk liquid helium from tanker containers and to off-load the helium at super-critical pressures. The second phase of modifications, planned to be operational by January 2001, will implement a 227-cubic-meter (m(sup 3)) on-site liquid helium storage system. This paper describes the design and operation of the current system and discusses the design and implementation for the second phase system.

  18. Shape and Effective Spring Constant of Liquid Interfaces Probed at the Nanometer Scale: Finite Size Effects.

    PubMed

    Dupré de Baubigny, Julien; Benzaquen, Michael; Fabié, Laure; Delmas, Mathieu; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Legros, Marc; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the shape and mechanical properties of liquid interfaces down to nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with in situ micromanipulation techniques. In both cases, the interface is probed with a cylindrical nanofiber with radius R of the order of 25-100 nm. The effective spring constant of the nanomeniscus oscillated around its equilibrium position is determined by static and frequency-modulation (FM) AFM modes. In the case of an unbounded meniscus, we find that the effective spring constant k is proportional to the surface tension γ of the liquid through k = (0.51 ± 0.06)γ, regardless of the excitation frequency from quasi-static up to 450 kHz. A model based on the equilibrium shape of the meniscus reproduces well the experimental data. Electron microscopy allowed to visualize the meniscus profile around the fiber with a lateral resolution of the order of 10 nm and confirmed its catenary shape. The influence of a lateral confinement of the interface is also investigated. We showed that the lateral extension L of the meniscus influences the effective spring constant following a logarithmic evolution k ∼ 2πγ/ln(L/R) deduced from the model. This comprehensive study of liquid interface properties over more than 4 orders of magnitude in meniscus size shows that advanced FM-AFM and SEM techniques are promising tools for the investigation of mechanical properties of liquids down to nanometer scale. PMID:26295187

  19. Scale-aware parameterization of liquid cloud inhomogeneity and its impact on simulated climate in CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-08-01

    Using long-term radar-based ground measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, we derive the inhomogeneity of cloud liquid water as represented by the shape parameter of a gamma distribution. The relationship between the inhomogeneity and the model grid size as well as atmospheric condition is presented. A larger grid scale and more unstable atmosphere are associated with larger inhomogeneity that is described by a smaller shape parameter. This relationship is implemented as a scale-aware parameterization of the liquid cloud inhomogeneity in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in which the shape parameter impacts the cloud microphysical processes. When used in the default CESM1 with the finite-volume dynamic core where a constant liquid inhomogeneity parameter was assumed, it reduces the cloud inhomogeneity in high latitudes and increases it in low latitudes. This is due to both the smaller (larger) grid size in high (low) latitudes in the longitude-latitude grid setting of CESM and the more stable (unstable) atmosphere. The single-column model and general circulation model sensitivity experiments show that the new parameterization increases the cloud liquid water path in polar regions and decreases it in low latitudes. An advantage of the parameterization is that it can recognize the spatial resolutions of the CESM without special tuning of the cloud water inhomogeneity parameter.

  20. Excess entropy scaling for the diffusion coefficient in expanded liquid metals.

    PubMed

    Bretonnet, J L

    2004-06-15

    Molecular-dynamics simulation is used to compute the pair correlation function and the velocity autocorrelation function of Cs and Rb along the liquid-vapor coexistence curve, from which the excess entropy S(ex) and the diffusion coefficient D are deduced. The numerical results of both physical properties are correlated and a scaling law between the excess entropy and the reduced diffusion coefficient D(*)(=D/D(0)) is investigated for different expressions of the reduction parameter D(0). The choice of thermodynamic states along the liquid--vapor coexistence curve gives us the possibility to extend the investigation of the relation between the reduced diffusion coefficient and the excess entropy over a wide area and to test the adequacy of the scaling law confidently. PMID:15268140

  1. Breakup of Thin Liquid Filaments on Partially Wetting Substrates: from Micrometric to Nanometric Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Javier A.; González, Alejandro G.

    2016-04-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results regarding the instability of a thin liquid film in the form a long filament sitted on a solid substrate. We consider this problem in two different scenarios, namely, at submillimetric and nanometric scales, and we study their free surface instability. In the first scale, we take into account the effects due to surface tension and gravity, while in the smaller scale, we add intermolecular interaction and neglect gravity. The flows are modeled within the long wave approximation, which leads to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation for the fluid thickness. This model equation also includes the partial wetting condition between the liquid and the solid. In the theoretical models, we analyze the linear stability of the equilibrium configurations. The linear stability analyses lead to eigenvalue problems that are solved using pseudo spectral methods in the submillimetric case, and finite differences in the nanoscale. Whenever possible, the theoretical results are compared with experiments performed on a submillimetric scale (silicon oils on glass), as well as on nanometric scale (nickel films melted by laser irradiation on SiO2 substrates).

  2. Cold Flow Testing for Liquid Propellant Rocket Injector Scaling and Throttling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Jeremy R.; Moser, Marlow D.; Hulka, James; Jones, Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Scaling and throttling of combustion devices are important capabilities to demonstrate in development of liquid rocket engines for NASA's Space Exploration Mission. Scaling provides the ability to design new injectors and injection elements with predictable performance on the basis of test experience with existing injectors and elements, and could be a key aspect of future development programs. Throttling is the reduction of thrust with fixed designs and is a critical requirement in lunar and other planetary landing missions. A task in the Constellation University Institutes Program (CUIP) has been designed to evaluate spray characteristics when liquid propellant rocket engine injectors are scaled and throttled. The specific objectives of the present study are to characterize injection and primary atomization using cold flow simulations of the reacting sprays. These simulations can provide relevant information because the injection and primary atomization are believed to be the spray processes least affected by the propellant reaction. Cold flow studies also provide acceptable test conditions for a university environment. Three geometric scales - 1/4- scale, 1/2-scale, and full-scale - of two different injector element types - swirl coaxial and shear coaxial - will be designed, fabricated, and tested. A literature review is currently being conducted to revisit and compile the previous scaling documentation. Because it is simple to perform, throttling will also be examined in the present work by measuring primary atomization characteristics as the mass flow rate and pressure drop of the six injector element concepts are reduced, with corresponding changes in chamber backpressure. Simulants will include water and gaseous nitrogen, and an optically accessible chamber will be used for visual and laser-based diagnostics. The chamber will include curtain flow capability to repress recirculation, and additional gas injection to provide independent control of the

  3. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Tarnacka, M; Madejczyk, O; Adrjanowicz, K; Pionteck, J; Kaminska, E; Kamiński, K; Paluch, M

    2015-06-14

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dT(g)/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dT(n)/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ(α) = 10(-5) s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T(-1)v(-γ), which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals' properties of itraconazole molecule. PMID:26071720

  4. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnacka, M.; Madejczyk, O.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Pionteck, J.; Kaminska, E.; Kamiński, K.; Paluch, M.

    2015-06-01

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dTg/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dTn/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ α = 10-5 s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T-1v-γ, which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals' properties of itraconazole molecule.

  5. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  6. Gain chip design, power scaling and intra-cavity frequency doubling with LBO of optically pumped red-emitting AlGaInP-VECSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Hermann; Mateo, Cherry M. N.; Brauch, Uwe; Bek, Roman; Schwarzbäck, Thomas; Jetter, Michael; Graf, Thomas; Michler, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The wide range of applications in biophotonics, television or projectors, spectroscopy and lithography made the optically-pumped semiconductor (OPS) vertical external cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) an important category of power scalable lasers. The possibility of bandgap engineering, inserting frequency selective and converting elements into the open laser cavity and laser emission in the fundamental Gaussian mode leads to ongoing growth of the area of applications for tuneable laser sources. We present an AlGaInP-VECSEL system with a multi quantum well structure consisting of compressively strained GaInP quantum wells in an AlxGa1-xInP separate confinement heterostructure with an emission wavelength around 665 nm. The VECSEL chip with its n-λ cavity is pumped by a 532nm Nd:YAG laser under an angle to the normal incidence of 50°. In comparison, a gain chip design for high absorption values at pump wavelengths around 640nm with the use of quantum dot layers as active material is also presented. Frequency doubling is now realized with an antireflection coated lithium borate crystal, while a birefringent filter, placed inside the laser cavity under Brewster's angle, is used for frequency tuning. Further, power-scaling methods like in-well pumping as well as embedding the active region of a VECSEL between two transparent ic heaspreaders are under investigation.

  7. Scaling a single element combustor to replicate combustion instability modes of a liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Brian A.

    This research evaluated a method of scaling a single element sub-scale combustor to match the combustion instability modes of a full-scale liquid rocket engine. The experiments used a shear-coaxial injector in an atmospheric chamber using gaseous oxygen and a heated gaseous methane/nitrogen fuel mixture. The flow conditions matched the full-scale equivalence ratio, propellant velocities and propellant volumetric flow rates. The first set of experiments empirically determined the effect of chamber diameter on chamber temperature. The results were used to calculate the dimensions of the sub-scaled combustion chamber that would match the transverse frequencies of the full-scale engine. The scaled chamber was used in two sets of experiments. The stationary tests placed the injector at the center of the chamber and 0.25 in. from the wall. The centered test displayed evidence of coupling between the 1L chamber mode and the injector oxygen post at 885 Hz. Injector coupling was also observed during experiments with the full-scale rocket engine. With the injector 0.25 in. from the wall, the average chamber temperature dropped about 350°C from the centered test. As a consequence, the frequencies of the transverse modes were lower than the full-scale values. No major difference was found in this research between the stable and unstable set points of the full-scale engine. A translating stage was used to evaluate where various chamber modes appear as a function of injector location. The results show that the 1L chamber mode is present at every location and transverse modes appear as the injector moves near the wall.

  8. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in wet granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianyun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Runchen; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Combining high-speed photography with laser profilometry, we study the dynamics and the morphology of liquid-drop impact cratering in wet granular media—a ubiquitous phenomenon relevant to many important geological, agricultural, and industrial processes. By systematically investigating important variables such as impact energy, the size of impinging drops, and the degree of liquid saturation in granular beds, we uncover a scaling law for the size of impact craters. We show that this scaling can be explained by considering the balance between the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface. Such a theoretical understanding confirms that the unique energy partition originally proposed for liquid-drop impact cratering in dry granular media also applies for impact cratering in wet granular media. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressive stresses, instead of shear stresses, control the process of granular impact cratering. Our study enriches the picture of generic granular impact cratering and sheds light on the familiar phenomena of raindrop impacts in granular media.

  9. Scaling of liquid-drop impact craters in wet granular media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianyun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Runchen; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Combining high-speed photography with laser profilometry, we study the dynamics and the morphology of liquid-drop impact cratering in wet granular media-a ubiquitous phenomenon relevant to many important geological, agricultural, and industrial processes. By systematically investigating important variables such as impact energy, the size of impinging drops, and the degree of liquid saturation in granular beds, we uncover a scaling law for the size of impact craters. We show that this scaling can be explained by considering the balance between the inertia of impinging drops and the strength of impacted surface. Such a theoretical understanding confirms that the unique energy partition originally proposed for liquid-drop impact cratering in dry granular media also applies for impact cratering in wet granular media. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressive stresses, instead of shear stresses, control the process of granular impact cratering. Our study enriches the picture of generic granular impact cratering and sheds light on the familiar phenomena of raindrop impacts in granular media. PMID:26565233

  10. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  11. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Ak Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOITM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this reporting period, DOE accepted the recommendation to continue with dimethyl ether (DME) design verification testing (DVT). DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stzibility is being developed. Planning for a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended. DOE issued a letter dated 31 July 1997 accepting the recommendation to continue design verification testing. In order to allow for scale-up of the manufacturing technique for the dehydration catalyst from the pilot plant to the commercial scale, the time required to produce the catalyst to the AFDU has slipped. The new estimated delivery date is 01 June 1998.

  12. Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Boysen, DA; Ouchi, T; Sadoway, DR

    2013-11-01

    Calcium is an attractive electrode material for use in grid-scale electrochemical energy storage due to its low electronegativity, earth abundance, and low cost. The feasibility of combining a liquid Ca-Bi positive electrode with a molten salt electrolyte for use in liquid metal batteries at 500-700 degrees C was investigated. Exhibiting excellent reversibility up to current densities of 200 mA cm(-2), the calcium bismuth liquid alloy system is a promising positive electrode candidate for liquid metal batteries. The measurement of low self-discharge current suggests that the solubility of calcium metal in molten salt electrolytes can be sufficiently suppressed to yield high coulombic efficiencies >98%. The mechanisms giving rise to Ca-Bi electrode overpotentials were investigated in terms of associated charge transfer and mass transport resistances. The formation of low density Ca11Bi10 intermetallics at the electrode electrolyte interface limited the calcium deposition rate capability of the electrodes; however, the co-deposition of barium into bismuth from barium-containing molten salts suppressed Ca-Bi intermetallic formation thereby improving the discharge capacity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; McCabe, Kevin

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  14. Fabrication of electron beam deposited tip for atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Izumi, H; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H; Fukuma, T

    2015-03-13

    Recently, possibilities of improving operation speed and force sensitivity in atomic-scale atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid using a small cantilever with an electron beam deposited (EBD) tip have been intensively explored. However, the structure and properties of an EBD tip suitable for such an application have not been well-understood and hence its fabrication process has not been established. In this study, we perform atomic-scale AFM measurements with a small cantilever and clarify two major problems: contaminations from a cantilever and tip surface, and insufficient mechanical strength of an EBD tip having a high aspect ratio. To solve these problems, here we propose a fabrication process of an EBD tip, where we attach a 2 μm silica bead at the cantilever end and fabricate a 500-700 nm EBD tip on the bead. The bead height ensures sufficient cantilever-sample distance and enables to suppress long-range interaction between them even with a short EBD tip having high mechanical strength. After the tip fabrication, we coat the whole cantilever and tip surface with Si (30 nm) to prevent the generation of contamination. We perform atomic-scale AFM imaging and hydration force measurements at a mica-water interface using the fabricated tip and demonstrate its applicability to such an atomic-scale application. With a repeated use of the proposed process, we can reuse a small cantilever for atomic-scale measurements for several times. Therefore, the proposed method solves the two major problems and enables the practical use of a small cantilever in atomic-scale studies on various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. PMID:25697199

  15. Scale-up and evaluation of high solid ionic liquid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is receiving significant attention as a potential process that enables fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and produces high yields of fermentable sugars suitable for the production of renewable fuels. However, successful optimization and scale up of IL pretreatment involves challenges, such as high solids loading, biomass handling and transfer, washing of pretreated solids and formation of inhibitors, which are not addressed during the development stages at the small scale in a laboratory environment. As a first in the research community, the Joint BioEnergy Institute, in collaboration with the Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit, a Department of Energy funded facility that supports academic and industrial entities in scaling their novel biofuels enabling technologies, have performed benchmark studies to identify key challenges associated with IL pretreatment using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and subsequent enzymatic saccharification beyond bench scale. Results Using switchgrass as the model feedstock, we have successfully executed 600-fold, relative to the bench scale (6 L vs 0.01 L), scale-up of IL pretreatment at 15% (w/w) biomass loading. Results show that IL pretreatment at 15% biomass generates a product containing 87.5% of glucan, 42.6% of xylan and only 22.8% of lignin relative to the starting material. The pretreated biomass is efficiently converted into monosaccharides during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis at 10% loading over a 150-fold scale of operations (1.5 L vs 0.01 L) with 99.8% fermentable sugar conversion. The yield of glucose and xylose in the liquid streams were 94.8% and 62.2%, respectively, and the hydrolysate generated contains high titers of fermentable sugars (62.1 g/L of glucose and 5.4 g/L cellobiose). The overall glucan and xylan balance from pretreatment and saccharification were 95.0% and 77.1%, respectively. Enzymatic inhibition by [C2mim][OAc] at high solids

  16. Two reference time scales for studying the dynamic cavitation of liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Brewe, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Two formulas, one for the characteristic time of filling a void with the vapor of the surrounding liquid, and one of filling the void by diffusion of the dissolved gas in the liquid, are derived. By comparing these time scales with that of the dynamic operation of oil film bearings, it is concluded that the evaporation process is usually fast enough to fill the cavitation bubble with oil vapor; whereas the diffusion process is much too slow for the dissolved air to liberate itself and enter the cavitation bubble. These results imply that the formation of a two phase fluid in dynamically loaded bearings, as often reported in the literature, is caused by air entrainment. They further indicate a way to simplify the treatment of the dynamic problem of bubble evolution.

  17. Note: Development of a microfabricated sensor to measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Yi, Namwoo; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Dongsik

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a thermal analysis device, which can measure thermal conductivity of picoliter scale liquid sample. We employ the three omega method with a microfabricated AC thermal sensor with nanometer width heater. The liquid sample is confined by a micro-well structure fabricated on the sensor surface. The performance of the instrument was verified by measuring the thermal conductivity of 27-picoliter samples of de-ionized (DI) water, ethanol, methanol, and DI water-ethanol mixtures with accuracies better than 3%. Furthermore, another analytical scheme allows real-time thermal conductivity measurement with 5% accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this technique requires the smallest volume of sample to measure thermal property ever.

  18. The extended Beer-Lambert theory for ray tracing modeling of LED chip-scaled packaging application with multiple luminescence materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Cadmus C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Optical ray tracing modeling applied Beer-Lambert method in the single luminescence material system to model the white light pattern from blue LED light source. This paper extends such algorithm to a mixed multiple luminescence material system by introducing the equivalent excitation and emission spectrum of individual luminescence materials. The quantum efficiency numbers of individual material and self-absorption of the multiple luminescence material system are considered as well. By this combination, researchers are able to model the luminescence characteristics of LED chip-scaled packaging (CSP), which provides simple process steps and the freedom of the luminescence material geometrical dimension. The method will be first validated by the experimental results. Afterward, a further parametric investigation has been then conducted.

  19. Rupture mechanism of liquid crystal thin films realized by large-scale molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Matheson, Michael A; Brown, W Michael

    2014-03-21

    The ability of liquid crystal (LC) molecules to respond to changes in their environment makes them an interesting candidate for thin film applications, particularly in bio-sensing, bio-mimicking devices, and optics. Yet the understanding of the (in)stability of this family of thin films has been limited by the inherent challenges encountered by experiment and continuum models. Using unprecedented large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we address the rupture origin of LC thin films wetting a solid substrate at length scales similar to those in experiment. Our simulations show the key signatures of spinodal instability in isotropic and nematic films on top of thermal nucleation, and importantly, for the first time, evidence of a common rupture mechanism independent of initial thickness and LC orientational ordering. We further demonstrate that the primary driving force for rupture is closely related to the tendency of the LC mesogens to recover their local environment in the bulk state. Our study not only provides new insights into the rupture mechanism of liquid crystal films, but also sets the stage for future investigations of thin film systems using peta-scale molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24264516

  20. Variable reproducibility in genome-scale public data: A case study using ENCODE ChIP sequencing resource

    PubMed Central

    Devailly, Guillaume; Mantsoki, Anna; Michoel, Tom; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide data is accumulating in an unprecedented way in the public domain. Re-mining this data shows great potential to generate novel hypotheses. However this approach is dependent on the quality (technical and biological) of the underlying data. Here we performed a systematic analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing data of transcription and epigenetic factors from the encyclopaedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) resource to demonstrate that about one third of conditions with replicates show low concordance between replicate peak lists. This serves as a case study to demonstrate a caveat concerning genome-wide analyses and highlights a need to validate the quality of each sample before performing further associative analyses. PMID:26619763

  1. Liquid dielectrophoresis and surface microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Karan V. I. S.; Prakash, Ravi; Chugh, Dipankar

    2010-01-01

    Liquid dielectrophoresis (L-DEP), when deployed at microscopic scales on top of hydrophobic surfaces, offers novel ways of rapid and automated manipulation of very small amounts of polar aqueous samples for microfluidic applications and development of laboratory-on-a-chip devices. In this article we highlight some of the more recent developments and applications of L-DEP in handling and processing of various types of aqueous samples and reagents of biological relevance including emulsions using such microchip based surface microfluidic (SMF) devices. We highlighted the utility of these devices for on-chip bioassays including nucleic acid analysis. Furthermore, the parallel sample processing capabilities of these SMF devices together with suitable on- or off-chip detection capabilities suggest numerous applications and utility in conducting automated multiplexed assays, a capability much sought after in the high throughput diagnostic and screening assays. PMID:20697595

  2. Development of large-scale acoustic waveguides for liquid-level measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J.F.; Kuzniak, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Large-scale magnetostrictive ultrasonic waveguides are being developed and tested for liquid-level measurement. The use of inexpensive, commercially available, nickel tubing provides a homogeneous waveguide with nondispersive transmission properties and good independence of torsional and extensional wave modes. Because the entire waveguide is magnetostrictive, acoustic excitation and sensing is possible at any point along the length of the waveguide. The problems of establishing and maintaining circumferential fields for torsional wave generation have been solved by electromagnetic field generation. Prototype devices have been built and tested which exhibit a linear relationship between either torsional amplitude or phase velocity and depth of immersion.

  3. WA105: a large-scale demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonazzo, A.; WA105 Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The physics case for a large underground detector devoted to neutrino oscillation measurements, nucleon decay and astrophysics is compelling. A time projection chamber based on the dual-phase liquid Argon technique is an extremely attractive option, allowing for long drift distances, low energy threshold and high readout granularity. It has been extensively studied in the LAGUNA-LBNO Design Study and is one of the two designs foreseen for the modules of the DUNE detector in the US. The WA105 experiment envisages the construction of a large scale prototype at CERN, to validate technical solutions and perform physics studies with charged particle beams.

  4. Thick strings, the liquid crystal blue phase, and cosmological large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model based on the liquid crystal blue phase is proposed as a model for a late-time cosmological phase transition. Topological defects, in particular thick strings and/or domain walls, are presented as seeds for structure formation. It is shown that the observed large-scale structure, including quasi-periodic wall structure, can be well fitted in the model without violating the microwave background isotropy bound or the limits from induced gravitational waves and the millisecond pulsar timing. Furthermore, such late-time transitions can produce objects such as quasars at high redshifts. The model appears to work with either cold or hot dark matter.

  5. Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

  6. Finite-size scaling investigation of the liquid-liquid critical point in ST2 water and its stability with respect to crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselring, T. A.; Lascaris, E.; Franzese, G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Herrmann, H. J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2013-06-01

    The liquid-liquid critical point scenario of water hypothesizes the existence of two metastable liquid phases—low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL)—deep within the supercooled region. The hypothesis originates from computer simulations of the ST2 water model, but the stability of the LDL phase with respect to the crystal is still being debated. We simulate supercooled ST2 water at constant pressure, constant temperature, and constant number of molecules N for N ⩽ 729 and times up to 1 μs. We observe clear differences between the two liquids, both structural and dynamical. Using several methods, including finite-size scaling, we confirm the presence of a liquid-liquid phase transition ending in a critical point. We find that the LDL is stable with respect to the crystal in 98% of our runs (we perform 372 runs for LDL or LDL-like states), and in 100% of our runs for the two largest system sizes (N = 512 and 729, for which we perform 136 runs for LDL or LDL-like states). In all these runs, tiny crystallites grow and then melt within 1 μs. Only for N ⩽ 343 we observe six events (over 236 runs for LDL or LDL-like states) of spontaneous crystallization after crystallites reach an estimated critical size of about 70 ± 10 molecules.

  7. Multi-Scale Characterization of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Using 2H and Diffusion MRI with Spatial Resolution in Three Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Bernin, Diana; Koch, Vanessa; Nydén, Magnus; Topgaard, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The ability of lyotropic liquid crystals to form intricate structures on a range of length scales can be utilized for the synthesis of structurally complex inorganic materials, as well as in devices for controlled drug delivery. Here we employ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for non-invasive characterization of nano-, micro-, and millimeter scale structures in liquid crystals. The structure is mirrored in the translational and rotational motion of the water, which we assess by measuring spatially resolved self-diffusion tensors and spectra. Our approach differs from previous works in that the MRI parameters are mapped with spatial resolution in all three dimensions, thus allowing for detailed studies of liquid crystals with complex millimeter-scale morphologies that are stable on the measurement time-scale of 10 hours. The data conveys information on the nanometer-scale structure of the liquid crystalline phase, while the combination of diffusion and data permits an estimate of the orientational distribution of micrometer-scale anisotropic domains. We study lamellar phases consisting of the nonionic surfactant C10E3 in O, and follow their structural equilibration after a temperature jump and the cessation of shear. Our experimental approach may be useful for detailed characterization of liquid crystalline materials with structures on multiple length scales, as well as for studying the mechanisms of phase transitions. PMID:24905818

  8. Development of chip-based photocatalyst-assisted reduction device to couple high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for determination of inorganic selenium species.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ting; Hsu, I-Hsiang; Wu, Jung-Fu; Lin, Cheng-Hsing; Sun, Yuh-Chang

    2013-08-23

    In this study, a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip-based photocatalyst-assisted reduction device (PMMA chip-based PCARD) was developed as a reactor based on its excellent optical properties and ease of fabrication. Its transmittance of ultraviolet light at 365nm (UV365) was found to be as high as 92% using a PMMA of 2mm thickness. To optimize the vaporization efficiency, the effect of varying the depth of the geometry trenched on the PMMA-based chip was investigated. After optimization, it required only 29s of UV365 irradiation to vaporize the selenium (Se) species of interest. The PMMA-based chip was successfully used as an interfacing device for the hyphenation of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Additionally, under the optimized conditions for vaporization, using 1gL(-1) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) at pH 5, we found that Se(IV) and Se(VI) were converted quantitatively into volatile Se products. In addition, the optimized vaporization efficiency of the Se species of interest for the online HPLC/PMMA chip-based PCARD/ICP-MS system enabled us to achieve detection limits for Se(IV) and Se(VI) in the nanogram-per-liter range (based on 3σ). A series of validation experiments indicated that our proposed methods could be applied satisfactorily to the determination of inorganic Se species in environmental water samples. PMID:23856016

  9. Ionic liquids: nondestructive, nonvolatile imaging fluids for submicrometer-scale monolayer patterns.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Atsushi; Bien, Pei; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2010-04-28

    A method for visualizing submicrometer-scale patterns of approximately 1.0-nm-thick monolayers terminated with CF(3) and CH(3) groups using an ionic liquid (IL) is described. Bis(hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium methanesulfonate (BHDAMS) was spin-cast onto the photolithographically patterned samples. The BHDAMS wetted the photodecomposed regions selectively. Pattern widths of the mask ranged from 500 nm to 10 microm, and the IL-replicated patterns were observed using optical and laser microscopy. The nonvolatile BHDAMS had sufficient contrast to image submicrometer-scale patterns of monolayers over large areas. We note that this imaging technique involves no damage and is compatible with readily available laboratory equipment. PMID:20373769

  10. A robust molecular probe for Ångstrom-scale analytics in liquids.

    PubMed

    Nirmalraj, Peter; Thompson, Damien; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Gotsmann, Bernd; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; Riel, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, nanomaterial profiling using a single-molecule-terminated scanning probe is performed at the vacuum-solid interface often at a few Kelvin, but is not a notion immediately associated with liquid-solid interface at room temperature. Here, using a scanning tunnelling probe functionalized with a single C60 molecule stabilized in a high-density liquid, we resolve low-dimensional surface defects, atomic interfaces and capture Ångstrom-level bond-length variations in single-layer graphene and MoS2. Atom-by-atom controllable imaging contrast is demonstrated at room temperature and the electronic structure of the C60-metal probe complex within the encompassing liquid molecules is clarified using density functional theory. Our findings demonstrates that operating a robust single-molecular probe is not restricted to ultra-high vacuum and cryogenic settings. Hence the scope of high-precision analytics can be extended towards resolving sub-molecular features of organic elements and gauging ambient compatibility of emerging layered materials with atomic-scale sensitivity under experimentally less stringent conditions. PMID:27516157

  11. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole

    SciTech Connect

    Tarnacka, M. Madejczyk, O.; Kamiński, K.; Paluch, M.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Pionteck, J.; Kaminska, E.

    2015-06-14

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dT{sub g}/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dT{sub n}/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ {sub α} = 10{sup −5} s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T{sup −1}v{sup −γ}, which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals’ properties of itraconazole molecule.

  12. Force-Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Micron-Scale Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixta, Aimee; Bogat, Sophia; Wright, Diego; Mozaffari, Shirin; Tennant, Daniel; Paster, Jeremy; Markert, John

    We report our efforts in the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) for the study of biological materials in liquid media at the micron scale. Our probe contains microfluidic samples sealed in thin-walled (few µm) quartz tubes, with a micro-oscillator sensor nearby in vacuum to maintain its high mechanical resonance quality factor. An initial demonstration utilizes a permalloy magnet on the oscillator tip, which provides a resonant slice of thickness 0.5 µm and an area of diameter 10µm these first measurements aim to demonstrate a single-shot measurement of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in aqueous solutions of Cu2SO4. We also aim to implement a sawtooth 2? cyclic inversion of the nuclear spins, a detection scheme that effectively eliminates common measurement artifacts. At the micron scale, both spin diffusion and physical diffusion in liquids tend to blur images in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); we aim to exploit the local nature of the NMRFM probe to obtain higher resolution dynamical images, with the ultimate goal of imaging within individual biological cells.

  13. Rupture mechanism of liquid crystal thin films realized by large-scale molecular simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Trung D; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Brown, W Michael; Matheson, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of liquid crystal (LC) molecules to respond to changes in their environment makes them an interesting candidate for thin film applications, particularly in bio-sensing, bio-mimicking devices, and optics. Yet the understanding of the (in)stability of this family of thin films has been limited by the inherent challenges encountered by experiment and continuum models. Using unprecedented largescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we address the rupture origin of LC thin films wetting a solid substrate at length scales similar to those in experiment. Our simulations show the key signatures of spinodal instability in isotropic and nematic films on top of thermal nucleation, and importantly, for the first time, evidence of a common rupture mechanism independent of initial thickness and LC orientational ordering. We further demonstrate that the primary driving force for rupture is closely related to the tendency of the LC mesogens to recover their local environment in the bulk state. Our study not only provides new insights into the rupture mechanism of liquid crystal films, but also sets the stage for future investigations of thin film systems using peta-scale molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Temperature and length scale dependence of solvophobic solvation in a single-site water-like liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdle, John R.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Rossky, Peter J.

    2013-02-01

    The temperature and length scale dependence of solvation properties of spherical hard solvophobic solutes is investigated in the Jagla liquid, a simple liquid that consists of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential combining a hard core repulsion and a longer ranged soft core interaction, yet exhibits water-like anomalies. The results are compared with equivalent calculations for a model of a typical atomic liquid, the Lennard-Jones potential, and with predictions for hydrophobic solvation in water using the cavity equation of state and the extended simple point charge model. We find that the Jagla liquid captures the qualitative thermodynamic behavior of hydrophobic hydration as a function of temperature for both small and large length scale solutes. In particular, for both the Jagla liquid and water, we observe temperature-dependent enthalpy and entropy of solvation for all solute sizes as well as a negative solvation entropy for sufficiently small solutes at low temperature. This feature of water-like solvation is distinct from the strictly positive and temperature independent enthalpy and entropy of cavity solvation observed in the Lennard-Jones fluid. The results suggest that, compared to a simple liquid, it is the presence of a second thermally accessible repulsive energy scale, acting to increasingly favor larger separations for decreasing temperature, that is the essential characteristic of a liquid that favors low-density, open structures, and models hydrophobic hydration, and that it is the presence of this second energy scale that leads to the similarity in the behavior of water and the Jagla liquid. In addition, the Jagla liquid dewets surfaces of large radii of curvature less readily than the Lennard-Jones liquid, reflecting a greater flexibility or elasticity in the Jagla liquid structure than that of a typical liquid, a behavior also similar to that of water's hydrogen bonding network. The implications of the temperature and

  15. Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

  16. The influence of porous medium characteristics and measurement scale on pore-scale distributions of residual nonaqueous-phase liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Alex S.; Miller, Cass T.

    1992-11-01

    A series of experiments was performed to characterize the morphologic distribution of nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPL's) at residual saturation, as a function of porous medium size. Morphologic characterization of NAPL distributions was accomplished using a novel in situ polymerization technique. The porous medium consisted of glass beads. Blob length, volume and shape characteristics were determined for each experiment, and pore size distributions were determined through capillary pressure-saturation experiments. Both the blob lenght and pore size distributions were fitted to a van Genuchten function. Both blob lenght and pressure-saturation data could be scaled with the same averaged porous medium characteristics. The blob length distributions were found to be wider than the pore size distributions. Estimates of representative elementary volumes (REV's) were generated from statistical analysis using a van Genuchten cumulative frequency distribution function for blob lenght and an empirical function for blob volume as a function of blob length. Simulations were also performed using a Monte Carlo method. The size of the REV needed for a given level of prediction of the residual saturation level was found to increase as a function of mean particle volume for the similar used in this study. Extrapolation of the REV analysis suggests that the size of an REV will increase rapidly as uniformity of the medium decreases. If this extrapolation holds true, significant uncertainty would exist in most determination of residual saturation for poorly sorted media that have been reported to date.

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation detection by MethylCap-seq and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips: an independent large-scale comparison

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Tim; Bady, Pierre; Trooskens, Geert; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Bloch, Jocelyne; Kros, Johan M.; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Stupp, Roger; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E.; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Two cost-efficient genome-scale methodologies to assess DNA-methylation are MethylCap-seq and Illumina’s Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips (HM450). Objective information regarding the best-suited methodology for a specific research question is scant. Therefore, we performed a large-scale evaluation on a set of 70 brain tissue samples, i.e. 65 glioblastoma and 5 non-tumoral tissues. As MethylCap-seq coverages were limited, we focused on the inherent capacity of the methodology to detect methylated loci rather than a quantitative analysis. MethylCap-seq and HM450 data were dichotomized and performances were compared using a gold standard free Bayesian modelling procedure. While conditional specificity was adequate for both approaches, conditional sensitivity was systematically higher for HM450. In addition, genome-wide characteristics were compared, revealing that HM450 probes identified substantially fewer regions compared to MethylCap-seq. Although results indicated that the latter method can detect more potentially relevant DNA-methylation, this did not translate into the discovery of more differentially methylated loci between tumours and controls compared to HM450. Our results therefore indicate that both methodologies are complementary, with a higher sensitivity for HM450 and a far larger genome-wide coverage for MethylCap-seq, but also that a more comprehensive character does not automatically imply more significant results in biomarker studies. PMID:26482909

  18. Identifying and characterising the different structural length scales in liquids and glasses: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Philip S; Zeidler, Anita

    2013-10-01

    The structure of several network-forming liquids and glasses is considered, where a focus is placed on the detailed information that is made available by using the method of neutron diffraction with isotope substitution (NDIS). In the case of binary network glass-forming materials with the MX2 stoichiometry (e.g. GeO2, GeSe2, ZnCl2), two different length scales at distances greater than the nearest-neighbour distance manifest themselves by peaks in the measured diffraction patterns. The network properties are influenced by a competition between the ordering on these "intermediate" and "extended" length scales, which can be manipulated by changing the chemical identity of the atomic constituents or by varying state parameters such as the temperature and pressure. The extended-range ordering, which describes the decay of the pair-correlation functions at large-r, can be represented by making a pole analysis of the Ornstein-Zernike equations, an approach that can also be used to describe the large-r behaviour of the pair-correlation functions for liquid and amorphous metals where packing constraints are important. The first applications are then described of the NDIS method to measure the detailed structure of aerodynamically-levitated laser-heated droplets of "fragile" glass-forming liquid oxides (CaAl2O4 and CaSiO3) at high-temperatures (~2000 K) and the structure of a "strong" network-forming glass (GeO2) under pressures ranging from ambient to ~8 GPa. The high-temperature experiments show structural changes on multiple length scales when the oxides are vitrified. The high-pressure experiment offers insight into the density-driven mechanisms of network collapse in GeO2 glass, and parallels are drawn with the high-pressure behaviour of silica glass. Finally, the hydrogen-bonded network of water is considered, where the first application of the method of oxygen NDIS is used to measure the structures of light versus heavy water and a difference of approximately equal

  19. The processing technology of PMMA micro-fluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Lili; Rong, Li; Guo, Shuheng; Liu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    In order to enrich the production method of micro-fluidic chip and simplify its processing technology, the paper discussed the double-sided adhesive layer for channel layer, with PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) for fabrication of microfluidic chip with the cover plate and the bottom plate. Taking 40 mm (long) x 20 mm (wide) x 2.2 mm (thick) liquid drop to separate the microfluidic chip as an example, details the design and machining process of the chip. Experiments show that surface quality is high and processing speed is fast when using this technology to process the chip. Thus, it can realize the mass production of micro fluidic chip.

  20. Entropy-scaling laws for diffusion coefficients in liquid metals under high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Qi-Long Shao, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Fan-Hou; Wang, Pan-Pan

    2015-04-07

    Molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid copper and tungsten are used to investigate the empirical entropy-scaling laws D{sup *}=A exp(BS{sub ex}), proposed independently by Rosenfeld and Dzugutov for diffusion coefficient, under high pressure conditions. We show that the scaling laws hold rather well for them under high pressure conditions. Furthermore, both the original diffusion coefficients and the reduced diffusion coefficients exhibit an Arrhenius relationship D{sub M}=D{sub M}{sup 0} exp(−E{sub M}/K{sub B}T), (M=un,R,D) and the activation energy E{sub M} increases with increasing pressure, the diffusion pre-exponential factors (D{sub R}{sup 0} and D{sub D}{sup 0}) are nearly independent of the pressure and element. The pair correlation entropy, S{sub 2}, depends linearly on the reciprocal temperature S{sub 2}=−E{sub S}/T, and the activation energy, E{sub S}, increases with increasing pressure. In particular, the ratios of the activation energies (E{sub un}, E{sub R}, and E{sub D}) obtained from diffusion coefficients to the activation energy, E{sub S}, obtained from the entropy keep constants in the whole pressure range. Therefore, the entropy-scaling laws for the diffusion coefficients and the Arrhenius law are linked via the temperature dependence of entropy.

  1. Determination of the thermodynamic scaling exponent for relaxation in liquids from static ambient-pressure quantities.

    PubMed

    Casalini, R; Roland, C M

    2014-08-22

    An equation is derived that expresses the thermodynamic scaling exponent, γ, which superposes relaxation times τ and other measures of molecular mobility determined over a range of temperatures and densities, in terms of static physical quantities. The latter are available in the literature or can be measured at ambient pressure. We show for 13 materials, both molecular liquids and polymers, that the calculated γ are equivalent to the scaling exponents obtained directly by superpositioning. The assumptions of the analysis are that the glass transition T(g) is isochronal (i.e., τ(α) is constant at T(g), which is true by definition) and that the pressure derivative of the glass temperature is given by the first Ehrenfest relation. The latter, derived assuming continuity of the entropy at the glass transition, has been corroborated for many glass-forming materials at ambient pressure. However, we find that the Ehrenfest relation breaks down at elevated pressure; this limitation is of no consequence herein, since the appeal of the new equation is its applicability to ambient-pressure data. The ability to determine, from ambient-pressure measurements, the scaling exponent describing the high-pressure dynamics extends the applicability of this approach to a broader range of materials. Since γ is linked to the intermolecular potential, the new equation thus provides ready access to information about the forces between molecules. PMID:25192107

  2. Impact of Wettability on Pore-Scale Characteristics of Residual Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Raoush, Riyadh I.

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the impact of wettability of porous media on pore-scale characteristics of residual nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of fractionally wet sand systems with mean grain size of 250 {micro}m. Pore-scale characteristics of NAPL blobs such as volume, lengths, interfacial areas, and sphericity index were computed using three-dimensional image processing algorithms. Four systems comprised of 100, 50, 25, and 0% NAPL-wet mass fractions containing the residual NAPL were imaged and analyzed. Findings indicate that spatial variation in wettability of porous media surfaces has a significant impact on pore-scale characteristics of residual NAPL blobs in saturated porous media systems. As the porous media comprises more water-wet surfaces, residual NAPL blobs increase in size and length due to the entrapment at large pore bodies. NAPL-water interfacial areas tend to increase as the NAPL-wet surface fractions increase in the systems. Overall residual NAPL saturations are less in fractionally wet systems and increase as the systems become more NAPL-wet or water-wet.

  3. Nano-scale surface wrinkling in chiral liquid crystals and plant-based plywoods.

    PubMed

    Rofouie, Pardis; Pasini, Damiano; Rey, Alejandro D

    2015-02-14

    We present theoretical scaling and computational analysis of nanostructured free surfaces formed in chiral liquid crystals (LC) and plant-based twisted plywoods. A nemato-capillary model is used to derive a generalized equation that governs the shape of cholesteric free surfaces. It is shown that the shape equation includes three distinct contributions to the capillary pressure: area dilation, area rotation, and director curvature. To analyse the origin of periodic reliefs in plywood surfaces, these three pressure contributions and corresponding surface energies are systematically investigated. It is found that for weak homeotropic surface anchoring, the nano-wrinkling is driven by the director curvature pressure mechanism. Consequently, the model predicts that for a planar surface with a uniform tangential helix vector, no surface nano-scale wrinkling can be observed because the director curvature pressure is zero. Scaling is used to derive the explicit relation between the wrinkling's amplitude to the wavelength ratio as a function of the anisotropic surface tension, which is then validated with experimental values. These new findings can be used to characterize plant-based twisted plywoods, as well as to inspire the design of biomimetic chiro-optical devices. PMID:25531936

  4. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  5. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

  6. Isolating Reactions at the Picoliter Scale: Parallel Control of Reaction Kinetics at the Liquid-Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Phan-Quang, Gia Chuong; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Ling, Xing Yi

    2016-07-11

    Miniaturized liquid-liquid interfacial reactors offer enhanced surface area and rapid confinement of compounds of opposite solubility, yet they are unable to provide in situ reaction monitoring at a molecular level at the interface. A picoreactor operative at the liquid-liquid interface is described, comprising plasmonic colloidosomes containing Ag octahedra strategically assembled at the water-in-decane emulsion interface. The plasmonic colloidosomes isolate ultrasmall amounts of solutions (<200 pL), allowing parallel monitoring of multiple reactions simultaneously. Using the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique, in situ monitoring of the interfacial protonation of dimethyl yellow (p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DY)) is performed, revealing an apparent rate constant of 0.09 min(-1) for the first-order reaction. The presence of isomeric products with similar physical properties is resolved, which would otherwise be indiscernible by other analytical methods. PMID:27239973

  7. A robust molecular probe for Ångstrom-scale analytics in liquids

    PubMed Central

    Nirmalraj, Peter; Thompson, Damien; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Gotsmann, Bernd; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; Riel, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, nanomaterial profiling using a single-molecule-terminated scanning probe is performed at the vacuum–solid interface often at a few Kelvin, but is not a notion immediately associated with liquid–solid interface at room temperature. Here, using a scanning tunnelling probe functionalized with a single C60 molecule stabilized in a high-density liquid, we resolve low-dimensional surface defects, atomic interfaces and capture Ångstrom-level bond-length variations in single-layer graphene and MoS2. Atom-by-atom controllable imaging contrast is demonstrated at room temperature and the electronic structure of the C60–metal probe complex within the encompassing liquid molecules is clarified using density functional theory. Our findings demonstrates that operating a robust single-molecular probe is not restricted to ultra-high vacuum and cryogenic settings. Hence the scope of high-precision analytics can be extended towards resolving sub-molecular features of organic elements and gauging ambient compatibility of emerging layered materials with atomic-scale sensitivity under experimentally less stringent conditions. PMID:27516157

  8. Atomic-Scale Imaging and Spectroscopy for In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jungjohann, K. L.; Evans, James E.; Aguiar, Jeff; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-06-04

    Observation of growth, synthesis, dynamics and electrochemical reactions in the liquid state is an important yet largely unstudied aspect of nanotechnology. The only techniques that can potentially provide the insights necessary to advance our understanding of these mechanisms is simultaneous atomic-scale imaging and quantitative chemical analysis (through spectroscopy) under environmental conditions in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study we describe the experimental and technical conditions necessary to obtain electron energy loss (EEL) spectra from a nanoparticle in colloidal suspension using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with the environmental liquid stage. At a fluid path length below 400 nm, atomic resolution images can be obtained and simultaneous compositional analysis can be achieved. We show that EEL spectroscopy can be used to quantify the total fluid path length around the nanoparticle, and demonstrate characteristic core-loss signals from the suspended nanoparticles can be resolved and analyzed to provide information on the local interfacial chemistry with the surrounding environment. The combined approach using aberration corrected STEM and EEL spectra with the in situ fluid stage demonstrates a plenary platform for detailed investigations of solution based catalysis and biological research.

  9. Properties of liquid clusters in large-scale molecular dynamics nucleation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-02-01

    We have performed large-scale Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous vapor-to-liquid nucleation, with 109 atoms. This large number allows us to resolve extremely low nucleation rates, and also provides excellent statistics for cluster properties over a wide range of cluster sizes. The nucleation rates, cluster growth rates, and size distributions are presented in Diemand et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 74309 (2013)], while this paper analyses the properties of the clusters. We explore the cluster temperatures, density profiles, potential energies, and shapes. A thorough understanding of the properties of the clusters is crucial to the formulation of nucleation models. Significant latent heat is retained by stable clusters, by as much as ΔkT = 0.1ɛ for clusters with size i = 100. We find that the clusters deviate remarkably from spherical—with ellipsoidal axis ratios for critical cluster sizes typically within b/c = 0.7 ± 0.05 and a/c = 0.5 ± 0.05. We examine cluster spin angular momentum, and find that it plays a negligible role in the cluster dynamics. The interfaces of large, stable clusters are thinner than planar equilibrium interfaces by 10%-30%. At the critical cluster size, the cluster central densities are between 5% and 30% lower than the bulk liquid expectations. These lower densities imply larger-than-expected surface areas, which increase the energy cost to form a surface, which lowers nucleation rates.

  10. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks.

  11. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks. PMID:25408295

  12. Synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism for controlling large scale reversible deformation of liquid metal objects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Reversible deformation of a machine holds enormous promise across many scientific areas ranging from mechanical engineering to applied physics. So far, such capabilities are still hard to achieve through conventional rigid materials or depending mainly on elastomeric materials, which however own rather limited performances and require complicated manipulations. Here, we show a basic strategy which is fundamentally different from the existing ones to realize large scale reversible deformation through controlling the working materials via the synthetically chemical-electrical mechanism (SCHEME). Such activity incorporates an object of liquid metal gallium whose surface area could spread up to five times of its original size and vice versa under low energy consumption. Particularly, the alterable surface tension based on combination of chemical dissolution and electrochemical oxidation is ascribed to the reversible shape transformation, which works much more flexible than many former deformation principles through converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. A series of very unusual phenomena regarding the reversible configurational shifts are disclosed with dominant factors clarified. This study opens a generalized way to combine the liquid metal serving as shape-variable element with the SCHEME to compose functional soft machines, which implies huge potential for developing future smart robots to fulfill various complicated tasks. PMID:25408295

  13. Vehicle-scale investigation of a fluorine jet-pump liquid hydrogen tank pressurization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical and experimental program was performed to evaluate the performance of a fluorine-hydrogen jet-pump injector for main tank injection (MTI) pressurization of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. The injector performance during pressurization and LH2 expulsion was determined by a series of seven tests of a full-scale injector and MTI pressure control system in a 28.3 cu m (1000 cu ft) flight-weight LH2 tank. Although the injector did not effectively jet-pump LH2 continuously, it showed improved pressurization performance compared to straight-pipe injectors tested under the same conditions in a previous program. The MTI computer code was modified to allow performance prediction for the jet-pump injector.

  14. Fabrication of atomic-scale gold junctions by electrochemical plating using a common medical liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeno, A.; Hirakawa, K.

    2005-04-01

    Fabrication of nanometer-separated gold junctions has been performed using "iodine tincture," a medical liquid known as a disinfectant, as an etching/deposition electrolyte. In the gold-dissolved iodine tincture, gold electrodes were grown or eroded slowly enough to form quantum point contacts in an atomic scale. The resistance evolution during the electrochemical deposition showed plateaus at integer multiples of the resistance quantum, (2e2/h)-1, at room temperature (e: the elementary charge, h: the Planck constant). Iodine tincture is a commercially available common material, which makes the fabrication process to be simple and cost effective. Moreover, in contrast to the conventional electrochemical approaches, this method is free from highly toxic cyanide compounds or extraordinarily strong acids.

  15. Nonmonotonic response of drop impacting on liquid film: mechanism and scaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Saha, Abhishek; Law, Chung K; Sun, Chao

    2016-05-18

    Drop impacting on a liquid film with a finite thickness is omnipresent in nature and plays a critical role in numerous industrial processes. The impact can result in either bouncing or merging, which is mainly controlled by the impact inertia of the drop and film thickness. Although it is known that impact with inertia beyond a critical value on a thick film promotes merging through the breakage of the interfacial gas layer, here we demonstrate that for an impact inertia less than that critical value, increasing the film thickness leads to a nonmonotonic transition from merging to bouncing to merging and finally to bouncing again. For the first time, two different merging mechanisms are identified and the scaling laws of the nonmonotonic transitions are developed. These results provide important insights into the role of the film thickness in the impact dynamics, which is critical for optimizing operating conditions for spray or ink-jet systems among others. PMID:27021794

  16. Cross-section scaling for track structure simulations of low-energy ions in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E; Friedland, W; Kundrát, P; Dingfelder, M; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-09-01

    Radiation damage by low-energy ions significantly contributes to the high biological efficiency of ion beams in distal Bragg peak regions as well as to the energy-dependent efficiency of neutron irradiation. To enable assessing biological effects of ions at energies <1 MeV u(-1) with track-structure based models, a Barkas-like scaling procedure is developed that provides ion cross sections in liquid water based on those for hydrogen ions. The resulting stopping power and range for carbon ions agree with the ICRU 73 database and other low-energy stopping power data. The method represents the basis for extending PARTRAC simulations of light ion track structures and biological effects down to the keV u(-1) range. PMID:25969528

  17. Atomic-Scale Structure of a Liquid Metal-Insulator Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Pontoni, D.; Hofmann, T.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

    2010-04-01

    The structure of the liquid Hg/sapphire interface was measured with angstrom-scale resolution by high-energy X-ray reflectivity. The atomic Hg layering found at the interface is less pronounced than at the Hg/vapor interface, showing a twice-shorter decay length with depth, and a weaker peak/valley density contrast. We also find a near-interface, 8 {+-} 3 {angstrom} thick layer, the density of which, although depth-varying, is enhanced, on average, by 10 {+-} 5% relative to the bulk. The enhancement is assigned to a 0.13 {+-} 0.05 e/atom charge transfer from the Hg to the substrate, somewhat less than theory. The unexplained anomalous temperature dependence previously reported for the mercury/vapor density profile is absent here, implying a nonstructural origin for the anomaly.

  18. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the

  19. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (.50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in

  20. COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

    2003-06-01

    This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project

  1. Testing of Densified Liquid Hydrogen Stratification in a Scale Model Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. D.

    1999-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of a single stage to orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle. The densification of cryogenic propellant through sub-cooling allows more propellant to be stored in a given volume. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would otherwise be possible with conventional, normal boiling point, cryogenic fluids. One critical step in determining the viability of densified propellant technology for launch vehicles is to perform the sequential process necessary to load a propellant tank with densified propellants. This paper describes a test program that was conducted at NASA to demonstrate the ability to load densified LH2 into a sub-scale propellant rank. This work was done through a collaborative effort between NASA Lewis Research Center and the Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems (LMMSS). The tank, is made from composite materials similar to that to be used on X-33, is formed from two lobes with a center seprum. Test results are shown for data that was collected on filling the sub-scale tank with densified liquid hydrogen propellant that was produced at the NASA Plum Brook Station. Data is compared to analytical predictions.

  2. High-temperature operating 894.6nm-VCSELs with extremely low threshold for Cs-based chip scale atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhang, Jian; Ning, Yongqiang; Qin, Li; Wang, Lijun

    2015-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of 894.6nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with extremely low threshold at high temperatures, for use in chip-scale Cs atomic clocks. A new design method based on the analysis of the threshold gain and the desired carrier density for different active region structures was proposed to gain the low transparent current density. The increase of the threshold current at higher temperatures was successfully suppressed by introducing the large gain-cavity detuning of VCSEL. By detuning the gain-cavity mode to be -11nm, the minimum threshold current of only 0.23mA at 70 °C was achieved. The operating temperature for emitting the wavelength of 894.6nm was 110 °C, with the single mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of more than 25dB and the threshold current of only 0.32mA. PMID:26072835

  3. Simple and effective large-scale preparation of geniposide from fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis using a liquid-liquid two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhuo, Jiaxiong; Wei, Wanxing; Zhu, Jianwen; Ling, Xiurong

    2012-12-01

    Geniposide was prepared on a large-scale using a selective two-phase liquid-liquid extraction. The aqueous residue from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was treated with sodium carbonate and extracted with n-butanol several times. The n-butanol extracts were treated with activated granular charcoal to remove pigments and were then concentrated to produce a residue with a high solid content. The residue was crystallized to obtain geniposide with 98% purity. For large-scale synthesis, the residue (solid content 45%, geniposide 5.5%) was extracted to generate 70g of geniposide with 98% purity and 84.8% recovery using 1500g residue. PMID:22975161

  4. Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S; Cook, J; Juratovac, J; Goodwillie, J; Burke, T

    2011-10-25

    Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities

  5. Non-Fermi liquid scaling in UPd(x)Cu(5-x)(x = 1,1.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, M. C.; Osborn, R.; Robinson, R. A.; Lynn, J. W.

    1994-06-01

    We have determined the inelastic magnetic response S((omega)) of UPd(x)Cu(5-x) (X=1,1.5) for temperatures from 0.3 to 300 K and energies between 05 and 400 meV using the neutron time of flight technique. S((omega)) is virtually identical in the two compound, displaying marginal Fermi Liquid scaling over the entire range of temperatures, as well as scale invariant energetics.

  6. Active microfluidic mixer chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xize; Liu, Liyu; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping

    2006-04-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a chaotic mixer based on the electrorheological (ER) fluid-controlled valves. The flow in the main channel is perturbed by liquid flow in orthogonal side channels, driven by hydrodynamic pulsating pumps. Each pulsating pump consists of a chamber with diaphragm plus two out-of-phase ER valves operating in a push-pull mode. All the valves, pumps, and mixing channels are integrated in one polydimethylsioxane chip. Mixing characteristics in the main channel are controlled by the strength and frequency of external electric fields applied on the ER fluid.

  7. Microfluidic chip based nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of abused drugs and metabolites in human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Leung, K Wing; Ting, Annie K L; Wong, Zack C F; Ng, Winki Y Y; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Wang, Tiejie; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-03-01

    A microfluidic chip based nano-HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous measurement of abused drugs and metabolites: cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, and methadone in the hair of drug abusers. The microfluidic chip was fabricated by laminating polyimide films and it integrated an enrichment column, an analytical column and a nanospray tip. Drugs were extracted from hairs by sonication, and the chromatographic separation was achieved in 15 min. The drug identification and quantification criteria were fulfilled by the triple quardropule tandem mass spectrometry. The linear regression analysis was calibrated by deuterated internal standards with all of the R(2) at least over 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were from 0.1 to 0.75 and 0.2 to 1.25 pg/mg, respectively. The validation parameters including selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, and matrix effect were also evaluated here. In conclusion, the developed sample preparation method coupled with the nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS method was able to reveal the presence of drugs in hairs from the drug abusers, with the enhanced sensitivity, compared with the conventional HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:22281681

  8. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT") demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and is operating at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOWM Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOITM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfdly piloted at a 10 tons-per- day (TPD) rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  9. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million effort being conducted under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and began a four-year operational period in April of 1997 at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH?M Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOJYM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfidly piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This Demonstration Project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  10. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per

  11. COMMODITY SCALE SYNTHESIS OF 1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USING A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuous large-scale preparation of several 1-methylimidazole based ionic liquids was carried out using a Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT) reactor (manufactured by Kreido Laboratories). This reactor, which embodies and facilitates the use of Green Chemistry principles and Proce...

  12. Utilization of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator in a gray scale detour phase method for Fourier holograms.

    PubMed

    Makey, Ghaith; El-Daher, Moustafa Sayem; Al-Shufi, Kanj

    2012-11-10

    This paper introduces a new modification for the well-known binary detour phase method, which is largely used to represent Fourier holograms; the modification utilizes gray scale level control provided by a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to improve the traditional binary detour phase. Results are shown by both simulation and experiment. PMID:23142903

  13. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  14. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  15. Multi-scale coarse-graining of non-conservative interactions in molecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Izvekov, Sergei Rice, Betsy M.

    2014-03-14

    A new bottom-up procedure for constructing non-conservative (dissipative and stochastic) interactions for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) models is described and applied to perform hierarchical coarse-graining of a polar molecular liquid (nitromethane). The distant-dependent radial and shear frictions in functional-free form are derived consistently with a chosen form for conservative interactions by matching two-body force-velocity and three-body velocity-velocity correlations along the microscopic trajectories of the centroids of Voronoi cells (clusters), which represent the dissipative particles within the DPD description. The Voronoi tessellation is achieved by application of the K-means clustering algorithm at regular time intervals. Consistently with a notion of many-body DPD, the conservative interactions are determined through the multi-scale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method, which naturally implements a pairwise decomposition of the microscopic free energy. A hierarchy of MS-CG/DPD models starting with one molecule per Voronoi cell and up to 64 molecules per cell is derived. The radial contribution to the friction appears to be dominant for all models. As the Voronoi cell sizes increase, the dissipative forces rapidly become confined to the first coordination shell. For Voronoi cells of two and more molecules the time dependence of the velocity autocorrelation function becomes monotonic and well reproduced by the respective MS-CG/DPD models. A comparative analysis of force and velocity correlations in the atomistic and CG ensembles indicates Markovian behavior with as low as two molecules per dissipative particle. The models with one and two molecules per Voronoi cell yield transport properties (diffusion and shear viscosity) that are in good agreement with the atomistic data. The coarser models produce slower dynamics that can be appreciably attributed to unaccounted dissipation introduced by regular Voronoi re-partitioning as well as by larger

  16. Evidence for non-diverging time-scales in glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Gregory

    2013-03-01

    One perceived important signature of the ``ideal'' glass transition and of the complex fluid nature of glass-forming liquids remains the apparent divergence of the dynamics at temperatures above zero Kelvin. Recently, however, this perception has been increasingly challenged both through experiments and in new theories of the dynamics of glass forming systems. In this presentation we summarize some of the prior evidence suggesting that time scales actually do not diverge in glasses that are aged into equilibrium, perhaps 15 K below the conventional glass transition temperature Tg. We then show new results from an extremely densified glass, 20 Ma old Jamaican amber, in which we were able to obtain the upper bound to the relaxation times through a step-wise temperature scan in which the stress relaxation response of the amber was measured both below and above the fictive temperature TF . We find that in the case of the upper bound responses at T>TF , there is a strong deviation of the response from the Super-Arrhenius Vogel-Fulcher behavior and this persists to the fictive temperature which is some 33.8 K below Tg. The results are compared to the parabolic model of Chandler and co-workers and we find the model to be consistent with our results if the value of Tx in the model is taken to be the calorimetric glass transition temperature. The significance of the results will be discussed. We acknowledge NSF grants DMR-0804438 and DMR-1207070 for support of this work

  17. A metallacage encapsulating chloride as a probe for a solvation scale in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Daguenet, Corinne; Dyson, Paul J

    2007-01-22

    With the purpose of assessing the reactivity of chloride ions dissolved in ionic liquids (ILs), a relative scale for the solvation of chloride is given for a series of ILs based on the bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide ([Tf(2)N]) anion and different cations, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim]), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ([bdmim]), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ([bmpy]), 1-butylpyridinium ([bpy]), 1-pentyl-1,1,1-triethylammonium ([C(5)e(3)am]), and 1-(2-hydroxy)ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([mimeOH]). Insights into the solvation of chloride are achieved by the thermodynamic study of the reaction of dissociation of a chloride-templated nickel(II) metallacage performed at various temperatures by UV-visible spectroscopy in each IL. The order of chloride solvation [C(5)e(3)am][Tf(2)N] < [bmpy][Tf(2)N] < [bmim][Tf(2)N]

  18. Direct mapping of local director field of nematic liquid crystals at the nano-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu; Serra, Francesca; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall

    2015-03-01

    The director field in liquid crystals (LCs) has been characterized mainly via polarized optical microscopy, fluorescence confocal microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, all of which are limited by optical wavelengths - from hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers. Since LC orientation cannot be resolved directly by these methods, theory is needed to interpret the local director field of LC alignment. In this work, we introduce a new approach to directly visualize the local director field of a nematic LC (NLC) at the nano-scale using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A new type of NLC monomer bearing crosslinkable groups was designed and synthesized. It can be well-oriented at particle surfaces and patterned polymer substrates, including micron-sized silica colloids, porous membranes, micropillar arrays, and 1D channels. After carefully crosslinking, the molecular orientation of NLCs around the particles or within the patterns could be directly visualized by SEM, showing oriented nanofibers representing LC director from the fractured samples. Here, we could precisely resolve not only the local director field by this approach, but the defect structures of NLCs, including hedgehogs and line defects. The direct mapping of LC directors at the nanoscale using this method will improve our understanding of NLC local director field, and thus their manipulation and applications. More importantly, a theoretical interpretation will no longer be a necessity to resolve a new material system in this field.

  19. Gas-liquid two-phase flow structure in the multi-scale weighted complexity entropy causality plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yi; Zhao, An; Ren, Ying-yu; Dou, Fu-Xiang; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-05-01

    The multi-scale weighted complexity entropy causality plane (MS-WCECP) is proposed for characterizing the physical structure of complex system. Firstly we use the method to investigate typical nonlinear time series. Compared with the multi-scale complexity entropy causality plane (MS-CECP), the MS-WCECP can not only uncover the dynamic information loss of complex system with the increase of scale, but also can characterize the complexity of nonlinear dynamic system. In particular, the algorithm of MS-WCECP performs strong anti-noise ability. Then we calculate the MS-WCECP for the conductance fluctuating signals measured from vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow experiments in a small diameter pipe, the results demonstrate that the MS-WCECP is a useful approach for exploring the stability and complexity in gas-liquid two-phase flows.

  20. Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints in Wafer Level Chip-Scale Packaging (WLCSP) with Continuous and Interrupted Accelerated Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bite; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Four high-strain design wafer level chip scale packages were given accelerated thermal cycling with a 10°C/min ramp rate and 10 min hold times between 0°C and 100°C to examine the effects of continuous and interrupted thermal cycling on the number of cycles to failure. The interruptions given two of the samples were the result of periodic examinations using electron backscattered pattern mapping, leading to room temperature aging of 30 days-2.5 years after increments of about 100 cycles at several stages of the cycling history. The continuous thermal cycling resulted in solder joints with a much larger degree of recrystallization, whereas the interrupted thermal cycling tests led to much less recrystallization, which was more localized near the package side, and the crack was more localized near the interface and had less branching. The failure mode for both conditions was still the same, with cracks nucleating along the high angle grain boundaries formed during recrystallization. In conditions where there were few recrystallized grains, recovery led to formation of subgrains that strengthened the solder, and the higher strength led to a larger driving force for crack growth through the solder, leading to failure after less than half of the cycles in the continuous accelerated thermal cycling condition. This work shows that there is a critical point where sufficient strain energy accumulation will trigger recrystallization, but this point depends on the rate of strain accumulation in each cycle and various recovery processes, which further depends on local crystal orientations, stress state evolution, and specific activated slip and twinning systems.

  1. Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints in Wafer Level Chip-Scale Packaging (WLCSP) with Continuous and Interrupted Accelerated Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bite; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Bieler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Four high-strain design wafer level chip scale packages were given accelerated thermal cycling with a 10°C/min ramp rate and 10 min hold times between 0°C and 100°C to examine the effects of continuous and interrupted thermal cycling on the number of cycles to failure. The interruptions given two of the samples were the result of periodic examinations using electron backscattered pattern mapping, leading to room temperature aging of 30 days-2.5 years after increments of about 100 cycles at several stages of the cycling history. The continuous thermal cycling resulted in solder joints with a much larger degree of recrystallization, whereas the interrupted thermal cycling tests led to much less recrystallization, which was more localized near the package side, and the crack was more localized near the interface and had less branching. The failure mode for both conditions was still the same, with cracks nucleating along the high angle grain boundaries formed during recrystallization. In conditions where there were few recrystallized grains, recovery led to formation of subgrains that strengthened the solder, and the higher strength led to a larger driving force for crack growth through the solder, leading to failure after less than half of the cycles in the continuous accelerated thermal cycling condition. This work shows that there is a critical point where sufficient strain energy accumulation will trigger recrystallization, but this point depends on the rate of strain accumulation in each cycle and various recovery processes, which further depends on local crystal orientations, stress state evolution, and specific activated slip and twinning systems.

  2. On the density scaling of pVT data and transport properties for molecular and ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Enriqueta R.; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Fernández, Josefa; Harris, Kenneth R.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, a general equation of state (EOS) recently derived by Grzybowski et al. [Phys. Rev. E 83, 041505 (2011)] is applied to 51 molecular and ionic liquids in order to perform density scaling of pVT data employing the scaling exponent γEOS. It is found that the scaling is excellent in most cases examined. γEOS values range from 6.1 for ammonia to 13.3 for the ionic liquid [C4C1im][BF4]. These γEOS values are compared with results recently reported by us [E. R. López, A. S. Pensado, M. J. P. Comuñas, A. A. H. Pádua, J. Fernández, and K. R. Harris, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144507 (2011)] for the scaling exponent γ obtained for several different transport properties, namely, the viscosity, self-diffusion coefficient, and electrical conductivity. For the majority of the compounds examined, γEOS > γ, but for hexane, heptane, octane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane, CCl4, dimethyl carbonate, m-xylene, and decalin, γEOS < γ. In addition, we find that the γEOS values are very much higher than those of γ for alcohols, pentaerythritol esters, and ionic liquids. For viscosities and the self-diffusion coefficient-temperature ratio, we have tested the relation linking EOS and dynamic scaling parameters, proposed by Paluch et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 987-992 (2010)] and Grzybowski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 161101 (2010); Grzybowski et al. Phys. Rev. E 82, 013501 (2010)], that is, γ = (γEOS/ϕ) + γG, where ϕ is the stretching parameter of the modified Avramov relation for the density scaling of a transport property, and γG is the Grüneisen constant. This relationship is based on data for structural relaxation times near the glass transition temperature for seven molecular liquids, including glass formers, and a single ionic liquid. For all the compounds examined in our much larger database the ratio (γEOS/ϕ) is actually higher than γ, with the only exceptions of propylene carbonate and 1-methylnaphthalene. Therefore, it seems the relation proposed by

  3. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films. PMID:26572370

  4. Permeability of fiber reinforcements for liquid composite molding: Sequential multi-scale investigations into numerical flow modeling on the micro- and meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Timothy John Franklin

    Composites are complex material mixtures, known to have high amounts of variability, with unique properties at the micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. In the context of advanced textile composite reinforcements, micro-scale refers to aligned fibers and toughening agents in a disordered arrangement; meso-scale is the woven, braided, or stitched fabric geometry (which compacts to various volume fractions); and macro-scale is the component or sub-component being produced for a mechanical application. The Darcy-based permeability is an important parameter for modeling and understanding the flow profile and fill times for liquid composite molding. Permeability of composite materials can vary widely from the micro- to macro-scales. For example, geometric factors like compaction and ply layup affect the component permeability at the meso- and macro-scales. On the micro-scale the permeability will be affected by the packing arrangement of the fibers and fiber volume fraction. On any scale, simplifications to the geometry can be made to treat the fiber reinforcement as a porous media. Permeability has been widely studied in both experimental and analytical frameworks, but less attention has focused on the ability of numerical tools to predict the permeability of reinforced composite materials. This work aims at (1) predicting permeability at various scales of interest and (2) developing a sequential, multi-scale, numerical modeling approach on the micro- and meso-scales. First, a micro-scale modeling approach is developed, including a geometry generation tool and a fluids-based numerical permeability solver. This micro-scale model included all physical fibers and derived the empirical permeability constant directly though numerical simulation. This numerical approach was compared with literature results for perfect packing arrangements, and the results were shown to be comparable with previous work. The numerical simulations described here also extended these previous

  5. Large-scale controlled fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures in liquid crystalline phase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chengliang; Xiang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Zenghui; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Junlin; Xuan, Li

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale controllable fabrication of highly roughened flower-like silver nanostructures is demonstrated experimentally via electrodeposition in the liquid crystalline phase. Different sizes of silver flowers are fabricated by adjusting the deposition time and the concentration of the silver nitrate solution. The density of the silver flowers in the sample is also controllable in this work. The flower-like silver nanostructures can serve as effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced fluorescence substrates because of their local surface plasmon resonance, and they may have applications in photoluminescence and catalysis. This liquid crystalline phase is used as a soft template for fabricating flower-like silver nanostructures for the first time, and this approach is suitable for large-scale uniform fabrication up to several centimetres. PMID:26216669

  6. A disposable microfluidic biochip with on-chip molecularly imprinted biosensors for optical detection of anesthetic propofol.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien-Chong; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hong, Chian-Lang

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a disposable microfluidic biochip with on-chip molecularly imprinted biosensors for optical detection of anesthetic propofol. So far, the methods to detect anesthetic propofol in hospitals are liquid chromatography (LC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). These conventional instruments are bulky, expensive, and not ease of access. In this work, a novel plastic microfluidic biochip with on-chip anesthetic biosensor has been developed and characterized for rapid detection of anesthetic propofol. The template-molecule imprinted polymers were integrated into microfluidic biochips to be used for detecting anesthetic propofol optically at 655 nm wavelength after the reaction of propofol with color reagent. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the microfluidic biochip with on-chip molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) biosensor is 6.47 mV/(ppm mm(2)). The specific binding of MIP to non-imprinted polymer (NIP) is up to 456%. And the detection limit of the microsystem is 0.25 ppm with a linear detection range from 0.25 to 10 ppm. The disposable microfluidic biochip with on-chip anesthetic biosensor using molecularly imprinted polymers presented in this work showed excellent performance in separation and sensing of anesthetic propofol molecules. While compared to large-scale conventional instruments, the developed microfluidic biochips with on-chip MIP biosensors have the advantages of compact size, high sensitivity, high selectivity, low cost, and fast response. PMID:20206494

  7. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This

  8. Two reference time scales for studying the dynamic cavitation of liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Brewe, David E.

    1991-01-01

    Two formulas, one for characteristic time of filling a void with a vapor of the surrounding liquid, and one of filling the void by diffusion of the dissolved gas in the liquid, are derived. Based on this analysis, it is seen that in an oil film bearing operating under dynamic loads, the content of cavitation region should be oil vapor rather than the air liberated from solution, if the oil is free of entrained air.

  9. Designing 3D Multihierarchical Heteronanostructures for High-Performance On-Chip Hybrid Supercapacitors: Poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene)-Coated Diamond/Silicon Nanowire Electrodes in an Aprotic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Aradilla, David; Gao, Fang; Lewes-Malandrakis, Georgia; Müller-Sebert, Wolfgang; Gentile, Pascal; Boniface, Maxime; Aldakov, Dmitry; Iliev, Boyan; Schubert, Thomas J S; Nebel, Christoph E; Bidan, Gérard

    2016-07-20

    A versatile and robust hierarchically multifunctionalized nanostructured material made of poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated diamond@silicon nanowires has been demonstrated to be an excellent capacitive electrode for supercapacitor devices. Thus, the electrochemical deposition of nanometric PEDOT films on diamond-coated silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrodes using N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ionic liquid displayed a specific capacitance value of 140 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1). The as-grown functionalized electrodes were evaluated in a symmetric planar microsupercapacitor using butyltrimethylammonium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide aprotic ionic liquid as the electrolyte. The device exhibited extraordinary energy and power density values of 26 mJ cm(-2) and 1.3 mW cm(-2) within a large voltage cell of 2.5 V, respectively. In addition, the system was able to retain 80% of its initial capacitance after 15 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 1 mA cm(-2) while maintaining a Coulombic efficiency around 100%. Therefore, this multifunctionalized hybrid device represents one of the best electrochemical performances concerning coated SiNW electrodes for a high-energy advanced on-chip supercapacitor. PMID:27348192

  10. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  11. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA. PMID:26295235

  12. Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Hjorth, Maibritt; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-09-01

    Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed on the farm. Five different separation treatments were performed (polymer flocculation and drainage; coagulation with iron sulphate addition and polymer flocculation and drainage; ozonation and centrifugation; centrifugation only; and natural sedimentation) on sow and suckling piglet raw slurry. Particle size fractionation was performed on raw slurry and all separation fractions by sequential wet sieving and P, Cu and Zn concentrations were then measured in the particle size classes. Dry matter and total P, Cu and Zn were separated with higher efficiency when chemical pretreatments with flocculants and coagulants were introduced before mechanical separation at both commercial and laboratory scale. When solid fractions are utilized as crop fertilizer (primarily as P fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn to the soils are not markedly different than the loads applied with raw slurry. When liquid fractions are used as crop fertilizer (primarily as N fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn are markedly lower than those supplied with raw slurry. The loads of Cu and Zn introduced to the soil were lowest on application of the liquid fraction produced by optimized separation treatments that included flocculation and coagulation. PMID:23240207

  13. Low-energy recoils and energy scale in liquid xenon detector for direct dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Liquid xenon has been proven to be a great detector medium for the direct search of dark matter. However, in the energy region of below 10 keV, the light yield and charge production are not fully understood due to the convolution of excitation, recombination and quenching. We have already studied a recombination model to explain the physics processes involved in liquid xenon. Work is continued on the average energy expended per electron-ion pair as a function of energy based on the cross sections for different type of scattering processes. In this paper, the results will be discussed in comparison with available experimental data using Birk's Law to understand how scintillation quenching contributes to the non-linear light yield for electron recoils with energy below 10 keV in liquid xenon. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota.

  14. Gene Assembly from Chip-Synthesized Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Eroshenko, Nikolai; Kosuri, Sriram; Marblestone, Adam H; Conway, Nicholas; Church, George M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo synthesis of long double-stranded DNA constructs has a myriad of applications in biology and biological engineering. However, its widespread adoption has been hindered by high costs. Cost can be significantly reduced by using oligonucleotides synthesized on high-density DNA chips. However, most methods for using off-chip DNA for gene synthesis have failed to scale due to the high error rates, low yields, and high chemical complexity of the chip-synthesized oligonucleotides. We have recently demonstrated that some commercial DNA chip manufacturers have improved error rates, and that the issues of chemical complexity and low yields can be solved by using barcoded primers to accurately and efficiently amplify subpools of oligonucleotides. This article includes protocols for computationally designing the DNA chip, amplifying the oligonucleotide subpools, and assembling 500-800 basepair (bp) constructs. PMID:25077042

  15. Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping.

    PubMed

    Malouin, Bernard A; Vogel, Michael J; Olles, Joseph D; Cheng, Lili; Hirsa, Amir H

    2011-02-01

    The small scales associated with lab-on-a-chip technologies lend themselves well to capillarity-dominated phenomena. We demonstrate a new capillarity-dominated system where two adjoining ferrofluid droplets can behave as an electronically-controlled oscillator or switch by an appropriate balance of magnetic, capillary, and inertial forces. Their oscillatory motion can be exploited to displace a surrounding liquid (akin to an axial piston pump), forming electromagnetic "liquid pistons." Such ferrofluid pistons can pump a precise volume of liquid via finely tunable amplitudes (cf. pump stroke) or resonant frequencies (cf. pump speed) with no solid moving parts for long-term operation without wear in a small device. Furthermore, the rapid propagation of electromagnetic fields and the favorable scaling of capillary forces with size permit micron sized devices with very fast operating speeds (∼kHz). The pumping dynamics and performance of these liquid pistons is explored, with experimental measurements showing good agreement with a spherical cap model. While these liquid pistons may find numerous applications in micro- and mesoscale fluidic devices (e.g., remotely activated drug delivery), here we demonstrate the use of these liquid pistons in capillarity-dominated systems for chip-level, fast-acting adaptive liquid lenses with nearly perfect spherical interfaces. PMID:21127823

  16. Measurement of residence time distribution of liquid phase in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Meenakshi; Goswami, Sunil; Pant, Harish J; Biswal, Jayashree; Sharma, Vijay K; Chandra, Avinash; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K; Rao, S Madhukar; Dash, A

    2016-05-01

    A series of radiotracer experiments was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase (alkali) in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester in a paper industry in India. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. Experiments were carried out at different biomass and white liquor flow rates. The measured RTD data were treated and mean residence times in individual digester tubes as well in the whole digester were determined. The RTD was also analyzed to identify flow abnormalities and investigate flow dynamics of the liquid phase in the pulp digester. Flow channeling was observed in the first section (tube 1) of the digester. Both axial dispersion and tanks-in-series with backmixing models preceded with a plug flow component were used to simulate the measured RTD and quantify the degree of axial mixing. Based on the study, optimum conditions for operating the digester were proposed. PMID:26896681

  17. Microfluidics without channels: highly-flexible synthesis on a digital-microfluidic chip for production of diverse PET tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Robert Michael

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is used for fundamental studies of living biological organisms and microbial ecosystems in applications ranging from biofuel production to environmental remediation to the study, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of human disease. Routine access to PET imaging, to monitor biochemical reactions in living organisms in real time, could accelerate a broad range of research programs of interest to DOE. Using PET requires access to short-lived radioactive-labeled compounds that specifically probe the desired living processes. The overall aims of this project were to develop a miniature liquid-handling technology platform (called “microfluidics”) that increases the availability of diverse PET probes by reducing the cost and complexity of their production. Based on preliminary experiments showing that microfluidic chips can synthesis such compounds, we aimed to advance this technology to improve its robustness, increase its flexibility for a broad range of probes, and increase its user-friendliness. Through the research activities of this project, numerous advances were made; Tools were developed to enable the visualization of radioactive materials within microfluidic chips; Fundamental advances were made in the microfluidic chip architecture and fabrication process to increase its robustness and reliability; The microfluidic chip technology was shown to produce useful quantities of an example PET probes, and methods to further increase the output were successfully pursued; A “universal” chip was developed that could produce multiple types of PET probes, enabling the possibility of “on demand” synthesis of different probes; and Operation of the chip was automated to ensure minimal radiation exposure to the operator Based on the demonstrations of promising technical feasibility and performance, the microfluidic chip technology is currently being commercialized. It is anticipated that costs of microfluidic chips can be

  18. Guided-wave liquid-crystal photonics.

    PubMed

    Zografopoulos, D C; Asquini, R; Kriezis, E E; d'Alessandro, A; Beccherelli, R

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we review the state of the art in the field of liquid-crystal tunable guided-wave photonic devices, a unique type of fill-once, molecular-level actuated, optofluidic systems. These have recently attracted significant research interest as potential candidates for low-cost, highly functional photonic elements. We cover a full range of structures, which span from micromachined liquid-crystal on silicon devices to periodic structures and liquid-crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fibers, with focus on key-applications for photonics. Various approaches on the control of the LC molecular orientation are assessed, including electro-, thermo- and all-optical switching. Special attention is paid to practical issues regarding liquid-crystal infiltration, molecular alignment and actuation, low-power operation, as well as their integrability in chip-scale or fiber-based devices. PMID:22842818

  19. Applying gray-scaled detour phase hologram on liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayem El-Daher, Moustafa

    2016-03-01

    In order to solve the representation problem of computer-generated holograms, multiple algorithms have been devised. One of which is the well-known detour phase method. This method has recently been modified to be optimized to display the generated hologram on twisted nematic spatial light modulators. In this paper, we apply the modified gray-scaled detour phase holograms on another type of spatial light modulators, which is of utmost importance in the field, namely the reflective liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator.

  20. Molecular scale track structure simulations in liquid water using the Geant4-DNA Monte-Carlo processes.

    PubMed

    Francis, Z; Incerti, S; Capra, R; Mascialino, B; Montarou, G; Stepan, V; Villagrasa, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of energy deposits induced by ionising particles in liquid water at the molecular scale. Particles track structures were generated using the Geant4-DNA processes of the Geant4 Monte-Carlo toolkit. These processes cover electrons (0.025 eV-1 MeV), protons (1 keV-100 MeV), hydrogen atoms (1 keV-100 MeV) and alpha particles (10 keV-40 MeV) including their different charge states. Electron ranges and lineal energies for protons were calculated in nanometric and micrometric volumes. PMID:20810287

  1. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150. PMID:25194265

  2. A novel on-chip three-dimensional micromachined calorimeter with fully enclosed and suspended thin-film chamber for thermal characterization of liquid samples

    PubMed Central

    Davaji, Benyamin; Jeong Bak, Hye; Chang, Woo-Jin; Hoon Lee, Chung

    2014-01-01

    A microfabricated calorimeter (μ-calorimeter) with an enclosed reaction chamber is presented. The 3D micromachined reaction chamber is capable of analyzing liquid samples with volume of 200 nl. The thin film low-stress silicon nitride membrane is used to reduce thermal mass of the calorimeter and increase the sensitivity of system. The μ-calorimeter has been designed to perform DC and AC calorimetry, thermal wave analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. The μ-calorimeter fabricated with an integrated heater and a temperature sensor on opposite sides of the reaction chamber allows to perform thermal diffusivity and specific heat measurements on liquid samples with same device. Measurement results for diffusivity and heat capacitance using time delay method and thermal wave analysis are presented. PMID:24926386

  3. Self-healing Li-Bi liquid metal battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, XH; Phadke, S; Chung, B; Yin, HY; Burke, P; Sadoway, DR

    2015-02-01

    In an assessment of the performance of a Li vertical bar LiCl-LiF vertical bar Bi liquid metal battery, increasing the current density from 200 to 1250 mA cm(-2) results in a less than 30% loss in specific discharge capacity at 550 degrees C. The charge and discharge voltage profiles exhibit two distinct regions: one corresponding to a Li-Bi liquid alloy and one corresponding to the two-phase mixture of Li-Bi liquid alloy and the intermetallic solid compound, Li3Bi. Full cell prototypes of 0.1 Ah nameplate capacity have been assembled and cycled at 3 C rate for over a 1000 cycles with only 0.004% capacity fade per cycle. This is tantamount to retention of over 85% of original capacity after 10 years of daily cycling. With minimal changes in design, cells of 44.8 Ah and 134 Ah capacity have been fabricated and cycled at C/3 rate. After a hundred cycles and over a month of testing, no capacity fade is observed. The coulombic efficiency of 99% and energy efficiency of 70% validate the ease of scalability of this battery chemistry. Post mortem cross sections of the cells in various states of charge demonstrate the total reversibility of the Li3Bi solid phase formed at high degrees of lithiation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conductivity Scaling Relationships in Nanostructured Membranes based on Protic Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanoja, Gabriel; Lynd, Nathaniel; Segalman, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured membranes based on protic polymerized ionic liquids are of great interest for a variety of electrochemical applications. Understanding the relationship between composition, structure, and ionic conductivity for these materials is essential for designing novel membranes with improved properties. In this work, we explore the effect of volume fraction of ionic liquid on conductivity, σ using a model system composed of poly[isoprene-block-(ethylene oxide-stat-histamine glycidyl ether) diblock copolymers [PI- b - P(EO-stat-HGE)] and the resulting [PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL)] obtained after treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. These materials self-assemble into lamellar structures with volume fractions of ionic liquid ranging from 0.50 to 0.90 as demonstrated by SAXS. PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL) membranes exhibit conductivities up to 4 x 10-3 S/cm at room temperature. In addition, PI- b - P(EO-stat-IL) based membranes have lower water uptake (λ = 8-10) in comparison with most proton conducting membranes reported elsewhere. The low λ in these membranes might translate into a stronger effect of morphology on transport properties. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis.

  5. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOIWM Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, the Cooperative Agreement was modified (Mod AO11) on 8 October 1996, authorizing the transition born Budget Period No. 2 (Design and Construction) to the . final Budget Period (Commissioning, Start-up, and Operation), A draft Topical Report on Process Economics Studies concludes that methanol coproduction with integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power utilizing the LPMEOW process technology, will be competitive in serving local market needs. Planning for a proof-of- concept test run of the liquid phase dimethyl ether (DME) process at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended; and a deeision to proceed is pending. Construction (Task 2.2) is 97'Mo complete, asof31 December 1996. Completion of pipe pressure testing has taken longer than expected. This will delay completion of construction by about three weeks. Commissioning activities (Task 2.3) commenced in mid-October of 1996, and the demonstration unit is scheduled to be mechanically complete on 24 January 1997.

  6. A Simple Evaporation Method for Large-Scale Production of Liquid Crystalline Lipid Nanoparticles with Various Internal Structures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hoon; Lim, Sora; Shim, Jongwon; Song, Ji Eun; Chang, Jong Soo; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Cho, Eun Chul

    2015-09-16

    We present a simple and industrially accessible method of producing liquid crystalline lipid nanoparticles with various internal structures based on phytantriol, Pluronic F127, and vitamin E acetate. Bilayer vesicles were produced when an ethanolic solution dissolving the lipid components was mixed with deionized water. After the evaporation of ethanol from the aqueous mixture, vesicles were transformed into lipid-filled liquid crystalline nanoparticles with well-defined internal structures such as hexagonal lattices (mostly inverted cubic Pn3m), lined or coiled pattern (inverted hexagonal H2), and disordered structure (inverse microemulsion, L2), depending on the compositions. Further studies suggested that their internal structures were also affected by temperature. The internal structures were characterized from cryo-TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering results. Microcalorimetry studies were performed to investigate the degree of molecular ordering/crystallinity of lipid components within the nanostructures. From the comparative studies, we demonstrated the present method could produce the lipid nanoparticles with similar characteristics to those made from a conventional method. More importantly, the production only requires simple tools for mixing and ethanol evaporation and it is possible to produce 10 kg or so per batch of aqueous lipid nanoparticles dispersions, enabling the large-scale production of the liquid crystalline nanoparticles for various biomedical applications. PMID:26305487

  7. Evaluation of Pressure Stable Chip-to-Tube Fittings Enabling High-Speed Chip-HPLC with Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Carsten; Heiland, Josef J; Stein, Volkmar; Klimkait, Michael; Queisser, Marco; Belder, Detlev

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate chip-to-tube interfacing is an enabling technology for high-pressure and high-speed liquid chromatography on chip. For this purpose, various approaches, to connect pressure resistant glass chips with HPLC pumps working at pressures of up to 500 bar, were examined. Three side-port and one top-port connection approach were evaluated with regard to pressure stability and extra column band broadening. A clamp-based top-port approach enabled chip-HPLC-MS analysis of herbicides at the highest pressure and speed. PMID:27397738

  8. Cross polarization compatible dialysis chip.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Micha; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Beck, Roy

    2014-10-01

    We visualize birefringence in microliter sample volumes using a microfluidic dialysis chip optimized for cross polarization microscopy. The chip is composed of two overlapping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channels separated by a commercial cellulose ester membrane. Buffer exchange in the sample chamber is achieved within minutes by dialyzing under continuous reservoir flow. Using fd virus as a birefringent model system, we monitor the fd virus isotropic to liquid crystal phase transition as a function of ionic strength. We show that the reorientation of the fd virus spans a few tens of seconds, indicative of fast ion exchange across the membrane. Complete phase separation reorganization takes minutes to hours as it involves diffusive virus mass transport within the storage chamber. PMID:25105977

  9. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that

  10. Electronic stopping in liquid water from first principles: An application of large-scale real-time TDDFT simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Kyle; Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke

    Electronic stopping describes the transfer of energy from a highly-energetic charged particle to electrons in a material. This process induces massive electronic excitations via interaction between the material and the highly localized electric field from the charged particle. Understanding this phenomenon in condensed matter systems under proton irradiation has implications in various modern technologies. First-principles simulations, based on our recently-developed large-scale real-time time-dependent density functional theory approach, provide a detailed description of how electrons are excited via a non-equilibrium energy transfer from protons on the attosecond time scale. We apply this computational approach to the important case of liquid water under proton irradiation. Our work reveals several key features of the excitation dynamics at the mesoscopic and molecular levels which support a clearer understanding of the water radiolysis mechanism under proton irradiation. Importantly, we will demonstrate a first-principles determination of the energy transfer rate, (i.e. electronic stopping power) in liquid water, and a comparison to existing empirical models will be presented. We will conclude by discussing how the exchange-correlation approximation influences the calculation of the electronic stopping power.

  11. Micromachined, planar-geometry, atmospheric-pressure, battery-operated microplasma devices (MPDs) on chips for analysis of microsamples of liquids, solids, or gases by optical-emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karanassios, Vassili; Johnson, Kara; Smith, Andrea T

    2007-08-01

    Because of their desirable characteristics, for example small size, lightness, low power and gas consumption, and potential for portability, miniaturized plasma sources are receiving significant attention in the scientific literature. To take advantage of these characteristics we micromachined and fabricated new, planar-geometry, self-igniting, atmospheric-pressure microplasma devices (MPDs) on chips. These microplasmas required such low power for their operation they could be operated from a re-chargeable battery (of the type used in cordless power-tools). Despite their advantages, most miniaturized plasma sources reported in the literature have not performed well with liquid samples; analysis of powders or solids that can be converted to a powder (and processed and used as slurries) is even more difficult. To address these shortcomings we coupled an electrothermal, mini-in-torch vaporization (mini-ITV) "dry" sample-introduction system to the low-power planar microplasma devices we developed. In this preliminary investigation, absolute detection limits obtained from microsamples of single-element liquid standards and optical emission spectrometry with photomultiplier-tube detection and a spectral bandpass similar to that of portable, commercially available fiber-optic spectrometers were in the low-pg to ng range, for example 2 pg (for K) to 25 ng (for Pb). Mini-ITV also enabled (as far as we are aware, for the first time) measurement of analyte emission from microsamples of powdered solids (as slurries). In addition to the 3% H2 in Ar mixtures, the ac-operated microplasmas were sustained by use of a variety of electrode materials and different plasma-support gases (e.g. Ar, He and 3% H2 in He) thus indicating fabrication versatility and operational flexibility. Such flexibility has the potential to enable microplasmas to be tailored to analytical problems, and this is demonstrated by using a He MPD and chlorine emission measurements (837.594 nm) from gaseous

  12. A primary battery-on-a-chip using monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iost, Rodrigo M.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2016-07-01

    We present here a bottom-up approach for realizing on-chip on-demand batteries starting out with chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene. Single graphene monolayers contacted by electrode lines on a silicon chip serve as electrodes. The anode and cathode are realized by electrodeposition of zinc and copper respectively onto graphene, leading to the realization of a miniature graphene-based Daniell cell on a chip. The electrolyte is housed partly in a gel and partly in liquid form in an on-chip enclosure molded using a 3d printer or made out of poly(dimethylsiloxane). The realized batteries provide a stable voltage (∼1.1 V) for many hours and exhibit capacities as high as 15 μAh, providing enough power to operate a pocket calculator. The realized batteries show promise for deployment as on-chip power sources for autonomous systems in lab-on-a-chip or biomedical applications.

  13. Evaluation of parallel milliliter-scale stirred-tank bioreactors for the study of biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis with ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Dennewald, Danielle; Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    As clear structure-activity relationships are still rare for ionic liquids, preliminary experiments are necessary for the process development of biphasic whole-cell processes involving these solvents. To reduce the time investment and the material costs, the process development of such biphasic reaction systems would profit from a small-scale high-throughput platform. Exemplarily, the reduction of 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli in a biphasic ionic liquid/water system was studied in a miniaturized stirred-tank bioreactor system allowing the parallel operation of up to 48 reactors at the mL-scale. The results were compared to those obtained in a 20-fold larger stirred-tank reactor. The maximum local energy dissipation was evaluated at the larger scale and compared to the data available for the small-scale reactors, to verify if similar mass transfer could be obtained at both scales. Thereafter, the reaction kinetics and final conversions reached in different reactions setups were analysed. The results were in good agreement between both scales for varying ionic liquids and for ionic liquid volume fractions up to 40%. The parallel bioreactor system can thus be used for the process development of the majority of biphasic reaction systems involving ionic liquids, reducing the time and resource investment during the process development of this type of applications. PMID:22079751

  14. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. PMID:27390294

  15. Universal scaling between structural relaxation and vibrational dynamics in glass-forming liquids and polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larini, L.; Ottochian, A.; de Michele, C.; Leporini, D.

    2008-01-01

    If liquids, polymers, bio-materials, metals and molten salts can avoid crystallization during cooling or compression, they freeze into a microscopically disordered solid-like state, a glass. On approaching the glass transition, particles become trapped in transient cages-in which they rattle on picosecond timescales-formed by their nearest neighbours; the particles spend increasing amounts of time in their cages as the average escape time, or structural relaxation time τα, increases from a few picoseconds to thousands of seconds through the transition. Owing to the huge difference between relaxation and vibrational timescales, theoretical studies addressing the underlying rattling process have challenged our understanding of the structural relaxation. Numerical and experimental studies on liquids and glasses support the theories, but not without controversies (for a review see ref. 21). Here we show computer simulations that, when compared with experiments, reveal the universal correlation of the structural relaxation time (as well as the viscosity η) and the rattling amplitude from glassy to low-viscosity states. According to the emerging picture the glass softens when the rattling amplitude exceeds a critical value, in agreement with the Lindemann criterion for the melting of crystalline solids and the free-volume model.

  16. Removing pinhole shorts during large scale ferroelectric switching through ionic liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Anthony; Herklotz, Andreas; Wisinger, Nina; Rack, Philip; Ward, Thomas

    Ferroelectrics are a classification of materials that spontaneously polarize, accumulating charge at interfaces, and have non-linear hysteretic polarization curves. Switching fields required for ferroelectric materials are often very high, requiring thin insulating layers and high applied voltages. This commonly leads to electric pinholes and limits the areal sizes that can be polarized at a time. Ionic liquids have recently received heavy interest for the formation of electronic double layers which lead to huge electric fields at interfacial regions with low applied biases, and without the thickness constraint associated with conventional capacitors. We will show recent results which demonstrate that ionic liquid gating may offer the ideal solution to switch large regions of a ferroelectric film without limitations associated with pinhole defects. This has great importance to practical applications and fundamental interface studies that require large sample regions to be uniformly polarized. Supported by the US DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division and under US DOE Grant DE-SC0002136.

  17. Pilot-scale synthesis of metal nanoparticles by high-speed pulsed laser ablation in liquids.

    PubMed

    Streubel, René; Bendt, Georg; Gökce, Bilal

    2016-05-20

    The synthesis of catalysis-relevant nanoparticles such as platinum and gold is demonstrated with productivities of 4 g h(-1) for pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL). The major drawback of low productivity of PLAL is overcome by utilizing a novel ultrafast high-repetition rate laser system combined with a polygon scanner that reaches scanning speeds up to 500 m s(-1). This high scanning speed is exploited to spatially bypass the laser-induced cavitation bubbles at MHz-repetition rates resulting in an increase of the applicable, ablation-effective, repetition rate for PLAL by two orders of magnitude. The particle size, morphology and oxidation state of fully automated synthesized colloids are analyzed while the ablation mechanisms are studied for different laser fluences, repetition rates, interpulse distances, ablation times, volumetric flow rates and focus positions. It is found that at high scanning speeds and high repetition rate PLAL the ablation process is stable in crystallite size and decoupled from shielding and liquid effects that conventionally occur during low-speed PLAL. PMID:27053598

  18. Pilot-scale synthesis of metal nanoparticles by high-speed pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streubel, René; Bendt, Georg; Gökce, Bilal

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of catalysis-relevant nanoparticles such as platinum and gold is demonstrated with productivities of 4 g h‑1 for pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL). The major drawback of low productivity of PLAL is overcome by utilizing a novel ultrafast high-repetition rate laser system combined with a polygon scanner that reaches scanning speeds up to 500 m s‑1. This high scanning speed is exploited to spatially bypass the laser-induced cavitation bubbles at MHz-repetition rates resulting in an increase of the applicable, ablation-effective, repetition rate for PLAL by two orders of magnitude. The particle size, morphology and oxidation state of fully automated synthesized colloids are analyzed while the ablation mechanisms are studied for different laser fluences, repetition rates, interpulse distances, ablation times, volumetric flow rates and focus positions. It is found that at high scanning speeds and high repetition rate PLAL the ablation process is stable in crystallite size and decoupled from shielding and liquid effects that conventionally occur during low-speed PLAL.

  19. Microfluidic-integrated laser-controlled microactuators with on-chip microscopy imaging functionality

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hee; Han, Chao; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Jinho; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of a novel microfluidic system, integrated with a set of laser-controlled microactuators on an ePetri on-chip microscopy platform, is presented in this paper. In the fully integrated microfluidic system, a set of novel thermally actuated paraffin-based microactuators, precisely controlled by programmed laser optics, was developed to regulate flow and to provide pumping of liquid solutions without external connections. The microfluidic chip was fabricated on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-imaging sensor chip on an ePetri platform; this configuration provided real-time, wide field-of-view, high-resolution imaging using a sub-pixel sweeping microscopy technique. The system of microactuators, which consisted of microvalves and a micropump, operated well in the microfluidic channel with a focused near-infrared laser beam providing the actuation control. As a demonstration, we used our prototype to assess cell–drug interactions, and monitored cell growth directly within an incubator in real time. The powerful combination of the laser-actuated microfluidics and chip-scale microscopy techniques represents a significant step forward in terms of a simple, robust, high-throughput, and highly compact analysis system for biomedical and bioscience applications. PMID:25099225

  20. Microfluidic-integrated laser-controlled microactuators with on-chip microscopy imaging functionality.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Hee; Han, Chao; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Jinho; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-10-01

    The fabrication of a novel microfluidic system, integrated with a set of laser-controlled microactuators on an ePetri on-chip microscopy platform, is presented in this paper. In the fully integrated microfluidic system, a set of novel thermally actuated paraffin-based microactuators, precisely controlled by programmed laser optics, was developed to regulate flow and to provide pumping of liquid solutions without external connections. The microfluidic chip was fabricated on a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-imaging sensor chip on an ePetri platform; this configuration provided real-time, wide field-of-view, high-resolution imaging using a sub-pixel sweeping microscopy technique. The system of microactuators, which consisted of microvalves and a micropump, operated well in the microfluidic channel with a focused near-infrared laser beam providing the actuation control. As a demonstration, we used our prototype to assess cell-drug interactions and to monitor cell growth directly within an incubator in real time. The powerful combination of laser-actuated microfluidics and chip-scale microscopy techniques represents a significant step forward in terms of a simple, robust, high-throughput, and highly compact analysis system for biomedical and bioscience applications. PMID:25099225

  1. Scaling Laws for liquid and ion transport in nanochannels grafted with polyelectrolyte brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Sinha, Shayandev; Das, Siddhartha; Soft Matter, Interfaces,; Energy Laboratory (Smiel) Team

    Grafting nanochannels with polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes renders tremendous functionality to the nanochannels, making them capable of applications such as ion manipulation, ion sensing, current rectification, nanofluidic diode fabrication, and flow control. PE brush is a special case of polymers at interfaces; such brush-like structure is possible only when the grafting density (σ) is beyond a critical value. In this study, we shall propose scaling laws that identify σ-N(N is the size of the PE molecule) combination that simultaneously ensure that the grafted PE molecules adopt ''brush''-like configuration and the height of the PE brushes are smaller than the nanochannel half height. Secondly, we pinpoint the scaling conditions where the electrostatic effects associated with the PE brushes can be decoupled from the corresponding PE excluded volume and elastic effects; such de-coupling has tremendous connotation in context of modeling of electrostatics and transport at PE-brush-covered interfaces. Thirdly, we provide scaling arguments to quantify the dependence of the flow penetration depth into the PE brush as a function of the σ-N combination. Finally, our scaling estimates pinpoint the conditions where the flow or electric field induced deformation of the grafted nanochannel PE brushes can be neglected while modeling the pressure-driven or electroosmotic transport or ionic current in such nanochannels.

  2. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-07-25

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermalmore » response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.« less

  3. Testing of Densified Liquid Hydrogen Stratification in a Scale Model Propellant Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurns, John M.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Greene, William D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a test program that was conducted at NASA to demonstrate the ability to load densified LH2 into a subscale propellant tank. This work was done through a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center and the Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems (LMMSS). The Multilobe tank, which was made from composite materials similar to that to be used on X-33, was formed from two lobes with a center septum. Test results are shown for data that was collected on filling the subscale tank with densified liquid hydrogen (DLH2) propellant that was produced at the NASA Plum Brook Station. Data is compared to analytical predictions. Data collected for this test series agrees well with analytical predictions of the environmental heat leak into the tank and the thermal stratification characteristics of the hydrogen propellant in the tank as it was filled with DLH2.

  4. Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

    2014-07-25

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.

  5. Pilot-scale incineration of ballistic missile liquid propellant components. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.; Venkatesh, S.

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recently concluded agreements with the Ukraine and the Russian Federation under which the DoD is committed to providing both former Soviet Union (FSU) states with equipment and other aid for use in eliminating their strategic offensive arms in accordance with schedules negotiated in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. One specific need consists of process equipment to treat or destroy pure ballistic missile liquid propellant components as well as vapor or purge media contaminated by these components. The propellant components are unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) oxidizer. Incineration is one possible treatment process. To supply data to demonstrate that incineration is a safe and effective treatment process, a series of tests was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Incineration Research Facility.

  6. Liquid Methane Testing With a Large-Scale Spray Bar Thermodynamic Vent System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Flachbart, R. H.; Sisco, J. D.; Schnell. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted liquid methane testing in November 2006 using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed outfitted with a spray bar thermodynamic vent system (TVS). The basic objective was to identify any unusual or unique thermodynamic characteristics associated with densified methane that should be considered in the design of space-based TVSs. Thirteen days of testing were performed with total tank heat loads ranging from 720 to 420 W at a fill level of approximately 90%. It was noted that as the fluid passed through the Joule-Thompson expansion, thermodynamic conditions consistent with the pervasive presence of metastability were indicated. This Technical Publication describes conditions that correspond with metastability and its detrimental effects on TVS performance. The observed conditions were primarily functions of methane densification and helium pressurization; therefore, assurance must be provided that metastable conditions have been circumvented in future applications of thermodynamic venting to in-space methane storage.

  7. Physics-based animation of large-scale splashing liquids, elastoplastic solids, and model-reduced flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerszewski, Daniel James

    Physical simulation has become an essential tool in computer animation. As the use of visual effects increases, the need for simulating real-world materials increases. In this dissertation, we consider three problems in physics-based animation: large-scale splashing liquids, elastoplastic material simulation, and dimensionality reduction techniques for fluid simulation. Fluid simulation has been one of the greatest successes of physics-based animation, generating hundreds of research papers and a great many special effects over the last fifteen years. However, the animation of large-scale, splashing liquids remains challenging. We show that a novel combination of unilateral incompressibility, mass-full FLIP, and blurred boundaries is extremely well-suited to the animation of large-scale, violent, splashing liquids. Materials that incorporate both plastic and elastic deformations, also referred to as elastioplastic materials, are frequently encountered in everyday life. Methods for animating such common real-world materials are useful for effects practitioners and have been successfully employed in films. We describe a point-based method for animating elastoplastic materials. Our primary contribution is a simple method for computing the deformation gradient for each particle in the simulation. Given the deformation gradient, we can apply arbitrary constitutive models and compute the resulting elastic forces. Our method has two primary advantages: we do not store or compare to an initial rest configuration and we work directly with the deformation gradient. The first advantage avoids poor numerical conditioning and the second naturally leads to a multiplicative model of deformation appropriate for finite deformations. One of the most significant drawbacks of physics-based animation is that ever-higher fidelity leads to an explosion in the number of degrees of freedom. This problem leads us to the consideration of dimensionality reduction techniques. We present

  8. Design and simulation of electrically addressed infrared filtering chip based on cascaded liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot effect for integration application of infrared spectral imaging sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaidong; Fu, Anbang; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2013-09-01

    A wavelength tunable optical filter based on cascaded Liquid-Crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) cavity with many working units has been proposed and simulated in this paper. By choosing different material and according geometric parameters, we simulated the structure in the wavelength of medium infrared (IR)(3-5μm) and far IR(8-14μm) with the algorithm of thin film matrix equation and iterative finite-difference. Finally, we give the spectrum of the structure under different driving-voltage. Combing this structure with uncooled infrared focal plane array (IRFPA), the image of many spectral bands can be obtained in one picture frame by applying different driving-voltage on each unit. Compared with other design, this structure has the advantages of wide free spectral range (FSR), compact integration, low cost and high stability.

  9. A functional relation for field-scale nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution developed using a pore network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillard, L.A.; Essaid, H.I.; Blunt, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    A pore network model with cubic chambers and rectangular tubes was used to estimate the nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution rate coefficient, Kdissai, and NAPL/water total specific interfacial area, ai. Kdissai was computed as a function of modified Peclet number (Pe???) for various NAPL saturations (SN) and ai during drainage and imbibition and during dissolution without displacement. The largest contributor to ai was the interfacial area in the water-filled corners of chambers and tubes containing NAPL. When Kdissai was divided by ai, the resulting curves of dissolution coefficient, Kdiss versus Pe??? suggested that an approximate value of Kdiss could be obtained as a weak function of hysteresis or SN. Spatially and temporally variable maps of Kdissai calculated using the network model were used in field-scale simulations of NAPL dissolution. These simulations were compared to simulations using a constant value of Kdissai and the empirical correlation of Powers et al. [Water Resour. Res. 30(2) (1994b) 321]. Overall, a methodology was developed for incorporating pore-scale processes into field-scale prediction of NAPL dissolution. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  10. Radioactivity concentration in liquid and solid phases of scale and sludge generated in the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Paranhos Gazineu, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Andressa Arruda; Brandão, Yana Batista; Hazin, Clovis Abrahão; de O Godoy, José Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production can contain uranium, thorium, radium and other natural radionuclides, which can cause exposure of maintenance personnel. This work shows how the oil content can influence the results of measurements of radionuclide concentration in scale and sludge. Samples were taken from a PETROBRAS unit in Northeast Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E&P unit. The oil was separated from the solids with a Soxhlet extractor by using aguarras at 90+/-5 degrees C as solvent. Concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in the samples were determined before and after oil extraction by using an HPGe gamma spectrometric system. The results showed an increase in the radionuclide concentration in the solid (dry) phase, indicating that the above radionuclides concentrate mostly in the solid material. PMID:15748660

  11. Small- and large-scale characterization and mixing properties in a thermally driven thin liquid film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Michael; Abel, Markus

    2015-12-01

    We study aqueous, freestanding, thin films stabilized by a surfactant with respect to mixing and dynamical systems properties. With this special setup, a two-dimensional fluid can be realized experimentally. The physics of the system involves a complex interplay of thermal convection and interface and gravitational forces. Methodologically, we characterize the system using two classical dynamical systems properties: Lyapunov exponents and entropies. Our experimental setup produces convection with two stable eddies by applying a temperature gradient in one spot that yields weakly turbulent mixing. From dynamical systems theory, one expects a relation of entropies, Lyapunov exponents, a prediction with little experimental support. We can confirm the corresponding statements experimentally, on different scales using different methods. On the small scale the motion and deformation of fluid filaments of equal size (color imaging velocimetry) are used to compute Lyapunov exponents. On the large scale, entropy is computed by tracking the left-right motion of the center fluid jet at the separatrix between the two convection rolls. We thus combine here dynamical systems methods with a concrete application of mixing in a nanoscale freestanding thin film.

  12. Small- and large-scale characterization and mixing properties in a thermally driven thin liquid film.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Michael; Abel, Markus

    2015-12-01

    We study aqueous, freestanding, thin films stabilized by a surfactant with respect to mixing and dynamical systems properties. With this special setup, a two-dimensional fluid can be realized experimentally. The physics of the system involves a complex interplay of thermal convection and interface and gravitational forces. Methodologically, we characterize the system using two classical dynamical systems properties: Lyapunov exponents and entropies. Our experimental setup produces convection with two stable eddies by applying a temperature gradient in one spot that yields weakly turbulent mixing. From dynamical systems theory, one expects a relation of entropies, Lyapunov exponents, a prediction with little experimental support. We can confirm the corresponding statements experimentally, on different scales using different methods. On the small scale the motion and deformation of fluid filaments of equal size (color imaging velocimetry) are used to compute Lyapunov exponents. On the large scale, entropy is computed by tracking the left-right motion of the center fluid jet at the separatrix between the two convection rolls. We thus combine here dynamical systems methods with a concrete application of mixing in a nanoscale freestanding thin film. PMID:26764799

  13. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons

  14. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  15. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Shenoy, K T; Sreenivas, T

    2015-03-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40-60MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. PMID:25528019

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Microstructure Transitions in a Large-Scale Liquid Metal Al System During Rapid Cooling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rang-Su; Dong, Ke-Jun; Li, Ji-Yong; Yu, Ai-Bing; Zou, Rui-Ping

    2002-08-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics simulation of microstructure transitions in a large-scale system consisting of 400 000 atoms of liquid metal Al by the Clare supercomputer. A cluster-type index method is proposed to describe the structures of various short-range-order clusters in the liquid system. It is demonstrated that the icosahedron cluster (12 0 12 0) plays the most important role in the microstructure transition and that some larger clusters (containing more than 130 atoms) are formed in the system during the rapid cooling processes. It is obvious that the larger clusters are formed by means of combining some middle clusters, and that the middle clusters are formed with several smaller clusters. However, the larger clusters are not formed to be the multi-shell configuration as shown in the mass spectrum analysis of the cluster configurations of Al obtained by gaseous deposition, ionic spray methods and so on. This result can be used to explain the essential distinction between the cluster configurations of Al formed in two different ways.

  17. Cryogen free scanning probe microscope: the solution for atomic scale surface science below 10 Kelvin without liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung; Venegas, Miguel; RHK Team

    We present a cryogen free low temperature scanning probe microscope (LT-SPM) working at 9K on both tip and sample. The performance of the microscope was validated in various conditions such as noisy environment and modulated temperature as well as the long time elapsed measurements. Building on the stability and consistency of the closed cycle refrigerator, time extended measurements are available with this state-of-the-art LT-SPM. Studies can now be performed without interrupting the critical moment of the tip on the surface while refilling the conventional liquid cryogen tank. We will present the time evolution of the dopant induced topographic and spectroscopic properties of some topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. The compact and rigid design of the microscope also allows this instrument to work as a practical variable temperature microscope without the hassle of liquid cryogen consumption. We will present temperature dependent STM/STS results on a TiSe2 surface at the temperature between 10K and 350K. Finally, we will discuss how the cryogen free LT-SPM will make the study of the atomic scale phenomenon at low temperature both economical and easy, opening promising new capabilities to surface scientists and researchers in nanotechnology.

  18. Conductivity Scaling Relationships of Nanostructured Membranes based on Hydrated Protic Polymerized Ionic Liquids: Effect of Domain Spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanoja, Gabriel; Popere, Bhooshan; Beckingham, Bryan; Evans, Christopher; Lynd, Nathaniel; Segalman, Rachel

    Elucidating the relationship between chemical structure, morphology, and ionic conductivity is essential for designing novel materials for electrochemical applications. In this work, the effect of lamellar domain spacing (d) on ionic conductivity (σ) is investigated for a model system of hydrated block copolymer based on a protic polymerized ionic liquid. We present a strategy that allows for the synthesis of a well-defined series of narrowly dispersed PS- b - PIL with constant volume fraction of ionic liquid moieties (fIL ~ 0.39). These materials self-assemble into ordered lamellar morphologies with variable domain spacing (23-59 nm) as demonstrated by SAXS. PS- b - PIL membranes exhibit ionic conductivities above 10-4 S/cm at room temperature, which are independent of domain spacing. The conductivity scaling relationship demonstrated in this work suggests that a mechanically robust membrane can be designed without compromising its ability to transport ions. In addition, PIL-based membranes exhibit lower water uptake (λ = 10) in comparison with many proton-conducting systems reported elsewhere. The low water content of these materials makes them promising candidates for solar-fuels electrochemical devices.

  19. Phase-field-crystal modeling of glass-forming liquids: Spanning time scales during vitrification, aging, and deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Joel; Grant, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Two essential elements required to generate a glass transition within phase-field-crystal (PFC) models are outlined based on observed freezing behaviors in various models of this class. The central dynamic features of glass formation in simple binary liquids are qualitatively reproduced across 12 orders of magnitude in time by applying a physically motivated time scaling to previous PFC simulation results. New aspects of the equilibrium phase behavior of the same binary model system are also outlined, aging behavior is explored in the moderate and deeply supercooled regimes, and aging exponents are extracted. General features of the elastic and plastic responses of amorphous and crystalline PFC solids under deformation are also compared and contrasted.

  20. Phase-field-crystal modeling of glass-forming liquids: spanning time scales during vitrification, aging, and deformation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joel; Grant, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Two essential elements required to generate a glass transition within phase-field-crystal (PFC) models are outlined based on observed freezing behaviors in various models of this class. The central dynamic features of glass formation in simple binary liquids are qualitatively reproduced across 12 orders of magnitude in time by applying a physically motivated time scaling to previous PFC simulation results. New aspects of the equilibrium phase behavior of the same binary model system are also outlined, aging behavior is explored in the moderate and deeply supercooled regimes, and aging exponents are extracted. General features of the elastic and plastic responses of amorphous and crystalline PFC solids under deformation are also compared and contrasted. PMID:25019772

  1. The uncertainty analysis on energy scale due to the variation of W value for liquid xenon dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The average energy expended per electron-ion pair, W value, is critical in understanding a liquid xenon detector energy response to low energy recoils. The reduction of scintillation and ionization yield for electronic recoils and nuclear recoils are explained using the scintillation quenching mechanism due to the variation of the average energy expended per electron hole pair, W value, which includes the energy lost to scintillation and phonon generation. We show the theoretical calculation of scintillation efficiency with W value in comparison with experimental data. The impact of variation of W value on the analysis of energy scale is discussed in detail. We conclude that the W value determined with experimental data depends on recoil energy and particle type. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF OIA 1434142, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.

  2. Silver flip chip interconnect technology and solid state bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Chu-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, fluxless transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and solid state bonding between thermal expansion mismatch materials have been developed using Ag-In binary systems, pure Au, Ag, and Cu-Ag composite. In contrast to the conventional soldering process, fluxless bonding technique eliminates any corrosion and contamination problems caused by flux. Without flux, it is possible to fabricate high quality joints in large bonding areas where the flux is difficult to clean entirely. High quality joints are crucial to bonding thermal expansion mismatch materials since shear stress develops in the bonded pair. Stress concentration at voids in joints could increases breakage probability. In addition, intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between solder and underbump metallurgy (UBM) is essential for interconnect joint formation in conventional soldering process. However, the interface between IMC and solder is shown to be the weak interface that tends to break first during thermal cycling and drop tests. In our solid state bonding technique, there is no IMC involved in the bonding between Au to Au, Ag and Cu, and Ag and Au. All the reliability issues related to IMC or IMC growth is not our concern. To sum up, ductile bonding media, such as Ag or Au, and proper metallic layered structure are utilized in this research to produce high quality joints. The research starts with developing a low temperature fluxless bonding process using electroplated Ag/In/Ag multilayer structures between Si chip and 304 stainless steel (304SS) substrate. Because the outer thin Ag layer effectively protects inner In layer from oxidation, In layer dissolves Ag layer and joints to Ag layer on the to-be-bonded Si chip when temperature reaches the reflow temperature of 166ºC. Joints consist of mainly Ag-rich Ag-In solid solution and Ag2In. Using this fluxless bonding technique, two 304SS substrates can be bonded together as well. From the high magnification SEM images taken at cross

  3. CHIPPING FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF DENTURE TOOTH MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The applicability of the edge chipping method to denture tooth materials was assessed. These are softer materials than those usually tested by edge chipping. The edge chipping fracture resistances of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based and two filled resin composite denture tooth materials were compared. Methods An edge chipping machine was used to chip rectangular blocks and flattened anterior denture teeth. Force versus edge distance data were collected over a broad range of forces and distances. Between 20 and 65 chips were made per condition depending upon the material, the scatter, and the indenter type. Different indenter types were used including Rockwell C, sharp conical 120°, Knoop, and Vickers. The edge toughness, Te, was evaluated for different indenter types. Results The edge chipping data collected on the blocks matched the data collected from flattened teeth. High scatter, particularly at large distances and loads, meant that many tests (up to 64) were necessary to compare the denture tooth materials and to ascertain the appropriate data trends. A linear force – distance trend analysis was adequate for comparing these materials. A power law trend might be more appropriate, but the large scatter obscured the definitive determination of the precise trend. Different indenters produce different linear trends, with the ranking of: sharp conical 120°, Rockwell C, and Knoop, from lowest to highest edge toughness. Vickers indenter data were extremely scattered and a sensible trend could not be obtained. Edge toughness was inversely correlated to hardness. Significance Edge chipping data collected either from simple laboratory scale test blocks or from actual denture teeth may be used to evaluate denture materials. The edge chipping method’s applicability has been extended to another class of restorative materials. PMID:24674342

  4. Assessment of survivability of liquid water and organic materials through modeling of large-scale impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Jennifer

    Comets, estimated to contain up to 25 wt.% organic material as both ices and more complex, refractory compounds, have been proposed as a vehicle for the delivery of organic compounds to the early Earth and other rocky planets. Successful delivery requires that some of the organic materials survive the extreme temperatures associated with impact, but the response of organic compounds to impact (shock) processing under these conditions is unknown. Several researchers have explored organic-delivery scenarios computationally and experimentally. Here, I will summarize work that addresses the issue of impact delivery and focus on current efforts to track the phase-state of water during a modeled comet-earth collision over a range of impact angles. On the basis of model results generated using a three-dimensional shock physics code (GEODYN), I will infer survivability of organic compounds and liquid water in a range of impact scenarios for comet-Earth and asteroid-Earth collisions. These results will be described in the context of the flux of astromaterials, and organic matter in particular, to young planets.

  5. A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope for Micron-scale Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Felipe; Paster, Jeremy W.; Tennant, Daniel M.; Markert, John T.

    2015-03-01

    We have designed and constructed a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) probe for the analysis of liquid and soft matter samples. This NRMFM probe uses a magnet-on-cantilever geometry and is equipped with dual x- y- z piezoelectric motion stages, for micron-step coarse positioning and sub-nanometer fine positioning of both the laser interferometer and the sample with respect to the cantilever, permitting three-dimensional scanning-mode detection of nuclear magnetism. The probe keeps the cantilever detector in high vacuum, maintaining a high Q, while the local NMR properties of nearby aqueous samples in glass microtubes are measured. The entire probe head fits in either a 3.5-cm bore magnet or in an electromagnet with a similarly small gap. We plan to demonstrate the ability to scan and distinguish microscale NMR properties using a copper sulfate solution with concentrations in the 2-20 millimolar range, thus providing dynamical imaging of regions with differing longitudinal relaxation times, T1. This concentration range will permit us to compare the conventional saturation-recovery pulse sequence with a more efficient single-pulse detection, possible when T1 is comparable to or less than the duration of the modified cyclic-adiabatic-inversion pulse.

  6. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Testing of Variable Density Multilayer Insulation with a Foam Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Hastings, L.

    2001-01-01

    The multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB), with an 18-cu m liquid hydrogen tank, was used to evaluate a combination foam/multilayer combination insulation (MLI) concept. The foam element (Isofoam SS-1171) insulates during ground hold/ascent flight, and allowed a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required. The 45-layer MLI was designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Unique WI features include a variable layer density, larger but fewer double-aluminized Mylar perforations for ascent to orbit venting, and a commercially established roll-wrap installation process that reduced assembly man-hours and resulted in a roust, virtually seamless MLI. Insulation performance was measured during three test series. The spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) successfully prevented purge gas liquefaction within the MLI and resulted in the expected ground hold heat leak of 63 W/sq m. The orbit hold tests resulted in heat leaks of 0.085 and 0.22 W/sq m with warm boundary temperatures of 164 and 305 K, respectively. Compared to the best previously measured performance with a traditional MLI system, a 41-percent heat leak reduction with 25 fewer MLI layers was achieved. The MHTB MLI heat leak is half that calculated for a constant layer density MLI.

  7. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  8. A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale energy storage represents a key challenge for renewable energy and new systems with low cost, high energy density and long cycle life are desired. In this article, we develop a new lithium/polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li{sub 2}S{sub 8}) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike previous work on Li/S batteries with discharge products such as solid state Li{sub 2}S{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}S, the catholyte is designed to cycle only in the range between sulfur and Li{sub 2}S{sub 4}. Consequently all detrimental effects due to the formation and volume expansion of solid Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}/Li{sub 2}S are avoided. This novel strategy results in excellent cycle life and compatibility with flow battery design. The proof-of-concept Li/PS battery could reach a high energy density of 170 W h kg{sup -1} and 190 W h L{sup -1} for large scale storage at the solubility limit, while keeping the advantages of hybrid flow batteries. We demonstrated that, with a 5 M Li{sub 2}S{sub 8} catholyte, energy densities of 97 W h kg{sup -1} and 108 W h L{sup -1} can be achieved. As the lithium surface is well passivated by LiNO{sub 3} additive in ether solvent, internal shuttle effect is largely eliminated and thus excellent performance over 2000 cycles is achieved with a constant capacity of 200 mA h g{sup -1}. This new system can operate without the expensive ion-selective membrane, and it is attractive for large-scale energy storage.

  9. Dynamic cross-flow filtration: enhanced continuous small-scale solid-liquid separation.

    PubMed

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    In a previous study, a small-scale dynamic filtration device (SFD) was analyzed and the basic mechanisms governing the filtration process were characterized. The present work aims at improving the device's performance in terms of actual production. Various operation modes were tested in order to increase permeate flow and concentration factors (CF), while maintaining a fully continuous production mode. Both, a vacuum-enhanced and a pulsating operation mode, proved to be superior to the currently implemented open-operation mode. For example, for lactose, an increase of the CF could be achieved from 1.7 in open mode to 7.6 in pulsating operation mode. The investigated operation strategy enables process control systems to rapidly react to fluctuating feeds that may occur due to changes in upstream manufacturing steps. As a result, not only filtration performance in terms of permeate rate but also process flexibility can be significantly increased. Overall, vacuum-enhanced operation was shown to be most promising for integration into an industrial environment. The option to elevate achievable concentration factors, ease of flow monitoring as well as the ability to react to changes in the feed conditions allow for effective and efficient continuous small-scale filtration. PMID:26489453

  10. Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution in Porous Media: Multi-Scale Effects of Multi-Component Dissolution Kinetics on Cleanup Time

    SciTech Connect

    McNab, W; Ezzedine, S; Detwiler, R

    2007-02-26

    Industrial organic solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) constitute a principal class of groundwater contaminants. Cleanup of groundwater plume source areas associated with these compounds is problematic, in part, because the compounds often exist in the subsurface as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Ganglia (or 'blobs') of DNAPL serve as persistent sources of contaminants that are difficult to locate and remediate (e.g. Fenwick and Blunt, 1998). Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes associated with dissolution of DNAPLs in the subsurface is incomplete and yet is critical for evaluating long-term behavior of contaminant migration, groundwater cleanup, and the efficacy of source area cleanup technologies. As such, a goal of this project has been to contribute to this critical understanding by investigating the multi-phase, multi-component physics of DNAPL dissolution using state-of-the-art experimental and computational techniques. Through this research, we have explored efficient and accurate conceptual and numerical models for source area contaminant transport that can be used to better inform the modeling of source area contaminants, including those at the LLNL Superfund sites, to re-evaluate existing remediation technologies, and to inspire or develop new remediation strategies. The problem of DNAPL dissolution in natural porous media must be viewed in the context of several scales (Khachikian and Harmon, 2000), including the microscopic level at which capillary forces, viscous forces, and gravity/buoyancy forces are manifested at the scale of individual pores (Wilson and Conrad, 1984; Chatzis et al., 1988), the mesoscale where dissolution rates are strongly influenced by the local hydrodynamics, and the field-scale. Historically, the physico-chemical processes associated with DNAPL dissolution have been addressed through the use of lumped mass transfer coefficients which attempt to quantify the

  11. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOW Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work began on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, methanol product-use test plan. Two of the projects have begun pre-testing of equipment and three other projects have commenced with equipment procurement, Methanol produced from carbon monoxide (CO)- rich syngas at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX has been shipped to four of the project sites in anticipation of the start of testing during the first quarter of calendar year 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for a freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), continued to decline more rapidly than expected. In response to concentrations of arsenic and sulfbr detected on catalyst samples from the LPMEOW Reactor, Eastman replaced both the arsine- and sulfiwremoval material in the Eastman guard bed which treats the primary syngas feed stream (&danced Gas) prior to its introduction into both the Eastman fixed-bed methanol plant and the LPMEOWM Demonstration Unit. After restarting the demonstration unit, the catalyst deactivation rate remained essentially unchanged. Parallel testing in the laboratory using arsine-doped, and subsequently arsine- and SuIfi-doped syngas, ako ftiIed to prove that arsine was responsible for the higher-than-expected rate of

  12. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    he Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOEP Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. The LPMEOHW Demonstration Facility completed its first year of operation on 02 April 1998. The LPMEOW Demonstration Facility also completed the longest continuous operating run (65 days) on 21 April 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), was monitored throughout the reporting period. During a six-week test at a reactor temperature of 225oC and Balanced Gas flowrate of 700 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was steady at 0.29-0.36% per day. During a second one-month test at a reactor temperature of 220oC and a Balanced Gas flowrate of 550-600 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was 0.4% per day, which matched the pefiorrnance at 225"C, as well as the 4-month proof-of-concept run at the LaPorte AFDU in 1988/89. Beginning on 08 May 1998, the LPMEOW Reactor temperature was increased to 235oC, which was the operating temperature tier the December 1997 restart with the fresh charge of catalyst (50'Yo of design loading). The flowrate of the primary syngas feed stream (Balanced Gas) was also increased to 700-750 KSCFH. During two stable operating periods between 08 May and 09 June 1998, the average catalyst deactivation rate was 0.8% per day. Due to the scatter of the statistical analysis of the results, this test was extended to better quanti

  13. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  14. The effect of entrapped nonaqueous phase liquids on tracer transport in heterogeneous porous media: Laboratory experiments at the intermediate scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, G.R.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Rajaram, H.

    2003-01-01

    This work considers the applicability of conservative tracers for detecting high-saturation nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) entrapment in heterogeneous systems. For this purpose, a series of experiments and simulations was performed using a two-dimensional heterogeneous system (10??1.2 m), which represents an intermediate scale between laboratory and field scales. Tracer tests performed prior to injecting the NAPL provide the baseline response of the heterogeneous porous medium. Two NAPL spill experiments were performed and the entrapped-NAPL saturation distribution measured in detail using a gamma-ray attenuation system. Tracer tests following each of the NAPL spills produced breakthrough curves (BTCs) reflecting the impact of entrapped NAPL on conservative transport. To evaluate significance, the impact of NAPL entrapment on the conservative-tracer breakthrough curves was compared to simulated breakthrough curve variability for different realizations of the heterogeneous distribution. Analysis of the results reveals that the NAPL entrapment has a significant impact on the temporal moments of conservative-tracer breakthrough curves. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Uriel; Campbell, Kyle; Groisman, Alex; Mookherjea, Shayan; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2006-03-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and operation of a tunable optical filter based on a bus waveguide coupled to a microring waveguide resonator located inside a microchannel in a microfluidic chip. Liquid flowing in the microchannel constitutes the upper cladding of the waveguides. The refractive index of the liquid controls the resonance wavelengths and strength of coupling between the bus waveguide and the resonator. The refractive index is varied by on-chip mixing of two source liquids with different refractive indices. We demonstrate adjustment of the resonance by 2nm and tuning the filter to an extinction ratio of 37dB.

  16. Integrated Atom Chip System for Optical Lattice Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Evan A.; Ivory, Megan K.; Straatsma, Cameron J. E.; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2015-05-01

    We present an ultracold atom system incorporating a hybrid magnetic/optical atom chip for optical lattice experiments. The atom chip uses integrated, millimeter-scale optical elements to enable the production of optical lattice potentials near the atom chip traces and within a few hundred microns of a high-quality vacuum window. Due to their proximity to a window, the atoms are addressable by optics outside of vacuum operating at numerical apertures as high as 0.8. Demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation in the chip trap and Landau-Zener tunneling in a 1D lattice are presented.

  17. Sequential operation droplet array: an automated microfluidic platform for picoliter-scale liquid handling, analysis, and screening.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Long-Fei; Fang, Qun

    2013-07-16

    This contribution describes a sequential operation droplet array (SODA) system, a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic system capable of performing picoliter-scale liquid manipulation, analysis, and screening. The SODA system was built using a tapered capillary-syringe pump module and a two-dimensional (2D) oil-covered droplet array installed on an x-y-z translation stage. With the system, we developed a novel picoliter-scale droplet depositing technique for forming a 2D picoliter-droplet array. On this basis, an automated droplet manipulation method with picoliter precision was established using the programmable combination of the capillary-based liquid aspirating-depositing and the moving of the oil-covered droplet array, the so-called "aspirating-depositing-moving" (ADM) method. Differing from the previously reported droplet systems based on microchips, microcapillaries, or digital microfluidics, this method can achieve complete and flexible droplet manipulations, including droplet assembling, generation, indexing, transferring, splitting, and fusion in the picoliter range, endowing the present system with ultralow sample/reagent consumptions and substantial versatility in analysis and screening for multiple different samples. To demonstrate its feasibility and versatility, we applied the SODA system in multiple experiments required in drug screening, including the screening of inhibitors for capases-1 from a chemical library, the measurement of IC50 values for the identified inhibitors, and the screening of the synergistic effect of multiple inhibitors. In the experiments, the consumptions of samples and reagents are only 60-180 pL for each droplet microreactor, which are commonly 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than those of conventional multiwell plate systems, and 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other droplet-based microfluidic systems for multiple sample screening. The ability of the SODA system in performing complicated and multistep droplet

  18. Use of pilot plant scale continuous fryer to simulate industrial production of potato chips: thermal properties of palm olein blends under continuous frying conditions.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Ismail, Razali

    2014-01-01

    Binary blends of palm olein (PO) with sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CNO), and cottonseed oil (CSO) were formulated to assess their stability under continuous frying conditions. The results were then compared with those obtained in PO. The oil blends studied were: (1) 60:40 for PO + SFO; (2) 70:30 for PO + CNO; and (3) 50:50 for PO + CSO. The PO and its blends were used to fry potato chips at 180°C for a total of 56 h of operation. The evolution of analytical parameters such as tocols, induction period, color, p-anisidine value, free fatty acid, smoke point, polar compounds, and polymer compounds were evaluated over the frying time. Blending PO with unsaturated oils was generally proved to keep most qualitative parameters comparable to those demonstrated in PO. Indeed, none of the oils surpassed the legislative limits for used frying. Overall, it was noted that oil containing PO and SFO showed higher resistance toward oxidative and hydrolytic behaviors as compared to the other oil blends. PMID:24804062

  19. Use of pilot plant scale continuous fryer to simulate industrial production of potato chips: thermal properties of palm olein blends under continuous frying conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Ismail, Razali

    2014-01-01

    Binary blends of palm olein (PO) with sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CNO), and cottonseed oil (CSO) were formulated to assess their stability under continuous frying conditions. The results were then compared with those obtained in PO. The oil blends studied were: (1) 60:40 for PO + SFO; (2) 70:30 for PO + CNO; and (3) 50:50 for PO + CSO. The PO and its blends were used to fry potato chips at 180°C for a total of 56 h of operation. The evolution of analytical parameters such as tocols, induction period, color, p-anisidine value, free fatty acid, smoke point, polar compounds, and polymer compounds were evaluated over the frying time. Blending PO with unsaturated oils was generally proved to keep most qualitative parameters comparable to those demonstrated in PO. Indeed, none of the oils surpassed the legislative limits for used frying. Overall, it was noted that oil containing PO and SFO showed higher resistance toward oxidative and hydrolytic behaviors as compared to the other oil blends. PMID:24804062

  20. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26806356

  1. Large-scale inhomogeneities in solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of liquids: supramolecular structures or nanobubbles?

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Marián; Rak, Dmytro

    2013-02-28

    In textbooks, undersaturated solutions of low molar mass compounds and mixtures of freely miscible liquids are considered as homogeneous at larger length scales exceeding appreciably dimensions of individual molecules. However, growing experimental evidence reveals that it is not the case. Large-scale structures with sizes on the order of 100 nm are present in solutions and mixtures used in everyday life and research practice, especially in aqueous systems. These mesoscale inhomogeneities are long-lived, and (relatively slow) kinetics of their formation can be monitored upon mixing the components. Nevertheless, the nature of these structures and mechanisms behind their formation are not clear yet. Since it was previously suggested that these can be nanobubbles stabilized by adsorbed solute at the gas/solvent interface, we devote the current study to addressing this question. Static and dynamic light scattering was used to investigate solutions and mixtures prepared at ordinary conditions (equilibrated with air at 1 atm), prepared with degassed solvent, and solutions and mixtures degassed after formation of large structures. The behavior of large structures in strong gravitational centrifugal fields was also investigated. Systems from various categories were chosen for this study: aqueous solutions of an inorganic ionic compound (MgSO4), organic ionic compound (citric acid), uncharged organic compound (urea), and a mixture of water with organic solvent freely miscible with water (tert-butyl alcohol). Obtained results show that these structures are not nanobubbles in all cases. Visualization of large-scale structures via nanoparticle tracking analysis is presented. NTA results confirm conclusions from our previous light scattering work. PMID:23373595

  2. [Progress in research on LiquiChip technology in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Hui, Guohua; Zhao, Zikai

    2010-12-01

    As a novel BioChip technique, LiquiChip technique uses fluorescent polystyrene beads as the carrriers of various probes, thus the related reactions of bio-molecules are in liquid system. LiquiChip technique is of use in the methods to detect bio-macromolecules, e. g. DNA detection, immunoassay, cytokine assay, hormone assay, environmental survey and analysis. In comparison to conventional biochip, LiquiChip presents the advantages of high-throughput, high sensitivity, high accuracy, fine repeatability, wide linear range, etc. Now LiquiChip technique is widely used in biomedical engineering field. PMID:21375005

  3. Design of turbulent tangential micro-mixers that mix liquids on the nanosecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Mitic, Sandra; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan W; van den Berg, Albert; de Vries, Simon

    2015-01-15

    Unravelling (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms and macromolecular folding pathways on the (sub)microsecond time scale is limited by the time resolution of kinetic instruments for mixing reactants and observation of the progress of the reaction. To improve the mixing time resolution, turbulent four- and two-jet tangential micro-mixers were designed and characterized for their mixing and (unwanted) premixing performances employing acid-base reactions monitored by a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. The mixing performances of the micro-mixers were determined after the mixing chamber in a free-flowing jet. The premixing behavior in the vortex chamber was assessed in an optically transparent glass-silicon replica of a previously well-characterized stainless-steel four-jet tangential micro-mixer. At the highest flow rates, complete mixing was achieved in 160ns with only approximately 9% premixing of the reactants. The mixing time of 160ns is at least 50 times shorter than estimated for other fast mixing devices. Key aspects to the design of ultrafast turbulent micro-mixers are discussed. The integration of these micro-mixers with an optical flow cell would enable the study of the very onset of chemical reactions in general and of enzyme catalytic reactions in particular. PMID:25447461

  4. Test chips and ASIC qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Zamani, N.; Lieneweg, U.

    1991-01-01

    A test chip set being developed to aid in the qualification of spaceborne Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) is described. The chip set consists of a process monitor for process parameter verification, a fault chip for yield analysis, a reliability chip for ASIC failure rate analysis, and total ionizing dose and single event upset chips for radiation effect analysis. The test structures contained in these chips are discussed along with representative test results.

  5. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{sup trademark}) process. Third quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH)(TM) demonstration project at King sport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) of methanol is being designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to `demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH(TM) Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four year demonstration period. The LPMEOH(TM) process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfully piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products` LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  6. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  7. Mathematical Simulation for Integrated Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Yoon, Hargoon; Lee, Uhn; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized solid-state optical spectrometer chip was designed with a linear gradient-gap Fresnel grating which was mounted perpendicularly to a sensor array surface and simulated for its performance and functionality. Unlike common spectrometers which are based on Fraunhoffer diffraction with a regular periodic line grating, the new linear gradient grating Fresnel spectrometer chip can be miniaturized to a much smaller form-factor into the Fresnel regime exceeding the limit of conventional spectrometers. This mathematical calculation shows that building a tiny motionless multi-pixel microspectrometer chip which is smaller than 1 cubic millimter of optical path volume is possible. The new Fresnel spectrometer chip is proportional to the energy scale (hc/lambda), while the conventional spectrometers are proportional to the wavelength scale (lambda). We report the theoretical optical working principle and new data collection algorithm of the new Fresnel spectrometer to build a compact integrated optical chip.

  8. Gas Sensor Test Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Ryan, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new test chip is being developed to characterize conducting polymers used in gas sensors. The chip, a seven-layer cofired alumina substrate with gold electrodes, contains 11 comb and U- bend test structures. These structures are designed to measure the sheet resistance, conduction anisotropy, and peripheral conduction of spin-coated films that are not subsequently patterned.

  9. Optimization of process parameters for pilot-scale liquid-state bioconversion of sewage sludge by mixed fungal inoculation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Barghash, Hind F A; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique has great potential for application in bioremediation of sewage sludge. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum level of LSB process of sewage sludge treatment by mixed fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The optimization of process factors was investigated using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design considering hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate influent concentration (S0) on nine responses for optimizing and fitted to the regression model. The optimum region was successfully depicted by optimized conditions, which was identified as the best fit for convenient multiple responses. The results from process verification were in close agreement with those obtained through predictions. Considering five runs of different conditions of HRT (low, medium and high 3.62, 6.13 and 8.27 days, respectively) with the range of S0 value (the highest 12.56 and the lowest 7.85 g L(-1)), it was monitored as the lower HRT was considered as the best option because it required minimum days of treatment than the others with influent concentration around 10 g L(-1). Therefore, optimum process factors of 3.62 days for HRT and 10.12 g L(-1) for S0 were identified as the best fit for LSB process and its performance was deviated by less than 5% in most of the cases compared to the predicted values. The recorded optimized results address a dynamic development in commercial-scale biological treatment of wastewater for safe and environment-friendly disposal in near future. PMID:26111620

  10. Fate of fumonisins during the production of fried tortilla chips.

    PubMed

    Voss, K A; Poling, S M; Meredith, F I; Bacon, C W; Saunders, D S

    2001-06-01

    The fate of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), a mycotoxin found in corn, during the commercial manufacture of fried tortilla chips was studied. FB(1) and hydrolyzed FB(1) (HFB(1)) concentrations in four lots of corn and in the masa, other intermediates, liquid and waste byproducts, and fried chips were determined by HPLC. FB(1) concentrations in the masa and chips were reduced significantly, up to 80% in the fried chips, compared to that in the raw corn. HFB(1) was also found in the masa and chips, but at low concentrations compared to FB(1). LC-MS analyses corroborated HPLC findings and further showed the presence of partially hydrolyzed FB(1) (PHFB(1)), which, like HFB(1), was formed during the nixtamalization (cooking/steeping the corn in alkaline water to make masa) step and found predominantly in the cooking/steeping liquid and solid waste. No significant amounts of N-(carboxymethyl)-FB(1) or N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-FB(1), indicative of fumonisin-sugar adduct formation, were found. Thus, FB(1) is removed from corn and diverted into liquid and waste byproducts during the commercial production of fried tortilla chips. Nixtamalization and rinsing are the critical steps, whereas grinding, sheeting, baking, and frying the masa had little effect. PMID:11410018

  11. Large-scale profiling of diterpenoid glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shafii, Behnaz; Vismeh, Ramin; Beaudry, Randy; Warner, Ryan; Jones, A Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The plant Stevia rebaudiana accumulates a suite of diterpenoid metabolites that are natural sweeteners finding increased use as sugar substitutes. To guide breeding of stevia plants that accumulate substances with desirable flavor in high yield, rapid and accurate methods are needed to profile these substances in plant populations. This report describes an 8-min ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for separation and quantification of seven stevia glycosides including steviolbioside; stevioside; rebaudiosides A, B, and C; rubusoside; and dulcoside as well as aglycones steviol and isosteviol. This negative mode electrospray ionization/multiple reaction monitoring method yielded low limits of detection <1 ng/mL for steviol, 6 ng/mL for isosteviol, and <15 ng/mL for all stevia glycosides. Stevioside and Reb A, B, and C were quantified in more than 1,100 extracts from stevia leaves as part of a large-scale profiling exercise. Leaf tissue levels in this population spanned about two orders of magnitude for stevioside (2-125 mg/g dry weight), Reb A (2.5-164 mg/g), Reb B (0.5-50 mg/g), and Reb C (1.5-125 mg/g), but levels of individual metabolites exhibited independent variation. The wide spread of metabolite levels highlights the utility and importance of performing targeted metabolic profiling for large plant populations. PMID:22580424

  12. Compact Multimedia Systems in Multi-chip Module Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Alkalaj, Leon

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial paper shows advanced multimedia system designs based on multi-chip module (MCM) technologies that provide essential computing, compression, communication, and storage capabilities for various large scale information highway applications.!.

  13. Causes of stem end chip defect in chipping potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem-end chip defect (SECD) is a serious tuber quality concern that affects chipping potatoes. This defect is characterized by dark-colored vascular tissues and adjacent cortical tissues at the tuber stem-end of potato chips after frying. Chips with SECD are unappealing to consumers and raw product ...

  14. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  15. Combining effective media and multi-phase methods of Lattice Boltzmann modelling for the characterisation of liquid-vapour dynamics in multi-length scale heterogeneous structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, P. J.; Turner, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the lattice Boltzmann Shan-Chen pseudo-potential method for multiphase fluids (Shan and Chen 1993 Phys. Rev. E 47 1815) and a grey or partial bounce back lattice Boltzmann algorithm for effective media (Walsh et al 2009 Comput. Geosci. 35 1186), is demonstrated for application to liquid-vapour fluid dynamics in porous media with porosity spanning a very wide range of length scales. Liquid / vapour distributions in cellular like structures with cell walls of reduced permeability are seen to follow expectation.

  16. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  17. Laser wavelength metrology with color sensor chips.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tyler B; Otterstrom, Nils; Jackson, Jarom; Archibald, James; Durfee, Dallin S

    2015-12-14

    We present a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip. The chip consists of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined. In addition to absorption in the filters, etalon effects add additional spectral features which improve the precision of the device. Comparing the measurements from the device to a commercial wavelength meter and to an atomic reference, we found that the device has picometer-level precision and picometer-scale drift over a period longer than a month. PMID:26699036

  18. Pore-scale simulation of liquid CO2 displacement of water using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Kang, Oinjun; Oostrom, Martinus

    2014-11-01

    A lattice Boltzmann color-fluid model, which was recently proposed by Liu et al. [H. Liu, A.J. Valocchi, and Q. Kang. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations. Phys. Rev. E, 85:046309, 2012.] based on a concept of continuum surface force, is improved to simulate immiscible two-phase flows in porous media. The new improvements allow the model to account for different kinematic viscosities of both fluids and to model fluid-solid interactions. The capability and accuracy of this model is first validated by two benchmark tests: a layered two-phase flow with a viscosity ratio, and a dynamic capillary intrusion. This model is then used to simulate liquid CO2 (LCO2) displacing water in a dual-permeability pore network. The extent and behavior of LCO2 preferential flow (i.e., fingering) is found to depend on the capillary number (Ca), and three different displacement patterns observed in previous micromodel experiments are reproduced. The predicted variation of LCO2 saturation with Ca, as well as variation of specific interfacial length with LCO2 saturation, are both in good agreement with the experimental observations. To understand the effect of heterogeneity on pore-scale displacement, we also simulate LCO2 displacing water in a randomly heterogeneous pore network, which has the same size and porosity as the dual-permeability pore network. In comparison to the dual-permeability case, the transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering occurs at a higher Ca, and LCO2 saturation is higher at low Ca but lower at high Ca. In either pore network, the LCO2-water specific interfacial length is found to obey a power-law dependence on LCO2 saturation.

  19. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  20. CHIPS Neutrino Detector Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Ramon; Vahle, Patricia; Chips Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The CHIPS R&D project is an effort to develop affordable megaton-scale neutrino detectors. The CHIPS strategy calls for submerging water Cherenkov detectors deep under water. The surrounding water acts as structural support, minimizing large initial investments in costly infrastructure, and serves as an overburden, shielding the detector from cosmic rays and eliminating the need for expensive underground construction. Additional cost savings will be achieved through photodetector development and optimization of readout geometry. In summer 2014 a small prototype of the CHIPS detector was deployed in the flooded Wentworth Mine Pit in Northern Minnesota. The detector has been recording data underwater throughout the fall and winter. In this talk, we will discuss lessons learned from the prototyping experience and the plans for submerging much larger detectors in future years.

  1. A versatile snap chip for high-density sub-nanoliter chip-to-chip reagent transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiyan; Munzar, Jeffrey D.; Ng, Andy; Juncker, David

    2015-07-01

    The coordinated delivery of minute amounts of different reagents is important for microfluidics and microarrays, but is dependent on advanced equipment such as microarrayers. Previously, we developed the snap chip for the direct transfer of reagents, thus realizing fluidic operations by only manipulating microscope slides. However, owing to the misalignment between arrays spotted on different slides, millimeter spacing was needed between spots and the array density was limited. In this work, we have developed a novel double transfer method and have transferred 625 spots cm-2, corresponding to >10000 spots for a standard microscope slide. A user-friendly snapping system was manufactured to make liquid handling straightforward. Misalignment, which for direct transfer ranged from 150-250 μm, was reduced to <40 μm for double transfer. The snap chip was used to quantify 50 proteins in 16 samples simultaneously, yielding limits of detection in the pg/mL range for 35 proteins. The versatility of the snap chip is illustrated with a 4-plex homogenous enzyme inhibition assay analyzing 128 conditions with precise timing. The versatility and high density of the snap chip with double transfer allows for the development of high throughput reagent transfer protocols compatible with a variety of applications.

  2. A versatile snap chip for high-density sub-nanoliter chip-to-chip reagent transfer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiyan; Munzar, Jeffrey D.; Ng, Andy; Juncker, David

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated delivery of minute amounts of different reagents is important for microfluidics and microarrays, but is dependent on advanced equipment such as microarrayers. Previously, we developed the snap chip for the direct transfer of reagents, thus realizing fluidic operations by only manipulating microscope slides. However, owing to the misalignment between arrays spotted on different slides, millimeter spacing was needed between spots and the array density was limited. In this work, we have developed a novel double transfer method and have transferred 625 spots cm−2, corresponding to >10000 spots for a standard microscope slide. A user-friendly snapping system was manufactured to make liquid handling straightforward. Misalignment, which for direct transfer ranged from 150–250 μm, was reduced to <40 μm for double transfer. The snap chip was used to quantify 50 proteins in 16 samples simultaneously, yielding limits of detection in the pg/mL range for 35 proteins. The versatility of the snap chip is illustrated with a 4-plex homogenous enzyme inhibition assay analyzing 128 conditions with precise timing. The versatility and high density of the snap chip with double transfer allows for the development of high throughput reagent transfer protocols compatible with a variety of applications. PMID:26148566

  3. Accelerator on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    England, Joel

    2014-06-30

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  4. Accelerator on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    England, Joel

    2014-07-16

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  5. Progress in Atom Chips and the Integration of Optical Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, E. A.; Trupke, M.; Darquie, B.; Goldwin, J.; Dutier, G.

    2008-04-01

    We review recent progress at the Centre for Cold Matter in developing atom chips. An important advantage of miniaturizing atom traps on a chip is the possibility of obtaining very tight trapping structures with the capability of manipulating atoms on the micron length scale. We recall some of the pros and cons of bringing atoms close to the chip surface, as is required in order to make small static structures, and we discuss the relative merits of metallic, dielectric and superconducting chip surfaces. We point out that the addition of integrated optical devices on the chip can enhance its capability through single atom detection and controlled photon production. Finally, we review the status of integrated microcavities that have recently been demonstrated at our Centre and discuss their prospects for future development.

  6. Fish scales and SNP chips: SNP genotyping and allele frequency estimation in individual and pooled DNA from historical samples of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA extracted from historical samples is an important resource for understanding genetic consequences of anthropogenic influences and long-term environmental change. However, such samples generally yield DNA of a lower amount and quality, and the extent to which DNA degradation affects SNP genotyping success and allele frequency estimation is not well understood. We conducted high density SNP genotyping and allele frequency estimation in both individual DNA samples and pooled DNA samples extracted from dried Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) scales stored at room temperature for up to 35 years, and assessed genotyping success, repeatability and accuracy of allele frequency estimation using a high density SNP genotyping array. Results In individual DNA samples, genotyping success and repeatability was very high (> 0.973 and > 0.998, respectively) in samples stored for up to 35 years; both increased with the proportion of DNA of fragment size > 1000 bp. In pooled DNA samples, allele frequency estimation was highly repeatable (Repeatability = 0.986) and highly correlated with empirical allele frequency measures (Mean Adjusted R2 = 0.991); allele frequency could be accurately estimated in > 95% of pooled DNA samples with a reference group of at least 30 individuals. SNPs located in polyploid regions of the genome were more sensitive to DNA degradation: older samples had lower genotyping success at these loci, and a larger reference panel of individuals was required to accurately estimate allele frequencies. Conclusions SNP genotyping was highly successful in degraded DNA samples, paving the way for the use of degraded samples in SNP genotyping projects. DNA pooling provides the potential for large scale population genetic studies with fewer assays, provided enough reference individuals are also genotyped and DNA quality is properly assessed beforehand. We provide recommendations for future studies intending to conduct high-throughput SNP

  7. Simple setup for gas-phase H/D exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation and ion mobility for analysis of polypeptide structure on a liquid chromatographic time scale.

    PubMed

    Mistarz, Ulrik H; Brown, Jeffery M; Haselmann, Kim F; Rand, Kasper D

    2014-12-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) is a fast and sensitive, yet unharnessed analytical approach for providing information on the structural properties of biomolecules, in a complementary manner to mass analysis. Here, we describe a simple setup for ND3-mediated millisecond gas-phase HDX inside a mass spectrometer immediately after ESI (gas-phase HDX-MS) and show utility for studying the primary and higher-order structure of peptides and proteins. HDX was achieved by passing N2-gas through a container filled with aqueous deuterated ammonia reagent (ND3/D2O) and admitting the saturated gas immediately upstream or downstream of the primary skimmer cone. The approach was implemented on three commercially available mass spectrometers and required no or minor fully reversible reconfiguration of gas-inlets of the ion source. Results from gas-phase HDX-MS of peptides using the aqueous ND3/D2O as HDX reagent indicate that labeling is facilitated exclusively through gaseous ND3, yielding similar results to the infusion of purified ND3-gas, while circumventing the complications associated with the use of hazardous purified gases. Comparison of the solution-phase- and gas-phase deuterium uptake of Leu-Enkephalin and Glu-Fibrinopeptide B, confirmed that this gas-phase HDX-MS approach allows for labeling of sites (heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens located on side-chains, N-terminus and C-terminus) not accessed by classical solution-phase HDX-MS. The simple setup is compatible with liquid chromatography and a chip-based automated nanoESI interface, allowing for online gas-phase HDX-MS analysis of peptides and proteins separated on a liquid chromatographic time scale at increased throughput. Furthermore, online gas-phase HDX-MS could be performed in tandem with ion mobility separation or electron transfer dissociation, thus enabling multiple orthogonal analyses of the structural properties of peptides and proteins in a single automated LC-MS workflow. PMID:25375223

  8. On-chip particle trapping and manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, Kaelyn Danielle

    The ability to control and manipulate the world around us is human nature. Humans and our ancestors have used tools for millions of years. Only in recent years have we been able to control objects at such small levels. In order to understand the world around us it is frequently necessary to interact with the biological world. Optical trapping and manipulation offer a non-invasive way to move, sort and interact with particles and cells to see how they react to the world around them. Optical tweezers are ideal in their abilities but they require large, non-portable, and expensive setups limiting how and where we can use them. A cheap portable platform is required in order to have optical manipulation reach its full potential. On-chip technology offers a great solution to this challenge. We focused on the Liquid-Core Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguide (liquid-core ARROW) for our work. The ARROW is an ideal platform, which has anti-resonant layers which allow light to be guided in liquids, allowing for particles to easily be manipulated. It is manufactured using standard silicon manufacturing techniques making it easy to produce. The planner design makes it easy to integrate with other technologies. Initially I worked to improve the ARROW chip by reducing the intersection losses and by reducing the fluorescence and background on the ARROW chip. The ARROW chip has already been used to trap and push particles along its channel but here I introduce several new methods of particle trapping and manipulation on the ARROW chip. Traditional two beam traps use two counter propagating beams. A trapping scheme that uses two orthogonal beams which counter to first instinct allow for trapping at their intersection is introduced. This scheme is thoroughly predicted and analyzed using realistic conditions. Simulations of this method were done using a program which looks at both the fluidics and optical sources to model complex situations. These simulations were also used to

  9. Ion trap in a semiconductor chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stick, D.; Hensinger, W. K.; Olmschenk, S.; Madsen, M. J.; Schwab, K.; Monroe, C.

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated atoms has led to many advances in physics, from laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation of cold gases to the precise quantum control of individual atomic ions. Work on miniaturizing electromagnetic traps to the micrometre scale promises even higher levels of control and reliability. Compared with `chip traps' for confining neutral atoms, ion traps with similar dimensions and power dissipation offer much higher confinement forces and allow unparalleled control at the single-atom level. Moreover, ion microtraps are of great interest in the development of miniature mass-spectrometer arrays, compact atomic clocks and, most notably, large-scale quantum information processors. Here we report the operation of a micrometre-scale ion trap, fabricated on a monolithic chip using semiconductor micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool and measure heating of a single 111Cd+ ion in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped gallium-arsenide heterostructure.

  10. Flexible packaging of solid-state integrated circuit chips with elastomeric microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-01-01

    A flexible technology is proposed to integrate smart electronics and microfluidics all embedded in an elastomer package. The microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the integrated circuits (ICs). The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the IC chip. This avoids the traditional IC packaging challenges, such as wire-bonding and flip-chip bonding, which are not compatible with current microfluidic technologies. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor chip and associate microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate that allows precise delivery of small liquid samples to the sensor. Furthermore, the packaged system is fully functional under bending curvature radius of one centimetre and uniaxial strain of 15%. The flexible integration of solid-state ICs with microfluidics enables compact flexible electronic and lab-on-a-chip systems, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing among many other applications.

  11. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  12. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  13. Multinozzle Emitter Array Chips for Small-Volume Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Pan; Gomez-Sjoberg, Rafael; Wang, Daojing

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput multiplexed proteomics of small-volume biospecimens will generate new opportunities in theranostics. Achieving parallel top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry analyses of target proteins using a unified apparatus will improve proteome characterization. We have developed a novel silicon-based microfluidic device, multinozzle emitter array chip (MEA chip), as a new platform for small-volume proteomics using liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-nanoESI-MS). We demonstrate parallel, on-chip, and on-line LC-MS analysis of hemoglobin and its tryptic digests directly from microliters of blood, achieving a detection limit of less than 5 red blood cells. Our MEA chip will enable clinical proteomics of small-volume samples. PMID:23252432

  14. Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

  15. Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Wade, Mark T.; Lee, Yunsup; Orcutt, Jason S.; Alloatti, Luca; Georgas, Michael S.; Waterman, Andrew S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Avizienis, Rimas R.; Lin, Sen; Moss, Benjamin R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pavanello, Fabio; Atabaki, Amir H.; Cook, Henry M.; Ou, Albert J.; Leu, Jonathan C.; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Asanović, Krste; Ram, Rajeev J.; Popović, Miloš A.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.

    2015-12-01

    Data transport across short electrical wires is limited by both bandwidth and power density, which creates a performance bottleneck for semiconductor microchips in modern computer systems—from mobile phones to large-scale data centres. These limitations can be overcome by using optical communications based on chip-scale electronic-photonic systems enabled by silicon-based nanophotonic devices8. However, combining electronics and photonics on the same chip has proved challenging, owing to microchip manufacturing conflicts between electronics and photonics. Consequently, current electronic-photonic chips are limited to niche manufacturing processes and include only a few optical devices alongside simple circuits. Here we report an electronic-photonic system on a single chip integrating over 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components that work together to provide logic, memory, and interconnect functions. This system is a realization of a microprocessor that uses on-chip photonic devices to directly communicate with other chips using light. To integrate electronics and photonics at the scale of a microprocessor chip, we adopt a ‘zero-change’ approach to the integration of photonics. Instead of developing a custom process to enable the fabrication of photonics, which would complicate or eliminate the possibility of integration with state-of-the-art transistors at large scale and at high yield, we design optical devices using a standard microelectronics foundry process that is used for modern microprocessors. This demonstration could represent the beginning of an era of chip-scale electronic-photonic systems with the potential to transform computing system architectures, enabling more powerful computers, from network infrastructure to data centres and supercomputers.

  16. Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Wade, Mark T; Lee, Yunsup; Orcutt, Jason S; Alloatti, Luca; Georgas, Michael S; Waterman, Andrew S; Shainline, Jeffrey M; Avizienis, Rimas R; Lin, Sen; Moss, Benjamin R; Kumar, Rajesh; Pavanello, Fabio; Atabaki, Amir H; Cook, Henry M; Ou, Albert J; Leu, Jonathan C; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Asanović, Krste; Ram, Rajeev J; Popović, Miloš A; Stojanović, Vladimir M

    2015-12-24

    Data transport across short electrical wires is limited by both bandwidth and power density, which creates a performance bottleneck for semiconductor microchips in modern computer systems--from mobile phones to large-scale data centres. These limitations can be overcome by using optical communications based on chip-scale electronic-photonic systems enabled by silicon-based nanophotonic devices. However, combining electronics and photonics on the same chip has proved challenging, owing to microchip manufacturing conflicts between electronics and photonics. Consequently, current electronic-photonic chips are limited to niche manufacturing processes and include only a few optical devices alongside simple circuits. Here we report an electronic-photonic system on a single chip integrating over 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components that work together to provide logic, memory, and interconnect functions. This system is a realization of a microprocessor that uses on-chip photonic devices to directly communicate with other chips using light. To integrate electronics and photonics at the scale of a microprocessor chip, we adopt a 'zero-change' approach to the integration of photonics. Instead of developing a custom process to enable the fabrication of photonics, which would complicate or eliminate the possibility of integration with state-of-the-art transistors at large scale and at high yield, we design optical devices using a standard microelectronics foundry process that is used for modern microprocessors. This demonstration could represent the beginning of an era of chip-scale electronic-photonic systems with the potential to transform computing system architectures, enabling more powerful computers, from network infrastructure to data centres and supercomputers. PMID:26701054

  17. Progress in ion torrent semiconductor chip based sequencing.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Barry; Rothberg, Jonathan M

    2012-12-01

    In order for next-generation sequencing to become widely used as a diagnostic in the healthcare industry, sequencing instrumentation will need to be mass produced with a high degree of quality and economy. One way to achieve this is to recast DNA sequencing in a format that fully leverages the manufacturing base created for computer chips, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip fabrication, which is the current pinnacle of large scale, high quality, low-cost manufacturing of high technology. To achieve this, ideally the entire sensory apparatus of the sequencer would be embodied in a standard semiconductor chip, manufactured in the same fab facilities used for logic and memory chips. Recently, such a sequencing chip, and the associated sequencing platform, has been developed and commercialized by Ion Torrent, a division of Life Technologies, Inc. Here we provide an overview of this semiconductor chip based sequencing technology, and summarize the progress made since its commercial introduction. We described in detail the progress in chip scaling, sequencing throughput, read length, and accuracy. We also summarize the enhancements in the associated platform, including sample preparation, data processing, and engagement of the broader development community through open source and crowdsourcing initiatives. PMID:23208921

  18. "Chips with Everything": A Laboratory Exercise for Comparing Subjective and Objective Measurements of Potato Chips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    The following laboratory exercise was designed to aid student understanding of the differences between subjective and objective measurements. Students assess the color and texture of different varieties of potato chip (crisps) by means of an intensity rating scale and a rank test and objectively with a colorimeter and texture analyzer. For data…

  19. Capture and Release of Cancer Cells by Combining On-Chip Purification and Off-Chip Enzymatic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaolei; Wang, Bingrui; Zhang, Nangang; Yin, Changqing; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Lingling; Cai, Bo; He, Zhaobo; Rao, Lang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Fu-Bing; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-11-01

    As "liquid biopsies", circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been thought to hold significant insights for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Despite the advances of microfluidic techniques that improve the capture of CTCs to a certain extent, recovering the captured CTCs with enhanced purity at the same time remains a challenge. Here, by combining on-chip purification and off-chip enzymatic treatment, we demonstrate a two-stage strategy to enhance the purity of captured cancer cells from blood samples. The on-chip purification introduces a stirring flow to increase the capture sensitivity and decrease nonspecifically bounded cells. The off-chip enzymatic treatment enables the cancer cells to be released from the attached magnetic beads, further improving the purity and enabling next reculture. For the proof-of-concept study, spiked cancer cells are successfully obtained from unprocessed whole blood with high recovery rate (∼68%) and purity (∼61%), facilitating subsequent RNA expression analysis. PMID:26488449

  20. Optofluidic router based on tunable liquid-liquid mirrors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Philipp; Kopp, Daniel; Llobera, Andreu; Zappe, Hans

    2014-02-21

    We present an electrically tunable 1 × 5 optofluidic router for on-chip light routing. The device can redirect light from an optical input channel into five output channels by exploiting total internal reflection (TIR) at a liquid-liquid interface. The liquid-liquid mirrors, demonstrated for the first time, are tuned using integrated electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) actuators. The router is assembled from two chips fabricated by standard MEMS techniques. Through a combination of microfluidic with micro-optical components on chip, reliable light routing is achieved with switching times of [1.5-3.3] s, efficiencies of coupling into channels of up to 12%, optical cross-talk as low as -24 dB, a required drive voltage of 50 V, and a low power consumption of <5 mW, using a device 12 × 13 × 2 mm(3) in size. The optofluidic approach enables addressing of multiple channels over a broad wavelength range. Such optical routing capabilities are important for lab-on-chip devices focusing on optical spectroscopy, optical detection, or even optical manipulation. When integrated with external light sources and a low-cost disposable photonic lab-on-a-chip, the router could thus lead to novel laboratory measurement systems. PMID:24287814

  1. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Production and Performance Test Results With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Propellant Tank for the X33 RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes in-detail a test program that was initiated at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) involving the cryogenic densification of liquid oxygen (LO2). A large scale LO2 propellant densification system rated for 200 gpm and sized for the X-33 LO2 propellant tank, was designed, fabricated and tested at the GRC. Multiple objectives of the test program included validation of LO2 production unit hardware and characterization of densifier performance at design and transient conditions. First, performance data is presented for an initial series of LO2 densifier screening and check-out tests using densified liquid nitrogen. The second series of tests show performance data collected during LO2 densifier test operations with liquid oxygen as the densified product fluid. An overview of LO2 X-33 tanking operations and load tests with the 20,000 gallon Structural Test Article (STA) are described. Tank loading testing and the thermal stratification that occurs inside of a flight-weight launch vehicle propellant tank were investigated. These operations involved a closed-loop recirculation process of LO2 flow through the densifier and then back into the STA. Finally, in excess of 200,000 gallons of densified LO2 at 120 oR was produced with the propellant densification unit during the demonstration program, an achievement that s never been done before in the realm of large-scale cryogenic tests.

  2. Pore-scale modeling of Capillary Penetration of Wetting Liquid into 3D Fibrous Media: A Critical Examination of Equivalent Capillary Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar; Ghia, Urmila; Comer, Ken

    2013-11-01

    Capillary penetration of liquid through fibrous porous media is important in many applications such as printing, drug delivery patches, sanitary wipes, and performance fabrics. Historically, capillary transport (with a distinct liquid propagating front) in porous media is modeled using capillary-bundle theory. However, it is not clear if the capillary model (Washburn equation) describes the fluid transport in porous media accurately, as it assumes uniformity of pore sizes in the porous medium. The present work investigates the limitations of the applicability of the capillary model by studying liquid penetration through virtual fibrous media with uniform and non-uniform pore-sizes. For the non-uniform-pore fibrous medium, the effective capillary radius of the fibrous medium was estimated from the pore-size distribution curve. Liquid penetration into the 3D virtual fibrous medium at micro-scale was simulated using OpenFOAM, and the numerical results were compared with the Washburn-equation capillary-model predictions. Preliminary results show that the Washburn equation over-predicts the height rise in the early stages (purely inertial and visco-inertial stages) of capillary transport.

  3. Quantitative modeling of the equilibration of two-phase solid-liquid Fe by atomistic simulations on diffusive time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Ebrahim; Asle Zaeem, Mohsen; Nouranian, Sasan; Baskes, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the modified-embedded atom method (MEAM) and a phase-field crystal (PFC) model are utilized to quantitatively investigate the solid-liquid properties of Fe. A set of second nearest-neighbor MEAM parameters for high-temperature applications are developed for Fe, and the solid-liquid coexisting approach is utilized in MD simulations to accurately calculate the melting point, expansion in melting, latent heat, and solid-liquid interface free energy, and surface anisotropy. The required input properties to determine the PFC model parameters, such as liquid structure factor and fluctuations of atoms in the solid, are also calculated from MD simulations. The PFC parameters are calculated utilizing an iterative procedure from the inputs of MD simulations. The solid-liquid interface free energy and surface anisotropy are calculated using the PFC simulations. Very good agreement is observed between the results of our calculations from MEAM-MD and PFC simulations and the available modeling and experimental results in the literature. As an application of the developed model, the grain boundary free energy of Fe is calculated using the PFC model and the results are compared against experiments.

  4. World with Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Although we are well advised to look at the future 1 day at a time, we have seen in the chapters of this book, and they necessarily could cover only a selection on the features and applications of those tiny chips, that their potential continues to grow at the exceptional rates of the past. However, the new commitment has to be towards Sustainable Nanoelectronics, guided by creating sensing, computing, memory, and communication functions, which move just a few electrons per operation, each operation consuming energy less than one or a few femtojoule, less than any of the 1014 synapses in our brains. At these energy levels, chips can serve everywhere, making them ubiquitous, pervasive, certainly wireless, and often energy-autonomous. The expected six Billion users of these chips in 2020, through their mobile, intelligent companions, will benefit from global and largely equal access to information, education, knowledge, skills, and care.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids.

  6. Atomic-Scale Structural Evolution and Stability of Supercooled Liquid of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.; Dong, Y. D.; Lu, J.

    2011-05-27

    In this Letter, direct experimental evidence is provided for understanding the thermal stability with respect to crystallization in the Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} glass-forming liquid. Through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, the atomic-structure evolution in the glass-forming liquid during the isothermal annealing process is clearly revealed. In contrast with the existing theoretical models, our results reveal that, prior to nanocrystallization, there exists a metastable state prone to forming icosahedralike atomic clusters, which impede the subsequent crystallization and hence stabilize the supercooled liquid. The outcome of the current research underpins the topological origin for the excellent thermal stability displayed by the Zr-based bulk metallic glass.

  7. Chipping citrus wood for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

  8. Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and would add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or deplete the soil of critica...

  9. Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips deplete the soil of critical nutrients necessary for tree g...

  10. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  11. Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Shah, Gaurav J.; Chen, Supin; Keng, Pei Yuin; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”; van Dam, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidic chips provide a new platform for manipulating chemicals for multi-step chemical synthesis or assays at the microscale. The organic solvents and reagents needed for these applications are often volatile, sensitive to contamination, and wetting, i.e. have contact angles of < 90° even on the highly hydrophobic surfaces (e.g., Teflon® or Cytop®) typically used on digital microfluidic chips. Furthermore, often the applications dictate that the processes are performed in a gas environment, not allowing the use of a filler liquid (e.g., oil). These properties pose challenges for delivering controlled volumes of liquid to the chip. An automated, simple, accurate and reliable method of delivering reagents from sealed, off-chip reservoirs is presented here. This platform overcomes the issues of evaporative losses of volatile solvents, cross-contamination, and flooding of the chip by combining a syringe pump, a simple on-chip liquid detector and a robust interface design. The impedance-based liquid detection requires only minimal added hardware to provide a feedback signal to ensure accurate volumes of volatile solvents are introduced to the chip, independent of time delays between dispensing operations. On-demand dispensing of multiple droplets of acetonitrile, a frequently used but difficult to handle solvent due to its wetting properties and volatility, was demonstrated and used to synthesize the positron emission tomography (PET) probe [18F]FDG reliably. PMID:22825699

  12. Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Shah, Gaurav J; Chen, Supin; Keng, Pei Yuin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; van Dam, R Michael

    2012-09-21

    Digital microfluidic chips provide a new platform for manipulating chemicals for multi-step chemical synthesis or assays at the microscale. The organic solvents and reagents needed for these applications are often volatile, sensitive to contamination, and wetting, i.e. have contact angles of <90° even on the highly hydrophobic surfaces (e.g., Teflon® or Cytop®) typically used on digital microfluidic chips. Furthermore, often the applications dictate that the processes are performed in a gas environment, not allowing the use of a filler liquid (e.g., oil). These properties pose challenges for delivering controlled volumes of liquid to the chip. An automated, simple, accurate and reliable method of delivering reagents from sealed, off-chip reservoirs is presented here. This platform overcomes the issues of evaporative losses of volatile solvents, cross-contamination, and flooding of the chip by combining a syringe pump, a simple on-chip liquid detector and a robust interface design. The impedance-based liquid detection requires only minimal added hardware to provide a feedback signal to ensure accurate volumes of volatile solvents are introduced to the chip, independent of time delays between dispensing operations. On-demand dispensing of multiple droplets of acetonitrile, a frequently used but difficult to handle solvent due to its wetting properties and volatility, was demonstrated and used to synthesize the positron emission tomography (PET) probe [(18)F]FDG reliably. PMID:22825699

  13. Liquid-crystal periodic zigzags from geometrical and surface-anchoring-induced confinement: Origin and internal structure from mesoscopic scale to molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dong Ki; Yoon, Jinhwan; Kim, Yun Ho; Choi, M. C.; Kim, Jehan; Sakata, Osami; Kimura, Shigeru; Kim, Mahn Won; Smalyukh, Ivan I.; Clark, Noel A.; Ree, Moonhor; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2010-10-01

    We figured out periodic undulations of lamellae “zigzags” in liquid crystals under confinement by glass and patterned silicon hybrid cell, but in the absence of applied fields. The optical and internal structures of zigzags have been investigated from mesoscopic scale to molecular level by convoluting real and reciprocal space probes, such as polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microbeam x-ray diffraction. The homeotropic anchoring happens at air/liquid crystal, while planar one appears at glass or patterned silicon surfaces. The wetting and displacement of lamellae near the glass surface give rise to tilting and bending in the stacking of lamellae. This can provide a solution for the origin of periodic zigzags: asymmetric strain exerted to lamellae at two-dimensional glass surface and one-dimensional-like pattern. This can give a hint for potential photonic applications such as optical gratings and modulators due to its high periodicity.

  14. Chip connectivity verification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.

  15. Absorption of sparingly soluble gases by reactive media in self-aerated gas-liquid contactors: A scale-up procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Zundelevich, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Absorption of sparingly soluble gases, such as NO or O{sub 2}, is greatly enhanced if the latter react with the media. Among a dozen of reactive solvents for NO{sub x} abatement, aqueous acidic urea appears the most economically and environmentally attractive because urea is a cheap reagent and because products of reaction of urea with nitrous acid, formed in the liquid phase via absorption of NO and NO{sub 2}, are carbon dioxide and nitrogen, which can be directly released into the atmosphere. That makes urea process unique among other wet scrubbing processes that routinely produce secondary waste. Its full potential has never been realized, perhaps due to the lack of an efficient gas-liquid contactor to overcome low solubility of NO in aqueous solutions. LLNL has recently designed and built a bench scale gas-liquid contactor for nitric acid regeneration with oxygen. The contactor proved very effective in overcoming the problem of low solubility of oxygen converting back to nitric acid approximately 99% of nitrous acid formed at the cathode (which would otherwise convert to NO{sub x}). The bench scale contactor consists of a 12 inch diameter tank with self-inducting impeller/aerator of very high gas capacity. The aerator represents a 3.5 inch turbine mounted on a vertical shaft inside the draft tube equipped with a stator. During operation the lower half of the turbine induces liquid and the upper half induces gas from the draft tube. The new contactor offers two approaches to solving the NO{sub x} pollution problem. Where full recovery of nitric acid is desired, oxygen can be fed into the contactor to convert nitrous acid into nitric. This approach was demonstrated at LLNL. Alternately, in the proposed acidic urea process nitrous acid, as it forms from NO{sub x}, would be converted to nitrogen, water and carbon dioxide.

  16. Opto-electronic DNA chip-based integrated card for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Gilles; Broyer, Patrick; Lanet, Véronique; Delattre, Cyril; Foucault, Frédéric; Menou, Lionel; Calvas, Bernard; Roller, Denis; Ginot, Frédéric; Campagnolo, Raymond; Mallard, Frédéric

    2008-02-01

    Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip or lab-on-card systems. DNA chips, which provide multiparametric data, are privileged tools for genomic analysis. However, automation of molecular biology protocol and use of these DNA chips in fully integrated systems remains a great challenge. Simplicity of chip and/or card/instrument interfaces is amongst the most critical issues to be addressed. Indeed, current detection systems for DNA chip reading are often complex, expensive, bulky and even limited in terms of sensitivity or accuracy. Furthermore, for liquid handling in the lab-on-cards, many devices use complex and bulky systems, either to directly manipulate fluids, or to ensure pneumatic or mechanical control of integrated valves. All these drawbacks prevent or limit the use of DNA-chip-based integrated systems, for point-of-care testing or as a routine diagnostics tool. We present here a DNA-chip-based protocol integration on a plastic card for clinical diagnostics applications including: (1) an opto-electronic DNA-chip, (2) fluid handling using electrically activated embedded pyrotechnic microvalves with closing/opening functions. We demonstrate both fluidic and electric packaging of the optoelectronic DNA chip without major alteration of its electronical and biological functionalities, and fluid control using novel electrically activable pyrotechnic microvalves. Finally, we suggest a complete design of a card dedicated to automation of a complex biological protocol with a fully electrical fluid handling and DNA chip reading. PMID:17636395

  17. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multicomponent metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamical aspects of a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (self diffusion coefficient, self relaxation time, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx˜1300 K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs well above the melting point of the system (Tm˜900 K) in the equilibrium liquid state; and the crossover temperature Tx is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature of the system (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a nonparametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter α2 and the four-point correlation function χ4.

  18. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature ismore » roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.« less

  19. In-silico experiments on characteristic time scale at a shear-free gas-liquid interface in fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Ryuichi; Handler, Robert A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to model scalar transfer mechanisms in a fully developed turbulence for accurate predictions of the turbulent scalar flux across a shear-free gas-liquid interface. The concept of the surface-renewal approximation (Dankwerts, 1951) is introduced in this study to establish the predictive models for the interfacial scalar flux. Turbulent flow realizations obtained by a direct numerical simulation technique are employed to prepare details of three-dimensional information on turbulence in the region very close to the interface. Two characteristic time scales at the interface have been examined for exact prediction of the scalar transfer flux. One is the time scale which is reciprocal of the root-mean-square surface divergence, Tγ = langleγγrangle-1/2, where γ is the surface divergence. The other time scale to be examined is TS = Λ/V, where Λ is the zero-correlation length of the surface divergence as the interfacial length scale, and V is the root-mean-square velocity fluctuation in the streamwise direction as the interfacial velocity scale. The results of this study suggests that Tγ is slightly unsatisfactory to correlate the turbulent scalar flux at the gas-liquid interface based on the surface-renewal approximation. It is also found that the proportionality constant appear to be 0.19, which is different with that observed in the laboratory experiments, 0.34 (Komori, Murakami, & Ueda, 1989). It is concluded that the time scale, Tγ, is considered a different kind of the time scale observed in the laboratory experiments. On the other hand, the present in-silico experiments indicate that Ts predicts the turbulent scalar flux based on the surface-renewal approximation in a satisfactory manner. It is also elucidated that the proportionality constant for Ts is approximately 0.36, which is very close to that found by the laboratory experiments. This fact shows that the time scale Ts appears to be essentially the same as the time scale the

  20. BLOOD-ON-A-CHIP

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Mehmet; Irimia, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, fast, and affordable analysis of the cellular component of blood is of prime interest for medicine and research. Yet, most often sample preparation procedures for blood analysis involve handling steps prone to introducing artifacts, whereas analysis methods commonly require skilled technicians and well-equipped, expensive laboratories. Developing more gentle protocols and affordable instruments for specific blood analysis tasks is becoming possible through the recent progress in the area of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip-type devices. Precise control over the cell microenvironment during separation procedures and the ability to scale down the analysis to very small volumes of blood are among the most attractive capabilities of the new approaches. Here we review some of the emerging principles for manipulating blood cells at microscale and promising high-throughput approaches to blood cell separation using microdevices. Examples of specific single-purpose devices are described together with integration strategies for blood cell separation and analysis modules. PMID:16004567

  1. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  2. Chip level modeling of LSI devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The advent of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology has rendered the gate level model impractical for many simulation activities critical to the design automation process. As an alternative, an approach to the modeling of VLSI devices at the chip level is described, including the specification of modeling language constructs important to the modeling process. A model structure is presented in which models of the LSI devices are constructed as single entities. The modeling structure is two layered. The functional layer in this structure is used to model the input/output response of the LSI chip. A second layer, the fault mapping layer, is added, if fault simulations are required, in order to map the effects of hardware faults onto the functional layer. Modeling examples for each layer are presented. Fault modeling at the chip level is described. Approaches to realistic functional fault selection and defining fault coverage for functional faults are given. Application of the modeling techniques to single chip and bit slice microprocessors is discussed.

  3. [Informational and analytical system for the support of decision making during liquidation of consequences of a large-scale radiation accident].

    PubMed

    Zlatoustov, N N; Bizin, I A; Bondarenko, I M; Kaganov, V M; Grenkova, G K

    2001-07-01

    The developed information and analytic system (IAS) of decision making support in liquidation medical-and-sanitary consequences of the large-scale radiation accidents permits on the base of computer models to evaluate the size and degree of territorial radioactive pollution, the radiation doses, the number and structure of radiation affection, the forces and means of medical service required for rendering the casualties the first medical aid as well as to compare the available and necessary medical forces and means. IAS is intended for equipping the toxicologist-radiologist's working place. To solve the private problems the IAS computer methods can be used both in complex and autonomously. PMID:11561428

  4. Up the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Scale to Demonstrate a Robust, Long Life, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber, or...Up the Downstairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; McKechnie, Timothy; Power, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Advanced vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technology, utilized to successfully apply thermal barrier coatings to space shuttle main engine turbine blades, was further refined as a functional gradient material (FGM) process for space furnace cartridge experiments at 1600 C and for robust, long life combustion chambers for liquid rocket engines. A VPS/FGM 5K (5,000 lb. thrust) thruster has undergone 220 hot firing tests, in pristine condition, showing no wear, blanching or cooling channel cracks. Most recently, this technology has been applied to a 40K thruster, with scale up planned for a 194K Ares I, J-2X engine.

  5. Radiometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  6. A low pressure on-chip injection strategy for high-performance chip-based chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thurmann, S; Dittmar, A; Belder, D

    2014-05-01

    A microfluidic device for high-performance liquid chromatography is presented. The borosilicate glass chip includes a common cross-channel injector and a column chamber. The column chamber comprises two constrictions (10 μm) to retain the chromatographic particles via the keystone effect. A packing channel was utilized to introduce the particulate material (3-μm). This channel has been sealed permanently via laser-assisted photopolymerization avoiding dead volumes within the chromatographic pathway. A sampling strategy is presented enabling the directed definition of the sample plug on-chip. The injection process is studied via video microscopy and chromatographic separations of test solutes with fluorescence detection. Our approach, based on on-chip flow splitting, allows the usage of traditional, economic and robust HPLC instrumentation avoiding the need for sophisticated nano-flow equipment. The performance of the chip device and the injection process was demonstrated by reversed-phase chromatographic separations of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons achieving constant high efficiencies for the chromatographic signals over the whole elution window. PMID:24674642

  7. Controlling materials architecture on the nanometer-scale: PPV nanocomposites via polymerizable lyotropic liquid crystals[Poly(p-phenylenevinylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.C.; Deng, H.; Fischer, W.M.; Gin, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    The authors have developed a general strategy for the construction of ordered nanocomposites with hexagonal symmetry, using polymerizable lyotropic (i.e., amphiphilic) liquid crystals. In this approach, self-organizing lyotropic liquid-crystalline monomers are used to form an ordered template matrix in the presence of a reactive hydrophilic solution. Subsequent photopolymerization to lock-in the matrix architecture, followed by initiation of chemistry within the ordered hydrophilic domains to afford solid-state fillers, yields the anisotropic nanocomposites. Composites have been synthesized that have a regular hexagonal arrangement of extended poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) domains, with a regular interchannel spacing of 4 nm. The photoluminescence of these materials is significantly altered from that of bulk PPV. The dimensions of these nanocomposites can be tuned by varying the size of the hydrophobic tails and/or the nature of the counterion associated with the hydrophilic headgroup of the monomer.

  8. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.

  9. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol process. Technical progress report number 8, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallon per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern-day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small (10 TPD), DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers. A carefully developed test plan will allow operations at Eastman to simulate electricity demand load-following in coal-based IGCC facilities. The operations will also demonstrate the enhanced stability and heat dissipation of the conversion process, its reliable on/off operation, and its ability to produce methanol as a clean liquid fuel without additional upgrading.

  10. Statistical mechanics of Roskilde liquids: Configurational adiabats, specific heat contours, and density dependence of the scaling exponent

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Nicholas P.; Bøhling, Lasse; Veldhorst, Arno A.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2013-11-14

    We derive exact results for the rate of change of thermodynamic quantities, in particular, the configurational specific heat at constant volume, C{sub V}, along configurational adiabats (curves of constant excess entropy S{sub ex}). Such curves are designated isomorphs for so-called Roskilde liquids, in view of the invariance of various structural and dynamical quantities along them. The slope of the isomorphs in a double logarithmic representation of the density-temperature phase diagram, γ, can be interpreted as one third of an effective inverse power-law potential exponent. We show that in liquids where γ increases (decreases) with density, the contours of C{sub V} have smaller (larger) slope than configurational adiabats. We clarify also the connection between γ and the pair potential. A fluctuation formula for the slope of the C{sub V}-contours is derived. The theoretical results are supported with data from computer simulations of two systems, the Lennard-Jones fluid, and the Girifalco fluid. The sign of dγ/dρ is thus a third key parameter in characterizing Roskilde liquids, after γ and the virial-potential energy correlation coefficient R. To go beyond isomorph theory we compare invariance of a dynamical quantity, the self-diffusion coefficient, along adiabats and C{sub V}-contours, finding it more invariant along adiabats.

  11. Orientational and translational correlations of liquid methane over the nanometer-picosecond scales by molecular dynamics simulation and inelastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Sampoli, M; Guarini, E; Bafile, U; Barocchi, F

    2011-10-21

    Five models for the site-site intermolecular pair interactions of methane are compared in some detail and used to investigate both structural and dynamical properties of the dense liquid deuteromethane by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The orientational distribution probabilities of molecular pairs are carefully analyzed for each anisotropic potential model. We propose a revision of existing classification methods used to group the innumerable relative orientations of methane-methane pairs into six basic geometries. With this new approach, our results for the probability of the six basic categories as a function of the intermolecular distance are different from the ones present in the literature, where the role of the angular spread on the anisotropic interaction energy is not taken in full consideration and certain configurations with no significant change in the pair-potential are assigned to different categories. The analysis of the static orientational correlations in liquid methane and the prevalence of certain configurations in different ranges guide the subsequent discussion of the MD model-dependent results for the dynamic structure factor. Comparison with our inelastic neutron scattering results for liquid CD(4) at the nanometer and picosecond space and time scales allows us to confirm the full adequacy of the Tsuzuki, Uchimaru and Tanabe model of 1998 with respect to more recent potentials. PMID:22029325

  12. Studies on structural, thermal and AC conductivity scaling of PEO-LiPF6 polymer electrolyte with added ionic liquid [BMIMPF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, S. K.; Saroj, A. L.; Shalu, Singh, V. K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Verma, Y. L.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-07-01

    Preparation and characterization of polymer electrolyte films of PEO+10wt.% LiPF6 + xwt.% BMIMPF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) containing dopant salt lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and ionic liquid (BMIMPF6) having common anion PF6 - are reported. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte films has been found to increase with increasing concentration of BMIMPF6 in PEO+10 wt.% LiPF6 due to the plasticization effect of ionic liquid. DSC and XRD results show that the crystallinity of polymer electrolyte decreases with BMIMPF6 concentration which, in turn, is responsible for the increase in ionic conductivity. FTIR spectroscopic study shows the complexation of salt and/or ionic liquid cations with the polymer backbone. Ion dynamics behavior of PEO+LiPF6 as well as PEO+LiPF6 + BMIMPF6 polymer electrolytes was studied by frequency dependent conductivity, σ(f) measurements. The values σ(f) at various temperatures have been analyzed in terms of Jonscher power law (JPL) and scaled with respect to frequency which shows universal power law characteristics at all temperatures.

  13. Novel SCS-IL-MP2 and SOS-IL-MP2 Methods for Accurate Energetics of Large-Scale Ionic Liquid Clusters.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Jason; Barrera Acevedo, Santiago; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I

    2015-08-11

    Accurate energetics of intermolecular interactions in condensed systems are challenging to predict using highly correlated quantum chemical methods due to their great computational expense. Semi-Coulomb systems such as ionic liquids, in which electrostatic, dispersion, and induction forces are equally important, represent a further challenge for wave function-based methods. Here, the application of our recently developed SCS-IL-MP2 and SOS-IL-MP2 methods is reported for ionic liquid clusters of two and four ion pairs. Correlation interaction energies were found to be within 1.5 kJ mol(-1), on average, per ion pair of the CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark, thus introducing a marked improvement by a factor of 4 to conventional MP2 within the complete basis set. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) approach in combination with both SCS-IL-MP2 and SOS-IL-MP2 has been shown to provide a reliable and computationally inexpensive alternative to CCSD(T)/CBS for large-scale calculations of ionic liquids, thus paving the way toward feasible ab initio molecular dynamics and development of reliable force fields for these condensed systems. PMID:26574444

  14. Effect of gas-liquid flow pattern and microbial diversity analysis of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter for anoxic biogas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Almenglo, Fernando; Bezerra, Tercia; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David; Ramírez, Martín; Cantero, Domingo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas was studied under anoxic conditions in a pilot-scale biotrickling filter operated under counter- and co-current gas-liquid flow patterns. The best performance was found under counter-current conditions (maximum elimination capacity of 140 gS m(-3) h(-1)). Nevertheless, switching conditions between co- and counter-current flow lead to a favorable redistribution of biomass and elemental sulfur along the bed height. Moreover, elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate when the feeding biogas was disconnected and the supply of nitrate (electron acceptor) was maintained. Removal of elemental sulfur was important to prevent clogging in the packed bed and, thereby, to increase the lifespan of the packed bed between maintenance episodes. The larger elemental sulfur removal rate during shutdowns was 59.1 gS m(-3) h(-1). Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing was used to study the diversity of bacteria under co-current flow pattern with liquid recirculation and counter-current mode with a single-pass flow of the liquid phase. The main desulfurizing bacteria were Sedimenticola while significant role of heterotrophic, opportunistic species was envisaged. Remarkable differences between communities were found when a single-pass flow of industrial water was fed to the biotrickling filter. PMID:27231880

  15. Diffusion driven optofluidic dye lasers encapsulated into polymer chips.

    PubMed

    Wienhold, Tobias; Breithaupt, Felix; Vannahme, Christoph; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Dörfler, Willy; Kristensen, Anders; Mappes, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems made of polymers are promising for the integration of active optical elements, enabling e.g. on-chip excitation of fluorescent markers or spectroscopy. In this work we present diffusion operation of tunable optofluidic dye lasers in a polymer foil. We demonstrate that these first order distributed feedback lasers can be operated for more than 90 min at a pulse repetition rate of 2 Hz without fluidic pumping. Ultra-high output pulse energies of more than 10 μJ and laser thresholds of 2 μJ are achieved for resonator lengths of 3 mm. By introducing comparatively large on-chip dye solution reservoirs, the required exchange of dye molecules is accomplished solely by diffusion. Polymer chips the size of a microscope cover slip (18 × 18 mm(2)) were fabricated in batches on a wafer using a commercially available polymer (TOPAS(®) Cyclic Olefin Copolymer). Thermal imprinting of micro- and nanoscale structures into 100 μm foils simultaneously defines photonic resonators, liquid-core waveguides, and fluidic reservoirs. Subsequently, the fluidic structures are sealed with another 220 μm foil by thermal bonding. Tunability of laser output wavelengths over a spectral range of 24 nm on a single chip is accomplished by varying the laser grating period in steps of 2 nm. Low-cost manufacturing suitable for mass production, wide laser tunability, ultra-high output pulse energies, and long operation times without external fluidic pumping make these on-chip lasers suitable for a wide range of lab-on-a-chip applications, e.g. on-chip spectroscopy, biosensing, excitation of fluorescent markers, or surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). PMID:22820609

  16. On testing VLSI chips for the big Viterbi decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, I. S.

    1989-01-01

    A general technique that can be used in testing very large scale integrated (VLSI) chips for the Big Viterbi Decoder (BVD) system is described. The test technique is divided into functional testing and fault-coverage testing. The purpose of functional testing is to verify that the design works functionally. Functional test vectors are converted from outputs of software simulations which simulate the BVD functionally. Fault-coverage testing is used to detect and, in some cases, to locate faulty components caused by bad fabrication. This type of testing is useful in screening out bad chips. Finally, design for testability, which is included in the BVD VLSI chip design, is described in considerable detail. Both the observability and controllability of a VLSI chip are greatly enhanced by including the design for the testability feature.

  17. System on a Chip (SoC) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    System-on-a-chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) refers to integrating all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single integrated circuit (chip). It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions all on a single chip substrate. Complexity drives it all: Radiation tolerance and testability are challenges for fault isolation, propagation, and validation. Bigger single silicon die than flown before and technology is scaling below 90nm (new qual methods). Packages have changed and are bigger and more difficult to inspect, test, and understand. Add in embedded passives. Material interfaces are more complex (underfills, processing). New rules for board layouts. Mechanical and thermal designs, etc.

  18. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    DOEpatents

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  19. A single chip microcontroller based portable multichannel analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahid

    1987-06-01

    The development of a portable multichannel analyzer for gamma spectroscopy applications is described. The developed unit is based on the Intel 8751 single chip microcontroller and has CRT and liquid crystal displays, preamplifying and amplifying sections, high voltage supply, built-in printer and runs on rechargeable batteries. The design uses standard off the shelf components, minimizes chip count by using all the microcontroller's resources and implementing most functions in software, and this results in a low cost system with good performance. Hardware and software design along with their integration are discussed.

  20. Development of a fast thermal response microfluidic system using liquid metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Gui, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Room temperature liquid metal gallium alloy has been widely used in many micro-electromechanical systems applications, such as on-chip electrical microheaters, micro temperature sensors, micro pumps and so on. Injecting liquid metal into microchannels can provide a simple, rapid, low-cost but efficient way to integrate these elements in microfluidic chips with high accuracy. The liquid metal-filled microstructures can be designed in any shape and easily integrated into microfluidic chips. In this paper, an on-chip liquid metal-based thermal microfluidic system is proposed for quick temperature control at the microscale. The micro system utilizes just one microfluidic chip as a basic working platform, which has liquid metal-based on-chip heaters, temperature sensors and electroosmotic flow pumps. Under the comprehensive control of these elements, the micro system can quickly change the temperature of a target fluid in the microfluidic chip. These liquid metal-based on-chip elements are very helpful for the fabrication and miniaturization of the microfluidic chip. In this paper, deionized water is used to test the temperature control performance of the thermal microfluidic system. According to the experimental results, the micro system can efficiently control the temperature of water ranging from 28 °C to 90 °C. The thermal microfluidic system has great potential for use in many microfluidic applications, such as on-chip polymerase chain reaction, temperature gradient focusing, protein crystallization and chemical synthesis.

  1. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOEpatents

    Bakajin, Olgica; Holt, Jason; Noy, Aleksandr; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  2. Modulation-enabled tapered remote coupler: all-optical communication on and off chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Tian; Nair, Rohit; Haney, Michael W.

    2010-02-01

    The "Modulation-Enabled Tapered Remote Coupler" (METRoC) is introduced targeting the integration of on-chip and off-chip optical interconnects. With Moore's law scaling of CMOS critical dimensions, the computing power of modern microprocessors has grown rapidly. Future multi-core chips will demand aggregate on- and off-chip bandwidths in the TBytes/sec regime. However, metal on-chip global interconnections and off-chip communications do not scale commensurately with the CMOS device sizes, resulting in challenges to meet the growing bandwidth requirements within acceptable power budgets. Optics is a potential solution to replace the fundamentally limited electrical interconnects. Recent advancements in optical and optoelectronic component fabrication and manufacturing processes may enable implementation of optical interconnects at the chip-scale. An optical solution that seamlessly integrates the two domains is highly desirable. The METRoC is proposed as a compact optical interconnect fabric that obviates the need for opto-electronic and electrooptic conversions when signals propagate between the on-chip and off-chip domains. Multiple quantum well (MQW) devices are chosen as the optical modulators and photodetectors. The key aspect of METRoC is the modulationenhanced prismatic structures embedded in waveguides, which enable the direct coupling from the integrated MQW devices to the intra-chip guided-wave fabrics. Additionally, tapered remote couplers can provide free-space interconnections between chips or remote regions on-chip. Both coupling structures have small footprint areas and hence are projected to provide high bandwidth densities. The fabrication process is compatible with silicon CMOS processes. The coupling fabric can also be used to optically interconnect two silicon die within a multichip module.

  3. Engineering scale development of the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Mills, W.H.

    1993-09-01

    Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)SiC fibrils are used as reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites (CMC). A program has been completed for determining process scaleup parameters and to produce material for evaluation in a CMC. The scaleup is necessary to lower production cost and increase material availability. Scaleup parameters were evaluated in a reactor with a vertical dimension twice that of the LANL reactor. Results indicate that the scaleup will be possible. Feasibility of recycling process gas was demonstrated and the impact of postprocessing on yields determined.

  4. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  5. Invisibility Cloak Printed on a Photonic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhen; Wu, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Xi; Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Xian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Invisibility cloak capable of hiding an object can be achieved by properly manipulating electromagnetic field. Such a remarkable ability has been shown in transformation and ray optics. Alternatively, it may be realistic to create a spatial cloak by means of confining electromagnetic field in three-dimensional arrayed waveguides and introducing appropriate collective curvature surrounding an object. We realize the artificial structure in borosilicate by femtosecond laser direct writing, where we prototype up to 5,000 waveguides to conceal millimeter-scale volume. We characterize the performance of the cloak by normalized cross correlation, tomography analysis and continuous three-dimensional viewing angle scan. Our results show invisibility cloak can be achieved in waveguide optics. Furthermore, directly printed invisibility cloak on a photonic chip may enable controllable study and novel applications in classical and quantum integrated photonics, such as invisualising a coupling or swapping operation with on-chip circuits of their own. PMID:27329510

  6. Invisibility Cloak Printed on a Photonic Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhen; Wu, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Xi; Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Xian-Min

    2016-06-01

    Invisibility cloak capable of hiding an object can be achieved by properly manipulating electromagnetic field. Such a remarkable ability has been shown in transformation and ray optics. Alternatively, it may be realistic to create a spatial cloak by means of confining electromagnetic field in three-dimensional arrayed waveguides and introducing appropriate collective curvature surrounding an object. We realize the artificial structure in borosilicate by femtosecond laser direct writing, where we prototype up to 5,000 waveguides to conceal millimeter-scale volume. We characterize the performance of the cloak by normalized cross correlation, tomography analysis and continuous three-dimensional viewing angle scan. Our results show invisibility cloak can be achieved in waveguide optics. Furthermore, directly printed invisibility cloak on a photonic chip may enable controllable study and novel applications in classical and quantum integrated photonics, such as invisualising a coupling or swapping operation with on-chip circuits of their own.

  7. Invisibility Cloak Printed on a Photonic Chip.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhen; Wu, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Yu-Xi; Gao, Jun; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Xian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Invisibility cloak capable of hiding an object can be achieved by properly manipulating electromagnetic field. Such a remarkable ability has been shown in transformation and ray optics. Alternatively, it may be realistic to create a spatial cloak by means of confining electromagnetic field in three-dimensional arrayed waveguides and introducing appropriate collective curvature surrounding an object. We realize the artificial structure in borosilicate by femtosecond laser direct writing, where we prototype up to 5,000 waveguides to conceal millimeter-scale volume. We characterize the performance of the cloak by normalized cross correlation, tomography analysis and continuous three-dimensional viewing angle scan. Our results show invisibility cloak can be achieved in waveguide optics. Furthermore, directly printed invisibility cloak on a photonic chip may enable controllable study and novel applications in classical and quantum integrated photonics, such as invisualising a coupling or swapping operation with on-chip circuits of their own. PMID:27329510

  8. Chips of many colors

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, M.W.; Dorie, L.A.

    1982-07-01

    A large number of available color display tools generally fall into three categories. Intelligent terminals offer a wide range of color grpahics capability but require extensive software for specific applications. Large turn-key graphics systems, with color display consoles controlled by software, were made for electronic design. In color CAD workstations, color graphics is under hardware control and offers specific features for IC design. The authors look at the various colour graphics systems, and their advantages in VLSI chip design.

  9. A large-scale low-background liquid scintillation detector: the counting test facility at Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimonti, G.; Arpesella, C.; Bacchiocchi, G.; Balata, M.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Brigatti, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F. P.; Cavaletti, R.; Cecchet, G.; Chen, M.; Darnton, N.; Debari, A.; Deutsch, M.; Elisei, F.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Galbiati, C.; Garagiola, A.; Gatti, F.; Giammarchi, M. G.; Giugni, D.; Goldbrunner, T.; Golubchikov, A.; Goretti, A.; Grabar, S.; Hagner, T.; Hartmann, F.; von Hentig, R.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Jochum, J.; Johnson, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Loeser, F.; Lombardi, P.; Magni, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manno, I.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Mazzucato, U.; Meroni, E.; Neff, M.; Nisi, S.; Nostro, A.; Oberauer, L.; Perotti, A.; Preda, A.; Raghavan, P.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Resconi, E.; Ruscitti, P.; Scardaoni, R.; Schoenert, S.; Smirnov, O.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Ullucci, P.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Vitale, S.; Zaimidoroga, O.

    1998-02-01

    A 4.8 m3 unsegmented liquid scintillation detector at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso has shown the feasibility of multi-ton low-background detectors operating to energies as low as 250 keV. Detector construction and the handling of large volumes of liquid scintillator to minimize the background are described. The scintillator, 1.5 g PPO/L-pseudocumene, is held in a flexible nylon vessel shielded by 1000 t of purified water. The active detector volume is viewed by 100 photomultipliers, which measure time and charge for each event, from which energy, position and pulse shape are deduced. On-line purification of the scintillator by water extraction, vacuum distillation and nitrogen stripping removed radioactive impurities. Upper limits were established of < 10-7 Bq/kg-scintillator for events with energies 250 keV < E < 800 keV, and < 10-9 Bq/kg-scintillator due to the decay products of uranium and thorium. The isotopic abundance of 14C/12C in the scintillator was shown to be approximately 10-18 by extending the energy window of the detector to 25-250 keV. The 14C abundance and uranium and thorium levels in the CTF are compatible with the Borexino Solar Neutrino Experiment.

  10. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  11. Development and Deployment of a Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filtration System for Treatment of Liquid Low-Level Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.

    2000-05-12

    A full-scale modular solid/liquid separation (SLS) system was designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully deployed for treatment of liquid low-level waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The SLS module, utilizing cross-flow filtration, was operated as part of an integrated tank waste pretreatment system (otherwise known as the Wastewater Triad) to remove suspended solids and prevent fouling of ion-exchange materials and heat exchange surfaces. The information gained from this testing was used to complete design specifications for the full-scale modular SLS system in May 1997. The contract for detailed design and fabrication of the system was awarded to NUMET in July 1997, and the design was completed in January 1998. Fabrication began in March 1998, and the completed system was delivered to ORNL on December 29, 1998. Installation of the system at the MVST facility was completed in May 1999. After completing an operational readiness assessment, approval was given to commence hot operations on June 7, 1999. Operations involving two of the eight MVSTs were performed safely and with very little unscheduled downtime. Filtration of supernatant from tank W-31 was completed on June 24, 1999 and W-26 processing was completed on August 20, 1999. The total volume processed during these two campaigns was about 45,000 gal. The suspended solids content of the liquid processed from tank W-31 was lower than expected, resulting in higher-than-expected filtrate production for nearly the entire operation. The liquid processed from tank W-26 was higher in suspended solids content, and filtrate production was lower, but comparable to the rates expected based on the results of previous pilot-scale, single-element filtration tests. The quality of the filtrate consistently met the requirements for feed to the downstream ion-exchange and evaporation processes. From an equipment and controls standpoint, the modular system (pumps

  12. A VLSI single chip (255,223) Reed-Solomon encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Reed, I. S.; Hsu, I. S.; Truong, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    A description of a working single chip implementation of a Reed-Solomon encoder. The code used is the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard (255,223) code. The architecture that leads to this single very large scale integration chip design makes use of a bit-serial finite field multiplication algorithm of E. R. Berlekamp.

  13. On-Chip Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography. PMID:23558399

  14. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  15. A one-step approach to the large-scale synthesis of functionalized MoS2 nanosheets by ionic liquid assisted grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Yanru; Zhang, Daohong; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhu, Wenxin; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Fangqing; Wang, Shuaixing; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-05-01

    A prerequisite for exploiting most proposed applications for MoS2 is the availability of water-dispersible functionalized MoS2 nanosheets in large quantities. Here we report one-step synthesis and surface functionalization of MoS2 nanosheets by a facile ionic liquid assisted grinding method in the presence of chitosan. The selected ionic liquid with suitable surface energy could efficiently overcome the van der Waals force between the MoS2 layers. Meanwhile, chitosan molecules bind to the plane of MoS2 sheets non-covalently, which prevents the reassembling of exfoliated MoS2 sheets and facilitates the exfoliation progress. The obtained chitosan functionalized MoS2 nanosheets possess favorable stability and biocompatibility, which renders them as promising and biocompatible near-infrared agents for photothermal ablation of cancer. This contribution provides a facile way for the green, one-step and large-scale synthesis of advanced functional MoS2 materials.A prerequisite for exploiting most proposed applications for MoS2 is the availability of water-dispersible functionalized MoS2 nanosheets in large quantities. Here we report one-step synthesis and surface functionalization of MoS2 nanosheets by a facile ionic liquid assisted grinding method in the presence of chitosan. The selected ionic liquid with suitable surface energy could efficiently overcome the van der Waals force between the MoS2 layers. Meanwhile, chitosan molecules bind to the plane of MoS2 sheets non-covalently, which prevents the reassembling of exfoliated MoS2 sheets and facilitates the exfoliation progress. The obtained chitosan functionalized MoS2 nanosheets possess favorable stability and biocompatibility, which renders them as promising and biocompatible near-infrared agents for photothermal ablation of cancer. This contribution provides a facile way for the green, one-step and large-scale synthesis of advanced functional MoS2 materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The

  16. Large-scale liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization in the 1780 Ma Taihang dyke swarm: Implications for genesis of the bimodal Xiong'er volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Xinping; Lai, Yong; Wang, Chong; Windley, Brian F.

    2015-11-01

    Immiscibility is a potential mechanism for the formation of high-Fe-Ti-P rocks; however, whether large-scale segregation and eruption of high-Si lavas can occur in nature has yet to be proven. In this study, we investigate the possibility of immiscibility between the cogenetic 1780 Ma high-Fe-Ti-P-bearing Taihang dykes and the 'bimodal' Xiong'er volcanics in North China. The compositions of silicate melt inclusions in plagioclase megacrysts of the dykes provide a new approach to obtain the primary liquid. Mineral and bulk-rock compositions reveal that large compositional variations in the dykes are the result of plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-dominated fractional crystallization and of density-driven mineral sorting, which together caused the liquids to be poor in Ca-Al but rich in Fe-Ti-P-K, and thus chemically immiscible. Conjugate interstitial granophyric and ilmenite-rich intergrowths and reactive microstructures especially olivine coronas in the dykes, and Si-/Fe-Ti-rich globules in the volcanics, provide petrographic evidence for the presence of two coeval, coexisting liquids in equilibrium separated by a miscibility gap, and thus for immiscibility and segregation/migration. The fractional crystallization and subsequent segregation were responsible for the compositional diversity of the Taihang dykes and also of the 'bimodal' Xiong'er volcanics. Accordingly, the dacite and rhyolite lavas are potentially the high-Si counterparts of the high-Ti dykes, and the basalt and andesite lavas are the erupted equivalents of the relatively low-Ti dykes. It is likely that the sustained plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-dominated fractional crystallization, and the enhanced fO2 were responsible for the immiscibility. The segregation probably took place during the ascent of the liquid in the pumping system (feeder dykes). This likely represents one natural example of crust-scale immiscibility from which many high-Ti dykes and silicic lavas (~ 1/3 volume of the Xiong

  17. Various on-chip sensors with microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hun; Xu, Linfeng; Koh, Domin; Nyayapathi, Nikhila; Oh, Kwang W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review recent advances in on-chip sensors integrated with microfluidics for biological applications. Since the 1990s, much research has concentrated on developing a sensing system using optical phenomena such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to improve the sensitivity of the device. The sensing performance can be significantly enhanced with the use of microfluidic chips to provide effective liquid manipulation and greater flexibility. We describe an optical image sensor with a simpler platform for better performance over a larger field of view (FOV) and greater depth of field (DOF). As a new trend, we review consumer electronics such as smart phones, tablets, Google glasses, etc. which are being incorporated in point-of-care (POC) testing systems. In addition, we discuss in detail the current optical sensing system integrated with a microfluidic chip. PMID:25222033

  18. Various On-Chip Sensors with Microfluidics for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hun; Xu, Linfeng; Koh, Domin; Nyayapathi, Nikhila; Oh, Kwang W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review recent advances in on-chip sensors integrated with microfluidics for biological applications. Since the 1990s, much research has concentrated on developing a sensing system using optical phenomena such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to improve the sensitivity of the device. The sensing performance can be significantly enhanced with the use of microfluidic chips to provide effective liquid manipulation and greater flexibility. We describe an optical image sensor with a simpler platform for better performance over a larger field of view (FOV) and greater depth of field (DOF). As a new trend, we review consumer electronics such as smart phones, tablets, Google glasses, etc. which are being incorporated in point-of-care (POC) testing systems. In addition, we discuss in detail the current optical sensing system integrated with a microfluidic chip. PMID:25222033

  19. A hybrid molecular dynamics/fluctuating hydrodynamics method for modelling liquids at multiple scales in space and time.

    PubMed

    Korotkin, Ivan; Karabasov, Sergey; Nerukh, Dmitry; Markesteijn, Anton; Scukins, Arturs; Farafonov, Vladimir; Pavlov, Evgen

    2015-07-01

    A new 3D implementation of a hybrid model based on the analogy with two-phase hydrodynamics has been developed for the simulation of liquids at microscale. The idea of the method is to smoothly combine the atomistic description in the molecular dynamics zone with the Landau-Lifshitz fluctuating hydrodynamics representation in the rest of the system in the framework of macroscopic conservation laws through the use of a single "zoom-in" user-defined function s that has the meaning of a partial concentration in the two-phase analogy model. In comparison with our previous works, the implementation has been extended to full 3D simulations for a range of atomistic models in GROMACS from argon to water in equilibrium conditions with a constant or a spatially variable function s. Preliminary results of simulating the diffusion of a small peptide in water are also reported. PMID:26156468

  20. The structure of poly(ethylene oxide) liquids : comparison of integral equation theory with molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scaling.

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, John G.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile

    2005-01-01

    Polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on poly(ethylene oxide) liquids using a force field of Smith, Jaffe, and Yoon. The intermolecular pair correlation functions and radius of gyration from theory were in very good agreement with MD simulations when the partial charges were turned off. When the charges were turned on, considerably more structure was seen in the intermolecular correlations obtained from MD simulation. Moreover, the radius of gyration increased by 38% due to electrostatic repulsions along the chain backbone. Because the partial charges greatly affect the structure, significant differences were seen between the PRISM calculations (without charges) and the wide angle neutron scattering measurements of Annis and coworkers for the total structure factor, and the hydrogen/hydrogen intermolecular correlation function. This is in contrast to previous PRISM calculations on poly (dimethyl siloxane).

  1. A hybrid molecular dynamics/fluctuating hydrodynamics method for modelling liquids at multiple scales in space and time

    SciTech Connect

    Korotkin, Ivan Karabasov, Sergey; Markesteijn, Anton; Nerukh, Dmitry; Scukins, Arturs; Farafonov, Vladimir; Pavlov, Evgen

    2015-07-07

    A new 3D implementation of a hybrid model based on the analogy with two-phase hydrodynamics has been developed for the simulation of liquids at microscale. The idea of the method is to smoothly combine the atomistic description in the molecular dynamics zone with the Landau-Lifshitz fluctuating hydrodynamics representation in the rest of the system in the framework of macroscopic conservation laws through the use of a single “zoom-in” user-defined function s that has the meaning of a partial concentration in the two-phase analogy model. In comparison with our previous works, the implementation has been extended to full 3D simulations for a range of atomistic models in GROMACS from argon to water in equilibrium conditions with a constant or a spatially variable function s. Preliminary results of simulating the diffusion of a small peptide in water are also reported.

  2. CHIP-ping away at tau.

    PubMed

    Goryunov, Dmitry; Liem, Ronald K H

    2007-03-01

    Protein accumulation is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), a hyperphosphorylated form of the protein tau (p-tau) forms intracellular inclusions known as neurofibrillary tangles. Deposits of p-tau have also been found in the brains of patients with Down's syndrome, supranuclear palsy, and prion disease. Mutations in tau have been causally associated with at least one inherited neurologic disorder, frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), implying that tau abnormalities by themselves can be a primary cause of degenerative diseases of the CNS. Removal of these p-tau species may occur by both chaperone-mediated refolding and degradation. In this issue of the JCI, Dickey and colleagues show that a cochaperone protein, carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), in a complex with Hsp90 plays an important role in the removal of p-tau (see the related article beginning on page 648). Pharmacologic manipulation of Hsp90 may be used to alleviate p-tau accumulation in disease. PMID:17332887

  3. Pilot-scale study on the treatment of basal aquifer water using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and evaporation/crystallization to achieve zero-liquid discharge.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Basal aquifer water is deep groundwater found at the bottom of geological formations, underlying bitumen-saturated sands. Some of the concerns associated with basal aquifer water at the Athabasca oil sands are the high concentrations of hardness-causing compounds, alkalinity, and total dissolved solids. The objective of this pilot-scale study was to treat basal aquifer water to a quality suitable for its reuse in the production of synthetic oil. To achieve zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) conditions, the treatment train included chemical oxidation, polymeric ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and evaporation-crystallization technologies. The results indicated that the UF unit was effective in removing solids, with UF filtrate turbidity averaging 2.0 NTU and silt density index averaging 0.9. Membrane autopsies indicated that iron was the primary foulant on the UF and RO membranes. Laboratory and pilot-scale tests on RO reject were conducted to determine the feasibility of ZLD crystallization. Due to the high amounts of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate in the RO reject, softening of the feed was required to avoid scaling in the evaporator. Crystals produced throughout the testing were mainly sodium chloride. The results of this study indicated that the ZLD approach was effective in both producing freshwater and minimizing brine discharges. PMID:26433363

  4. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic chips for dead-volume-free MS coupling.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Claudia; Scholl, Tobias; Ohla, Stefan; Appun, Johannes; Schneider, Christoph; Belder, Detlev

    2015-11-01

    A fast and straightforward method to prototype microfluidic chip systems for dead-volume-free hyphenation to electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry is presented. The developed approach based on liquid-phase lithography provides an inexpensive and reliable access to microfluidic chips for MS coupling which can be manufactured in any laboratory with low technical demands. The rapid prototyping approach enables the seamless integration of capillaries serving as electrospray emitters with negligible dead volume. The high versatility of the presented prototyping method and the applicability of a variety of chip-based devices in different fields of lab-on-a-chip technology are established for analytical separations by means of chip-electrochromatography-MS and for continuous-flow synthesis using microreactor technology with MS detection. PMID:26391402

  5. Cryogenic Nano-Fabrication using the Fab on a Chip approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, Matthias; Han, Han; Stark, Thomas; Lowell, Evan; Chang, Jackson; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian; Del Corro, Pablo; Bishop, David

    2014-03-01

    The Fab on a Chip approach is a novel fabrication technique that leverages the control and stability of MEMS machines to fabricate structures on the nano-scale. This contrasts to standard deep-UV and e-beam lithography methods typically used today. We present how a fully functional nano-fabrication system can be operated in a cryostat to enable novel physics experiments. To this end MEMS based machines are built that mimic typical macroscopic tools found in a modern nano-fabrication facility. We demonstrate functioning film thickness monitors, heaters, shutters and atom flux sources that can all be integrated on a single silicon chip. At the heart of the fab is a dynamic shutter-aperture system that functions as a programmable stencil which guides atoms to specific locations at precise times. It is argued that this method has the potential to obtain single atom control of the deposited materials. The low power and small footprint enables the setup to function in a cryogenic environment. We demonstrate basic functionality of the elements at liquid helium temperatures. The advantage of resist free lithography and the deposition being the final fabrication step is the ability to pattern materials incompatible with standard techniques. Furthermore, the ultra-clean environment is suited for high purity fabrication of structures made of exotic materials such as lithium, with the intent to enable novel electron transport experiments.

  6. Self-assembly of microscopic chiplets at a liquid-liquid-solid interface forming a flexible segmented monocrystalline solar cell.

    PubMed

    Knuesel, Robert J; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2010-01-19

    This paper introduces a method for self-assembling and electrically connecting small (20-60 micrometer) semiconductor chiplets at predetermined locations on flexible substrates with high speed (62500 chips/45 s), accuracy (0.9 micrometer, 0.14 degrees), and yield (> 98%). The process takes place at the triple interface between silicone oil, water, and a penetrating solder-patterned substrate. The assembly is driven by a stepwise reduction of interfacial free energy where chips are first collected and preoriented at an oil-water interface before they assemble on a solder-patterned substrate that is pulled through the interface. Patterned transfer occurs in a progressing linear front as the liquid layers recede. The process eliminates the dependency on gravity and sedimentation of prior methods, thereby extending the minimal chip size to the sub-100 micrometer scale. It provides a new route for the field of printable electronics to enable the integration of microscopic high performance inorganic semiconductors on foreign substrates with the freedom to choose target location, pitch, and integration density. As an example we demonstrate a fault-tolerant segmented flexible monocrystalline silicon solar cell, reducing the amount of Si that is used when compared to conventional rigid cells. PMID:20080682

  7. Milking liquid nano-droplets by an IR laser: a new modality for the visualization of electric field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespini, Veronica; Coppola, Sara; Grilli, Simonetta; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    Liquid handling at micron- and nano-scale is of paramount importance in many fields of application such as biotechnology and biochemistry. In fact, the microfluidics technologies play an important role in lab-on-a-chip devices and, in particular, the dispensing of liquid droplets is a required functionality. Different approaches have been developed for manipulating, dispensing and controlling nano-droplets under a wide variety of configurations. Here we demonstrate that nano-droplets can be drawn from liquid drop or film reservoirs through a sort of milking effect achieved by the absorption of IR laser radiation into a pyroelectric crystal. The generation of the pyroelectric field induced by the IR laser is calculated numerically and a specific experiment has been designed to visualize the electric field stream lines that are responsible for the liquid milking effect. The experiments performed are expected to open a new route for the visualization, measure and characterization procedures in the case of electrohydrodynamic applications.

  8. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    SciTech Connect

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  9. Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During the period 1 October 1994 to 31 March 1995, the project team completed essentially all the activities necessary to start detailed design. Major accomplishments in these activities are discussed.

  10. Impact of ultrasound on solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Meullemiestre, A; Petitcolas, E; Maache-Rezzoug, Z; Chemat, F; Rezzoug, S A

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm(2)) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for polyphenols extraction by UAM, obtained by response surface methodology, were 0.67 W/cm(2) for the ultrasonic intensity (UI), 40°C for the processing temperature (T) and 43 min for the sonication time (t). UAM was compared with CVM, the results showed that the quantity of polyphenols was improved by 40% (342.4 and 233.5mg of catechin equivalent per 100g of dry basis, respectively for UAM and CVM). A multistage cross-current extraction procedure allowed evaluating the real impact of UAM on the solid-liquid extraction enhancement. The potential industrialization of this procedure was implemented through a transition from a lab sonicated reactor (3 L) to a large scale one with 30 L volume. PMID:26384903

  11. Operating characteristics of pixelated gray-scale optically addressed spatial light modulators incorporating the twisted smectic-C* liquid crystal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Louis W.; Davey, Anthony B.; Travis, Adrian R.

    1998-08-01

    An optically addressed spatial light modulator using the twisted smectic-C* liquid crystal effect in the light- modulating layer and an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon in the photosensitive layer is fabricated. The device incorporates a layer of pixelated aluminum mirrors, sandwiched between photosensitive and modulating layers, to increase the reflectivity of the modulated output read beam. The device is capable of achieving an intrinsic gray-scale optical output. A spatial resolution of 27 lp/mm (i.e., 54 lines/mm) at 50% modulation depth driving at 2.0 kHz and a maximum frame rate of 2.5 kHz at 80% modulation depth for which a frame cycle includes erase, write, and read operations have been demonstrated. Other operating characteristics, i.e., the sensitivity and contrast ratio, are reported.

  12. Application of silicon piezoresistive stress test chips in electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yida

    In this work, both special (100) and (111) silicon test chips containing an array of optimized piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been successfully applied within several electronic packaging configurations. Unlike (100) silicon test chips, (111) silicon test chips are able to measure the complete stress state on the die surface. After calibration and characterization of the test chips, they were packaged into various assemblies. The post packaging resistances of the sensors were then recorded at room temperature, as a function of temperature excursion, and during long term packaging reliability qualification tests (thermal cycling and thermal aging). The stresses on the die surface were calculated using the measured resistance changes and the appropriate theoretical equations. For comparison purposes, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the packaging processes were also performed, and the stress predictions were correlated with the experimental test chip data. AAA2 (100) silicon test chips containing optimized four element dual polarity rosettes have been applied within 44 pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) packages and 240 pin Quad Flat Packs (QFP's). In these plastic package experiments, comparison of the stress levels induced by various molding compounds was emphasized. Advanced (111) silicon test chips (BMW-1 or BMW-2) comprising an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes were encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's, 160 pin QFP's, Chip on Board (COB) packages, and 281 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) packages. In addition to molding compound evaluations, BMW-1 test chips encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's were used to detect the presence of delaminations between the die surface and the encapsulant. In the wire bonded COB package studies, die surface stress evaluations were conducted after die attachment, and throughout the cure cycle of the liquid encapsulant. The stresses were also studied as a

  13. Effect of scale-up on average shear rates for aerated non-Newtonian liquids in external loop airlift reactors.

    PubMed

    Al-Masry

    1999-02-01

    Average shear rates have been estimated experimentally in a 700-dm3 external loop airlift reactor. Aqueous pseudoplastic carboxymethylcellulose and xanthan gum solutions were used to simulate non-Newtonian behavior of biological media. Average shear rates of non-Newtonian solutions were found by analogy with Newtonian glycerol solutions using downcomer liquid velocity as the measurable parameter. Due to the complexity of local shear rate measurement, an average shear rate was assumed to exist and is proportional to superficial gas velocity. The data from this work and those in the literature were used in producing a new correlation for estimating average shear rates as a function of superficial gas velocity, geometry, and dispersion height. Wall shear rates were found to be significant. The ratio of wall shear rates to bulk shear rates were varied from 5% to 40%. Furthermore, it has been found that shear rates generated in airlift loop reactors are lower than those generated in bubble columns. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099557

  14. Scaling-up a liquid water jet laser plasma source to high average power for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ulrich; Stiel, Holger; Will, Ingo; Wieland, Marek; Wilhein, Thomas; Nickles, Peter V.; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2001-08-01

    In this article we describe a laser plasma source for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) based on a liquid water jet target. Although jet targets are known for some time now, no attempts have been made to prove the functionality of the target under conditions similar to an EUVL production-line facility, that means illumination with high average power laser systems (in the multi-kW regime) at repetition rates in the kHz region. Such systems are currently under development. We used the MBI-burst laser to simulate these extreme illumination conditions. We examined the hydrodynamic stability of the target as a function of the laser repetition rate at different average laser powers (0.6kW and 5kW per burst). Additionally, the dependence of the conversion efficiency on pulse duration in the range from 30ps to 3ns was investigated. From our results one can conclude parameters for future design of driver lasers for EUVL systems.

  15. Macromolecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. ); Pincus, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of novel stationary phases for small scale liquid chromatographic separations of proteins and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutanu, Daniela

    The emerging field of nanotechnology strictly requires the micro-scaling of the available separation technology and the design of novel devices for separations of molecules of interest. The separation of proteins and nanoparticles is challenging due to their relatively large size, non-specific adherence to surfaces and instability in many solvents. This dissertation presents the synthesis and characterization of novel stationary phases for use in separations of proteins or nanoparticles in both capillary and microchip formats. In order to separate blood proteins with high specificity, a DNA aptamer selected for alpha-thrombin was employed as an affinity component of the stationary phases. Silica surfaces and organic monoliths were modified with the aptamer via an azlactone linkage and have demonstrated highly efficient separations of thrombin from a mixture in the microscale. The high efficiency of the protein separation (HETP = 276 mum, RS = 1.7) is comparable with macroscale results using antibodies as the affinity factor. Novel hybrid inorganic-organic polysilsesquioxane stationary phases were synthesized by way of surfactant templated polymerization of bridged alcoxy-silyl ethane monomers, in presence of sodium hydroxide. The novel materials were successful in size exclusion separation of polystyrene standards with molecular diameters of 0.3-2.4 nm. A hybrid inorganic-organic polysilsesquioxane sorbent also proved useful for small scale separations of triphenyl phosphine protected gold nanoparticles, based on a sorptive mechanism instead of a size exclusion mechanism. Polysilsesquioxanes were easily synthesized in-situ inside fused silica capillary columns and PMMA microchip channels in order to facilitate integration with a micro-reactor. The novel stationary phases proved efficient for separation of proteins and nanoparticles in the micro-scale format and can further be utilized for online purification and separation of these difficult compounds.

  17. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  20. Silicon integrated nanophotonics for on-chip interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Yurii

    2008-03-01

    Current trend in microelectronics industry is to increase the parallelism in computation by multi-threading, by building large scale multi-chip systems and, more recently, by increasing the number of cores on a single chip. With such increase of parallelization the interconnect bandwidth between the racks, chips or different cores is becoming a limiting factor for the design of high performance computer systems. The on-chip ultrahigh-bandwidth silicon-based photonic network might provide an attractive solution to this bandwidth bottleneck. We will review recent results on silicon nanophotonic circuits based on photonic wires and photonic crystals. Strong light confinement at the diffraction limit enables dramatic scaling of the device area and allows unprecedented control over optical signals. Silicon nanophotonic devices have immense capacity for low-loss, high-bandwidth data processing that might enable the design of ultra-compact on-chip optical networks. In particular we will show recent results on design and characterization of various ultra-compact (<0.03mm2) silicon nanophotonic circuits as optical delay lines, electro-optic modulators, broadband optical switches, wavelength filters, etc.

  1. LLNL demonstration of liquid gun propellant destruction in a 0.1 gallon per minute scale reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Coburn, T.T.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has built and operated a pilot plant for processing oil shale using recirculating hot solids. This pilot plant, was adapted in 1993 to demonstrate the feasibility of decomposing a liquid gun propellant (LGP), LP XM46, a mixture of 76% HAN (NH{sub 3}OHNO{sub 3}) and 24% TEAN (HOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3} NHNO{sub 3} diluted 1:3 in water. In the Livermore process, the LPG is thermally treated in a moving packed bed of ceramic spheres, where TEAN and HAN decompose, forming a suite of gases including: methane, carbon monoxide, oxygen, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and molecular nitrogen. The ceramic spheres are circulated and heated, providing the energy required for thermal decomposition. The authors performed an extended one day (8 hour) test of the solids recirculation system, with continuous injection of approximately 0.1 gal/min of LGP, diluted 1:3 in water, for a period of eight hours. The apparatus operated smoothly over the course of the eight hour run during which 144 kg of solution was processed, containing 36 kg of LGP. Continuous on-line gas analysis was invaluable in tracking the progress of the experiment and quantifying the decomposition products. The reactor was operated in two modes, a {open_quotes}Pyrolysis{close_quotes} mode, where decomposition products were removed from the moving bed reactor exit, passing through condensers to a flare, and in a {open_quotes}Combustion{close_quotes} mode, where the products were oxidized in air lift pipe prior to exiting the system. In the {open_quotes}Pyrolysis{close_quotes} mode, driver gases were recycled producing a small, concentrated stream of decomposition products. In the {open_quotes}Combustion mode{close_quotes}, the driver gases were not recycled, resulting in 40 times higher gas flow rates and correspondingly lower concentrations of nitrogen bearing gases.

  2. Vitrification of high-level radioactive waste in a pilot-scale liquid-fed ceramic melter

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorklund, W.J.; Holton, L.K.; Knowlton, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP), a high-level radioactive waste vitrification system has been installed in a Radiochemical Engineering Facility at Hanford, Washington. The facility is designed for remote operation of equipment using master-slave manipulators and overhead cranes. The pilot-scale radioactive system consists of a melter, canister handling turntable, glass-level detection system and supporting waste preparation, offgas treatment and condensate treatment systems. The vitrification system will be operated with radioactive wastes to test remote equipment features and process performance. Destructive and nondestructive methods will be used in the characterization of the waste glass product after canisters are filled with specific waste compositions. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Optimization of large-scale culture conditions for the production of cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by liquid static culture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  4. Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chao; Wen, Ting-Chi; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Meng, Ze-Bing; Li, Guang-Rong; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes. PMID:25054182

  5. Wavefront image sensor chip.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J; Yang, Changhuei

    2010-08-01

    We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 microm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications. PMID:20721059

  6. Chip-to-chip interconnects based on 3D stacking of optoelectrical dies on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, P.; Raz, O.; Smalbrugge, B. E.; Duis, J.; Dorren, H. J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to increase the optical interconnection bandwidth density by stacking the opto-electrical dies directly on the CMOS driver. The suggested implementation is aiming to provide a wafer scale process which will make the use of wire bonding redundant and will allow for impedance matched metallic wiring between the electronic driving circuit and its opto-electronic counter part. We suggest the use of a thick photoresist ramp between CMOS driver and opto-electrical dies surface as the bridge for supporting co-plannar waveguides (CPW) electrically plated with lithographic accuracy. In this way all three dimensions of the interconnecting metal layer, width, length and thickness can be completely controlled. In this 1st demonstration all processing is done on commercially available devices and products, and is compatible with CMOS processing technology. To test the applicability of CPW instead of wire bonds for interconnecting the CMOS circuit and opto-electronic chips, we have made test samples and tested their performance at speeds up to 10 Gbps. In this demonstration, a silicon substrate was used on which we evaporated gold co-planar waveguides (CPW) to mimic a wire on the driver. An optical link consisting of a VCSEL chip and a photodiode chip has been assembled and fully characterized using optical coupling into and out of a multimode fiber (MMF). A 10 Gb/s 27-1 NRZ PRBS signal transmitted from one chip to another chip was detected error free. A 4 dB receiver sensitivity penalty is measured for the integrated device compared to a commercial link.

  7. The use of ionic liquids as crystallization additives allowed to overcome nanodrop scaling up problems: A success case for producing diffraction-quality crystals of a nitrate reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Catarina; Trincão, José; João Romão, Maria

    2010-02-01

    The native structure of the heterodimeric periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapAB) from Cupriavidus ( C.) necator was solved at 1.5 Å resolution, using one single crystal obtained at the robot facility at the EMBL, Grenoble. The reaction mechanism for this family of proteins was recently revised, based on new crystallographic evidence, and new structural studies are required to clarify this new mechanistic implication. Several nanodrop crystallization trials yielded microcrystals of the C. necator NapAB. However, scale-up attempts systematically failed and did not yield any suitable crystals. Only with the use of ionic liquids (IL) were we able to grow, in a reproducible manner, larger crystals, which diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution. By using the IL [C 4mim]Cl as a crystallization additive, we achieved reproducibility in obtaining good quality crystals. Although no IL molecules could be identified in the electron density maps, the crystals grown in the presence and absence of IL have large differences in cell constants. This is the first report of the use of IL for a difficult crystallization problem. The procedure now reported can be applied for crystal optimization such as size increase or improvement of fine needles, as well as for scaling-up crystallization conditions from nanolitre to microlitre drop volumes.

  8. Submolecular-Scale Imaging of α-Helices and C-Terminal Domains of Tubulins by Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Hitoshi; Ikegami, Koji; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Naoki; Tsukada, Masaru; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we directly imaged subnanometer-scale structures of tubulins by performing frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) in liquid. Individual α-helices at the surface of a tubulin protofilament were imaged as periodic corrugations with a spacing of 0.53 nm, which corresponds to the common pitch of an α-helix backbone (0.54 nm). The identification of individual α-helices allowed us to determine the orientation of the deposited tubulin protofilament. As a result, C-terminal domains of tubulins were identified as protrusions with a height of 0.4 nm from the surface of the tubulin. The imaging mechanism for the observed subnanometer-scale contrasts is discussed in relation to the possible structures of the C-terminal domains. Because the C-terminal domains are chemically modified to regulate the interactions between tubulins and other biomolecules (e.g., motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins), detailed structural information on individual C-terminal domains is valuable for understanding such regulation mechanisms. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that FM-AFM is capable of visualizing the structural variation of tubulins with subnanometer resolution. This is an important first step toward using FM-AFM to analyze the functions of tubulins. PMID:21889465

  9. Patterning liquids on inkjet-imprinted surfaces with highly adhesive superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Bin; Sun, Jiazhen; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xingye; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-05-01

    The rapidly increasing research interest in microfluidics, microreactors and solution-processable fabrication technologies requires the development of patterning techniques to obtain large-scale functional liquid arrays. To achieve this objective, photolithography, microcontact printing and mask-based UV irradiation have been utilized to physically or chemically pattern surfaces into templates where ordered arrays of liquid materials are constructed. However, these methods require elaborately fabricated templates or expensive vacuum-deposited masks that restrict their practical applications. Herein, we fabricate physically patterned superhydrophobic surfaces with high adhesion by modifying inkjet-imprinted surfaces through nanoparticle deposition, and utilize these surfaces as templates for liquid patterning. Various functional liquid materials are patterned into defined shapes through a simple dipping-withdrawing process. Moreover, functional material patterns such as photonic crystal patterns, arrays of inorganic nanoparticles and crystals are formed after solvent evaporation of the liquid droplets. Furthermore, chemical reactions can be carried out on the patterns. These surfaces demonstrate excellent performance in liquid patterning, which will find numerous applications in optoelectronic devices, lab-on-chip devices, microreactors, and related fields.The rapidly increasing research interest in microfluidics, microreactors and solution-processable fabrication technologies requires the development of patterning techniques to obtain large-scale functional liquid arrays. To achieve this objective, photolithography, microcontact printing and mask-based UV irradiation have been utilized to physically or chemically pattern surfaces into templates where ordered arrays of liquid materials are constructed. However, these methods require elaborately fabricated templates or expensive vacuum-deposited masks that restrict their practical applications. Herein, we fabricate

  10. Climate Technology in a Wood Chips Boiler House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Edgars; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    One of the innovative solutions of climate technologies is a pilot project relating to the condenser of fuel combustion products which is installed at a chips-fuelled boiler house in the Ludza city. A commercial experiment with the use of a gas condenser has been run at a boiler-house. An empirical model has been obtained, that describes the relation between the specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and the temperature difference of irrigation liquid & condensate mixture.

  11. Resolving Non-Specific and Specific Adhesive Interactions of Catechols at Solid/Liquid Interfaces at the Molecular Scale.

    PubMed

    Utzig, Thomas; Stock, Philipp; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The adhesive system of mussels evolved into a powerful and adaptive system with affinity to a wide range of surfaces. It is widely known that thereby 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) plays a central role. However underlying binding energies remain unknown at the single molecular scale. Here, we use single-molecule force spectroscopy to estimate binding energies of single catechols with a large range of opposing chemical functionalities. Our data demonstrate significant interactions of Dopa with all functionalities, yet most interactions fall within the medium-strong range of 10-20 kB T. Only bidentate binding to TiO2 surfaces exhibits a higher binding energy of 29 kB T. Our data also demonstrate at the single-molecule level that oxidized Dopa and amines exhibit interaction energies in the range of covalent bonds, confirming the important role of Dopa for cross-linking in the bulk mussel adhesive. We anticipate that our approach and data will further advance the understanding of biologic and technologic adhesives. PMID:27374053

  12. Single chip camera active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Timothy (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Olson, Brita (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Panicacci, Roger A. (Inventor); Mansoorian, Barmak (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A totally digital single chip camera includes communications to operate most of its structure in serial communication mode. The digital single chip camera include a D/A converter for converting an input digital word into an analog reference signal. The chip includes all of the necessary circuitry for operating the chip using a single pin.

  13. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  14. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  15. Commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report No. 4, 1 April--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P.(the Partnership). A facility producing 260 TPD of methanol will be designed and constructed at a site located at the Eastman Chemical complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration facility operational period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to ``demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.`` The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low sulfur dioxide, low nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research shows promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the operations phase. During this last quarter the project transitioned to the design phase. the project requires review under the National environmental Policy Act to move to the construction phase, which is scheduled to begin in August of 1995. DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment, and a Finding of No Significant Impact was issued during this quarter. The facility is scheduled to be mechanically complete in November of 1996.

  16. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Environmental monitoring report No. 1, 1 April 1997--31 June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-13

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) of methanol was designed, constructed, and has begun operation at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to {open_quotes}demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} Processing conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.{close_quotes} The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOH{trademark} process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfully piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products` LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  17. Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangning; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongkai

    2013-11-19

    Through manipulating fluids using microfabricated channel and chamber structures, microfluidics is a powerful tool to realize high sensitive, high speed, high throughput, and low cost analysis. In addition, the method can establish a well-controlled microenivroment for manipulating fluids and particles. It also has rapid growing implementations in both sophisticated chemical/biological analysis and low-cost point-of-care assays. Some unique phenomena emerge at the micrometer scale. For example, reactions are completed in a shorter amount of time as the travel distances of mass and heat are relatively small; the flows are usually laminar; and the capillary effect becomes dominant owing to large surface-to-volume ratios. In the meantime, the surface properties of the device material are greatly amplified, which can lead to either unique functions or problems that we would not encounter at the macroscale. Also, each material inherently corresponds with specific microfabrication strategies and certain native properties of the device. Therefore, the material for making the device plays a dominating role in microfluidic technologies. In this Account, we address the evolution of materials used for fabricating microfluidic chips, and discuss the application-oriented pros and cons of different materials. This Account generally follows the order of the materials introduced to microfluidics. Glass and silicon, the first generation microfluidic device materials, are perfect for capillary electrophoresis and solvent-involved applications but expensive for microfabriaction. Elastomers enable low-cost rapid prototyping and high density integration of valves on chip, allowing complicated and parallel fluid manipulation and in-channel cell culture. Plastics, as competitive alternatives to elastomers, are also rapid and inexpensive to microfabricate. Their broad variety provides flexible choices for different needs. For example, some thermosets support in-situ fabrication of

  18. CRRES microelectronic test chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-S.; Buehler, M. G.; Ray, K. P.; Sokoloski, M. M.

    1991-12-01

    The JPL CRRES chip was designed and fabricated in 1985 and included in the CRRES MEP. MOSFET Matrix results show the effect of shielding on radiation-induced MOSFET threshold voltage shifts and channel mobility degradation. Shielded (middle board) MOSFETs have a threshold-voltage damage factor that is approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than would be estimated from Co-60 ground tests. Unshielded (outer board) MOSFETs have a threshold-voltage damage factor that would be estimated from Co-60 ground tests. Temperature swings as large as 23 C with a 22.5 orbit periodicity affected the MOSFET data and were removed from the data in order to reveal the radiation effects. This experiment demonstrated the feasibility of characterizing MOSFETs in a matrix, thus reducing the complexity and mass of the experiment.

  19. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    PubMed

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems. PMID:24682025

  20. Fermions and bosons on an atom chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extravour, Marcius H. T.

    Ultra-cold dilute gases of neutral atoms are attractive candidates for creating controlled mesoscopic quantum systems. In particular, quantum degenerate gases of bosonic and fermionic atoms can be used to model the correlated many-body behaviour of Bose and Fermi condensed matter systems, and to study matter wave interference and coherence. This thesis describes the experimental realization and manipulation of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of 87Rb and degenerate Fermi gases (DFGs) of 40K using static and dynamic magnetic atom chip traps. Atom chips are versatile modern tools used to manipulate atomic gases. The chips consist of micrometre-scale conductors supported by a planar insulating substrate, and can be used to create confining potentials for neutral atoms tens or hundreds of micrometres from the chip surface. We demonstrate for the first time that a DFG can be produced via sympathetic cooling with a BEC using a simple single-vacuum-chamber apparatus. The large 40 K-87Rb collision rate afforded by the strongly confining atom chip potential permits rapid cooling of 40K to quantum degeneracy via sympathetic cooling with 87Rb. By studying 40K-87Rb cross-thermalization as a function of temperature, we observe the Ramsauer-Townsend reduction in the 40K-87Rb elastic scattering cross-section. We achieve DFG temperatures as low as T ≈ 0:1TF, and observe Fermi pressure in the time-of-flight expansion of the gas. This thesis also describes the radio-frequency (RF) manipulation of trapped atoms to create dressed state double-well potentials for BEC and DFG. We demonstrate for the first time that RF-dressed potentials are species-selective, permitting the formation of simultaneous 87Rb double-well and 40K single-well potentials using a 40K-87Rb mixture. We also develop tools to measure fluctuations of the relative atom number and relative phase of a dynamically split 87Rb BEC. In particular, we observe atom number fluctuations at the shot-noise level using time

  1. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-01

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division.

  2. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-13

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division. PMID:27056843

  3. Experimental study of boiling phenomena and heat transfer performances of FC-72 over micro-pin-finned silicon chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. J.; Guo, L. J.; Honda, H.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of micro-pin-fins on boiling phenomena and heat transfer from square simulated silicon chips immersed in a pool of FC-72. Two kinds of micro-pin-fins having fin thickness of 30 μm and fin heights of 60 and 200 μm, respectively, were fabricated on the silicon chip surface with the dry etching technique. The experiments were conducted at the liquid subcoolings of 3, 25, 35 and 45 K. The effects of dissolved air in FC-72 and chip orientation were also investigated. The boiling curve of the micro-pin-finned chips was characterized by a very small increase in wall superheat with increasing heat flux, and the wall temperatures at the CHF point for all the micro-pin-finned chips were less than the upper limit for the reliable operation of LSI chips (Tw=85°C). Liquid subcooling was very effective in elevating CHF for the micro-pin-finned chips compared to the smooth surface and other treated surfaces. The enhanced boiling heat transfer mechanisms for the micro-pin-finned chips were discussed.

  4. Chip-based generation of carbon nanodots via electrochemical oxidation of screen printed carbon electrodes and the applications for efficient cell imaging and electrochemiluminescence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Jingquan; Zhang, Jizhen; Zong, Xidan; Jia, Xiaofang; Li, Dan; Wang, Erkang

    2015-06-01

    A portable lab-on-a-chip methodology to generate ionic liquid-functionalized carbon nanodots (CNDs) was developed via electrochemical oxidation of screen printed carbon electrodes. The CNDs can be successfully applied for efficient cell imaging and solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor fabrication on the paper-based chips. PMID:25959400

  5. Process-scale reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification of LL-E19020 alpha, a growth promoting antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lydicus ssp. tanzanius.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Carter, G T; Pinho, F; Borders, D B

    1989-12-22

    LL-E19020 alpha is a novel antibiotic produced by fermentation of the soil microorganism Streptomyces lydicus ssp. tanzanius. The compound is highly effective in inducing increases in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in livestock. In order to obtain kilogram quantities of the material for field trials, pilot plant scale fermentations (up to 7500 l) were carried out. The antibiotic was recovered from the fermentation broth by solvent extraction. The resultant crude extract was subjected to reversed-phase (C18) chromatography on a process-scale high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) unit. The heart of the instrumentation is the Millipore Kiloprep chromatograph with the standard 12-l cartridge column. The laboratory housing the chromatograph has been specifically designed for this work. Tanks for mobile phase preparation are mounted on load cells for precise measurement of components. In this explosion-proof laboratory, all solvent handling areas are well ventilated and a separate breathing air system is provided for the operators. For the purification of the LL-E19020 antibiotics, the mobile phase consisted of a gradient of acetonitrile in 0.1 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.5. The effluent was monitored by UV absorbance at 325 nm. Fractions were collected across the peaks of interest and these were analyzed by analytical HPLC. The maximum yield of LL-E19020 alpha obtained in a single run was approximately 100 g. The antibiotic was recovered from the mobile phase by extraction with methylene chloride. The methylene chloride phase was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield a gummy residue which was finally freeze-dried from tertiary butanol to yield an off-white solid suitable for blending with various feed components. PMID:2613793

  6. Evaluating Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Dissolution and Chemical Oxidation in a three-dimensional, bench-scale fracture network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, K.; McCray, J. E.; Schaefer, C.

    2011-12-01

    Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) present in fractured bedrock settings at residual saturation introduces remediation challenges that are dramatically different from porous media settings. Evaluating DNAPL distribution in a field-scale setting is generally impractical, yet DNAPL distribution plays a critical role in the DNAPL dissolution kinetics. This research uses a three-dimensional (3-D), bench-scale network comprised of low-porosity, fractured sandstone to evaluate the dissolution kinetics of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) DNAPL at residual saturation. DNAPL dissolution kinetics were evaluated during ambient groundwater conditions as well as during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) in the 3-D fractured sandstone experiment. DNAPL dissolution in the fracture network was evaluated and described using an effective parameter, the bulk mass transfer coefficient (KL). Results from dissolution experiments revealed a positive, statistically significant correlation between KL with DNAPL-water interfacial area and KL with DNAPL saturation. Results of ISCO experiments with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) determined that the formation of reaction products (manganese dioxides and carbon dioxide) likely altered the primary flow paths and decreased effectiveness of the ISCO application in the fracture network. The formation of reaction products was believed to cause flow bypassing and reduce the DNAPL-oxidant contact, which reduced mass transfer rates. The effectiveness of ISCO was improved (over dissolution alone) if the ISCO application was discontinued after an initial period of effective mass removal. The findings of this research indicate that DNAPL dissolution and oxidation effectiveness in a fracture network setting are not directly correlated to aperture size, which was unexpected, but appear to be primarily impacted by flow path variability and heterogeneous DNAPL distribution.

  7. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  8. Analysis of trace levels of sulfonamides in fish tissue using micro-scale pipette tip-matrix solid-phase dispersion and fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Jin, Renyao; Xue, Jing; Lu, Yanbin; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2016-03-01

    A micro-scale matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) material as sorbent and a pipette tip (PT) as the cartridge, was developed for the extraction and purification of sulfonamides in fish tissue. Eluates from PT-MSPD were analyzed using fast liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was fully validated; good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. Precision and accuracy (RSD%) were in the range 1.4-10.3% while mean recoveries were 70.6-95.5%. With this technique, 15 aquatic samples (Collichthys niveatus) were analyzed for sulfonamides. The whole procedure took only 13min (5min for PT-MSPD and 8min for LC), materials for each sample included 5.1mL solvents (0.3mL for PT-MSPD and 4.8mL for LC), and 20mg HLB sorbent. Generally speaking, this method is indeed practical and particularly suitable for widespread drug residue analysis. PMID:26471586

  9. Addition of low concentrations of an ionic liquid to a base oil reduces friction over multiple length scales: a combined nano- and macrotribology investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Somers, Anthony E; Howlett, Patrick C; Rutland, Mark W; Forsyth, Maria; Atkin, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricant additives to a model base oil has been probed at the nanoscale and macroscale as a function of IL concentration using the same materials. Silica surfaces lubricated with mixtures of the IL trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate and hexadecane are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (nanoscale) and ball-on-disc tribometer (macroscale). At both length scales the pure IL is a much more effective lubricant than hexadecane. At the nanoscale, 2.0 mol% IL (and above) in hexadecane lubricates the silica as well as the pure IL due to the formation of a robust IL boundary layer that separates the sliding surfaces. At the macroscale the lubrication is highly load dependent; at low loads all the mixtures lubricate as effectively as the pure IL, whereas at higher loads rather high concentrations are required to provide IL like lubrication. Wear is also pronounced at high loads, for all cases except the pure IL, and a tribofilm is formed. Together, the nano- and macroscales results reveal that the IL is an effective lubricant additive - it reduces friction - in both the boundary regime at the nanoscale and mixed regime at the macroscale. PMID:26865399

  10. Pilot-scale experience with biological nutrient removal and biomass yield reduction in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse; Islam, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) bioreactor was developed at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada, to study its commercial viability for biological nutrient removal. Lava rock particles of 600 microm were used as a biomass carrier media. The LSCFB removed approximately 90% organic, 80% nitrogen, and 70% phosphorus at loading rates of 4.12 kg COD/m3 x d, 0.26 kg N/m3 x d, and 0.052 kg P/m3 x d, and an empty bed contact time of 1.5 hours. Effluent characterized by < 1.0 mg NH4-N/L, < 5.0 mg NO3-N/ L, < 1.0 mg PO4-P/L, < 10 mg TN/L, < 10 mg SBOD/L, and 10 to 15 mg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L can easily meet the criteria for nonpotable reuse of treated wastewater. The system removed nutrients without using any chemicals, and the secondary clarifier removed suspended solids removal without chemicals. A significant reduction (approximately 75%) in biomass yield to 0.12 to 0.16 g VSS/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed, primarily because of long biological solids retention time (SRT) of 20 to 39 days and a combination of anoxic and aerobic COD consumption. PMID:20942332

  11. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F.; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the ``Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry'' technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual

  12. Chip-on-flex with 5-micron features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    A new module packaging method is proposed for electronic systems comprising a motherboard and integrated circuit (IC) chips. Pitches of 10 microns for conductive traces, and 100 microns for bonding pads are achievable. The enabling technology is glass panel manufacture, using equipment and techniques similar to those employed for fabricating liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. Flexible circuits are produced on a glass carrier using a release layer, and the carrier is removed after most of the processing is complete. IC chips are stud bumped and flip chip bonded to wells filled with solder, provided on the flexible circuit. The fabrication density achievable with wafer level packaging (WLP) using silicon wafers is substantially more than is needed for module packaging, as described herein. It is possible to provide WLP performance on glass at a much lower cost. The conductor features on glass are fine enough for the most demanding packaging and assembly techniques. The lowered cost of glass applies to the interconnection circuit plus assembly, test and rework. A test method called Tester-On-Board (TOB) is proposed, employing special-purpose test chips that are directly mounted in the system and mimic the capabilities of external testers. Methods for hermetic sealing, electromagnetic screening, and high-density off-board connections are also proposed.

  13. Development of a Chip/Chip/SRM platform using digital chip isoelectric focusing and LC-Chip mass spectrometry for enrichment and quantitation of low abundance protein biomarkers in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Rafalko, Agnes; Dai, Shujia; Hancock, William S; Karger, Barry L; Hincapie, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Protein biomarkers are critical for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of disease. The transition from protein biomarker discovery to verification can be a rate limiting step in clinical development of new diagnostics. Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-SRM MS) is becoming an important tool for biomarker verification studies in highly complex biological samples. Analyte enrichment or sample fractionation is often necessary to reduce sample complexity and improve sensitivity of SRM for quantitation of clinically relevant biomarker candidates present at the low ng/mL range in blood. In this paper, we describe an alternative method for sample preparation for LC-SRM MS, which does not rely on availability of antibodies. This new platform is based on selective enrichment of proteotypic peptides from complex biological peptide mixtures via isoelectric focusing (IEF) on a digital ProteomeChip (dPC) for SRM quantitation using a triple quadrupole (QQQ) instrument with an LC-Chip (Chip/Chip/SRM). To demonstrate the value of this approach, the optimization of the Chip/Chip/SRM platform was performed using prostate specific antigen (PSA) added to female plasma as a model system. The combination of immunodepletion of albumin and IgG with peptide fractionation on the dPC, followed by SRM analysis, resulted in a limit of quantitation of PSA added to female plasma at the level of ∼1-2.5 ng/mL with a CV of ∼13%. The optimized platform was applied to measure levels of PSA in plasma of a small cohort of male patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and healthy matched controls with concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 25 ng/mL. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.9459) was observed between standard clinical ELISA tests and the SRM-based assay. Our data demonstrate that the combination of IEF on the dPC and SRM (Chip/Chip/SRM) can be successfully applied for verification of low abundance protein biomarkers in complex samples. PMID:22098410

  14. Development of a Chip/Chip/SRM platform using digital chip isoelectric focusing and LC-Chip mass spectrometry for enrichment and quantitation of low abundance protein biomarkers in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Rafalko, Agnes; Dai, Shujia; Hancock, William S.; Karger, Barry L.; Hincapie, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Protein biomarkers are critical for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of disease. The transition from protein biomarker discovery to verification can be a rate limiting step in clinical development of new diagnostics. Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-SRM MS) is becoming an important tool for biomarker verification studies in highly complex biological samples. Analyte enrichment or sample fractionation is often necessary to reduce sample complexity and improve sensitivity of SRM for quantitation of clinically relevant biomarker candidates present at the low ng/mL range in blood. In this paper, we describe an alternative method for sample preparation for LC-SRM MS, which does not rely on availability of antibodies. This new platform is based on selective enrichment of proteotypic peptides from complex biological peptide mixtures via isoelectric focusing (IEF) on a digital ProteomeChip (dPC™) for SRM quantitation using a triple quadrupole (QQQ) instrument with an LC-Chip (Chip/Chip/SRM). To demonstrate the value of this approach, the optimization of the Chip/Chip/SRM platform was performed using prostate specific antigen (PSA) added to female plasma as a model system. The combination of immunodepletion of albumin and IgG with peptide fractionation on the dPC, followed by SRM analysis, resulted in a limit of quantitation of PSA added to female plasma at the level of ~1–2.5 ng/mL with a CV of ~13%. The optimized platform was applied to measure levels of PSA in plasma of a small cohort of male patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and healthy matched controls with concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 25 ng/mL. A good correlation (r2 = 0.9459) was observed between standard clinical ELISA tests and the SRM-based-assay. Our data demonstrate that the combination of IEF on the dPC and SRM (Chip/Chip/SRM) can be successfully applied for verification of low abundance protein biomarkers in complex samples. PMID:22098410

  15. Rapid prototyping of electrochromatography chips for improved two-photon excited fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Claudia; Beyreiss, Reinhild; Geissler, David; Jezierski, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, we introduce two-photon excitation at 532 nm for label-free fluorescence detection in chip electrochromatography. Two-photon excitation at 532 nm offers a promising alternative to one-photon excitation at 266 nm, as it enables the use of economic chip materials instead of fused silica. In order to demonstrate these benefits, one-photon and two-photon induced fluorescence detection are compared in different chip layouts and materials with respect to the achievable sensitivity in the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Customized chromatography chips with cover or bottom slides of different material and thickness are produced by means of a rapid prototyping method based on liquid-phase lithography. The design of thin bottom chips (180 μm) enables the use of high-performance immersion objectives with low working distances, which allows one to exploit the full potential of two-photon excitation for a sensitive detection. The developed method is applied for label-free analysis of PAHs separated on a polymer monolith inside polymer glass sandwich chips made from fused silica or soda-lime glass. The obtained limits of detection range from 40 nM to 1.95 μM, with similar sensitivities in fused silica thin bottom chips for one-photon and two-photon excitation. In deep-UV non- or less-transparent devices two-photon excitation is mandatory for label-free detection of aromatics with high sensitivity. PMID:24666258

  16. Lab-on-a-Chip hyphenation with mass spectrometry: strategies for bioanalytical applications.

    PubMed

    Oedit, Amar; Vulto, Paul; Ramautar, Rawi; Lindenburg, Petrus W; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The Lab-on-a-Chip concept aims at miniaturizing laboratory processes to enable automation and/or parallelization via microfluidic chips that are capable of handling minute sample volumes. Mass spectrometry is nowadays the detection method of choice, because of its selectivity, sensitivity and wide application range. We review the most interesting examples over the last two-and-a-half years where the two techniques were used for bioanalytical applications. Furthermore, we discuss the merits and limitations of such hyphenated systems. We inventorize the reported applications and approaches. We see an ongoing trend towards chip-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry usage and small volume analysis applications, particularly in the field of proteomics where bottom-up approaches profit from chip-based technologies and hyphenation with complex cell cultures. PMID:25232996

  17. Miniaturized PCR chips for nucleic acid amplification and analysis: latest advances and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of performing fast and small-volume nucleic acid amplification and analysis on a single chip has attracted great interest. Devices based on this idea, referred to as micro total analysis, microfluidic analysis, or simply ‘Lab on a chip’ systems, have witnessed steady advances over the last several years. Here, we summarize recent research on chip substrates, surface treatments, PCR reaction volume and speed, architecture, approaches to eliminating cross-contamination and control and measurement of temperature and liquid flow. We also discuss product-detection methods, integration of functional components, biological samples used in PCR chips, potential applications and other practical issues related to implementation of lab-on-a-chip technologies. PMID:17576684

  18. Microfluidic LC Device with Orthogonal Sample Extraction for On-Chip MALDI-MS Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Iulia M.; Kabulski, Jarod L.

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic device that enables on-chip matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) detection for liquid chromatography (LC) separations is described. The device comprises an array of functional elements to carry out LC separations, integrates a novel microchip-MS interface to facilitate the orthogonal transposition of the microfluidic LC channel into an array of reservoirs, and enables sensitive MALDI-MS detection directly from the chip. Essentially, the device provides a snapshot MALDI-MS map of the content of the separation channel present on the chip. The detection of proteins with biomarker potential from MCF10A breast epithelial cell extracts, and detection limits in the low fmol range, are demonstrated. In addition, the design of the novel LC-MALDI-MS chip entices the promotion of a new concept for performing sample separations within the limited time-frame that accompanies the dead-volume of a separation channel. PMID:23592150

  19. On-chip spectroscopy with thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Gao, Boshen; Siddiqui, Mahmudur R.; Shi, Zhimin; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods are a sensitive way to determine the chemical composition of potentially hazardous materials. Here, we demonstrate that thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities can be used as a compact high-resolution on-chip spectrometer. We have used such a chip-scale spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of both acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in the 1550 nm spectral band and show that we can discriminate between the two chemical species even though the two materials have spectral features in the same spectral region. Our results pave the way for the development of chip-size chemical sensors that can detect toxic substances.

  20. Patterning liquids on inkjet-imprinted surfaces with highly adhesive superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Sun, Jiazhen; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Xingye; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2016-05-01

    The rapidly increasing research interest in microfluidics, microreactors and solution-processable fabrication technologies requires the development of patterning techniques to obtain large-scale functional liquid arrays. To achieve this objective, photolithography, microcontact printing and mask-based UV irradiation have been utilized to physically or chemically pattern surfaces into templates where ordered arrays of liquid materials are constructed. However, these methods require elaborately fabricated templates or expensive vacuum-deposited masks that restrict their practical applications. Herein, we fabricate physically patterned superhydrophobic surfaces with high adhesion by modifying inkjet-imprinted surfaces through nanoparticle deposition, and utilize these surfaces as templates for liquid patterning. Various functional liquid materials are patterned into defined shapes through a simple dipping-withdrawing process. Moreover, functional material patterns such as photonic crystal patterns, arrays of inorganic nanoparticles and crystals are formed after solvent evaporation of the liquid droplets. Furthermore, chemical reactions can be carried out on the patterns. These surfaces demonstrate excellent performance in liquid patterning, which will find numerous applications in optoelectronic devices, lab-on-chip devices, microreactors, and related fields. PMID:27098655